From ESOblog (EU): “Our Milky Way? Not well stirred!” 

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European Southern Observatory [Observatoire européen austral][Europäische Südsternwarte] (EU) (CL)

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Science@ESO
24 September 2021
Artist impression showing clouds and streams of cosmic pristine gas (magenta) falling onto the Milky Way. This gas does not efficiently mix with the gas already present in the galactic disc, as highlighted for the Solar neighborhood (zoom-in). The interstellar medium remains inhomogeneous with pockets that contain low amounts of chemical elements.
Credit: M. A. Garlick. This image isn’t under ESO’s CC-BY-4.0 license.

As Carl Sagan put it, “we are all made of star stuff”. But what is the star stuff made up of? A team of astronomers has recently measured for the very first time the composition of the gas flowing between the stars in the Milky Way. The research, which used archive data from ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) and Hubble Space Telescope observations, reveals that this “interstellar medium” is not well mixed, as previously assumed. Instead, different amounts of chemical elements are spread in different areas much like a swirl of milk in a cup of coffee. The star stuff that we are made of is not well stirred in our galactic neighbourhood, but why?

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Thea Elvin.

Biography of Thea Elvin

Thea Elvin is a science journalism intern at ESO. She has completed an undergraduate degree in Natural Sciences at the University of Cambridge (UK) and a master’s degree in Climate and Atmospheric Science at The University of Leeds (UK) and is currently pursuing a career in science communications.

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Simulation of the cosmic web, which is a network of filaments stretching between galaxies, believed by many astronomers to form the basis of the Universe. Credit: National Aeronautics Space Agency (US), The European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU) and E. Hallman (The University of Colorado-Boulder (US).

The interstellar medium is the stuff between the stars in a galaxy –– a complex mixture of gas and dust. It is also one of the ingredients required to make a galaxy. Gas flows in from the cosmic web –– fine threads of matter that connect all the galaxies in the Universe, also known as intergalactic medium. This gas is pristine, meaning it is mainly made up from hydrogen and helium, the lightest elements in the Universe, and contains few metals (which, for astronomers, are any chemical element heavier than helium).

From this gas, the galaxy’s stars begin to form. The stars produce heavier chemical elements during their life cycles, which are released back into the interstellar medium as the stars reach the end of their lives. New stars are formed from the interstellar medium, now enriched with metals from their ancestors, and the sequence begins again.

The chemical elements blown out by the stars also go on to form everything else in the galaxy, such as dust (which is formed by tiny particles of solid material), planets and, in Earth’s case, the creatures that live on them. Understanding how a galaxy forms and evolves from a chemical perspective can thus shed light on the life cycle of chemical elements that eventually allow life on Earth.

Up until now, it was assumed that the interstellar medium was a smoothly blended mixture of the pristine gas from the cosmic web and the enriched gas given out by dying stars. Therefore, stars born at the same time in the same area of the galaxy should have the same chemical composition.

But is the interstellar medium really this well mixed? No one had actually been able to measure the real abundance of metals in the interstellar medium before, but Annalisa De Cia, an astronomer at The University of Geneva [Université de Genève](CH), had an idea about how to change this.

To probe the interstellar medium, astronomers use a technique called spectroscopy. As the light of a star passes through the interstellar gas, the atoms in it will absorb very specific colours or wavelengths. Looking at the light from a star using spectroscopy produces a spectrum –– a “barcode” that tells us what the intervening medium is made of.

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When the light of a star goes through an intervening gas gloud, the metals in it leave absorption lines in the star’s spectrum. By pointing telescopes to different stars it’s possible to map the abundance of metals in different clouds.
Credit: J. K. Krogager. This image isn’t under ESO’s CC-BY-4.0 license.

But there is a hitch. Only the gaseous part of the interstellar medium can be “seen” in ultraviolet/optical spectroscopy; atoms in dust grains don’t leave a spectral fingerprint. To calculate how metallic the interstellar medium really is, we need to account for the elements that are more likely to condense into dust and will therefore be absent from the spectrum.

De Cia’s background studying the gas in distant galaxies came in handy for this new research. Working out the metallicity of the interstellar medium in galaxies far away is incredibly difficult as astronomers are not able to observe individual stars and therefore have much less information to work with. De Cia pioneered a technique that compares the abundances of elements with different propensity to condense into dust grains. She then realised that this technique could be used a lot closer to home, to determine the metallicity of the interstellar medium in the Milky Way, including the “unseen” elements locked up in dust grains.

De Cia and her team picked 25 nearby stars and observed them with the NASA/ESA Hubble, analysing the spectral signatures left by different elements between those stars and us. One of the elements key to this method is titanium, which has a strong propensity to go into dust grains. It also happens to produce spectral features that are in exactly the range observable with the UVES instrument on ESO’s VLT, located at Paranal Observatory in Chile’s Atacama Desert.

UVES spectrograph mounted on the VLT at the Nasmyth B focus of UT2.

UVES spectrograph mounted on the VLT at the Nasmyth B focus of UT2.

Looking in the archive of data collected over the years with UVES, the astronomers found that, of the 25 stars they had chosen to study with Hubble, there was information on titanium available for 16 of them. And the good news didn’t end there. “All the UVES data that had been taken for those stars was already processed and ready to use for science,” said De Cia. A key titanium-shaped piece of the puzzle had fallen perfectly into place.

Combining the Hubble and UVES data, the team was able to measure the metallicity of the gas towards the 25 stars in their sample. The results, published recently in Nature, turned out to be surprising: the chemical elements were not evenly mixed inside the interstellar medium as previously assumed, but instead there was a large variation in their abundances, even over the small area they probed. Astronomers had previously assumed that our surrounding interstellar medium would have a composition similar to that of the Sun, but the actual metallicity was found to be about 55% that of the Sun; and in some regions it was as low as 17%.

“There are pockets of low metallicity, places where there are less chemical elements than we thought,” explains De Cia. “It’s like if you have a cup of coffee and you pour in milk, it doesn’t start out completely mixed. It still has little bits of pristine gas in it” says Andrew J. Fox (ESA/Space Telescope Science Institute (US)), who also participated in this study.

These low-metal pockets are likely due to the contribution of pristine gas flowing in from the cosmic web, the same gas that sustains galaxies and allows them to go on forming new stars.

These results are exciting because they also help to explain some observations that previously puzzled astronomers, such as the spread in metallicities of stars of the same age which were expected to have similar abundances of metals. De Cia also hopes that this new finding will change the way astronomical modelling is done, with scientists moving to incorporate this unmixed interstellar medium measurement into models that predict the chemical evolution of the galaxy.

Follow-up research is now in the pipeline, hoping to build on this surprising result. Hubble and ESPRESSO, another instrument on the VLT, is currently obtaining data for use in these studies.

ESPRESSO — the Echelle SPectrograph for Rocky Exoplanet and Stable Spectroscopic Observations. ESPRESSO will use the light from any one, or all four, of the Unit Telescopes of the Very large Telescope to extend our capability to find planets around other stars and to measure the fundamental constants of physics.

Espresso Layout

ESO/ESPRESSO on the VLT installed at the incoherent combined Coudé facility of the VLT. It is an ultra-stable fibre-fed échelle high-resolution spectrograph (R~140,000, 190,000, or 70,000) which collects the light from either a single UT or the four UTs simultaneously via the so-called UT Coudé trains.

“In an individual direction towards one star, we probably observed many clouds along one line of sight, so we would like to explore that diversity along one specific direction. For that we need high spectral resolution, and that’s where ESPRESSO will come in,” says De Cia.

The team is also looking forward to the first light of ESO’s Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), later this decade. The ELT is set to be the largest optical and infrared telescope in the world and will allow astronomers to see further than ever before. Spectrographic instruments on the ELT such as HIRES will have a high enough spectral resolution to study the chemical signatures imprinted by the first population of stars on the intergalactic and interstellar medium and will prove to be game changers in understanding the chemical evolution of distant galaxies.

When tomorrow morning you pour milk into your cup of coffee, remember that out there in space there is a similarly swirling interstellar medium, full of the star stuff that led to your existence.

See the full article here .


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European Southern Observatory [Observatoire européen austral][Europäische Südsternwarte] (EU) is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world’s most productive ground-based astronomical observatory by far. It is supported by 16 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, along with the host state of Chile. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world’s most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and two survey telescopes. VISTA works in the infrared and is the world’s largest survey telescope and the VLT Survey Telescope is the largest telescope designed to exclusively survey the skies in visible light. ESO is a major partner in ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. And on Cerro Armazones, close to Paranal, ESO is building the 39-metre European Extremely Large Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become “the world’s biggest eye on the sky”.

European Southern Observatory [Observatoire européen austral][Europäische Südsternwarte] (EU) is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world’s most productive ground-based astronomical observatory by far. It is supported by 16 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, along with the host state of Chile. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design,

European Southern Observatory(EU) La Silla HELIOS (HARPS Experiment for Light Integrated Over the Sun)

ESO 3.6m telescope & HARPS atCerro LaSilla, Chile, 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

MPG Institute for Astronomy [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie](DE) 2.2 meter telescope at/European Southern Observatory(EU) Cerro La Silla, Chile, 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

European Southern Observatory(EU)La Silla Observatory 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

European Southern Observatory(EU) , Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert •ANTU (UT1; The Sun ) •KUEYEN (UT2; The Moon ) •MELIPAL (UT3; The Southern Cross ), and •YEPUN (UT4; Venus – as evening star). Elevation 2,635 m (8,645 ft) from above Credit J.L. Dauvergne & G. Hüdepohl atacama photo.

European Southern Observatory(EU)VLTI Interferometer image, Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level, •ANTU (UT1; The Sun ),
•KUEYEN (UT2; The Moon ),
•MELIPAL (UT3; The Southern Cross ), and•YEPUN (UT4; Venus – as evening.

ESO Very Large Telescope 4 lasers on Yepun (CL)

Glistening against the awesome backdrop of the night sky above ESO’s Paranal Observatory, four laser beams project out into the darkness from Unit Telescope 4 UT4 of the VLT, a major asset of the Adaptive Optics system.

ESO/NTT NTT at Cerro La Silla , Chile, at an altitude of 2400 metres.

Part of ESO’s Paranal Observatory, the VLT Survey Telescope (VISTA) observes the brilliantly clear skies above the Atacama Desert of Chile. It is the largest survey telescope in the world in visible light, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level.

European Southern Observatory/National Radio Astronomy Observatory(US)/National Astronomical Observatory of Japan(JP) ALMA Array in Chile in the Atacama at Chajnantor plateau, at 5,000 metres.

European Southern Observatory(EU) ELT 39 meter telescope to be on top of Cerro Armazones in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. located at the summit of the mountain at an altitude of 3,060 metres (10,040 ft).

European Southern Observatory(EU)/MPG Institute for Radio Astronomy [MPG Institut für Radioastronomie](DE) ESO’s Atacama Pathfinder Experiment(CL) high on the Chajnantor plateau in Chile’s Atacama region, at an altitude of over 4,800 m (15,700 ft).

Leiden MASCARA instrument cabinet at Cerro La Silla, located in the southern Atacama Desert 600 kilometres (370 mi) north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2,400 metres (7,900 ft).

ESO Next Generation Transit Survey telescopes, an array of twelve robotic 20-centimetre telescopes at Cerro Paranal,(CL) 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level.

<img src="https://sciencesprings.files.wordpress.com/2019/02/eso-speculoos-telescopes-four-1m-diameter-robotic-telescopes-at-eso-paranal-observatory-2635-metres-8645-ft-above-sea-level-1.jpg&quot; alt="" width="632" height="356" class="size-full wp-image-77534" Speculoos telescopes four 1m-diameter robotic telescopes at ESO Paranal Observatory 2635 metres 8645 ft above sea level.

TAROT telescope at Cerro LaSilla, 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level.

European Southern Observatory(EU) ExTrA telescopes at erro LaSilla at an altitude of 2400 metres.

A novel gamma ray telescope under construction on Mount Hopkins, Arizona. A large project known as the Čerenkov Telescope Array composed of hundreds of similar telescopes to be situated in the Canary Islands and Chile at, ESO Cerro Paranal site The telescope on Mount Hopkins will be fitted with a prototype high-speed camera, assembled at the. University of Wisconsin–Madison and capable of taking pictures at a billion frames per second. Credit: Vladimir Vassiliev.

European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU), The new Test-Bed Telescope 2is housed inside the shiny white dome shown in this picture, at ESO’s LaSilla Facility in Chile. The telescope has now started operations and will assist its northern-hemisphere twin in protecting us from potentially hazardous, near-Earth objects.The domes of ESO’s 0.5 m and the Danish 0.5 m telescopes are visible in the background of this image.Part of the world-wide effort to scan and identify near-Earth objects, the European Space Agency’s Test-Bed Telescope 2 (TBT2), a technology demonstrator hosted at ESO’s La Silla Observatory in Chile, has now started operating. Working alongside its northern-hemisphere partner telescope, TBT2 will keep a close eye on the sky for asteroids that could pose a risk to Earth, testing hardware and software for a future telescope network.

European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU) The open dome of The black telescope structure of the‘s Test-Bed Telescope 2 peers out of its open dome in front of the rolling desert landscape. The telescope is located at ESO’s La Silla Observatory, which sits at a 2400 metre altitude in the Chilean Atacama desert.