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  • richardmitnick 3:14 pm on June 9, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , DRAGON at TRIUMF, Ohio U,   

    From Ohio U: “Probing Red Giants with a DRAGON” 

    Ohio U bloc

    Ohio University

    June 9, 2016
    Jean Andrews

    1
    Scientists study stars called red giants to better understand processes such as nuclear fusion—the dominant source of energy for stars in the universe. L to R: Dr. Carl Brune, Dr. Annika Lennarz, a TRIUMF postdoctoral researcher, OHIO doctoral students Som Nath Paneru, and Rikam Giri

    Dr. Carl Brune, Professor of Physics & Astronomy and member of the Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics (INPP), traveled recently to TRIUMF, Canada’s national lab for nuclear and particle physics, located in Vancouver. With him were his doctoral students Rekam Giri and Som Nath Paneru. The purpose of their visit was to use the DRAGON, a specialized instrument which measures the fusion of helium and carbon — an important process that occurs in red giant stars.

    DRAGON at TRIUMF

    “These measurements will help us to understand where the oxygen in the universe comes from and help to confirm that our models for how stars evolve and produce elements are correct, “ Brune says. “The DRAGON is an ideal instrument for this type of experiment.”

    The DRAGON apparatus is used to study nuclear reactions important in astrophysics. By recreating the nuclear reactions that occur inside exploding stars, researchers are better able to understand reactions that produce the chemical elements and energy generation in stars. DRAGON is an acronym for Detector of Recoils And Gammas Of Nuclear reactions.

    How Stars Evolve into Red Giants

    Brune is particularly interested in energy processes taking place within red giants. These are stars in the last stages of stellar evolution that have exhausted the supply of hydrogen in their cores and have begun thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen in a shell surrounding the core.

    “Most stars, including our sun, are burning hydrogen in the cores,” Brune explains. “Once the hydrogen in the core is exhausted, the stars begin to burn helium and become red giants. They expand in diameter and their outer edge is lower in temperature, giving them a reddish-orange hue. Helium is burned by two fusion reactions within a red giant: the fusion of three helium nuclei into carbon and the fusion of helium with carbon to form oxygen.”

    The fusion of helium with carbon at this stage is thought to be the main source of oxygen in the universe – even the oxygen on the earth.

    The DRAGON instrument at TRIUMF is a recoil separator that is used to detect the oxygen nuclei produced. A carbon beam was used to bombard a helium target. The oxygen nuclei produced by fusion are separated from the carbon beam by the DRAGON instrument and counted.

    Brune, Giri, and Paneru are part of a team of nuclear physicists that includes researchers from TRIUMF, the Colorado School of Mines, and Michigan State University. The group convened the week of May 3-10 to run the experiment using the DRAGON.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Ohio U campus

    n 1786, 11 men gathered at the Bunch of Grapes Tavern in Boston to propose development of the area north of the Ohio River and west of the Allegheny Mountains known then as the Ohio Country. Led by Manasseh Cutler and Rufus Putnam, the Ohio Company petitioned Congress to take action on the proposed settlement. The eventual outcome was the enactment of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which provided for settlement and government of the territory and stated that “…schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged.”

    In 1803, Ohio became a state and on February 18, 1804, the Ohio General Assembly passed an act establishing “The Ohio University.” The University opened in 1808 with one building, three students, and one professor, Jacob Lindley. One of the first two graduates of the University, Thomas Ewing, later became a United States senator and distinguished himself as cabinet member or advisor to four presidents.

    Twenty-four years after its founding, in 1828, Ohio University conferred an A.B. degree on John Newton Templeton, its first black graduate and only the third black man to graduate from a college in the United States. In 1873, Margaret Boyd received her B.A. degree and became the first woman to graduate from the University. Soon after, the institution graduated its first international alumnus, Saki Taro Murayama of Japan, in 1895.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:40 pm on May 9, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Ohio U   

    From Ohio University: “Scientists develop synchronized molecular motors” 

    Ohio U bloc

    Ohio University

    May 9, 2016
    Saw-Wai Hla
    (740) 593-1718
    hla@ohio.edu

    Andrea Gibson,
    (740) 597-2166
    gibsona@ohio.edu

    Jennifer Hughes,
    (740) 597-1939
    hughesj2@ohio.edu

    1
    (Top) This illustration shows parallel motors with dipolar rotator arms indicated by arrows. The green and red units represent negative and positive charges. (Bottom) Scanning tunneling microscope image showing a parallel arrangement of dipolar motor assembly. Image credit: Saw-Wai Hla

    An international team of scientists has created molecular motors that can communicate and synchronize their movements.

    The team, led by physicist Saw-Wai Hla of Ohio University, published* an Advanced Online Publication today in the journal Nature Nanotechnology demonstrating that scientists can control the coordinated motions of tiny machines at the nanoscale. The research has implications for the future development of technologies that can be used in computers, photonics and electronics as well as novel nanoscale devices.

    “Our goal is to mimic natural biological machines by creating synthetic machines we can control,” said Hla, a professor of physics and astronomy.

    Hla’s team observed up to 500 molecular motors move simultaneously in the same direction when the scientists applied 1 volt of energy through the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. At lower levels of energy, the motors also rotated, but in different directions. However, this motion was not random, but showed patterns of coordination, Hla said.

    In the experiment, scientists observed the synchronized movements at minus 316 degrees Fahrenheit.

    The motors have two decks: The upper deck is the rotor and the lower deck is the stator, which has eight sulfur atoms that act as atomic glue to stick to surfaces of gold or copper. The rotating and stationary decks are connected with an atom of europium that serves as an atomic ball bearing.

    Scientists at CEMES/CNRS in France synthesized the molecular motors, which include a dipole in the rotor arms, which means that they have a positive and negative side. This unique feature allows the individual motors to communicate and coordinate their motions, Hla’s team found.

    In addition, the scientists learned that a hexagon arrangement of the motors is key for the synchronization, as it allows the motors to effectively communicate.

    The molecular motors create a ferroelectric system, which is a prized property of materials used in various electronic devices, Hla added.

    The nanomotors are so small that scientists can fit 44,000 billion of them in a 1 centimeter square area.

    “One of the goals of nanotechnology is to assemble billions of nanomachines packed into a tiny area that can be operated in a synchronized manner to transport information or to coherently transfer energy to multiple destinations within nanometer range,” Hla explained.

    The Ohio team received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy and the French team is supported by the French National Research Agency.

    Ohio University team members on the study were S.-W. Hla, Y. Zhang, H. Kersell, V. Iancu, U.G.E. Perera, Y. Li, A. Deshpande and K.-F. Braun of the Department of Physics and Astronomy and Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute. Hla also is the head of the Quantum and Energy Materials research group at the Center for Nanoscale Materials in Argonne National Laboratory. C. Joachim, R. Stefak and J. Echeverria of CEMES/CNRS in France and G. Rapenne of CEMES/CNRS and the University of Toulouse in France collaborated on the study.

    *Science paper:
    Simultaneous and coordinated rotational switching of all molecular rotors in a network

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Ohio U campus

    n 1786, 11 men gathered at the Bunch of Grapes Tavern in Boston to propose development of the area north of the Ohio River and west of the Allegheny Mountains known then as the Ohio Country. Led by Manasseh Cutler and Rufus Putnam, the Ohio Company petitioned Congress to take action on the proposed settlement. The eventual outcome was the enactment of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which provided for settlement and government of the territory and stated that “…schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged.”

    In 1803, Ohio became a state and on February 18, 1804, the Ohio General Assembly passed an act establishing “The Ohio University.” The University opened in 1808 with one building, three students, and one professor, Jacob Lindley. One of the first two graduates of the University, Thomas Ewing, later became a United States senator and distinguished himself as cabinet member or advisor to four presidents.

    Twenty-four years after its founding, in 1828, Ohio University conferred an A.B. degree on John Newton Templeton, its first black graduate and only the third black man to graduate from a college in the United States. In 1873, Margaret Boyd received her B.A. degree and became the first woman to graduate from the University. Soon after, the institution graduated its first international alumnus, Saki Taro Murayama of Japan, in 1895.

     
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