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  • richardmitnick 3:21 pm on January 22, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Sprawling Coral Reef Resembling Roses Is Discovered Off Tahiti", , , , Extending for about three kilometers (1.86 miles) the reef is remarkably well preserved and is among the largest ever found at its depth., Mesophotic reefs form their floral shape to gain more surface area and receive more light., Oceanography, , The reef occupies an area of the ocean known as the mesophotic zone.   

    From The New York Times : “Sprawling Coral Reef Resembling Roses Is Discovered Off Tahiti” 

    From The New York Times

    Jan. 20, 2022
    Neil Vigdor

    1
    The coral reef was discovered in November.Credit: Alexis Rosenfeld/Associated Press.

    An underwater mapping project recently took an unexpected twist off the coast of Tahiti, where deep sea explorers said this week that they had discovered a sprawling coral reef resembling a bed of roses that appeared to be largely unscathed by climate change.

    Extending for about three kilometers (1.86 miles), the reef is remarkably well preserved and is among the largest ever found at its depth, according to those involved in the mapping project sponsored by UNESCO, the U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

    Some even described the condition of the reef, hidden at depths between 30 meters (about 100 feet) and 100 meters in the crystalline waters of the South Pacific, as “pristine.”

    Alexis Rosenfeld, an underwater photographer from Marseille, France, said on Thursday that the reef lived up to what he had envisioned when he first explored it shortly after its discovery in November.

    “This, my dream, is exactly the same as the reality,” Mr. Rosenfeld said of the reef, which is about two kilometers off the shore.

    Mr. Rosenfeld, 52, photographed the reef as part of a deep sea exploration project called 1 Ocean, partnering with UNESCO and researchers from CRIOBE, a prominent French laboratory specializing in the study of coral reef ecosystems, and The National Centre for Scientific Research [Centre national de la recherche scientifique [CNRS](FR).

    The reef occupies an area of the ocean known as the mesophotic zone — from the Greek words for middle and light — where the algae that coral depends on for survival can still grow but where light penetration is significantly diminished, scientists said.

    Unlike coral reefs found at shallower depths, which are often shaped like branches and are more susceptible to being damaged by rising ocean temperatures, scientists said, mesophotic reefs form their floral shape to gain more surface area and receive more light. To capture images in low-light conditions, Mr. Rosenfeld said he used a Sony Alpha 1, a mirrorless full-frame camera.

    Julian Barbière, the head of the Marine Policy and Regional Coordination Section for the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission at UNESCO, said on Thursday that he was blown away by the expanse of rose petals captured in the photos.

    “You can see them as far as the eye can see,” he said. “When they came back and showed the pictures, we were really amazed by the quality of the ecosystem there.”

    Mr. Barbière noted that climate change posed a significant threat to coral reefs, especially those at shallower depths, like the ones damaged in recent years in the South Pacific in what is known as bleaching. As part of that process, coral loses its color and its skeleton is exposed.

    “That can destroy or really impact the coral reef,” he said.

    Reaching the coral reef presented a particular challenge to scientists and photographers because of its depth, those involved in the project said. It required them to use special breathing equipment and a mixture of gases that contained helium, they said.

    John Jackson, a film director with 1 Ocean who is involved with the project, compared the reef’s shape to lacework. In an interview on Thursday, he said that significant work remained when it came to underwater exploration, pointing out that only about 20 percent of the world’s seabeds had been mapped.

    “We know every detail of Mars, every detail of the moon and certain planets,” Mr. Jackson said.

    Richard Norris, a professor of paleobiology at The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (US) at The University of California-San Diego (US), who was not involved with the project, said on Thursday that the discovery was gratifying.

    “Tahiti is nice because it’s far from sediment sources on land where the water could end up being cloudy and making it harder for the algae to grow in these deep water reefs,” Professor Norris said.

    He likened the relationship between coral and algae to that of the human body and yeast, saying that it was critical to maintain a delicate balance.

    “If they get stressed by, for example, unusually warm temperatures, then it turns a symbiotic relationship with the algae to one that is antagonistic, where the algae damage the coral and the coral gets rid of them,” Professor Norris said.

    Once the reef and the marine species that call it home are better understood, those involved in the project said that they would seek to adopt conservation measures to protect the ecosystem.

    “Without exploration,” Mr. Rosenfeld said, “you can’t have science.”

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 12:45 pm on January 8, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Unexpected hope for millions as bleached coral reefs continue to supply nutritious seafood", , Catches help to feed hundreds of millions of coastal people in regions with high prevalence of malnourishment., Coral reef ecosystems support diverse small-scale fisheries and the fish they catch are rich in micronutrients vital to the health of millions of people in the tropics., , , More than six million people work in small-scale fisheries that rely on tropical coral reefs., Oceanography, The availability of micronutrients from coral reef small-scale fisheries may be more resilient to climate change than previously thought.   

    From Lancaster University (UK): “Unexpected hope for millions as bleached coral reefs continue to supply nutritious seafood” 

    From Lancaster University (UK)

    6 January 2022

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    A recovering coral reef, Seychelles. © Professor Nick Graham.

    Researchers studying coral reefs damaged by rising sea temperatures have discovered an unexpected ‘bright spot’ of hope for communities who depend upon them for food security.

    Coral reef ecosystems support diverse small-scale fisheries – and the fish they catch are rich in micronutrients vital to the health of millions of people in the tropics, a new Lancaster University-led study reveals.

    And, counter-intuitively, following bleaching events that kill off coral and can transform the composition of reef ecosystems, reef fisheries can remain rich sources of micronutrients, even increasing in nutritional value for some minerals.

    The findings, published today in the journal One Earth, show that the availability of micronutrients from coral reef small-scale fisheries may be more resilient to climate change than previously thought. This increased understanding is critical as continued global warming means coral bleaching events are becoming more frequent and more severe, placing greater stress on these vulnerable ecosystems.

    Dr James Robinson, who led the study, said: “Our findings underline the continuing importance of these fisheries for vulnerable coastal communities, and the need to protect against over-fishing to ensure long-term sustainability of reef fisheries.”

    The researchers also caution that while these fisheries have proved more resilient to climate change disturbance than expected, continued understanding of the long-term impacts of climate change to coral reef fisheries, and more data from other regions, are urgent priorities.

    More than six million people work in small-scale fisheries that rely on tropical coral reefs. Their catches help to feed hundreds of millions of coastal people in regions with high prevalence of malnourishment, causing stunting, wasting and anaemia. However, until now, the nutritional composition of coral reef fish catches, and how climate change might affect the nutrients available from reef fisheries, was not known.

    This study, led by scientists from Lancaster University and involving an international team of researchers from the Seychelles, Australia, Canada and Mozambique, benefitted from more than 20 years of long-term monitoring data from the Seychelles, where tropical reefs were damaged by a large coral bleaching event in 1998, killing an estimated 90% of the corals.

    Following the mass-bleaching event, around 60% of the coral reefs recovered to a coral-dominated system, but around 40% were transformed to reefs dominated by seaweeds. These differences provided a natural experiment for the scientists to compare the micronutrients available from fisheries on reefs with different climate-driven ecosystem compositions.

    The scientists, who used a combination of experimental fishing, nutrient analysis, and visual surveys of fish communities in the Seychelles, calculated that reef fish are important sources of selenium and zinc, and contain levels of calcium, iron and omega-3 fatty acids comparable to other animal-based foods, such as chicken and pork.

    They also found that iron and zinc are more concentrated in fish caught on reefs that have been transformed after coral bleaching and are now dominated by macroalgae such as Sargassum seaweeds. These seaweeds have high levels of minerals, which, researchers believe, is a key reason why the algal-feeding herbivorous fishes found in greater numbers on transformed reefs contain higher levels of iron and zinc.

    Dr Robinson said: “Coral reef fish contain high levels of essential dietary nutrients such as iron and zinc, so contribute to healthy diets in places with high fish consumption. We found that some micronutrient-rich reef species become more abundant after coral bleaching, enabling fisheries to supply nutritious food despite climate change impacts. Protecting catches from these local food systems should be a food security priority.”

    The researchers believe the results underline the need for effective local management to protect the sustainability of reef fisheries, as well as policies that retain more of reef fish catches for local people and promote traditional fish-based diets. These can help reef fisheries to best contribute to healthy diets across the tropics.

    Professor Christina Hicks, a co-author on the study, said: “Fish are now recognised as critical to alleviating malnutrition, particularly in the tropics where diets can lack up to 50% of the micronutrients needed for healthy growth. This work is promising because it suggests reef fisheries will continue to play a crucial role, even in the face of climate change, and highlights the vital importance of investing in sustainable fisheries management.”

    The study’s authors include: James Robinson, Eva Maire, Nick Graham and Christina Hicks from Lancaster University; Nathalie Bodin from Seychelles Fishing Authority and Sustainable Ocean Seychelles; Tessa Hempson from James Cook University (AU) and Oceans Without Borders; Shaun Wilson from the Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions in Australia, and Oceans Institute, Australia; and Aaron MacNeil from Dalhousie University (CA).

    See the full article here .

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    lancaster-u-uk-campus

    University of Lancaster (UK) is a collegiate public research university in Lancaster, Lancashire, England. The university was established by Royal Charter in 1964, one of several new universities created in the 1960s.

    The university was initially based in St Leonard’s Gate in the city centre, before moving in 1968 to a purpose-built 300 acres (120 ha) campus at Bailrigg, 4 km (2.5 mi) to the south. The campus buildings are arranged around a central walkway known as the Spine, which is connected to a central plaza, named Alexandra Square in honour of its first chancellor, Princess Alexandra.

    Lancaster is one of only six collegiate universities in the UK; the colleges are weakly autonomous. The eight undergraduate colleges are named after places in the historic county of Lancashire, and each have their own campus residence blocks, common rooms, administration staff and bar.

    Lancaster is ranked in the top ten in all three national league tables, and received a Gold rating in the Government’s inaugural (2017) Teaching Excellence Framework. The annual income of the institution for 2018/19 was £317.9 million of which £42.0 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £352.7 million. Along with Durham University (UK), University of Leeds (UK), University of Liverpool (UK), University of Manchester (UK), University of Newcastle upon Tyne (UK), University of Sheffield (UK) and University of York (UK), Lancaster is a member of the N8 Research Partnership (UK). Elizabeth II, Duke of Lancaster, is the visitor of the University.

    Research
    Lancaster’s research income for 2015-16 was £38.3 million. In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework assessment, Lancaster was ranked 18th out of 128 UK universities, including 13th for the percentage of world-leading research. The University places a particular focus on interdisciplinary research, encouraging collaborative research across academic departments.

    In 2012, Lancaster University announced a partnership with the UK’s biggest arms company, (BAE Systems), and four other North-Western universities (Liverpool, University of Salford (UK), University of Central Lancaster (UK) and Manchester) in order to work on the Gamma Programme which aims to develop “autonomous systems”. According to the University of Liverpool when referring to the programme, “autonomous systems are technology based solutions that replace humans in tasks that are mundane, dangerous and dirty, or detailed and precise, across sectors, including aerospace, nuclear, automotive and petrochemicals.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:32 pm on January 6, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Research suggests giant kelp has different factors that bear on its growth dynamics", A canopy forms at the water’s surface., Also used in the research is NASA’s Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) Preparatory Airborne Campaign., Each Landsat image swath is 185 kilometers wide and images have a pixel resolution of 30 meters., In the near future scientists are going to have the opportunity to use hyperspectral data globally., Internal senescence processes related to kelp canopy age demographics were related to the patterns of biomass loss across individual kelp forests., Kelp is anchored at the sea floor., Landsat satellite imagery of giant kelp allowed researchers to track kelp canopy biomass and age dynamics., Macroalga giant kelp can grow 100-feet long within 1-2 years., , Oceanography, Researchers incorporated into their studies 11-kilometer-wide image taken by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor which has a pixel resolution of 18 meters., Seawater nutrients were related to the physiological condition dynamics of kelp., The researchers focused on a 4000 square kilometer study area in the Santa Barbara Channel off the coast of California., The researchers used this hyperspectral imagery to examine the spatial patterns of the kelp canopy chlorophyll to carbon ratio-an established proxy for physiological condition.,   

    From Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (US) : “Research suggests giant kelp has different factors that bear on its growth dynamics” 

    From Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (US)

    January 4, 2022

    Writers
    ___________
    Tom W. Bell
    David A. Siegel

    Media Relations Office
    media@whoi.edu
    (508) 289-3340

    1
    Giant kelp canopy showing fronds with varying physiological condition. Lighter colored senescent fronds contain less chlorophyll pigment and are generally older than darker frond with higher chlorophyll content. Credit: Tom Bell © Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

    Scientists Use Novel Remote Sensing Data

    Woods Hole, MA — The macroalga giant kelp, which is an iconic and important ecosystem-structuring species found off the coast of California and many other coastlines, can grow 100-feet long within 1-2 years.

    Now, researchers using novel remote sensing observations have found that different factors may bear on the spatial growth dynamics of the Macrocystis pyrifera kelp, which is the largest species of algae in the world.

    Researchers studying the giant kelp in the Santa Barbara Channel off the coast of California, have found that “spatiotemporal patterns of physiological condition, and thus growth and production, are regulated by different processes depending on the scale of observation,” according to a science paper published in PNAS.

    “Depending on your spatial scale of observation—whether you are looking at kelp forests regionally or really honing in on a specific local area—the patterns that manifest at these scales may be indicative of different drivers,” said lead author Tom Bell, assistant scientist in the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution’s Department of Applied Ocean Physics & Engineering.

    “On a regional scale for areas larger than one kilometer, seawater nutrients were related to the physiological condition dynamics of kelp. However, on local scales of less than one-kilometer, internal senescence processes related to kelp canopy age demographics were related to the patterns of biomass loss across individual kelp forests, despite uniform nutrient conditions,” said Bell. Senescence is the progressive and irreversible deterioration in an organism’s physiological performance.

    The researchers focused on a 4000 square kilometer study area in the Santa Barbara Channel off the coast of California.

    Bell has studied giant kelp firsthand, scuba diving through the kelp forests. He says that the kelp, which is anchored at the sea floor, looks like tree trunks with bundles of translucent kelp fronds that form a canopy at the water’s surface.

    However, because field measurements of kelp occur over small scales, researchers teased out the roles of the external environment and internal biotic drivers on kelp population dynamics by combining longitudinal field observations with remote sensing observations.

    The researchers used remote sensing data from several sources. Sea surface temperature dynamics in the channel were assessed using 4-kilometer resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua satellite sensor products. Landsat 5, 7, and 8 satellite imagery of giant kelp allowed researchers to track kelp canopy biomass and age dynamics.

    NASA Landsat 8

    Each Landsat image swath is 185 kilometers wide and images have a pixel resolution of 30 meters.

    In addition, the researchers incorporated into their studies novel 11-kilometer-wide repeat hyperspectral image swaths of the Santa Barbara Channel taken by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor, which has a pixel resolution of 18 meters.

    2
    Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). Credit: NASA.

    The optical sensor, which provided calibrated images of the spectral reflectance in the channel, flew on high-altitude airplanes as part of NASA’s Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) Preparatory Airborne Campaign.

    3
    Hyperspectral Infrared Imager. Credit: NASA.

    HyspIRI is a preparatory mission for NASA’s planned Surface Biology and Geology satellite mission, which could launch later this decade.

    The researchers used this hyperspectral imagery to examine the spatial patterns of the kelp canopy chlorophyll to carbon ratio-an established proxy for physiological condition, which is positively associated with kelp growth rate, frond initiation, and biomass accumulation. They found that the physiological condition of the kelp canopy declined predictably with age and that older sections of the kelp forest with low physiological condition were more likely to be lost in subsequent months.

    Bell said that through this research, he is also trying to help show some of the capabilities for the upcoming satellite mission.

    “In the near future scientists are going to have the opportunity to use hyperspectral data globally, and this will give ecologists another tool in their toolkit to understand how systems change, whether those systems are lowland tropical forests or giant kelp,” he said. “This is going to be more important than ever as the environment becomes less predictable. It seems like the more data we have, the more we realize that we cannot predict ecosystem dynamics based on past observations because the climate is changing so rapidly. The availability of direct assessments of plant health from these new sensors will help scientists monitor ecosystem state and anticipate change.”

    This work was supported by U.S. National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. In addition, the NASA Earth and Space Sciences Fellowship program provided support for Tom Bell. The HyspIRI Preparatory Airborne Campaign team provided assistance with the research.

    See the full article here .

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    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute

    Mission Statement

    The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (US) is dedicated to advancing knowledge of the ocean and its connection with the Earth system through a sustained commitment to excellence in science, engineering, and education, and to the application of this knowledge to problems facing society.

    Vision & Mission

    The ocean is a defining feature of our planet and crucial to life on Earth, yet it remains one of the planet’s last unexplored frontiers. For this reason, WHOI scientists and engineers are committed to understanding all facets of the ocean as well as its complex connections with Earth’s atmosphere, land, ice, seafloor, and life—including humanity. This is essential not only to advance knowledge about our planet, but also to ensure society’s long-term welfare and to help guide human stewardship of the environment. WHOI researchers are also dedicated to training future generations of ocean science leaders, to providing unbiased information that informs public policy and decision-making, and to expanding public awareness about the importance of the global ocean and its resources.

    The Institution is organized into six departments, the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Ocean Research, and a marine policy center. Its shore-based facilities are located in the village of Woods Hole, Massachusetts(US) and a mile and a half away on the Quissett Campus. The bulk of the Institution’s funding comes from grants and contracts from the National Science Foundation(US) and other government agencies, augmented by foundations and private donations.

    WHOI scientists, engineers, and students collaborate to develop theories, test ideas, build seagoing instruments, and collect data in diverse marine environments. Ships operated by WHOI carry research scientists throughout the world’s oceans. The WHOI fleet includes two large research vessels (R/V Atlantis and R/V Neil Armstrong); the coastal craft Tioga; small research craft such as the dive-operation work boat Echo; the deep-diving human-occupied submersible Alvin; the tethered, remotely operated vehicle Jason/Medea; and autonomous underwater vehicles such as the REMUS and SeaBED.
    WHOI offers graduate and post-doctoral studies in marine science. There are several fellowship and training programs, and graduate degrees are awarded through a joint program with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology(US). WHOI is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges (US). WHOI also offers public outreach programs and informal education through its Exhibit Center and summer tours. The Institution has a volunteer program and a membership program, WHOI Associate.

    On October 1, 2020, Peter B. de Menocal became the institution’s eleventh president and director.

    History

    In 1927, a National Academy of Sciences(US) committee concluded that it was time to “consider the share of the United States of America in a worldwide program of oceanographic research.” The committee’s recommendation for establishing a permanent independent research laboratory on the East Coast to “prosecute oceanography in all its branches” led to the founding in 1930 of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution(US).

    A $2.5 million grant from the Rockefeller Foundation supported the summer work of a dozen scientists, construction of a laboratory building and commissioning of a research vessel, the 142-foot (43 m) ketch R/V Atlantis, whose profile still forms the Institution’s logo.

    WHOI grew substantially to support significant defense-related research during World War II, and later began a steady growth in staff, research fleet, and scientific stature. From 1950 to 1956, the director was Dr. Edward “Iceberg” Smith, an Arctic explorer, oceanographer and retired Coast Guard rear admiral.

    In 1977 the institution appointed the influential oceanographer John Steele as director, and he served until his retirement in 1989.

    On 1 September 1985, a joint French-American expedition led by Jean-Louis Michel of IFREMER and Robert Ballard of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution identified the location of the wreck of the RMS Titanic which sank off the coast of Newfoundland 15 April 1912.

    On 3 April 2011, within a week of resuming of the search operation for Air France Flight 447, a team led by WHOI, operating full ocean depth autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) owned by the Waitt Institute discovered, by means of sidescan sonar, a large portion of debris field from flight AF447.

    In March 2017 the institution effected an open-access policy to make its research publicly accessible online.

    The Institution has maintained a long and controversial business collaboration with the treasure hunter company Odyssey Marine. Likewise, WHOI has participated in the location of the San José galleon in Colombia for the commercial exploitation of the shipwreck by the Government of President Santos and a private company.

    In 2019, iDefense reported that China’s hackers had launched cyberattacks on dozens of academic institutions in an attempt to gain information on technology being developed for the United States Navy. Some of the targets included the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The attacks have been underway since at least April 2017.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:45 pm on December 29, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Study-'Photosynthetic' Algae Can Survive the Dark", , , Coccolithophores also play an important role in mitigating ocean acidity which can negatively affect organisms like shellfish and corals., Coccolithophores are integral to processes that control the global ocean and atmosphere including the carbon cycle., Coccolithophores like most algae are photosynthetic. However the aftermath of the asteroid impact was thought to have blanketed the planet with a darkness death sentence., , , More than 66 million years ago an asteroid impact led to the extinction of almost three-quarters of life on Earth., Oceanography, Osmotrophy, Scientists at Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences discovered how some species of single-celled algae lived through the mass extinction., Some coccolithophore species could use previously unrecognized organic compounds as carbon sources instead of carbon dioxide., The Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences (US), The researchers next want to perform ocean experiments to observe how coccolithophores take in nutrients in their natural environment-especially in the dark., The study showed that some coccolithophores could survive without light.   

    From The Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences (US) : “Study-‘Photosynthetic’ Algae Can Survive the Dark” 

    From The Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences (US)

    December 15, 2021

    1

    2
    Words in mOcean. https://wordsinmocean.com/2013/03/20/chalk-talk-coccolithophores/

    More than 66 million years ago an asteroid impact led to the extinction of almost three-quarters of life on Earth. The little life that was left had to struggle, and research into its tenacity can provide key insights into how organisms survive environmental challenges. In a new study [New Phytologist], scientists at Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences discovered how some species of single-celled algae lived through the mass extinction, a finding that could change how we understand global ocean processes.

    Coccolithophores like most algae are photosynthetic and utilize the sun’s energy to make food. However the aftermath of the asteroid impact was thought to have blanketed the planet with several months of darkness a death sentence for most of the world’s photosynthetic organisms. In combination with other fallout effects, this caused the extinction of more than 90 percent of all coccolithophore species, some of the most influential organisms in the ocean. However, others endured.

    As part of the new study, the team conducted laboratory experiments that showed some coccolithophores could survive without light. This revealed that the organisms must have another way to produce the energy and carbon that they need.

    “We’ve been stuck on a paradigm that algae are just photosynthetic organisms, and for a long time their capability to otherwise feed was disregarded,” said Jelena Godrijan, the paper’s first author, who conducted the research as a postdoctoral scientist at Bigelow Laboratory. “Getting the coccolithophores to grow and survive in the dark is amazing to me, especially if you think about how they managed to survive when animals like the dinosaurs didn’t.”

    The study revealed how some coccolithophore species could use previously unrecognized organic compounds as carbon sources instead of carbon dioxide, which is what plants usually use. They can process dissolved organic compounds and immediately utilize them in a process called osmotrophy. The findings may explain how these organisms survive in dark conditions, such as after the asteroid impact, or deep in the ocean beneath where sunlight can reach.

    The research was published in the journal New Phytologist and co-authored by two other researchers at Bigelow Laboratory, Senior Research Scientist William Balch and Senior Research Associate David Drapeau. It has far-reaching implications for life in the ocean.

    Coccolithophores are integral to processes that control the global ocean and atmosphere including the carbon cycle. They take in dissolved carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which gets transported to the ocean floor when they die.

    “That’s hugely important to the distribution of carbon dioxide on Earth,” said Balch. “If we didn’t have this biological carbon pump, the carbon dioxide in our atmosphere would be way higher than it is now, probably over two times as much.”

    Coccolithophores also play an important role in mitigating ocean acidity which can negatively affect organisms like shellfish and corals. The single-celled algae remove carbon from the water to build protective mineral plates made of limestone around themselves, which sink when they die. The process effectively pumps alkalinity deeper into the ocean, which chemically bolsters the water’s ability to resist becoming more acidic.

    The new study revealed that the algae also take in carbon from previously unrecognized sources deeper in the water column. This could connect coccolithophores to a new set of global processes and raises fundamental questions about their role in the ocean.

    Coccolithophores are integrated into global cycles in ways that we never imagined,” Balch said. “This research really changes my thinking about food webs in dark regions where photosynthesis clearly isn’t happening. It changes the paradigm.”

    The researchers next want to perform ocean experiments to observe how coccolithophores take in nutrients in their natural environment-especially in the dark. Godrijan hopes her work will help reveal more about the organisms, their significance, and their complex role on our planet.

    Coccolithophores are tiny, tiny creatures, but they have such huge impacts on all life that most people are not even aware of,” Godrijan said. “It brings me hope for our own lives to see how such small things can have such an influence on the planet.”

    See the full article here.

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    The Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences (US), founded in 1974, is an independent, non-profit oceanography research institute. The Laboratory’s research ranges from microbial oceanography to the large-scale biogeochemical processes that drive ocean ecosystems and health of the entire planet.

    The institute’s LEED Platinum laboratory is located on its research and education campus in East Boothbay, Maine. Bigelow Laboratory supports the work of about 100 scientists and staff. The majority of the institute’s funding comes from federal and state grants and contracts, philanthropic support, and licenses and contracts with the private sector.

    History

    The Laboratory was established by Charles and Clarice Yentsch in 1974 as a private, non-profit research institution named for the oceanographer Henry Bryant Bigelow, founding director of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (US). Bigelow’s extensive investigations in the early part of the twentieth century are recognized as the foundation of modern oceanography. His multi-year expeditions in the Gulf of Maine, where he collected water samples and data on phytoplankton, fish populations, and hydrography, established a new paradigm of intensive, ecologically-based oceanographic research in the United States and made this region one of the most thoroughly studied bodies of water, for its size, in the world.

    Since its founding, the Laboratory has attracted federal grants for research projects by winning competitive, peer reviewed awards from all of the principal federal research granting agencies. The Laboratory’s total operating revenue (including philanthropy) has grown to more than $10 million dollars a year. Federal research grants have supported most of the Laboratory’s research operations. Education and outreach programs rely on other sources of support, primarily contributions from individuals and private philanthropic foundations.

    In February 2018, Deborah Bronk became the president and CEO of Bigelow Laboratory. Prior to joining the Laboratory, Bronk was the Moses D. Nunnally Distinguished Professor of Marine Sciences and department chair at Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences. She previously served as division director for the National Science Foundation’s (US) Division of Ocean Science and as president of the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:46 am on December 24, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "A Bright LED-Lit Future for Ocean Sciences", An estimated 436 submarine fiber-optic cables totaling 1.3 million kilometers in length (enough for 32 trips around Earth’s equator) are currently in service., , Aquatic photochemistry as a discipline has grown immensely over the past half century., Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) communicate and work together., , , LEDs can also help ensure that high-quality data are collected., LEDs have taken over the global lighting market. Now it’s time for this versatile low-cost and energy-efficient technology to illuminate oceanic processes., Oceanography, The future of studying the ocean lies in the development of low-cost vehicles; sensors and instruments., The oceanographic research community is currently developing fleets of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs)., These fleets will be able to take measurements across more expansive spatial and temporal scales than are currently possible., Wireless underwater LED technology is in fact already largely proven and in use.   

    From Eos: “A Bright LED-Lit Future for Ocean Sciences” 

    From AGU
    Eos news bloc

    From Eos

    20 December 2021
    Collin P. Ward

    LEDs have taken over the global lighting market. Now it’s time for this versatile low-cost and energy-efficient technology to illuminate oceanic processes.

    1
    A remote underwater environmental monitoring unit, or REMUS (yellow), tests through-­water communications using a wireless, blue light­emitting diode (LED)­based optical modem at Iselin Dock in Woods Hole, Mass. Credit: S.P. Whelan © The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

    Cutting the cord at home—replacing traditional cable television service with alternatives like streaming video—is an increasingly common trend these days. In oceanography, scientists are seeing their own version of this trend, one that might more accurately be called “cutting the tether.” Both trends have been matched—and aided—by the rapid growth of light-emitting diode (LED) technology and applications.

    Recently, there has been a push in the oceanographic community to replace hard-wired, fiber-optic communication tethers connected to instruments with wireless, through-water communications. Think Wi-Fi for the ocean. For example, in 2019, untethered, wireless communications allowed then Seychelles president Danny Faure to address his constituents and raise awareness about ocean health from a submersible vehicle 124 meters below the sea surface, an event that was livestreamed to thousands around the world. The core technology that made this livestream possible comprised high-powered, blue LEDs that package and rapidly transmit data through the water [Farr et al., 2010*].

    LEDs Have Transformed How We Light Our Homes…

    The foundational technology of LEDs has been around for more than a century, but only in the past decade or so have LEDs become transformative to society.

    In 2010, LEDs accounted for 1% of the global lighting market; by 2020, this share had risen to 55%. This rapid growth has profoundly reshaped the industry, even contributing to the decision by General Electric, long known as the leading innovator in lighting, to sell its lighting division in 2020. At some point this decade, the entire global lighting market is expected to shift to LEDs, with the LED lighting market rising from roughly $60 billion in 2021 to an estimated $135 billion in 2028.

    The transition from incandescent bulbs to LEDs has been driven by both policy changes and consumer demand. In the United States, for example, the Energy Independence and Security Act passed in 2007 mandated that many household lightbulbs become 25% more efficient than incandescent bulbs. Similar polices have been adopted by the European Union and China.

    These policy changes left consumers with two options: compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) or LEDs. LEDs are more than 40% more energy efficient and last 3–7 times longer than CFLs, and as LED bulb prices have dropped, consumers have increasingly opted for them.

    2
    Shown here are the relative magnitudes of impacts of different lighting sources over their life cycles on natural resources, air, soil, and water. The impacts of compact fluorescent (red) and LED (green and purple) bulbs are substantially less than those of incandescent bulbs (blue). Credit:The Department of Energy (US).

    Although the choice for consumers has been relatively easy to make, many people do not fully appreciate the positive environmental impacts of adopting LED technology. In 2017, information provider IHS Markit estimated that the adoption of LED lighting reduced global carbon dioxide emissions that year by more than half a billion tons, or 1.5%. Life cycle assessments also indicate that compared with using incandescent or CFL bulbs, LED technology reduces hazardous waste production and risks to ecosystem and human health and better preserves air, soil, and water quality.

    …And Now They Are Transforming How We Study the Ocean

    The future of studying the ocean lies in the development of low-cost vehicles; sensors and instruments. These tools will enable continuous monitoring of ocean processes and allow a broader contingent of the global population to participate in ocean research and sustainability efforts. LEDs, which are useful not only for underwater lighting but also for transmitting data through water, are primed to play an important role in this future vision.

    3
    Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) communicate and work together to survey a hydrothermal vent at the bottom of the ocean in this illustration. LED lights aboard the AUVs transmit data collected through the water to receivers secured to cabled moorings. Fiber­optic cables then deliver the data from the moorings to scientists on shore, allowing them to inspect the data and, if needed, adjust their research plan in near­real time. Credit: © E.P. Oberlander/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

    The oceanographic research community is currently developing fleets of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to collect physical, acoustic, chemical, and biological data that help us understand how the ocean works and how it will respond to human-induced pressures from climate change and pollution. For example, these fleets collect data that characterize (1) the changing strengths of ocean currents like the Gulf Stream; (2) the distribution and sustainability of commercially important fisheries; (3) the locations and movements of endangered marine mammals in proximity to shipping vessels and fishing gear; (4) changes in water quality parameters like pH, temperature, nutrient loads, and oxygen levels; and (5) greenhouse gas storage. These fleets also monitor the integrity of and ecosystem impacts from ocean infrastructure like installations for offshore oil exploration, wind energy production, and aquaculture.

    In theory, these fleets will be able to take measurements across more expansive spatial and temporal scales than are currently possible while also minimizing the use of expensive and energy-intensive crewed research vessels. But for these AUV fleets to be more than just groups of individual vehicles operating in proximity, they need to communicate and coordinate their activities. This is where advanced LED technology comes in.

    An estimated 436 submarine fiber-optic cables totaling 1.3 million kilometers in length (enough for 32 trips around Earth’s equator) are currently in service, making up a complex global web of rapid-transmission communications conduits. It is this web that allows us to call friends and family nearly anywhere around the world with the touch of a button. Data are communicated through these specialty glass-lined cables in the form of high-powered light, often emitted by LEDs, that bounces from side to side in a process known as total internal reflection. Without these fiber-optic cables (i.e., if the cord, or tether, were cut), light-borne data could not travel nearly as far because the light emissions attenuate quickly.

    The choice of light color makes a difference, however. In the ocean, the main attenuators of light are chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and water itself (Figure 1). CDOM readily absorbs ultraviolet (UV) light, whereas water readily absorbs green and red light. Because blue light largely escapes absorption by CDOM and water, it travels hundreds of meters into the ocean, much deeper than UV, green, and red light. This is why the ocean is blue and why wireless underwater optical communication systems use high-powered blue LEDs to transmit data.

    3
    Fig. 1. The relative importance of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and water to total light at-tenuation in the ocean is depicted here. (top) CDOM is the main attenuator of UVB, UVA, and violet light, whereas water is the main attenuator of green, yellow, orange, and red light. (bottom) Blue light penetrates deepest into the ocean because it escapes absorption by CDOM and water.

    Wireless underwater LED technology is in fact already largely proven and in use. For example, at a seafloor borehole observatory, LED-based optical modems rapidly transmit data from in situ sensors to AUVs or remotely operated vehicles more than 100 meters away—just as similar modems did during President Faure’s livestream from Seychelles. Moreover, as seabed pipelines that deliver oil and gas from thousands of active offshore rigs to refineries on land are built and maintained, LED-based optical modems help rapidly transfer data to engineers. These data allow the engineers to monitor and react in near-real time to conditions at the seafloor, improving the accuracy and speed with which the pipelines can be laid and optimizing monitoring of pipeline health to avoid, or at least minimize, damages and environmental harm from undersea pipeline ruptures.

    LEDs can also help ensure that high-quality data are collected. All sensors in the ocean—whether optical, chemical, electrical, or acoustic—are prone to biofouling or other interferences from living organisms like algal slime and barnacles that grow on sensor surfaces. Traditional approaches to minimizing biofouling involve mechanical means like wipers and shutters or chemical means like biocides. These approaches, however, leave a lot to be desired, particularly in the application of biocides that can cause collateral harm to more than just the intended organisms.

    4
    Conductivity data collected using a conductivity probe deployed at sea for several months and treated with UVC light (left) matched very closely with true values, whereas data collected from a biofouled probe not treated with UVC (right) drifted away from the true values within a week [Bueley et al., 2014]. Credit: Ocean Networks Canada (CA) and AML Oceanographic.

    In turn, oceanographic researchers have recently been pushing for chemical-free antifouling alternatives. Given their simplicity, low costs, and power requirements, UV LEDs, particularly those that emit UVC, appear to be the wave of the future [Delgado et al., 2021], and preliminary results on their effectiveness are promising. UVC treatment has been shown to minimize biofouling of ocean sensors, improving the quality of pH, conductivity, and turbidity data collected [Bueley et al., 2014; Armstrong and Snazelle, 2017], and to allow longer deployments at sea.

    Adding to the Photochemical Toolbox

    From UV LEDs used for disinfection to visible light LEDs used for communications, the wavelengths generated by LEDs span the entire range of natural sunlight that reaches the sea surface. This fact opens the door for scientists to use LEDs to study how sunlight alters the cycling of major and minor elements and the fate of pollutants in the ocean, processes that influence marine ecosystems and the overall Earth system in countless ways.

    4
    The LED-­based reactor assembly illustrated here was designed to determine the wavelength (λ) dependence of light-­driven reactions in surface waters that affect, for example, cycling of major and minor elements and the fate of pollutants. Wavebands range from UVB (278 nanometers) to red light (629 nanometers). A discussion of the pros and cons of this assembly compared with other technologies (related to, e.g., costs, sample throughput, portability, and data quality), as well as a step-­by­-step plan to build and validate an assembly, is given by Ward et al. [2021]. Credit: Reprinted with permission from Ward et al. [2021], ©2021 The American Chemical Society (US).

    Aquatic photochemistry as a discipline has grown immensely over the past half century, yet in that time our understanding of how the rates of light-driven reactions depend on sunlight wavelength has not changed much. This knowledge gap matters because reaction rates of photochemical processes vary considerably from day to day, even hour to hour, and at different depths in the ocean for several reasons. First, the energy of light photons decreases with increasing light wavelength; for example, UV light is more energetic than blue light, which in turn is more energetic than red light. This variation is why sunscreen contains mineral additives that specifically block powerful, and biologically hazardous, UV light. It’s also why red pigments in street signs and artistic masterpieces fade quicker than blue pigments: More powerful blue light is absorbed by and destroys red pigments, causing visible fading, whereas absorption of less powerful red light allows blue pigments to last longer. Second, although visible light is weaker than UV light, about 10 times more visible light reaches Earth’s surface than UV light [Apell and McNeill, 2019]. Third, different light wavelengths penetrate into the ocean to different extents, with blue light penetrating the deepest.

    Our limited understanding of the wavelength dependence of aquatic photochemical reactions is driven largely by cost and technological limitations. Determining wavelength dependence requires specialized equipment like high-powered lasers, solar simulators, and monochromators, which help isolate different wavelengths of the solar spectrum. This equipment is costly and energy intensive and lacks portability, often requiring researchers to stabilize or preserve their field samples for experimentation back in laboratories on land. Moreover, these approaches have low sample throughput—only one or two samples can be analyzed per day, which considerably raises labor costs.

    LEDs present an exciting opportunity to overcome many of these limitations without sacrificing data quality [Ward et al., 2021], allowing a wider contingent of researchers to study rates of sunlight-driven processes over spatial and temporal scales that were previously inaccessible. Widespread adoption and application of this technology could thus allow the incorporation of photochemical processes into Earth system models and afford more accurate depictions of how major and minor elements and pollutants cycle in the upper ocean.

    More People in More Places

    The disruptive potential of LED technology is so broad that it is poised to play key roles in making progress toward several of the United Nations (U.N.) Sustainable Development Goals. These goals include eliminating poverty; ensuring good health and well-being for everyone; ensuring clean water supplies and adequate sanitation; fostering resilient and inclusive industry, innovation, and infrastructure; and conserving and sustainably using the oceans, seas, and marine resources.

    For example, just as UVC LEDs are currently used to disinfect indoor air to combat the spread of the COVID-19-causing SARS-CoV-2 virus and other pathogens, UVC LEDs offer a low-cost and effective means to disinfect and destroy viruses and micropollutants in drinking water [Chen et al., 2017]. Moreover, visible light LEDs are a foundational technology in vertical farming, a relatively new industry that grows crops in stacked layers under controlled conditions. A key aim of vertical farming is to alleviate negative ecosystem impacts of traditional farming operations, such as reduced carbon sequestration in soils, depleted and impaired freshwater resources, and damages caused by pesticide and herbicide applications [Benke and Tomkins, 2017].

    In particular, the effect of LEDs on the goal of sustainably using the oceans is becoming increasingly clear. Ocean science is global by nature, but in practice, participation is limited largely to institutions, scientists, and students in wealthy nations while being cost prohibitive in lower-income nations and for many people in ocean-dependent communities. In response to the U.N.’s call for a Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development, which began in 2021, many scientists have argued for improving sustainability and equity in the ocean sciences community [Pendleton et al., 2020; Singh et al., 2021; Valauri-Orton et al., 2021; Wang, 2021]. One common recommendation in these arguments is to invest in the development of low-cost sensors and technologies to lower barriers and encourage broader participation.

    Just as low-cost LED-based sensors empower air quality monitoring in developing nations that disproportionately experience the health burden of poor air quality, it is likely that LEDs will contribute substantially to the development of low-cost sensors to monitor ocean health. Such an evolution could advance equity in the ocean sciences, allowing more people in more places to participate. It could also advance sustainability by allowing us to observe and monitor more of the ocean more often, offering a wealth of information about marine conditions and health with which to make informed decisions about how we treat it.

    Acknowledgments

    I offer many thanks to Aleck Wang and Anna Michel for helpful discussions while I was researching this topic and to Ken Kostel, Matthew Long, Danielle Freeman, Mike Mazzotta, Taylor Nelson, Maurice Tivey, and Anna Walsh for providing constructive feedback on the article. Thanks to Katie Linehan for tolerating years of incessant conversations about how cool LEDs are. Funding was provided by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada Multi-Partner Research Initiative, the National Science Foundation, and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

    *All citations below with links.

    References:

    Apell, J. N., and K. McNeill (2019), Updated and validated solar irradiance reference spectra for estimating environmental photodegradation rates, Environ. Sci. Processes Impacts, 21(3), 427–437, https://doi.org/10.1039/C8EM00478A.

    Armstrong, B., and T. Snazelle (2017), Field testing of an AML oceanographic cabled ultraviolet anti-biofouling system in an estuarine setting, in OCEANS 2017-Anchorage, pp. 1–6, Inst. of Electr. and Electron. Eng., Piscataway, N.J., ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8232067.

    Benke, K., and B. Tomkins (2017), Future food-production systems: Vertical farming and controlled-environment agriculture, Sustainability Sci. Pract. Policy, 13(1), 13–26, https://doi.org/10.1080/15487733.2017.1394054.

    Bueley, C., D. Olender, and B. Bocking (2014), In-situ trial of UV-C as an antifoulant to reduce biofouling induced measurement error, J. Ocean Technol., 9(4), 49–67, thejot.net/article-preview/?show_article_preview=601.

    Chen, J., S. Loeb, and J. H. Kim (2017), LED revolution: Fundamentals and prospects for UV disinfection applications, Environ. Sci. Water Res. Technol., 3(2), 188–202, https://doi.org/10.1039/C6EW00241B.

    Delgado, A., C. Briciu-Burghina, and F. Regan (2021), Antifouling strategies for sensors used in water monitoring: Review and future perspectives, Sensors, 21(2), 389, https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020389.

    Farr, N., et al. (2010), An integrated, underwater optical/acoustic communications system, in OCEANS’10 IEEE-Sydney, pp. 1–6, Inst. of Electr. and Electron. Eng., Piscataway, N.J., https://doi.org/10.1109/OCEANSSYD.2010.5603510.

    Pendleton, L., K. Evans, and M. Visbeck (2020), Opinion: We need a global movement to transform ocean science for a better world, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 117, 9,652–9,655, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2005485117.

    Singh, G. S., et al. (2021), Opinion: Will understanding the ocean lead to “the ocean we want”?, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 118, e2100205118, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2100205118.

    Valauri-Orton, A., et al. (2021), EquiSea: The ocean science fund for all, Mar. Technol. Soc. J., 55(3), 106–107, https://doi.org/10.4031/MTSJ.55.3.41.

    Wang, Z. A. (2021), Accelerating global ocean observing: Monitoring the coastal ocean through broadly accessible, low-cost sensor networks, Mar. Technol. Soc. J., 55(3), 82–83, https://doi.org/10.4031/MTSJ.55.3.52.

    Ward, C., et al. (2021), Rapid and reproducible characterization of the wavelength dependence of aquatic photochemical reactions using light-emitting diodes, Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett., 8, 437–442, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.1c00172.

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  • richardmitnick 11:33 am on December 21, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "On the Galápagos an underwater exploration of marine life", , , , Oceanography,   

    From Penn Today : “On the Galápagos an underwater exploration of marine life” 

    From Penn Today

    at

    U Penn bloc

    University of Pennsylvania

    December 20, 2021
    Michele W. Berger

    1
    Since 2019, students have been going on dives in pairs, tallying every benthic species they see along a 30-meter transect line. Mostly they’ve encountered sea urchin and sea cucumbers, plus a few starfish and turtles.

    The waters around the Galápagos Islands are some of the world’s most unique, known for their exceptional marine life. Yet, for a variety of reasons—the cost to learn SCUBA diving, for example, or rules about the protections on the marine reserve—many locals rarely get the chance to experience those waters and the life they hold within.

    “Local people have to comply with all these regulations, but often never actually get to see the incredible flora and fauna that’s right at their doorstep,” says Maddie Tilyou, lab manager for the Galápagos Education and Research Alliance (GERA), an initiative co-directed by Penn researcher Michael Weisberg.

    Ivan Lopez, a local dive instructor and naturalist guide, had been trying to shift that dynamic by offering free SCUBA diving lessons to local middle schoolers. In 2019, he teamed up with Weisberg, Tilyou, and others to combine his training program with the underwater exploration branch of GERA’s community science initiative, called Projecto Laboratorio para Apreciar la Vida y el Ambiente or Project LAVA.

    Through LAVA-Mar, Lopez’s divers are helping the research team understand how humans are affecting the marine creatures in protected waters compared to those in the municipal waters of San Cristóbal, the easternmost island of the Galápagos. On more than a dozen trips, student diving pairs—led by Lopez, Tilyou, and LAVA-Mar project leader Olivia Fielding—have recorded every individual animal spotted along a 30-meter transect line.

    So far, in bay waters closest to shore, the team has tallied mostly sea urchin and sea cucumbers, plus a few starfish and turtles. When they traveled farther out to renowned dive site Kicker Rock, the marine life changed dramatically. “There’s a lot less pollution and human traffic and way more benthic cover,” says Fielding, a Perry World House climate change research fellow and recent Penn graduate. “The benthic cover signifies how healthy an area is.”

    2
    Sea cucumbers like the species here, Isostichopus fuscus, make up the bulk of creatures the LAVA-Mar divers see. As they travel farther from shore, the marine life changes, becoming much more colorful and varied.

    Though the pandemic took the training out of the water and moved it online, in recent months Weisberg and colleagues have picked up the in-person work again in earnest. They traveled to the Galápagos this past summer and completed one dive with the students. They’re also working with Penn marine biologist Katie Barott and locals to create a water health index, to better facilitate comparison across sites. And they plan to return to the islands throughout 2022, if it’s safe for all parties involved.

    “The science is important,” says Weisberg, the Bess W. Heyman President’s Distinguished Professor and chair of the Department of Philosophy. “But even more important is working with the community on conservation research and practices. Science is not just a tool that outsiders use to come in and extract knowledge.”

    “Social ecology”

    The Galápagos Education and Research Alliance, co-led by Weisberg, Deena Weisberg of Villanova University (US), and Galápagos naturalist guide Ernesto Vaca, has been working in and around the town of Puerto Baquerizo Moreno on San Cristóbal for the past seven years. Project LAVA is one of a handful of GERA’s initiatives.

    Earlier work in this area included LAVA-Lobos, which studies the impact of human presence on endangered sea lions. In the future, LAVA-Agua will focus on San Cristóbal’s domestic water supply; LAVA-Agro, on the effect of invasive plants and animals; and LAVA-Astro, on the night sky, in conjunction with the International Dark-Sky Association.

    All of this work happens in collaboration with locals. “The overall approach that we take is called social ecology. When we do conservation research or practice, we center local people’s involvement,” Weisberg says. “Just as the sea lion project was working with students, here we’re working with a different set of students.”

    Currently, 10 Galapagueños ranging from 11- to 16-years-old are involved in LAVA-Mar. Fielding and Tilyou, who helped get the project up and running in 2019, worked with Weisberg and Lopez to create the scientific protocol the students now use on each dive. It’s been an evolution, Tilyou says. “It’s been really cool to watch these students advance through their training. More than half are rescue divers now.”

    Conducting the science

    The aim of this project is to investigate how people affect marine life. Given that at the start, most participants didn’t even know how to SCUBA dive, Tilyou and Fielding understood the protocol had to be simple and straightforward.

    So, they came up with this: Students pair up, one with a GoPro camera, the other a slate and pencil usable underwater. Swimming above a 30-meter transect line being held by two adults—typically Lopez and one of his helpers—they record and tally any species they see within a meter of the line. Before the first dive, the students received training in the most common animals they’d likely encounter.

    3
    Currently, 10 Galapagueños ranging from 11- to 16-years-old are involved in LAVA-Mar, all trained by Ivan Lopez, a local dive instructor and naturalist guide that teamed up with the Penn group several years ago.

    “That’s the scientific part,” which typically takes about 10 to 15 minutes each time, Tilyou says. “Because they usually have air left in their tanks, they then go on a little treasure hunt and take photos.” At the end, they pick their favorite image to share. “Elements like that will become more important as we go,” Fielding says, “to make sure they’re not just coming out and counting sea urchins.”

    She and Tilyou are also working with Weisberg to make the data that’s collected more scientifically viable. That’s where the expertise of Barott, who studies the biology and ecology of coral reef systems, comes into play. “We’re working with Katie to create a health index,” Weisberg says. “We want to be able to turn what the students are seeing into something we can compare across sites.”

    That will lead to a much-needed baseline measurement, Tilyou adds. “Getting that data is really important, especially in the face of factors like climate change. If we don’t have a baseline, it’s going to be really hard to assess down the road what we’ve lost.”

    Marine stewardship

    The LAVA-Mar team has collected data since 2019. Now they need to figure out how to analyze it and what comes next. The local group will undoubtedly complete more dives, even if the Penn and Villanova teams cannot physically get to the Galápagos.

    The researchers are also working to get backing for dives that will take the participants farther from shore. “Getting beyond the bay has been the goal the whole time, but it requires more funding and logistics,” Fielding says. “We need comparative data from the less disturbed areas to really understand the data we have.”

    And yet, even in the bay, even in frigid waters and knowing that they’ll most likely observe sea urchins and possibly nothing else, the participants are always enthusiastic. Tilyou says she sees this as a sign that they’re starting to take ownership of the process, becoming guardians of the marine environment in their backyard.

    “Because it’s such an incredible space scientifically, scientists have always gone there, but traditionally in a pretty exploitative way,” Tilyou says. “We’re asking this population to be stewards of a really fragile marine ecosystem and yet they don’t know what they’re protecting. The root of this project is to make science more democratic in how it’s carried out.”

    One dive at a time, one sea urchin at a time, this underwater exploration broadens the understanding of precisely how humans are changing the waters around the Galápagos Islands and the benthic creatures below.

    4
    The diving project is part of a larger initiative called Projecto Laboratorio para Apreciar la Vida y el Ambiente or Project LAVA, which also includes research about the effect humans are having on sea lions in the Galápagos.

    Olivia Fielding is a Perry World House climate change research fellow and project manager for the Galápagos Education and Research Alliance. She graduated from Penn in 2021 with a double major in environmental science and political science.

    Maddie Tilyou is lab manager for the Galápagos Education and Research Alliance. She graduated from Penn in 2019 with a major in biology with a concentration in ecology and evolutionary biology and a minor in environmental science.

    Michael Weisberg is the Bess W. Heyman President’s Distinguished Professor and chair of the Philosophy Department in the School of Arts & Sciences at the University of Pennsylvania. He has co-directed the Galápagos Education and Research Alliance since 2017. He is also a senior faculty fellow and director of post-graduate programs at Perry World House.

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    U Penn campus

    Academic life at University of Pennsylvania (US) is unparalleled, with 100 countries and every U.S. state represented in one of the Ivy League’s most diverse student bodies. Consistently ranked among the top 10 universities in the country, Penn enrolls 10,000 undergraduate students and welcomes an additional 10,000 students to our world-renowned graduate and professional schools.

    Penn’s award-winning educators and scholars encourage students to pursue inquiry and discovery, follow their passions, and address the world’s most challenging problems through an interdisciplinary approach.

    The University of Pennsylvania (US) is a private Ivy League research university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The university claims a founding date of 1740 and is one of the nine colonial colleges chartered prior to the U.S. Declaration of Independence. Benjamin Franklin, Penn’s founder and first president, advocated an educational program that trained leaders in commerce, government, and public service, similar to a modern liberal arts curriculum.

    Penn has four undergraduate schools as well as twelve graduate and professional schools. Schools enrolling undergraduates include the College of Arts and Sciences; the School of Engineering and Applied Science; the Wharton School; and the School of Nursing. Penn’s “One University Policy” allows students to enroll in classes in any of Penn’s twelve schools. Among its highly ranked graduate and professional schools are a law school whose first professor wrote the first draft of the United States Constitution, the first school of medicine in North America (Perelman School of Medicine, 1765), and the first collegiate business school (Wharton School, 1881).

    Penn is also home to the first “student union” building and organization (Houston Hall, 1896), the first Catholic student club in North America (Newman Center, 1893), the first double-decker college football stadium (Franklin Field, 1924 when second deck was constructed), and Morris Arboretum, the official arboretum of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The first general-purpose electronic computer (ENIAC) was developed at Penn and formally dedicated in 1946. In 2019, the university had an endowment of $14.65 billion, the sixth-largest endowment of all universities in the United States, as well as a research budget of $1.02 billion. The university’s athletics program, the Quakers, fields varsity teams in 33 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference.

    As of 2018, distinguished alumni and/or Trustees include three U.S. Supreme Court justices; 32 U.S. senators; 46 U.S. governors; 163 members of the U.S. House of Representatives; eight signers of the Declaration of Independence and seven signers of the U.S. Constitution (four of whom signed both representing two-thirds of the six people who signed both); 24 members of the Continental Congress; 14 foreign heads of state and two presidents of the United States, including Donald Trump. As of October 2019, 36 Nobel laureates; 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences(US); 64 billionaires; 29 Rhodes Scholars; 15 Marshall Scholars and 16 Pulitzer Prize winners have been affiliated with the university.

    History

    The University of Pennsylvania considers itself the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, though this is contested by Princeton University(US) and Columbia(US) Universities. The university also considers itself as the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies.

    In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open-air sermons. The building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time, drawing thousands of people the first time it was preached in. It was initially planned to serve as a charity school as well, but a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklin’s autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, “thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution”. However, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years. In the fall of 1749, now more eager to create a school to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania, his vision for what he called a “Public Academy of Philadelphia”. Unlike the other colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard University(US), William & Mary(US), Yale Unversity(US), and The College of New Jersey(US)—Franklin’s new school would not focus merely on education for the clergy. He advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study could have become the nation’s first modern liberal arts curriculum, although it was never implemented because Anglican priest William Smith (1727-1803), who became the first provost, and other trustees strongly preferred the traditional curriculum.

    Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 members of the board of trustees on November 13, 1749, the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from the old Pennsylvania State House (later renamed and famously known since 1776 as “Independence Hall”), was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, which was still vacant, would be an even better site. The original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklin’s group to assume their debts and, accordingly, their inactive trusts. On February 1, 1750, the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751, the “Academy of Philadelphia”, using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. A charity school also was chartered on July 13, 1753 by the intentions of the original “New Building” donors, although it lasted only a few years. On June 16, 1755, the “College of Philadelphia” was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction. All three schools shared the same board of trustees and were considered to be part of the same institution. The first commencement exercises were held on May 17, 1757.

    The institution of higher learning was known as the College of Philadelphia from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not trusting then-provost the Reverend William Smith’s “Loyalist” tendencies, the revolutionary State Legislature created a University of the State of Pennsylvania. The result was a schism, with Smith continuing to operate an attenuated version of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791, the legislature issued a new charter, merging the two institutions into a new University of Pennsylvania with twelve men from each institution on the new board of trustees.

    Penn has three claims to being the first university in the United States, according to university archives director Mark Frazier Lloyd: the 1765 founding of the first medical school in America made Penn the first institution to offer both “undergraduate” and professional education; the 1779 charter made it the first American institution of higher learning to take the name of “University”; and existing colleges were established as seminaries (although, as detailed earlier, Penn adopted a traditional seminary curriculum as well).

    After being located in downtown Philadelphia for more than a century, the campus was moved across the Schuylkill River to property purchased from the Blockley Almshouse in West Philadelphia in 1872, where it has since remained in an area now known as University City. Although Penn began operating as an academy or secondary school in 1751 and obtained its collegiate charter in 1755, it initially designated 1750 as its founding date; this is the year that appears on the first iteration of the university seal. Sometime later in its early history, Penn began to consider 1749 as its founding date and this year was referenced for over a century, including at the centennial celebration in 1849. In 1899, the board of trustees voted to adjust the founding date earlier again, this time to 1740, the date of “the creation of the earliest of the many educational trusts the University has taken upon itself”. The board of trustees voted in response to a three-year campaign by Penn’s General Alumni Society to retroactively revise the university’s founding date to appear older than Princeton University, which had been chartered in 1746.

    Research, innovations and discoveries

    Penn is classified as an “R1” doctoral university: “Highest research activity.” Its economic impact on the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for 2015 amounted to $14.3 billion. Penn’s research expenditures in the 2018 fiscal year were $1.442 billion, the fourth largest in the U.S. In fiscal year 2019 Penn received $582.3 million in funding from the National Institutes of Health(US).

    In line with its well-known interdisciplinary tradition, Penn’s research centers often span two or more disciplines. In the 2010–2011 academic year alone, five interdisciplinary research centers were created or substantially expanded; these include the Center for Health-care Financing; the Center for Global Women’s Health at the Nursing School; the $13 million Morris Arboretum’s Horticulture Center; the $15 million Jay H. Baker Retailing Center at Wharton; and the $13 million Translational Research Center at Penn Medicine. With these additions, Penn now counts 165 research centers hosting a research community of over 4,300 faculty and over 1,100 postdoctoral fellows, 5,500 academic support staff and graduate student trainees. To further assist the advancement of interdisciplinary research President Amy Gutmann established the “Penn Integrates Knowledge” title awarded to selected Penn professors “whose research and teaching exemplify the integration of knowledge”. These professors hold endowed professorships and joint appointments between Penn’s schools.

    Penn is also among the most prolific producers of doctoral students. With 487 PhDs awarded in 2009, Penn ranks third in the Ivy League, only behind Columbia University(US) and Cornell University(US) (Harvard University(US) did not report data). It also has one of the highest numbers of post-doctoral appointees (933 in number for 2004–2007), ranking third in the Ivy League (behind Harvard and Yale University(US)) and tenth nationally.

    In most disciplines Penn professors’ productivity is among the highest in the nation and first in the fields of epidemiology, business, communication studies, comparative literature, languages, information science, criminal justice and criminology, social sciences and sociology. According to the National Research Council nearly three-quarters of Penn’s 41 assessed programs were placed in ranges including the top 10 rankings in their fields, with more than half of these in ranges including the top five rankings in these fields.

    Penn’s research tradition has historically been complemented by innovations that shaped higher education. In addition to establishing the first medical school; the first university teaching hospital; the first business school; and the first student union Penn was also the cradle of other significant developments. In 1852, Penn Law was the first law school in the nation to publish a law journal still in existence (then called The American Law Register, now the Penn Law Review, one of the most cited law journals in the world). Under the deanship of William Draper Lewis, the law school was also one of the first schools to emphasize legal teaching by full-time professors instead of practitioners, a system that is still followed today. The Wharton School was home to several pioneering developments in business education. It established the first research center in a business school in 1921 and the first center for entrepreneurship center in 1973 and it regularly introduced novel curricula for which BusinessWeek wrote, “Wharton is on the crest of a wave of reinvention and change in management education”.

    Several major scientific discoveries have also taken place at Penn. The university is probably best known as the place where the first general-purpose electronic computer (ENIAC) was born in 1946 at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering.

    ENIAC UPenn

    It was here also where the world’s first spelling and grammar checkers were created, as well as the popular COBOL programming language. Penn can also boast some of the most important discoveries in the field of medicine. The dialysis machine used as an artificial replacement for lost kidney function was conceived and devised out of a pressure cooker by William Inouye while he was still a student at Penn Med; the Rubella and Hepatitis B vaccines were developed at Penn; the discovery of cancer’s link with genes; cognitive therapy; Retin-A (the cream used to treat acne), Resistin; the Philadelphia gene (linked to chronic myelogenous leukemia) and the technology behind PET Scans were all discovered by Penn Med researchers. More recent gene research has led to the discovery of the genes for fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, a disorder marked by progressive muscle wasting; and Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the hands, feet and limbs.

    Conductive polymer was also developed at Penn by Alan J. Heeger, Alan MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa, an invention that earned them the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. On faculty since 1965, Ralph L. Brinster developed the scientific basis for in vitro fertilization and the transgenic mouse at Penn and was awarded the National Medal of Science in 2010. The theory of superconductivity was also partly developed at Penn, by then-faculty member John Robert Schrieffer (along with John Bardeen and Leon Cooper). The university has also contributed major advancements in the fields of economics and management. Among the many discoveries are conjoint analysis, widely used as a predictive tool especially in market research; Simon Kuznets’s method of measuring Gross National Product; the Penn effect (the observation that consumer price levels in richer countries are systematically higher than in poorer ones) and the “Wharton Model” developed by Nobel-laureate Lawrence Klein to measure and forecast economic activity. The idea behind Health Maintenance Organizations also belonged to Penn professor Robert Eilers, who put it into practice during then-President Nixon’s health reform in the 1970s.

    International partnerships

    Students can study abroad for a semester or a year at partner institutions such as the London School of Economics(UK), University of Barcelona [Universitat de Barcelona](ES), Paris Institute of Political Studies [Institut d’études politiques de Paris](FR), University of Queensland(AU), University College London(UK), King’s College London(UK), Hebrew University of Jerusalem(IL) and University of Warwick(UK).

     
  • richardmitnick 8:52 am on December 21, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Exploring the deep ocean", Any iron(III) that was formed would react with the hydrogen sulfide to form elemental sulfur and regenerate the iron (II) as a catalyst., , , Hydrothermal vents act as a previously unmeasured source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the ocean., Hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor, Iron can exist in different forms or oxidation states in nature., Iron(II): dissolved or ‘free’ iron is not stable in oxygenated waters, Iron(III): usually present in waters with a lot of oxygen, Oceanography, Rainwater and cloud water usually get the highest amount of reactive oxygen species that you can measure but the team’s data rival it and surpass it., ROS are highly reactive chemicals formed from oxygen such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide., ROS: reactive oxygen species, The finding has implications for the ocean’s global carbon cycle., The presence of iron(II) and absence of iron(III) was at first confusing because there was plenty of oxygen available at the vent sites., , We found plenty of reactive oxygen species down there.   

    From The University of Delaware (US) : “Exploring the deep ocean” 

    U Delaware bloc

    From The University of Delaware (US)

    December 20, 2021

    Adam Thomas
    Photo Illustration by Tammy Beeson |
    Photos courtesy of George Luther, The National Science Foundation (US)/HOV Alvin

    UD alumni recall their undergraduate research trip to the floor of the Pacific Ocean.

    1
    Seen here over a background showing a hydrothermal vent, Nicole Coffey and Richard Rosas joined School of Marine Science and Policy Professor George Luther on a research cruise as undergraduates and had the opportunity to travel to the deep sea in the Alvin submersible.
    WHOI ALVIN submersible

    Nicole Coffey and Richard Rosas were undergraduate students at the University of Delaware in 2017 when they joined UD professor George Luther on a research cruise to the East Pacific Rise — a mid-oceanic ridge located on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. The region is known for its hydrothermal vent activity and is located more than 500 miles off the coast of Acapulco, Mexico.

    While that experience took place more than four years ago, enough data were collected that Coffey, who is now a doctoral student at The Oregon State University (US), and Rosas, a doctoral student at The Texas A&M University (US), were recently co-authors with Luther on a paper published in the PNAS.

    Timothy Shaw, a professor from The University of South Carolina (US), served as the lead author on the paper and was also a member of the research cruise.

    The research paper showed that hydrothermal vents act as a previously unmeasured source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the ocean. ROS are highly reactive chemicals formed from oxygen such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide.

    This process has long been recognized in surface waters and attributed to photochemical and biochemical reactions, but this paper showed that large amounts of iron coming from hydrothermal vents react with the oxygen in ambient bottom waters to form hydrogen peroxide as a metastable ROS species.

    Iron can exist in different forms or oxidation states in nature. The researchers found a lot of iron(II) — which is typically thought of as dissolved or ‘free’ iron and is not stable in oxygenated waters — but not a lot of iron(III) — which is usually present in waters with a lot of oxygen, such as the bottom waters that were being sampled.

    They discovered that any iron(III) that was formed would react with the hydrogen sulfide to form elemental sulfur and regenerate the iron(II) as a catalyst.

    This ROS as hydrogen peroxide was detected at concentrations 20 to 100 times higher than the average for photo produced ROS in surface waters. Additionally, the hydrogen peroxide was measured at a concentration up to six micromolar, which is 6% of the original dissolved oxygen concentration of the cold bottom waters that mix with the vent waters.

    The concentration of hydrogen peroxide would be expected to form at the same rate as the elemental sulfur produced, which was 20 micromolar. The imbalance showed that hydrogen peroxide further reacts with other components in seawater.

    “The intensity is really spectacular compared to what you see in surface waters and cloud waters,” said Luther, the Maxwell P. and Mildred H. Harrington Professor of Marine Studies in the School of Marine Science and Policy. “Rainwater and cloud water usually get the highest amount of reactive oxygen species that you can measure but our data rivals it and surpasses it.”

    In addition, the finding has implications for the ocean’s global carbon cycle. The hydrogen peroxide can react further with reduced iron to form hydroxyl radical in a process known as the Fenton reaction. This hydroxyl radical can react with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to mediate the mineralization of DOC to carbon dioxide and form hydroxylated benzene compounds, thus impacting the carbon cycle in the ocean.

    Both Coffey and Rosas were integral in the process of collecting the samples and processing the data.

    Rosas, who graduated in the spring of 2018 from UD’s College of Earth, Ocean and Environment, worked closely with Shaw on the physical instrumentation to collect the samples from the vent sites.

    In order to do this, Rosas descended to the seafloor twice in Alvin, a submersible, and helped collect samples from the hydrothermal vents using syringe samplers that were held by an arm known as a manipulator on the Alvin submersible. The syringe samplers were filled with horseradish peroxidase and a reagent that would permit hydrogen peroxide to react quickly with a sample to form a colored agent for its detection.

    “I had no idea that I would have the opportunity to actually be inside Alvin and go down for a dive, let alone two,” said Rosas. “It was a highlight of my life so far, being able to go down in the ocean and see the vents in person was astounding. It’s so hard to express what that meant to me as someone who was aspiring to do marine science and oceanography.”

    Coffey also had the opportunity to travel in Alvin to look at the seafloor vents as she was on the first science dive of the cruise to canvas the seafloor to see how many vent sites would be good for sampling.

    “Vents are so ephemeral. They might be on one month and off the next,” said Coffey. “Our job was to go out, see what the situation was down there, and report back to say ‘P vent will be great for this’ or ‘Q vent will be good for that.’ ”

    Coffey conducted the iron measurements for the paper and said the presence of iron(II) and absence of iron(III) was at first confusing because there was plenty of oxygen available at the vent sites.

    “We found plenty of reactive oxygen species down there, as well as reduced sulfur, and one of the ideas we had is that the iron is acting as a catalyst,” said Coffey. “When you generate superoxide or peroxide, those are reactive and can facilitate a lot more reactions within marine chemistry. The idea behind this was that the iron and sulfur are playing a role in generating these reactive oxygen species that are then transported away from the vents and then take part in other chemistry.”

    Both Coffey and Rosas stressed that this was a formative experience for them as undergraduates, and they were happy to get to help out on the research cruise all the while taking classes onboard the ship as undergraduate students.

    “It’s hard to express how grateful I am about that opportunity,” said Rosas. “The experience was invaluable, especially as someone who wants to study the ocean. You don’t really grasp how massive the ocean is until you’re out far enough that you can’t see land in any direction.”

    Coffey said that for any undergraduates out there, one of the most important things they can do if they are interested in research is to reach out and tell someone. She said she never would have gotten to go on the cruise if she hadn’t told her adviser about her interest in ocean chemistry.

    “Looking back, it really set me up because I got to do my thesis with George, and he helped me figure out that I wanted to stay at UD for my masters,” said Coffey. “Without that conversation with my adviser, I don’t know if I would have gotten here. I’m sure I would have done well and gotten somewhere I was happy, but those doors might not have been opened.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Delaware campus

    The The University of Delaware (US) is a public land-grant research university located in Newark, Delaware. University of Delaware (US) is the largest university in Delaware. It offers three associate’s programs, 148 bachelor’s programs, 121 master’s programs (with 13 joint degrees), and 55 doctoral programs across its eight colleges. The main campus is in Newark, with satellite campuses in Dover, the Wilmington area, Lewes, and Georgetown. It is considered a large institution with approximately 18,200 undergraduate and 4,200 graduate students. It is a privately governed university which receives public funding for being a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant state-supported research institution.

    University of Delaware (US) is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to The National Science Foundation (US), UD spent $186 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 119th in the nation. It is recognized with the Community Engagement Classification by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

    University of Delaware (US) is one of only four schools in North America with a major in art conservation. In 1923, it was the first American university to offer a study-abroad program.

    University of Delaware (US) traces its origins to a “Free School,” founded in New London, Pennsylvania in 1743. The school moved to Newark, Delaware by 1765, becoming the Newark Academy. The academy trustees secured a charter for Newark College in 1833 and the academy became part of the college, which changed its name to Delaware College in 1843. While it is not considered one of the colonial colleges because it was not a chartered institution of higher education during the colonial era, its original class of ten students included George Read, Thomas McKean, and James Smith, all three of whom went on to sign the Declaration of Independence. Read also later signed the United States Constitution.

    Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus

    On October 23, 2009, the University of Delaware (US) signed an agreement with Chrysler to purchase a shuttered vehicle assembly plant adjacent to the university for $24.25 million as part of Chrysler’s bankruptcy restructuring plan. The university has developed the 272-acre (1.10 km2) site into the Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus. The site is the new home of University of Delaware (US)’s College of Health Sciences, which includes teaching and research laboratories and several public health clinics. The STAR Campus also includes research facilities for University of Delaware (US)’s vehicle-to-grid technology, as well as Delaware Technology Park, SevOne, CareNow, Independent Prosthetics and Orthotics, and the East Coast headquarters of Bloom Energy. In 2020 [needs an update], University of Delaware (US) expects to open the Ammon Pinozzotto Biopharmaceutical Innovation Center, which will become the new home of the UD-led National Institute for Innovation in Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals. Also, Chemours recently opened its global research and development facility, known as the Discovery Hub, on the STAR Campus in 2020. The new Newark Regional Transportation Center on the STAR Campus will serve passengers of Amtrak and regional rail.

    Academics

    The university is organized into nine colleges:

    Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics
    College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
    College of Arts and Sciences
    College of Earth, Ocean and Environment
    College of Education and Human Development
    College of Engineering
    College of Health Sciences
    Graduate College
    Honors College

    There are also five schools:

    Joseph R. Biden, Jr. School of Public Policy and Administration (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)
    School of Education (part of the College of Education & Human Development)
    School of Marine Science and Policy (part of the College of Earth, Ocean and Environment)
    School of Nursing (part of the College of Health Sciences)
    School of Music (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)

     
  • richardmitnick 10:57 am on December 19, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Rising From the Antarctic-a Climate Alarm", A new generation of floating autonomous probes has enabled scientists to learn much more., A worldwide project called Argo., Antarctica is melting from the bottom., , Around the 1950's research efforts expanded., Around the frozen continent a vast current circles the world., , , , For centuries this ocean was largely unknown., For Deacon it would be the start of a storied career in oceanography., From no perspective is there any place more important than the Southern Ocean., , , Ice shelves like the Thwaites are shrinking at an accelerating pace., In the late 1920's George Deacon from the University of London (UK) sampled the waters of the Southern Ocean., Much of humanity’s limited scientific understanding of the Southern Ocean was long linked to an industry that saw money to be made there: whaling., Oceanography, One of the most important processes that occurs in the Southern Ocean is the exchange of carbon dioxide between the ocean and the atmosphere., Scientists can now model ocean patterns all the way to the seafloor on a planetary scale., The Antarctic Circumpolar Current is by far the largest current in the world., The immense and forbidding Southern Ocean is famous for howling gales and devilish swells that have tested mariners for centuries. But its true strength lies beneath the waves., , The real revolution in Southern Ocean science began in the mid-2000s with the use of drifting floats that can adjust their buoyancy., The Southern Ocean is getting warmer and that has an important climate effect., Wilder winds are altering currents. The sea is releasing carbon dioxide. Ice is melting from below.   

    From The New York Times : “Rising From the Antarctic-a Climate Alarm” 

    From The New York Times

    12.18.21

    HENRY FOUNTAIN
    JEREMY WHITE

    Wilder winds are altering currents. The sea is releasing carbon dioxide. Ice is melting from below.

    Around the frozen continent a vast current circles the world.

    1
    Credit:/Tamsitt et al. British Antarctic Survey (UK), The NASA Earth Observatory (US) Bright Earth e-Atlas Basemap

    The immense and forbidding Southern Ocean is famous for howling gales and devilish swells that have tested mariners for centuries. But its true strength lies beneath the waves.

    The ocean’s dominant feature, extending up to two miles deep and as much as 1,200 miles wide, is The Antarctic Circumpolar Current, by far the largest current in the world. It is the world’s climate engine, and it has kept the world from warming even more by drawing deep water from the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans, much of which has been submerged for hundreds of years, and pulling it to the surface. There, it exchanges heat and carbon dioxide with the atmosphere before being dispatched again on its eternal round trip.

    Without this action, which scientists call upwelling, the world would be even hotter than it has become as a result of human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping gases.

    “From no perspective is there any place more important than the Southern Ocean,” said Joellen L. Russell, an oceanographer at The University of Arizona (US). “There’s nothing like it on Planet Earth.”

    For centuries this ocean was largely unknown, its conditions so extreme that only a relative handful of sailors plied its iceberg-infested waters. What fragmentary scientific knowledge was available came from measurements taken by explorers, naval ships, the occasional research expeditions or whaling vessels.

    But more recently, a new generation of floating autonomous probes that can collect temperature, density and other data for years — diving deep underwater, and even exploring beneath the Antarctic sea ice, before rising to the surface to phone home — has enabled scientists to learn much more.

    They have discovered that global warming is affecting the Antarctic current in complex ways, and these shifts could complicate the ability to fight climate change in the future.

    Scientists can model ocean patterns all the way to the seafloor on a planetary scale.

    Researchers are worried about the impact of climate change on this upwelling.

    As the world warms, Dr. Russell and others say, the unceasing winds that drive the upwelling are getting stronger. That could have the effect of releasing more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, by bringing to the surface more of the deep water that has held this carbon locked away for centuries.

    In addition, the Southern Ocean is getting warmer and that has another important climate effect. Some of this upwelling water, which is already relatively warm, flows beneath ice shelves on the Antarctic coast that help keep the continent’s vast, thick ice sheets from reaching the sea more quickly.

    In effect, “Antarctica is melting from the bottom,” said Henri Drake, an oceanographer at The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US).

    That, scientists say, is already adding to sea level rise. Over time it could contribute much more, potentially swamping coastlines in the next century and beyond.

    While the potential magnitude of all these effects remains unclear, oceanographers and climate scientists say that it is increasingly urgent to understand this interplay of powerful forces and how human activity is transforming them. “There’s lots of questions left,” said Lynne Talley, an oceanographer at The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (US) at University of California-San Diego(US).

    Much of humanity’s limited scientific understanding of the Southern Ocean was long linked to an industry that saw money to be made there: whaling.

    Beginning in the late 19th century, whaling ships began heading southward, to the Antarctic, in growing numbers as whale populations in the more hospitable waters of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans declined from overhunting. Hundreds of ships sailed the violent southern waters on voyages that could last a year or longer.

    But in time, overhunting became a problem in the Southern Ocean as well. And the British government decided more needed to be learned about the environment and behavior of the whales there in hopes of sustaining their numbers.

    Which is why, in the late 1920s, George Deacon, a young University of London (UK) graduate with a passion for chemistry and a longing for the sea, received an intriguing job offer: sampling the waters of the Southern Ocean as part of an expedition to help preserve the whaling industry.

    For Deacon it would be the start of a storied career in oceanography. He would go on to help develop secret World War II submarine detection devices, direct the National Institute of Oceanography and eventually receive a knighthood.

    But on Christmas Eve, 1927, just 21 years old, he set sail on a tiny research ship, the William Scoresby, toward Antarctica.

    4
    The William Scoresby, Deacon’s ship, during a later expedition.Credit: Bearnes Hampton & Littlewood, Fine Art Auctioneers & Valuers, Exeter, (UK).

    Deacon’s work there, even though some of his conclusions were later viewed as incorrect, would shape scientific understanding of the Southern Ocean for years to come.

    He spent the better part of the next decade aboard ships, analyzing water samples from various depths. It could be dangerous work. Storms would leave the pulleys and cables used to lower equipment into the water so heavily caked with ice that torches had to be used to free them. Sample bottles, once pulled from the water, would often freeze even before they could be brought below decks, spoiling his tests.

    But Deacon overcame these obstacles, ultimately sampling enough of the ocean to gain a broad understanding of its mechanics. He combined his ideas with those of others in a 1937 book, The Hydrology of the Southern Ocean that became the standard textbook describing the waters around Antarctica.

    Deacon and his fellow voyagers were hardly the first to experience the hardships of the Southern Ocean. Archeological findings suggest it was explored as early as the 12th or 13th century by Indigenous Polynesians, about 500 years before Europeans first sailed there.

    Visitors were rare then — and still are today. Even in a modern ship, a voyage in the Southern Ocean can be harrowing.

    That’s a result of geography. The nearest significant landmass to Antarctica is Cape Horn, the southern tip of South America, about 500 miles distant across the Drake Passage. As a result, the ocean’s westerly winds have nothing to impede them, so they sweep completely around the world, building up ferocious strength and creating huge swells.

    Because relatively few ships have ventured there over the years, researchers even today look for data wherever they can find it.

    It can turn up in surprising places.

    Just a few years ago Praveen Teleti, while working on his doctorate on the historical variability of Antarctic sea ice at The University of Cambridge (UK), realized that the logbooks of a British whaling company’s ships contained invaluable climate measurements — air and water temperatures, barometric pressure, wind strength — from the 1930s and 1950s.

    Along with the data, the logbooks also contained occasional personal comments, Dr. Teleti said, which were often breathtakingly understated. Numbers reporting hurricane-force winds, for instance, would be accompanied by a benign comment about a gale. “They wrote it as if it’s nothing much,” he said.

    While hardly a comprehensive survey, the 9,000 or so data points that Dr. Teleti unearthed are among the relative few that document the Southern Ocean before much research was undertaken there. They can be invaluable in helping scientists better understand how the region has already changed as the world has warmed.

    Around the 1950s, though, research efforts expanded. Expeditions became more commonplace, systematic and sophisticated. Instruments were developed that could make measurements from the bottom to the surface. And by the late 1970s, polar-orbiting satellites began gathering data as well.

    But the real revolution in Southern Ocean science began in the mid-2000s with the use of drifting floats that can adjust their buoyancy, like fish, to move up and down in the water as they take readings. They surface only occasionally, to beam their data to satellites, before sinking once again below the waves. Some even explore beneath the sea ice.

    The floats, part of a worldwide project called Argo, have helped transform oceanographers’ understanding of the Southern Ocean.

    5
    Researchers dropped a float in the Southern Ocean in 2017. Credit: Greta Shum/SOCCOM-Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling- Princeton University (US).

    They now know, for instance, that Deacon’s description of the ocean in his 1937 book was incorrect in some ways. For one thing, he described the movement of water as a recirculating loop, later named a Deacon cell in his honor, in which deep water rose in the southern part of the circumpolar current, moved northward across the current, sank, and was drawn south to upwell again.

    Oceanographers now know much more about the complex cycle of worldwide oceanic currents, of which the Antarctic upwelling is only a part. The waters circling Antarctica are completing an epic journey from the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans, flowing southward and slowly cycling upward as if climbing an ocean-sized circular staircase.

    “This is deep ocean water that hasn’t seen the atmosphere for centuries,” said Veronica Tamsitt, who, as a doctoral student, worked with Dr. Talley, Dr. Drake and others to build computer models of what all the new data was revealing.

    Scientists better understand how closely intertwined the Southern Ocean is, despite its remoteness, with the rest of the world. The circular flow of water around Antarctica is, in effect, a climate engine spinning on a continental scale.

    With this new knowledge, researchers are now growing increasingly alarmed about how the ocean and current may change as the Earth continues to warm.

    Dr. Russell, the Arizona oceanographer, has dedicated her life to this work. She grew up in the Arctic, on the coast of the Chukchi Sea in Kotzebue, Alaska. As a child, she said, “I wanted to know where the sea ice went,” when it retreated from shore every summer.

    “You never quite give up what you fall in love with when you’re young,” she said.

    As a graduate student, she went on her share of Southern Ocean expeditions, describing the peculiar terror of working on a 300-foot ship being tossed about on huge swells. “You’re chugging up the side of the wave and then schuss down the other side until you stick the prow into the next wave and a mountain of water proceeds to just fall on you,” she said.

    On her first voyage she was measuring dissolved oxygen in the water, and kept getting readings that suggested a startling rate of upwelling. “It was coming from so deep, so fast,” she said. “That’s when my Southern Ocean obsession really started.”

    Since then she, like other oceanographers, has focused on the carbon dioxide that is dissolved, in vast quantities, in the deep waters surfacing around Antarctica.

    One of the most important processes that occurs in the Southern Ocean is the exchange of carbon dioxide between the ocean and the atmosphere. And how this process may change as the world warms has huge implications for fighting climate change.

    Global warming is mainly caused by carbon dioxide put into the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels. Oceans absorb large amounts of these emissions, while also absorbing heat from the atmosphere, serving as a critical buffer against climate change and keeping the world from otherwise becoming a practically unlivable hothouse.

    By some estimates the oceans have taken up about 25 percent of the excess carbon dioxide, and more than 90 percent of the excess heat, that has resulted from burning of fossil fuels and other human activities since the 19th century. But the deep ocean water that upwells around Antarctica contains even more carbon dioxide — not from current emissions, but dissolved over centuries from organic matter including decaying marine organisms, tiny and immense, that sink when they die.

    “It’s been accumulating the rot of ages,” Dr. Russell said.

    When this ancient water reaches the surface, some of that carbon dioxide is released, or “outgassed,” as the scientists say.

    Researchers have long thought that the Southern Ocean absorbs more carbon dioxide than it releases, with a beneficial effect for climate. But if more water upwells, more of this carbon dioxide could be outgassed, shifting this critical balance. That would make it more difficult to fight climate change: Nations would have to reduce their emissions even more to keep warming in check.

    Upwelling is driven by those incessant Southern Ocean winds, which push surface water northward, drawing up deep water behind it. The winds are affected by warming, and they have already strengthened in recent decades.

    A recent study [Science] suggested that the Southern Ocean is still absorbing more carbon dioxide than it is releasing. But many researchers think the ocean may already be outgassing more carbon dioxide than previously thought. And if the winds keep strengthening as the world warms, they say, the upwelling and outgassing could keep increasing.

    Scientists point out that more upwelling might actually have one benefit in the effort to fight climate change: It could allow more of the atmosphere’s excess heat to be absorbed. But overall, they are concerned.

    “We’re excited about it, because it would take up more heat,” Dr. Russell said. “But we’re worried about it because of all that deep-ocean carbon.”

    Carbon, however, isn’t the only concern. The water that’s welling up in the Southern Ocean is also relatively warm, and warming more, which spells trouble for the planet in the form of sea level rise.

    Some of that warm water reaches Antarctica’s continental shelf, where it flows beneath ice shelves, the tongues of ice at the ends of glaciers. These glaciers act as buttresses, helping to hold back the massive ice sheets that cover the continent and that are slowly moving toward the ocean.

    But scientists discovered several decades ago that this upwelling water is melting the ice shelves from underneath. As the ice thins, the glaciers lose some of their ability to keep the ice sheets in check.

    Ice shelves like the Thwaites are shrinking at an accelerating pace.

    6
    Thwaites: Antarctic glacier heading for dramatic change – Credit: BBC News.

    Most of this melting is occurring on Antarctica’s western side, where the circumpolar current comes closest to the coast. There, the ice shelves of two large glaciers, Thwaites and Pine Island, hold much of the region’s ice sheet back.

    So far, their melting and thinning has contributed only a relatively small amount to rising sea levels. But the concern is that if the ice shelves melt too much, they could collapse, accelerating the movement of the glaciers, and eventually much of the West Antarctic ice sheet, to the ocean. New research suggests such a collapse of part of the Thwaites ice shelf, and a resulting speed-up of the flow there, could occur within the next decade.

    Were the West Antarctic ice sheet to flow into the ocean, seas could rise as much as 12 feet over centuries.

    Already, the rate of melting of these glaciers is accelerating. And again, the winds play a key role.

    In the case of ice-shelf melting, the winds that matter are those close to the continent, said David Holland, a mathematician and climate scientist at New York University. But the effect is the same. In the past, studies suggest, these close-in winds have kept colder water at the surface, preventing the warmer water from rising high enough to reach the continental shelf and the ice shelves.

    As shelves melt, the land ice can reach the sea faster, eventually causing seas to rise more.

    But those winds have shifted, said Dr. Holland, who was a leader of pioneering research that drilled through the Thwaites ice shelf to measure the water temperature below. “Right now the wind is pushing the cold water away, and so the warm water is coming to fill the void,” he said. “And it’s looking like there will be more of that, based on computer models.”

    In less than a century, the state of the art has progressed from Deacon’s solitary whaling research ship, to fleets of autonomous oceangoing probes circling the world, to sophisticated computer models.

    And today, scientists are on the brink of getting even more data. The Argo program is about to deploy globally a new generation of more sophisticated floats capable of measuring much more than basic temperature and salinity.

    Of particular interest to Dr. Russell and others are acidity readings, because they can be used to determine the water’s carbon dioxide content. That could help further illuminate the profound importance of deep, ancient, carbon-laden water to the world’s future.

    Despite all that has been learned, Dr. Russell said, “Unlike any other field of exploration, we are at the absolute frontier here.”
    Sources: Map data from the British Antarctic Survey [citation above], NASA Earth Observatory [citation above], The Columbia University Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (US), Natural Earth, Bright Earth e-Atlas Basemap [citation above]. Upwelling data from Tamsitt et al. [citation above] based on the CM2.6 model by The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (US) /Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory.

    Designed and produced by Claire O’Neill, Jesse Pesta and Andrew Rossback.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

     
  • richardmitnick 4:35 pm on December 18, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Researchers test physics of coral as an indicator of reef health", , , , , , Marine scientists have relied on a single instrument to calculate flow around reefs. Measurements must be made with limited time and costly tools that can only be anchored in certain locations., Oceanography, Replication is the foundation of our ability to trust science., , Stanford scientists recently addressed this imbalance demonstrating that measuring the physics of just a small portion of reef with a single instrument can reveal insights., , The researchers conducted field work in different locations within the Salomon Atoll in the Chagos Archipelago in the Indian Ocean., Water movement is foundational to reef success bringing nutrients and food and removing waste; far less research has been focused on the physics of these living communities.   

    From Stanford Earth (US) : “Researchers test physics of coral as an indicator of reef health” 

    From Stanford Earth (US)

    at

    Stanford University Name
    Stanford University (US)

    December 14, 2021

    Danielle T. Tucker
    School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences
    dttucker@stanford.edu
    (650) 497-9541

    Mathilde Lindhart
    School of Engineering
    lindhart@stanford.edu
    (650) 250-9530

    Rob Dunbar
    School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences
    dunbar@stanford.edu

    Alexy Khrizman
    School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences
    khrizman@stanford.edu
    (650) 374-6153


    Stanford Earth Matters.

    Vast amounts of energy flow around the ocean as waves, tides and currents, eventually impacting coasts, including coral reefs that provide food, income and coastal protection to more than 500 million people. This water movement is foundational to reef success bringing nutrients and food and removing waste; yet far less research has been focused on the physics in comparison to the biology of these living communities.

    Stanford scientists recently addressed this imbalance by demonstrating that measuring the physics of just a small portion of reef with a single instrument can reveal insights about the health of an entire reef system. The findings point to low-cost methods for scaling up monitoring efforts of these enigmatic living structures, which are at risk of devastation in a changing climate. The results appeared in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans Dec. 14, 2021.

    “This approach is like building a weather station for coral reefs,” said lead study author Mathilde Lindhart, a PhD student in civil and environmental engineering. “If we have a couple of weather stations around, we can then determine the weather everywhere on the reef.”

    Limited resources

    For decades, marine scientists have often relied on a single instrument to calculate the flow around reefs because the measurements must be made with limited time and costly tools that can only be anchored in certain locations. As a result, they have had to assume that one measurement is representative of flow over the entire reef. This new work confirms that assumption is correct, bringing renewed credibility to previously collected data.

    “Replication is the foundation of our ability to trust science,” said senior study author Rob Dunbar, a professor of Earth system science in Stanford’s School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences (Stanford Earth). “Our results are building a solid foundation for other studies of coral reef physics.”

    The study authors tested a suite of current meters, which send out sound waves that scatter off the currents and suspended particles, including sediment and plankton, then return with a shift in frequency that translates into flow velocities. They measured the fluid dynamics at different resolutions, with ranges from about 3 to 40 feet, depending on the instrument.

    2
    PhD student Mathilde Lindhart deploys several instruments to measure the flow of water around reefs off Île Anglaise in the Indian Ocean in 2019. Credit: Rob Dunbar.

    “Marine biologists that do research on specific fish or corals or other organisms need to measure the flow,” said study co-author Alexy Khrizman, a PhD student in Earth system science. “It’s very important to know that the choice of the instrument is not going to affect the research. It’s also important that we get the flow and turbulence work correct, otherwise our calculations of production and calcification will not be correct.”

    Serendipitous science

    The researchers conducted field work in different locations within the Salomon Atoll in the Chagos Archipelago in the Indian Ocean, south of the Maldives. They were collecting data about a reef off Île Anglaise as part of a larger initiative to study the British Indian Ocean Territory Marine Protected Area when they realized they were prepared to test the assumption that one instrument would provide enough information to understand the flow of the entire reef.

    “We were sort of testing our toolbox,” Lindhart said. “We had all these instruments in the water already and were actually looking for something else – it’s rare that you have the opportunity to measure the same thing, but in different ways.”

    The researchers used the data they collected to construct a three-dimensional model of the reef and its flow, bringing new clarity to the life of these underwater cities.

    “This is the first three-dimensional construct that tells us how the roughness and its variability from place to place impacts water flow over the reef,” Dunbar said. “There’s a direct correlation between the roughness of the coral reef and the biodiversity of the reef.”

    Fundamental insights

    Through their research, the study authors aim to answer foundational questions about how these incredibly complex structures interact with incoming energy.

    “There are so many ways to study reefs, what we sometimes call the currency by which you’re going to see what’s going on. For most people, it’s fish or the corals themselves,” Dunbar said. “What’s really new is that our currency is different – this paper is about using the physics of moving water as currency.”

    They also hope the findings will be useful to conservation managers. Coral reefs are like “super-efficient cement factories,” according to Dunbar, producing architectures and buildings that are self-healing. Although they comprise less than 1 percent of the surface area of the ocean, reefs are home to about 25 percent of all marine life.

    “In order to make any kind of projection about climate change, we need to know how they are working right now,” Lindhart said. “The beautiful thing about physics is that it’s the same everywhere – once we’ve established some principles, you can take them and use them somewhere else.”

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Stanford School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences (US), which changed its name from the School of Earth Sciences in February 2015, is one of three schools at Stanford awarding both graduate and undergraduate degrees. Stanford’s first faculty member was a professor of geology; as such it is considered the oldest academic foundation of Stanford University. It is composed of four departments and two interdisciplinary programs. Research and teaching span a wide range of disciplines.

    Earth Sciences at Stanford can trace its roots to the university’s beginnings, when Stanford’s first president, David Starr Jordan, hired John Casper Branner, a geologist, as the university’s first professor. The search for and extraction of natural resources was the focus of Branner’s geology department during that period of Western development. Departments were originally not organized into schools but this changed when the department of geology became part of the School of Physical Sciences in 1926. This changed in 1946 when the School of Mineral Sciences was established and geology eventually split into several departments.

    Stanford University campus
    Stanford University (US)

    Leland and Jane Stanford founded Stanford University (US) to “promote the public welfare by exercising an influence on behalf of humanity and civilization.” Stanford opened its doors in 1891, and more than a century later, it remains dedicated to finding solutions to the great challenges of the day and to preparing our students for leadership in today’s complex world. Stanford, is an American private research university located in Stanford, California on an 8,180-acre (3,310 ha) campus near Palo Alto. Since 1952, more than 54 Stanford faculty, staff, and alumni have won the Nobel Prize, including 19 current faculty members.

    Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private research university located in Stanford, California. Stanford was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr., who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford is consistently ranked as among the most prestigious and top universities in the world by major education publications. It is also one of the top fundraising institutions in the country, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.

    Leland Stanford was a U.S. senator and former governor of California who made his fortune as a railroad tycoon. The school admitted its first students on October 1, 1891, as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Stanford University struggled financially after the death of Leland Stanford in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates’ entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would later be known as Silicon Valley.

    The university is organized around seven schools: three schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate level as well as four professional schools that focus on graduate programs in law, medicine, education, and business. All schools are on the same campus. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference. It has gained 126 NCAA team championships, and Stanford has won the NACDA Directors’ Cup for 24 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995. In addition, Stanford students and alumni have won 270 Olympic medals including 139 gold medals.

    As of October 2020, 84 Nobel laureates, 28 Turing Award laureates, and eight Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, alumni, faculty, or staff. In addition, Stanford is particularly noted for its entrepreneurship and is one of the most successful universities in attracting funding for start-ups. Stanford alumni have founded numerous companies, which combined produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue, roughly equivalent to the 7th largest economy in the world (as of 2020). Stanford is the alma mater of one president of the United States (Herbert Hoover), 74 living billionaires, and 17 astronauts. It is also one of the leading producers of Fulbright Scholars, Marshall Scholars, Rhodes Scholars, and members of the United States Congress.

    Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child. The institution opened in 1891 on Stanford’s previous Palo Alto farm.

    Jane and Leland Stanford modeled their university after the great eastern universities, most specifically Cornell University. Stanford opened being called the “Cornell of the West” in 1891 due to faculty being former Cornell affiliates (either professors, alumni, or both) including its first president, David Starr Jordan, and second president, John Casper Branner. Both Cornell and Stanford were among the first to have higher education be accessible, nonsectarian, and open to women as well as to men. Cornell is credited as one of the first American universities to adopt this radical departure from traditional education, and Stanford became an early adopter as well.

    Despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I. The Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds. The DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory(US)(originally named the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), established in 1962, performs research in particle physics.

    Land

    Most of Stanford is on an 8,180-acre (12.8 sq mi; 33.1 km^2) campus, one of the largest in the United States. It is located on the San Francisco Peninsula, in the northwest part of the Santa Clara Valley (Silicon Valley) approximately 37 miles (60 km) southeast of San Francisco and approximately 20 miles (30 km) northwest of San Jose. In 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped.

    Stanford’s main campus includes a census-designated place within unincorporated Santa Clara County, although some of the university land (such as the Stanford Shopping Center and the Stanford Research Park) is within the city limits of Palo Alto. The campus also includes much land in unincorporated San Mateo County (including the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve), as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park (Stanford Hills neighborhood), Woodside, and Portola Valley.

    Non-central campus

    Stanford currently operates in various locations outside of its central campus.

    On the founding grant:

    Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is a 1,200-acre (490 ha) natural reserve south of the central campus owned by the university and used by wildlife biologists for research.
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a facility west of the central campus operated by the university for the Department of Energy. It contains the longest linear particle accelerator in the world, 2 miles (3.2 km) on 426 acres (172 ha) of land.
    Golf course and a seasonal lake: The university also has its own golf course and a seasonal lake (Lake Lagunita, actually an irrigation reservoir), both home to the vulnerable California tiger salamander. As of 2012 Lake Lagunita was often dry and the university had no plans to artificially fill it.

    Off the founding grant:

    Hopkins Marine Station, in Pacific Grove, California, is a marine biology research center owned by the university since 1892.
    Study abroad locations: unlike typical study abroad programs, Stanford itself operates in several locations around the world; thus, each location has Stanford faculty-in-residence and staff in addition to students, creating a “mini-Stanford”.

    Redwood City campus for many of the university’s administrative offices located in Redwood City, California, a few miles north of the main campus. In 2005, the university purchased a small, 35-acre (14 ha) campus in Midpoint Technology Park intended for staff offices; development was delayed by The Great Recession. In 2015 the university announced a development plan and the Redwood City campus opened in March 2019.

    The Bass Center in Washington, DC provides a base, including housing, for the Stanford in Washington program for undergraduates. It includes a small art gallery open to the public.

    China: Stanford Center at Peking University, housed in the Lee Jung Sen Building, is a small center for researchers and students in collaboration with Beijing University [北京大学](CN) (Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics at Peking University(CN) (KIAA-PKU).

    Administration and organization

    Stanford is a private, non-profit university that is administered as a corporate trust governed by a privately appointed board of trustees with a maximum membership of 38. Trustees serve five-year terms (not more than two consecutive terms) and meet five times annually.[83] A new trustee is chosen by the current trustees by ballot. The Stanford trustees also oversee the Stanford Research Park, the Stanford Shopping Center, the Cantor Center for Visual Arts, Stanford University Medical Center, and many associated medical facilities (including the Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital).

    The board appoints a president to serve as the chief executive officer of the university, to prescribe the duties of professors and course of study, to manage financial and business affairs, and to appoint nine vice presidents. The provost is the chief academic and budget officer, to whom the deans of each of the seven schools report. Persis Drell became the 13th provost in February 2017.

    As of 2018, the university was organized into seven academic schools. The schools of Humanities and Sciences (27 departments), Engineering (nine departments), and Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences (four departments) have both graduate and undergraduate programs while the Schools of Law, Medicine, Education and Business have graduate programs only. The powers and authority of the faculty are vested in the Academic Council, which is made up of tenure and non-tenure line faculty, research faculty, senior fellows in some policy centers and institutes, the president of the university, and some other academic administrators, but most matters are handled by the Faculty Senate, made up of 55 elected representatives of the faculty.

    The Associated Students of Stanford University (ASSU) is the student government for Stanford and all registered students are members. Its elected leadership consists of the Undergraduate Senate elected by the undergraduate students, the Graduate Student Council elected by the graduate students, and the President and Vice President elected as a ticket by the entire student body.

    Stanford is the beneficiary of a special clause in the California Constitution, which explicitly exempts Stanford property from taxation so long as the property is used for educational purposes.

    Endowment and donations

    The university’s endowment, managed by the Stanford Management Company, was valued at $27.7 billion as of August 31, 2019. Payouts from the Stanford endowment covered approximately 21.8% of university expenses in the 2019 fiscal year. In the 2018 NACUBO-TIAA survey of colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, only Harvard University(US), the University of Texas System(US), and Yale University(US) had larger endowments than Stanford.

    In 2006, President John L. Hennessy launched a five-year campaign called the Stanford Challenge, which reached its $4.3 billion fundraising goal in 2009, two years ahead of time, but continued fundraising for the duration of the campaign. It concluded on December 31, 2011, having raised a total of $6.23 billion and breaking the previous campaign fundraising record of $3.88 billion held by Yale. Specifically, the campaign raised $253.7 million for undergraduate financial aid, as well as $2.33 billion for its initiative in “Seeking Solutions” to global problems, $1.61 billion for “Educating Leaders” by improving K-12 education, and $2.11 billion for “Foundation of Excellence” aimed at providing academic support for Stanford students and faculty. Funds supported 366 new fellowships for graduate students, 139 new endowed chairs for faculty, and 38 new or renovated buildings. The new funding also enabled the construction of a facility for stem cell research; a new campus for the business school; an expansion of the law school; a new Engineering Quad; a new art and art history building; an on-campus concert hall; a new art museum; and a planned expansion of the medical school, among other things. In 2012, the university raised $1.035 billion, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.

    Research centers and institutes

    DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory(US)
    Stanford Research Institute, a center of innovation to support economic development in the region.
    Hoover Institution, a conservative American public policy institution and research institution that promotes personal and economic liberty, free enterprise, and limited government.
    Hasso Plattner Institute of Design, a multidisciplinary design school in cooperation with the Hasso Plattner Institute of University of Potsdam [Universität Potsdam](DE) that integrates product design, engineering, and business management education).
    Martin Luther King Jr. Research and Education Institute, which grew out of and still contains the Martin Luther King Jr. Papers Project.
    John S. Knight Fellowship for Professional Journalists
    Center for Ocean Solutions
    Together with UC Berkeley(US) and UC San Francisco(US), Stanford is part of the Biohub, a new medical science research center founded in 2016 by a $600 million commitment from Facebook CEO and founder Mark Zuckerberg and pediatrician Priscilla Chan.

    Discoveries and innovation

    Natural sciences

    Biological synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) – Arthur Kornberg synthesized DNA material and won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959 for his work at Stanford.
    First Transgenic organism – Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer were the first scientists to transplant genes from one living organism to another, a fundamental discovery for genetic engineering. Thousands of products have been developed on the basis of their work, including human growth hormone and hepatitis B vaccine.
    Laser – Arthur Leonard Schawlow shared the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physics with Nicolaas Bloembergen and Kai Siegbahn for his work on lasers.
    Nuclear magnetic resonance – Felix Bloch developed new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements, which are the underlying principles of the MRI.

    Computer and applied sciences

    ARPANETStanford Research Institute, formerly part of Stanford but on a separate campus, was the site of one of the four original ARPANET nodes.

    Internet—Stanford was the site where the original design of the Internet was undertaken. Vint Cerf led a research group to elaborate the design of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP/IP) that he originally co-created with Robert E. Kahn (Bob Kahn) in 1973 and which formed the basis for the architecture of the Internet.

    Frequency modulation synthesis – John Chowning of the Music department invented the FM music synthesis algorithm in 1967, and Stanford later licensed it to Yamaha Corporation.

    Google – Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford. They were working on the Stanford Digital Library Project (SDLP). The SDLP’s goal was “to develop the enabling technologies for a single, integrated and universal digital library” and it was funded through the National Science Foundation, among other federal agencies.

    Klystron tube – invented by the brothers Russell and Sigurd Varian at Stanford. Their prototype was completed and demonstrated successfully on August 30, 1937. Upon publication in 1939, news of the klystron immediately influenced the work of U.S. and UK researchers working on radar equipment.

    RISCARPA funded VLSI project of microprocessor design. Stanford and UC Berkeley are most associated with the popularization of this concept. The Stanford MIPS would go on to be commercialized as the successful MIPS architecture, while Berkeley RISC gave its name to the entire concept, commercialized as the SPARC. Another success from this era were IBM’s efforts that eventually led to the IBM POWER instruction set architecture, PowerPC, and Power ISA. As these projects matured, a wide variety of similar designs flourished in the late 1980s and especially the early 1990s, representing a major force in the Unix workstation market as well as embedded processors in laser printers, routers and similar products.
    SUN workstation – Andy Bechtolsheim designed the SUN workstation for the Stanford University Network communications project as a personal CAD workstation, which led to Sun Microsystems.

    Businesses and entrepreneurship

    Stanford is one of the most successful universities in creating companies and licensing its inventions to existing companies; it is often held up as a model for technology transfer. Stanford’s Office of Technology Licensing is responsible for commercializing university research, intellectual property, and university-developed projects.

    The university is described as having a strong venture culture in which students are encouraged, and often funded, to launch their own companies.

    Companies founded by Stanford alumni generate more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue, equivalent to the 10th-largest economy in the world.

    Some companies closely associated with Stanford and their connections include:

    Hewlett-Packard, 1939, co-founders William R. Hewlett (B.S, PhD) and David Packard (M.S).
    Silicon Graphics, 1981, co-founders James H. Clark (Associate Professor) and several of his grad students.
    Sun Microsystems, 1982, co-founders Vinod Khosla (M.B.A), Andy Bechtolsheim (PhD) and Scott McNealy (M.B.A).
    Cisco, 1984, founders Leonard Bosack (M.S) and Sandy Lerner (M.S) who were in charge of Stanford Computer Science and Graduate School of Business computer operations groups respectively when the hardware was developed.[163]
    Yahoo!, 1994, co-founders Jerry Yang (B.S, M.S) and David Filo (M.S).
    Google, 1998, co-founders Larry Page (M.S) and Sergey Brin (M.S).
    LinkedIn, 2002, co-founders Reid Hoffman (B.S), Konstantin Guericke (B.S, M.S), Eric Lee (B.S), and Alan Liu (B.S).
    Instagram, 2010, co-founders Kevin Systrom (B.S) and Mike Krieger (B.S).
    Snapchat, 2011, co-founders Evan Spiegel and Bobby Murphy (B.S).
    Coursera, 2012, co-founders Andrew Ng (Associate Professor) and Daphne Koller (Professor, PhD).

    Student body

    Stanford enrolled 6,996 undergraduate and 10,253 graduate students as of the 2019–2020 school year. Women comprised 50.4% of undergraduates and 41.5% of graduate students. In the same academic year, the freshman retention rate was 99%.

    Stanford awarded 1,819 undergraduate degrees, 2,393 master’s degrees, 770 doctoral degrees, and 3270 professional degrees in the 2018–2019 school year. The four-year graduation rate for the class of 2017 cohort was 72.9%, and the six-year rate was 94.4%. The relatively low four-year graduation rate is a function of the university’s coterminal degree (or “coterm”) program, which allows students to earn a master’s degree as a 1-to-2-year extension of their undergraduate program.

    As of 2010, fifteen percent of undergraduates were first-generation students.

    Athletics

    As of 2016 Stanford had 16 male varsity sports and 20 female varsity sports, 19 club sports and about 27 intramural sports. In 1930, following a unanimous vote by the Executive Committee for the Associated Students, the athletic department adopted the mascot “Indian.” The Indian symbol and name were dropped by President Richard Lyman in 1972, after objections from Native American students and a vote by the student senate. The sports teams are now officially referred to as the “Stanford Cardinal,” referring to the deep red color, not the cardinal bird. Stanford is a member of the Pac-12 Conference in most sports, the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation in several other sports, and the America East Conference in field hockey with the participation in the inter-collegiate NCAA’s Division I FBS.

    Its traditional sports rival is the University of California, Berkeley, the neighbor to the north in the East Bay. The winner of the annual “Big Game” between the Cal and Cardinal football teams gains custody of the Stanford Axe.

    Stanford has had at least one NCAA team champion every year since the 1976–77 school year and has earned 126 NCAA national team titles since its establishment, the most among universities, and Stanford has won 522 individual national championships, the most by any university. Stanford has won the award for the top-ranked Division 1 athletic program—the NACDA Directors’ Cup, formerly known as the Sears Cup—annually for the past twenty-four straight years. Stanford athletes have won medals in every Olympic Games since 1912, winning 270 Olympic medals total, 139 of them gold. In the 2008 Summer Olympics, and 2016 Summer Olympics, Stanford won more Olympic medals than any other university in the United States. Stanford athletes won 16 medals at the 2012 Summer Olympics (12 gold, two silver and two bronze), and 27 medals at the 2016 Summer Olympics.

    Traditions

    The unofficial motto of Stanford, selected by President Jordan, is Die Luft der Freiheit weht. Translated from the German language, this quotation from Ulrich von Hutten means, “The wind of freedom blows.” The motto was controversial during World War I, when anything in German was suspect; at that time the university disavowed that this motto was official.
    Hail, Stanford, Hail! is the Stanford Hymn sometimes sung at ceremonies or adapted by the various University singing groups. It was written in 1892 by mechanical engineering professor Albert W. Smith and his wife, Mary Roberts Smith (in 1896 she earned the first Stanford doctorate in Economics and later became associate professor of Sociology), but was not officially adopted until after a performance on campus in March 1902 by the Mormon Tabernacle Choir.
    “Uncommon Man/Uncommon Woman”: Stanford does not award honorary degrees, but in 1953 the degree of “Uncommon Man/Uncommon Woman” was created to recognize individuals who give rare and extraordinary service to the University. Technically, this degree is awarded by the Stanford Associates, a voluntary group that is part of the university’s alumni association. As Stanford’s highest honor, it is not conferred at prescribed intervals, but only when appropriate to recognize extraordinary service. Recipients include Herbert Hoover, Bill Hewlett, Dave Packard, Lucile Packard, and John Gardner.
    Big Game events: The events in the week leading up to the Big Game vs. UC Berkeley, including Gaieties (a musical written, composed, produced, and performed by the students of Ram’s Head Theatrical Society).
    “Viennese Ball”: a formal ball with waltzes that was initially started in the 1970s by students returning from the now-closed Stanford in Vienna overseas program. It is now open to all students.
    “Full Moon on the Quad”: An annual event at Main Quad, where students gather to kiss one another starting at midnight. Typically organized by the Junior class cabinet, the festivities include live entertainment, such as music and dance performances.
    “Band Run”: An annual festivity at the beginning of the school year, where the band picks up freshmen from dorms across campus while stopping to perform at each location, culminating in a finale performance at Main Quad.
    “Mausoleum Party”: An annual Halloween Party at the Stanford Mausoleum, the final resting place of Leland Stanford Jr. and his parents. A 20-year tradition, the “Mausoleum Party” was on hiatus from 2002 to 2005 due to a lack of funding, but was revived in 2006. In 2008, it was hosted in Old Union rather than at the actual Mausoleum, because rain prohibited generators from being rented. In 2009, after fundraising efforts by the Junior Class Presidents and the ASSU Executive, the event was able to return to the Mausoleum despite facing budget cuts earlier in the year.
    Former campus traditions include the “Big Game bonfire” on Lake Lagunita (a seasonal lake usually dry in the fall), which was formally ended in 1997 because of the presence of endangered salamanders in the lake bed.

    Award laureates and scholars

    Stanford’s current community of scholars includes:

    19 Nobel Prize laureates (as of October 2020, 85 affiliates in total)
    171 members of the National Academy of Sciences
    109 members of National Academy of Engineering
    76 members of National Academy of Medicine
    288 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
    19 recipients of the National Medal of Science
    1 recipient of the National Medal of Technology
    4 recipients of the National Humanities Medal
    49 members of American Philosophical Society
    56 fellows of the American Physics Society (since 1995)
    4 Pulitzer Prize winners
    31 MacArthur Fellows
    4 Wolf Foundation Prize winners
    2 ACL Lifetime Achievement Award winners
    14 AAAI fellows
    2 Presidential Medal of Freedom winners

    Stanford University Seal

     
  • richardmitnick 5:32 pm on December 16, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New ocean floats to boost global network essential for weather and climate research", , , Fisheries and Oceans Canada [Pêches et Océans Canada](CA), Oceanography,   

    From Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (US) : “New ocean floats to boost global network essential for weather and climate research” 

    From Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (US)

    December 15, 2021

    Suzanne Pelisson
    SPelisson@WHOI.edu
    973-801-6223

    Monica Allen
    monica.allen@noaa.gov
    202-379-6693

    Media Relations
    Fisheries and Oceans Canada
    613-990-7537 or 902-407-8439
    Media.xncr@dfo-mpo.gc.ca

    1
    The 82-foot-long S/V Iris arrived at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution dock after a three week journey across the Atlantic, and moored next to WHOI’s R/V Armstrong. The Iris departed Woods Hole on December 14 and will spend the next two months deploying approximately 78 Argo floats in the South Atlantic, before finishing its epic voyage back in Brest, France. © Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

    Partners team with low-carbon sailing vessel for major Atlantic Ocean deployment.

    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and partners have joined together to launch approximately 100 new Argo floats across the Atlantic Ocean to collect data that supports ocean, weather and climate research and prediction.

    2
    Argo float. Credit: The University of California-San Diego (US).

    These will bolster the international Argo Program, which maintains a global array of about 3,800 floats that measure pressure, temperature, and salinity of the upper 2,000 meters (1.2 miles) of the ocean.

    The French Blue Observer sailing vessel Iris arrived in Woods Hole, Massachusetts last week after deploying the initial batch of 17 Argo floats across the Atlantic. The Iris crew picked up the remaining floats, restocked its supplies, and departed Woods Hole this week for the second leg of the voyage in the South Atlantic, towards the island of St. Helena, off the coast of Namibia. The mission is one of the largest Argo float deployments in the Atlantic and is expected to last almost 100 days at sea, filling in crucial observing gaps.

    3
    The French Blue Observer sailing vessel Iris arrived in Woods Hole, Massachusetts after a three-week long journey across the Atlantic Ocean where 17 Argo floats were deployed in support of ocean, weather, and climate research and predictions. While in Woods Hole, the Blue Observer crew picked up the additional floats for the second leg of the voyage in the South Atlantic, towards the island of St. Helena, off the coast of Namibia. During what is one of the largest missions by a sailboat to deploy profiling floats, the crew will release Argo profiling floats to predefined GPS positions, to replace those at the end of their life and to deploy floats in under measured ocean regions. This low-carbon footprint research mission was made possible through a new partnership between the private oceanographic company Blue Observer and international Argo Program partners from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (US), Fisheries and Oceans Canada [Pêches et Océans Canada](CA) and Euro-Argo ERIC (EU). © Natalie Renier/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

    “Coming at a moment when we need meaningful action to tackle the climate crisis, this low carbon emission research mission sets a strong example for future ocean observing research,” said Rick Spinrad, Ph.D., NOAA administrator. “This voyage is a model of global public-private partnership that is helping us improve data that drive life-saving weather and climate forecasts.”

    During what is one of the largest missions by a sailboat to deploy profiling floats, the S/V Iris crew will deliver Argo floats to predefined GPS positions, replacing those at the end of their service, and deploying floats in some new, under-measured regions to strengthen the Argo array. The mission lifetime of each float is about five years. During a typical mission, each float reports a profile of the upper ocean every ten days, transmitting data to shore by satellite.

    “Argo has revolutionized our ability to detect and monitor how the global ocean is changing as climate changes,” said Peter de Menocal, president and director of WHOI. “The whole ocean warming trends observed by Argo floats is proof positive that climate change is due to greenhouse gas emissions.”

    Pandemic sparks innovative mission

    The initiative was born during the international COVID pandemic, when deployment of Argo floats and other oceanographic instruments by research and commercial vessels was sharply curtailed by COVID-19 restrictions.

    “About 1,000 Argo profiling floats must be deployed every year to sustain the Global Ocean Observing System,” explained Mathieu Belbéoch, a manager of the Global Ocean Observing System and partner. “Often, they are deployed opportunistically by research ships, but these are very costly, and their trajectories are tied to specific missions and are not able to fill all the gaps or work in all seasons. Collaborations with citizens allow us to reach remote and not yet well sampled areas of the ocean, filling critical observational gaps.”

    The low-impact journey comes on the heels of the 2021 UN Climate Change Conference in Glasgow, Scotland, with its urgent message of curbing the planet’s warming emissions. This innovative collaboration between intergovernmental, public, and private sectors also takes place within the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development, and is funded by NOAA, WHOI, Fisheries and Oceans Canada and Euro-Argo.

    Argo has transformed ocean science

    In more than two decades, the broad-scale global array of floats has grown to be a major component of the ocean observing system and has changed the way scientists think about collecting data and collaborating internationally on data management for the scientific and operational forecasting community.

    “Argo’s impact on ocean research has been profound: at least one paper a day is published using Argo data. The voyage of Iris will help us track vast regions of the Atlantic over the next few years by replenishing the array in very hard to access regions,” said Susan Wijffels, senior scientist of physical oceanography at WHOI and an Argo Steering Team co-chair.

    3
    Approximately 78 Argo floats were loaded onto the S/V Iris as it prepares for the second leg of its 100-day mission. © Ken Kostel/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

    The Argo program is a true demonstration of the value of international collaboration. Since 2001, Canada has launched over 600 Argo floats throughout the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. This OCEANOPS Blue Observer Mission is another example of partners working together to provide ocean data to the world,” stated Timothy Sargent, Deputy Minister, Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

    Follow the journey on Instagram: @blue_observer and Facebook: @blueobserver29.

    See the full article here .

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    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute

    Mission Statement

    The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (US) is dedicated to advancing knowledge of the ocean and its connection with the Earth system through a sustained commitment to excellence in science, engineering, and education, and to the application of this knowledge to problems facing society.

    Vision & Mission

    The ocean is a defining feature of our planet and crucial to life on Earth, yet it remains one of the planet’s last unexplored frontiers. For this reason, WHOI scientists and engineers are committed to understanding all facets of the ocean as well as its complex connections with Earth’s atmosphere, land, ice, seafloor, and life—including humanity. This is essential not only to advance knowledge about our planet, but also to ensure society’s long-term welfare and to help guide human stewardship of the environment. WHOI researchers are also dedicated to training future generations of ocean science leaders, to providing unbiased information that informs public policy and decision-making, and to expanding public awareness about the importance of the global ocean and its resources.

    The Institution is organized into six departments, the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Ocean Research, and a marine policy center. Its shore-based facilities are located in the village of Woods Hole, Massachusetts(US) and a mile and a half away on the Quissett Campus. The bulk of the Institution’s funding comes from grants and contracts from the National Science Foundation(US) and other government agencies, augmented by foundations and private donations.

    WHOI scientists, engineers, and students collaborate to develop theories, test ideas, build seagoing instruments, and collect data in diverse marine environments. Ships operated by WHOI carry research scientists throughout the world’s oceans. The WHOI fleet includes two large research vessels (R/V Atlantis and R/V Neil Armstrong); the coastal craft Tioga; small research craft such as the dive-operation work boat Echo; the deep-diving human-occupied submersible Alvin; the tethered, remotely operated vehicle Jason/Medea; and autonomous underwater vehicles such as the REMUS and SeaBED.
    WHOI offers graduate and post-doctoral studies in marine science. There are several fellowship and training programs, and graduate degrees are awarded through a joint program with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology(US). WHOI is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges (US). WHOI also offers public outreach programs and informal education through its Exhibit Center and summer tours. The Institution has a volunteer program and a membership program, WHOI Associate.

    On October 1, 2020, Peter B. de Menocal became the institution’s eleventh president and director.

    History

    In 1927, a National Academy of Sciences(US) committee concluded that it was time to “consider the share of the United States of America in a worldwide program of oceanographic research.” The committee’s recommendation for establishing a permanent independent research laboratory on the East Coast to “prosecute oceanography in all its branches” led to the founding in 1930 of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution(US).

    A $2.5 million grant from the Rockefeller Foundation supported the summer work of a dozen scientists, construction of a laboratory building and commissioning of a research vessel, the 142-foot (43 m) ketch R/V Atlantis, whose profile still forms the Institution’s logo.

    WHOI grew substantially to support significant defense-related research during World War II, and later began a steady growth in staff, research fleet, and scientific stature. From 1950 to 1956, the director was Dr. Edward “Iceberg” Smith, an Arctic explorer, oceanographer and retired Coast Guard rear admiral.

    In 1977 the institution appointed the influential oceanographer John Steele as director, and he served until his retirement in 1989.

    On 1 September 1985, a joint French-American expedition led by Jean-Louis Michel of IFREMER and Robert Ballard of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution identified the location of the wreck of the RMS Titanic which sank off the coast of Newfoundland 15 April 1912.

    On 3 April 2011, within a week of resuming of the search operation for Air France Flight 447, a team led by WHOI, operating full ocean depth autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) owned by the Waitt Institute discovered, by means of sidescan sonar, a large portion of debris field from flight AF447.

    In March 2017 the institution effected an open-access policy to make its research publicly accessible online.

    The Institution has maintained a long and controversial business collaboration with the treasure hunter company Odyssey Marine. Likewise, WHOI has participated in the location of the San José galleon in Colombia for the commercial exploitation of the shipwreck by the Government of President Santos and a private company.

    In 2019, iDefense reported that China’s hackers had launched cyberattacks on dozens of academic institutions in an attempt to gain information on technology being developed for the United States Navy. Some of the targets included the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The attacks have been underway since at least April 2017.

     
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