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  • richardmitnick 10:33 pm on January 27, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "AUV": autonomous underwater vehicle, "LTER": Long-Term Ecological Research at Palmer Station, "Penguins and robots and the ocean and more", , As the atmosphere is warming in this region of Antarctica sea ice is decreasing and more glaciers are melting from the coast physically changing the environment in which marine organisms are living., , , , , , Fieldwork in Antarctica is tricky., Gentoo penguins can swim 22 miles per hour which is faster than the research boats can go., If you ask a scientist…or student…if the effort is worth it the answer is a resounding YES!, Lessons learned in Antarctica can help shed light on uncertainties about how sea level rise will evolve in other parts of the world., Oceanography, Scientists are examining the feeding habits and predator-prey interactions of Adélie and Gentoo penguins in the region using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV)., Scientists work to understand the dynamics of melting glaciers and how that impacts the ocean circulation and properties such as salinity and temperature of the coastal ocean., The AUV-called a REMUS-is equipped with a high-resolution echosounder using sonar to collect data about food resources that are available to marine animals in Palmer Deep Canyon., The new echosounder gives researchers a birds-eye view of "what’s for lunch" in the water., The rarity of this experience comes with a sense of humility and responsibility to not take any moment for granted., The temperatures are cool averaging just above freezing at around 36 degrees Fahrenheit in the austral summer from October to February., , To understand what is going to happen in the future scientists need to understand why sea levels are increasing and how it’s going to change over time., Weather can change rapidly., Wildlife have the right of way here.   

    From The University of Delaware : “Penguins and robots and the ocean and more” 

    U Delaware bloc

    From The University of Delaware

    1.26.23
    Karen B. Roberts
    Photos by Kathy F. Atkinson and courtesy of Matthew Breece, Evan Quinter, the Moffat Lab and Natasia Van Gestel
    Illustration by Jeffrey C. Chase

    1
    UD research scientist Matthew Breece (right) and post-doctoral researcher Leila Character get acquainted with the landmarks and landscapes near Palmer Station in Antarctica.

    Fieldwork in Antarctica is tricky, just ask University of Delaware scientist Matthew Breece. There is the 10-day trek to get there from Delaware, which includes a sometimes stomach-revolting four-day sail through Drake Passage, heavy research equipment to manage, limits on what you can pack. The temperatures are cool, averaging just above freezing at around 36 degrees Fahrenheit in the austral summer from October to February. Weather can change rapidly, too, relegating researchers indoors when conditions are poor and making for very long days in the field when conditions are pristine.

    But if you ask a scientist…or student…if the effort is worth it the answer is a resounding YES!

    Marine biology students at Caesar Rodney High School in Camden, Delaware, got a firsthand look at what it’s like to conduct field research on penguins in Antarctica on Tuesday, Jan. 24, during a live video call with Matthew Breece, a research scientist in marine science and policy at the University of Delaware.

    “It’s fun, but also a lot of hard work,” said Breece, who guided the nearly 50 students through a virtual tour of Palmer Station, a United States research station situated on Anvers Island, Antarctica.

    2
    Marine biology students from Caesar Rodney High School in Kent County talk with University of Delaware’s Matthew Breece, research scientist about conducting fieldwork on penguins in Antarctica.

    Breece showed the students glaciers, laboratory experiments, research equipment and common areas, like the library, and shared stories and answered questions about living among wildlife including penguins, whales and seals.

    “Wildlife have the right of way here,” said Breece, explaining how researchers were scrambling over rocks to get to their research vessels earlier in the week, while a crab-eater seal sunned itself on the boat dock. Gentoo penguins can swim 22 miles per hour, which is faster than the research boats can go, while Adélie penguins can only swim 10-12 mph.

    Breece and his colleagues are examining the feeding habits and predator-prey interactions of Adélie and Gentoo penguins in the region using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The AUV-called a REMUS-is equipped with a high-resolution echosounder that uses sonar to collect data about food resources that are available to marine animals in Palmer Deep Canyon on the West Antarctic Peninsula.

    3
    Besides hearing from UD’s Matt Breece, students also saw dramatic photographs from Antarctica and scientific charts used in the research.

    The new echosounder gives researchers a birds-eye view of what’s for lunch in the water. It was developed by Mark Moline, Maxwell P. and Mildred H. Harrington Professor of Marine Studies at UD and principal investigator on the project, and project co-PIs Kelly Benoit-Bird, senior scientist at Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute and Megan Cimino, assistant researcher at the Institute of Marine Sciences and assistant adjunct professor of ocean sciences at the University of California, Santa Cruz.

    “We switched to shorter wavelength frequencies to look at smaller things,” said Moline. “So, not only looking at the oceanography, but also the high-resolution food distribution of krill, copepods, fish and the species that eat them, like penguins.”

    The UD work complements the National Science Foundation’s ongoing Palmer Station Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) study related to penguin population sizes and foraging ranges. The seabird component of the Palmer LTER research is led by Cimino, a UD alumna.

    4
    Penguins are curious and comical. They are also fast swimmers. Gentoo penguins can swim around 22 miles per hour, faster than some research boats. Adélie penguins swim a little slower, about 10-12 miles per hour.

    Cimino has a second project with Carlos Moffat, a UD coastal physical oceanographer who also is in Antarctica serving as chief scientist of the Palmer LTER program, which has been collecting long-term ecological data for over 30 years. Collaborating institutions on the broader Palmer LTER study, led by Rutgers University and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS), include researchers from UD, University of Virginia, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, University of Colorado, and University of California-Santa Cruz.

    Moffat also is conducting physical oceanography work as part of his NSF CAREER award to understand the dynamics of melting glaciers and how that impacts the ocean circulation and properties, such as salinity and temperature of the coastal ocean.

    5
    From left to right, Matthew Breece, research scientist, Leila Character, post-doctoral research, and Erik White, engineer are among the researchers that traveled to Antarctica aboard the R/V Laurence M. Gould.

    As the atmosphere is warming in this region of Antarctica, sea ice is decreasing and more glaciers are melting from the coast, physically changing the environment marine organisms are living in,” said Moffat. “One big question is what this means long term for marine organisms that live in these places, such as penguins, whales, seals and other wildlife. I see my contribution as trying to help them understand how the physical environment impacts the entire ecosystem.”

    From Antarctica to Delaware

    Lessons learned in Antarctica can help shed light on uncertainties about how sea level rise will evolve in other parts of the world, too. For instance, Delaware is a low-lying state with no area of the state more than eight miles from tidal waters. It is considered a big hotspot of sea level rise along the U.S. East Coast. And while sea levels are increasing on average around the world, due to ocean warming and melting ice from the continents, the distribution of sea level is very uneven.

    “To understand what is going to happen in the future we need to understand why sea levels are increasing and how it’s going to change over time,” said Moffat. “Antarctica is a good place to study this because change is happening very rapidly.”

    5
    UD coastal physical oceanographer Carlos Moffat (center) is working to understand the dynamics of melting glaciers and how that impacts the water circulation patterns and properties, such as salinity and temperature of the coastal oceans of Antarctica. UD students participating in the work from the Moffat Lab include (from left to right) recent undergraduate student Michael Cappola, master’s students Evan Quinter and Jake Gessay, and doctoral student and Unidel fellow Frederike (Rikki) Benz.

    For most of the 20th century, the Palmer Station region was considered the fastest changing region in the southern hemisphere, while the Weddell Sea, which is located just around the corner of the Antarctic peninsula, had not changed as much. Over the last few years, researchers have begun to wonder whether the Weddell Sea has any influence on the West Antarctic Peninsula region or whether the regions are changing independently.

    To better understand these processes, Moffat’s team deployed two AUVs called gliders to sample the circulation close to the coast along the Antarctic peninsula, which is heavily influenced by the melting of glaciers. He and his students recovered oceanographic moorings that have been capturing data, such as water circulation currents, temperature and salinity, since early 2022. This is part of the West Antarctic Peninsula that has never been sampled before, so the team is eager to analyze the data.

    6
    UD students Jake Gessay (left) and Michael Cappola recover sensors from an oceanographic mooring that collected ocean current, temperature and salinity data during 2022.

    “I am particularly excited about the glider measurements, which I plan to add to my dissertation,” said Frederike (Rikki) Benz, a doctoral student in the Moffat lab. “It is especially interesting to be involved in the whole process from preparing, shipping and deploying to publishing.”

    Classrooms beyond campus

    For students, field research offers the opportunity for hands-on experience with sophisticated research instruments, data collection and analysis, troubleshooting and networking with researchers from other institutions. Sometimes those activities occur in remote regions of the world — like Antarctica.

    “The rarity of this experience comes with a sense of humility and responsibility to not take any moment for granted, a responsibility to ensure more opportunities are available for future students and scientists,” said Evan Quinter, who is pursuing a master’s degree in physical ocean science and engineering in the Moffat Lab.

    6
    Icebergs are pieces of glaciers that break off or calve. Here, Chinstrap penguins hitch a ride, using an iceberg as a resting point.

    At Caesar Rodney High School, marine biology teachers Cristine Taylor and Sandra Ramsdell have just begun covering marine animals with their students. It is a fitting coincidence that made the live call with UD researchers both timely and meaningful.

    “Spending a day in class speaking with researchers was an awesome experience for our students,” said Taylor. “We are trying to encourage them to look at everything that goes into marine careers. Not every person is a marine biologist, there are computer scientists and engineers, ship captains and crew, and so many more people who can work in marine research.”

    7
    A student wearing headphones asks a question of UD researcher Matt Breece, who is speaking to the class via Zoom from Antarctica.

    8
    A sea lion rests on a chunk of ice near the Palmer Station in Antarctica.

    9
    Fieldwork is not new for Frederike (Rikki) Benz, a doctoral student studying physical oceanography under the guidance of Carlos Moffat, associate professor in the School of Marine Science and Policy. In addition to her work in the Antarctic with UD, Benz has participated in research cruises in the Arctic with German and Norwegian research vessels.

    10
    High-resolution echosounder data from the Moline Lab is helping reveal where food resources are available to marine animals in Palmer Deep Canyon on the West Antarctic Peninsula.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Delaware campus

    The University of Delaware is a public land-grant research university located in Newark, Delaware. University of Delaware (US) is the largest university in Delaware. It offers three associate’s programs, 148 bachelor’s programs, 121 master’s programs (with 13 joint degrees), and 55 doctoral programs across its eight colleges. The main campus is in Newark, with satellite campuses in Dover, the Wilmington area, Lewes, and Georgetown. It is considered a large institution with approximately 18,200 undergraduate and 4,200 graduate students. It is a privately governed university which receives public funding for being a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant state-supported research institution.

    The University of Delaware is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to The National Science Foundation, UD spent $186 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 119th in the nation. It is recognized with the Community Engagement Classification by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

    The University of Delaware is one of only four schools in North America with a major in art conservation. In 1923, it was the first American university to offer a study-abroad program.

    The University of Delaware traces its origins to a “Free School,” founded in New London, Pennsylvania in 1743. The school moved to Newark, Delaware by 1765, becoming the Newark Academy. The academy trustees secured a charter for Newark College in 1833 and the academy became part of the college, which changed its name to Delaware College in 1843. While it is not considered one of the colonial colleges because it was not a chartered institution of higher education during the colonial era, its original class of ten students included George Read, Thomas McKean, and James Smith, all three of whom went on to sign the Declaration of Independence. Read also later signed the United States Constitution.

    Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus

    On October 23, 2009, The University of Delaware signed an agreement with Chrysler to purchase a shuttered vehicle assembly plant adjacent to the university for $24.25 million as part of Chrysler’s bankruptcy restructuring plan. The university has developed the 272-acre (1.10 km^2) site into the Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus. The site is the new home of University of Delaware (US)’s College of Health Sciences, which includes teaching and research laboratories and several public health clinics. The STAR Campus also includes research facilities for University of Delaware (US)’s vehicle-to-grid technology, as well as Delaware Technology Park, SevOne, CareNow, Independent Prosthetics and Orthotics, and the East Coast headquarters of Bloom Energy. In 2020 [needs an update], University of Delaware expects to open the Ammon Pinozzotto Biopharmaceutical Innovation Center, which will become the new home of the UD-led National Institute for Innovation in Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals. Also, Chemours recently opened its global research and development facility, known as the Discovery Hub, on the STAR Campus in 2020. The new Newark Regional Transportation Center on the STAR Campus will serve passengers of Amtrak and regional rail.

    Academics

    The university is organized into nine colleges:

    Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics
    College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
    College of Arts and Sciences
    College of Earth, Ocean and Environment
    College of Education and Human Development
    College of Engineering
    College of Health Sciences
    Graduate College
    Honors College

    There are also five schools:

    Joseph R. Biden, Jr. School of Public Policy and Administration (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)
    School of Education (part of the College of Education & Human Development)
    School of Marine Science and Policy (part of the College of Earth, Ocean and Environment)
    School of Nursing (part of the College of Health Sciences)
    School of Music (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)

     
  • richardmitnick 4:10 pm on January 27, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "What’s Up at the Bottom of the Ocean?", , , , From isotopes to oil spills and sand mining to SMART cables an array of science is grounded on the seafloor., Oceanography, Our changing climate and the crucial nexus of ocean and atmosphere are driving scientists to collate and curate a centralized database of seawater oxygen isotope data., The seafloor is not as serene as it seems. In fact it’s a busy flexible hub of scientific activity.   

    From “Eos” : “What’s Up at the Bottom of the Ocean?” 

    Eos news bloc

    From “Eos”

    AT

    AGU

    1.25.23
    Caryl-Sue Micalizio

    From isotopes to oil spills and sand mining to SMART cables an array of science is grounded on the seafloor.

    1
    Sand drains from an unnamed river into Murchison Sound close to Qaanaaq in northwestern Greenland. Credit: Nicolaj Krog Larsen.

    2

    The seafloor is not as serene as it seems. In fact it’s a busy flexible hub of scientific activity.

    Our changing climate and the crucial nexus of ocean and atmosphere are driving scientists to collate and curate a centralized database of seawater oxygen isotope data. Such isotopes can inform us about processes related to ocean cir­culation, riverine input, ocean-atmosphere water exchange, and continental ice sheet volume on timescales spanning glacial–interglacial periods and longer, write Kristine DeLong, Alyssa Atwood, Andrea Moore, and Sara Sanchez, but efforts to create a machine-readable, metadata-rich database con­sistent with findability, accessibility, interoperability, and reusability (FAIR) standards has been a challenge for more than 30 years. Still a work in progress, the new database has already revealed discrepancies between tracked and modeled estimates of coral-derived isotope variability, as well as enor­mous swaths of the ocean that lack any isotope data at all. Read Clues from the Sea Paint a Picture of Earth’s Water Cycle.

    Far from having a lack of data, scientists tracking the origin of a 2021 oil spill in the eastern Mediterranean had to grapple with the (literal) chaos of eddies, currents, multinational ship traffic, and satellite-derived radar imagery. Using innovative mathematics to better resolve geometry in the ocean’s dynamical systems, they developed a model “to keep turbu­lence from serving as a cover for environmental pollution.” Learn more about Seeing Through Turbulence to Track Oil Spills in the Ocean from Guillermo García-Sánchez, Ana M. Mancho, Antonio G. Ramos, Josep Coca, and Stephen Wiggins.

    Lack of data, arrays of data: In Grains of Sand: Too Much and Never Enough, Alka Tripathy- Lang explores sand mining and its discontents. Sand is second only to water as an exploited natural resource (used in everything from concrete to smartphone screens), but scientists, engineers, and industry officials are quick to note that the sands that anchor seafloors and deserts are not created equal: “The crisis that exists around sand is mostly a crisis of sand sus­tainability, not of availability,” said Daniel Franks of Australia’s Sustainable Minerals Insti­tute.

    Seafloor stories also appeared at AGU’s Fall Meeting 2022. Some scientists are investigat­ing how benthic amphipods are providing clues to marine mercury pollution (In the Deepest Ocean Reaches, a Potent Pollutant Comes to Rest), whereas others are considering how the subsea cables that transmit cat videos and financial transactions could also contain temperature, pressure, and seismic sensors (Making Underwater Cables SMART with Sen­sors). Finally, we are reminded that the seafloor can define regions millions of years after the actual sea has disappeared, as we learn in A Mysterious Dome Reveals Clues to Aus­tralia’s Miocene History.

    So what’s up at the bottom of the ocean? A lot of science, and Eos is happy to delve deep.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    “Eos” is the leading source for trustworthy news and perspectives about the Earth and space sciences and their impact. Its namesake is Eos, the Greek goddess of the dawn, who represents the light shed on understanding our planet and its environment in space by the Earth and space sciences.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:23 pm on January 25, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Getting to the bottom of Antarctic Bottom Water", A team of scientists is plumbing the depths in East Antarctica to increase our understanding of Antarctic Bottom Water., Antarctic Bottom Water ventilates the deep ocean., , , , , , , , Long sediment cores taken will reveal past changes in sea ice., Oceanography, Scientists will use deep sea cameras to take the first images of the seafloor life in this remote part of Antarctica.   

    From “CSIROscope” (AU) At CSIRO (AU)-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization : “Getting to the bottom of Antarctic Bottom Water” 

    CSIRO bloc

    From “CSIROscope” (AU)

    At

    CSIRO (AU)-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization

    1.25.23
    Dr Alix Post | Geoscience Australia
    Associate Professor Helen Bostock | The University of Queensland
    Matt Marrison | CSIRO

    A team of scientists is plumbing the depths in East Antarctica to increase our understanding of Antarctic Bottom Water.

    R/V Investigator [below] is once again sailing south to conduct important research in Antarctica. Called “CANYONS”, scientists on this 47-day voyage will investigate Antarctic Bottom Water in the Cape Darnley region of East Antarctica.

    This is what you need to know about Antarctic Bottom Water.

    1
    Voyage Chief Scientist Dr Alix Post from Geoscience Australia will lead the 47-day voyage to East Antarctica. Image: Asaesja Young.

    What is Antarctic Bottom Water?

    You probably haven’t heard about Antarctic Bottom Water before but it’s very important for our oceans and climate. Put simply, Antarctic Bottom Water is dense, cold, oxygen-rich water that forms in just a few places around the Antarctic continent.

    This water forms as cold winds blowing off Antarctica cool the ocean surface and form sea ice. As fresh sea ice forms, the salt in the seawater is ‘rejected’ (released). As a consequence, very salty and cold water is left behind. The same winds blowing off Antarctica then blow the sea ice away, exposing the ocean and forming new sea ice. This process further increases the saltiness of the water. This water then sinks through the water column forming Antarctic Bottom Water in the deepest parts of the ocean.

    These bodies of open water, which are called polynya, can be thought of as sea ice factories.

    The most important thing to know about Antarctic Bottom Water is that it’s the densest water on the planet. As the densest water mass, Antarctic Bottom Water flows down the Antarctic continental margin and north across the seafloor. In fact, it’s been found to occupy depths below 4000 metres in all ocean basins that have a connection to the Southern Ocean.

    For this reason, it has a significant influence on the circulation of the world’s oceans.

    Why is it so important?

    The flow of Antarctic Bottom Water drives ocean circulation, assists in carbon capture and storage, and also carries oxygen to the deep ocean. As such, Antarctic Bottom Water ventilates the deep ocean.

    However, climate change and the melting of the Antarctic ice sheet has led to increased fresh water flowing into the oceans around Antarctica. This has reduced the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water as it impedes the process to make cold, salty water. This reduction is likely to continue as the climate continues to warm.

    Potentially, a complete shutdown of Antarctic Bottom Water formation is possible in the future. If this happens, it will likely have dramatic effects on ocean circulation. This will have consequences for weather patterns and the global climate. Moreover, a shutdown would likely create additional warming of the climate, including from reduced carbon capture and storage.

    2
    The CTD (conductivity, temperature and depth instrument) on R/V Investigator will be used to collect water samples and photograph seafloor life in Antarctica. Image Rod Palmer.

    Where are we going and why?

    The Cape Darnley region of East Antarctica is one of only four regions where the cold, salty and dense Antarctic Bottom Water forms. Scientists on this voyage aim to determine the flow pathways of this dense water mass down the rugged submarine canyons of the seafloor in this region. At the same time, they will also investigate its impact on seafloor life and ecosystems.

    Importantly, they are also seeking insights into Antarctic Bottom Water sensitivity to changes in climate. This will help us predict how a warming climate will influence its future formation and impact on ocean circulation. Changes in the water mass have been detected over recent decades.

    However, changes in this region have been little studied.

    To address this, a multidisciplinary team of scientists from Australian research institutions and universities has been assembled on board R/V Investigator. This team will be led by Dr Alix Post from Geoscience Australia and A/Prof Helen Bostock from The University of Queensland.

    Putting together pieces of an icy puzzle

    Scientists want to better understand the tipping points that influence the production of Antarctic Bottom Water by investigating different climate states in the past climate record. To achieve this, the team on R/V Investigator will undertake detailed seafloor mapping of this area for the first time. Complete seafloor maps will reveal where Antarctic Bottom Water flows through the rugged submarine canyons. This will enable realistic ocean, climate and ecosystem models to be developed.

    3
    Multibeam sonar systems on R/V Investigator will be used to map the seafloor to study how features in the region, such as deep canyons, influence the flow of Antarctic Bottom Water.

    In addition, they will also collect long sediment cores, analyze seawater samples and use deep sea cameras to image seafloor life.

    Long sediment cores will reveal past changes in sea ice, ice-sheets and ocean circulation. These records will unlock the history of Antarctic dense water formation during periods of Earth’s history that were warmer than today. As a result, we will gain important insights into how our global climate is likely to respond to changes in the future.

    Furthermore, the team will also collect large volumes of Antarctic seawater. Importantly, this will give us valuable insights into the processes controlling the distribution of trace metals in Antarctic waters. It will also contribute to developing new geochemical tracers for past ocean and ice sheet change.

    Protecting Antarctica’s ecosystems

    The area is one of three regions proposed as Antarctic Marine Protected Areas on the East Antarctic margin. Scientists will use deep sea cameras to take the first images of the seafloor life in this remote part of Antarctica. Altogether, the information they collect will help ensure this region can be protected into the future.

    Join us in the south

    The team will be bringing their research to life through photography, video, blogs and podcasts. These will be released through the Australian Centre for Excellence in Antarctic Science. We’ll share updates across our social channels with #RVInvestigator.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    CSIRO campus

    CSIRO (AU)-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization , is Australia’s national science agency and one of the largest and most diverse research agencies in the world.

    CSIRO works with leading organizations around the world. From its headquarters in Canberra, CSIRO maintains more than 50 sites across Australia and in France, Chile and the United States, employing about 5,500 people.

    Federally funded scientific research began in Australia 104 years ago. The Advisory Council of Science and Industry was established in 1916 but was hampered by insufficient available finance. In 1926 the research effort was reinvigorated by establishment of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), which strengthened national science leadership and increased research funding. CSIR grew rapidly and achieved significant early successes. In 1949 further legislated changes included renaming the organization as CSIRO.

    Notable developments by CSIRO have included the invention of atomic absorption spectroscopy; essential components of Wi-Fi technology; development of the first commercially successful polymer banknote; the invention of the insect repellent in Aerogard and the introduction of a series of biological controls into Australia, such as the introduction of myxomatosis and rabbit calicivirus for the control of rabbit populations.

    Research and focus areas

    Research Business Units

    As at 2019, CSIRO’s research areas are identified as “Impact science” and organized into the following Business Units:

    Agriculture and Food
    Health and Biosecurity
    Data 61
    Energy
    Land and Water
    Manufacturing
    Mineral Resources
    Oceans and Atmosphere

    National Facilities

    CSIRO manages national research facilities and scientific infrastructure on behalf of the nation to assist with the delivery of research. The national facilities and specialized laboratories are available to both international and Australian users from industry and research. As at 2019, the following National Facilities are listed:

    Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL)
    Australia Telescope National Facility – radio telescopes in the Facility include the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the Parkes Observatory, Mopra Radio Telescope Observatory and the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder.

    STCA CSIRO Australia Compact Array (AU), six radio telescopes at the Paul Wild Observatory, is an array of six 22-m antennas located about twenty five kilometres (16 mi) west of the town of Narrabri in Australia.

    CSIRO-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (AU) Parkes Observatory [Murriyang, the traditional Indigenous name], located 20 kilometres north of the town of Parkes, New South Wales, Australia, 414.80m above sea level.

    NASA Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex, AU, Deep Space Network. Credit: The National Aeronautics and Space Agency

    CSIRO Canberra campus

    ESA DSA 1, hosts a 35-metre deep-space antenna with transmission and reception in both S- and X-band and is located 140 kilometres north of Perth, Western Australia, near the town of New Norcia

    CSIRO-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (AU)CSIRO R/V Investigator.

    UK Space NovaSAR-1 satellite (UK) synthetic aperture radar satellite.

    CSIRO Pawsey Supercomputing Centre AU)

    Magnus Cray XC40 supercomputer at Pawsey Supercomputer Centre Perth Australia

    Galaxy Cray XC30 Series Supercomputer at at Pawsey Supercomputer Centre Perth Australia

    Pausey Supercomputer CSIRO Zeus SGI Linux cluster

    Others not shown

    SKA

    SKA- Square Kilometer Array

    Australia Telescope National Facility – radio telescopes included in the Facility include the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the Parkes Observatory, Mopra Radio Telescope Observatory and the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder.

    Haystack Observatory EDGES telescope in a radio quiet zone at the Inyarrimanha Ilgari Bundara Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO), on the traditional lands of the Wajarri peoples.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:56 pm on January 15, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Seeing the sea in 4D with Ocean Explorer", , , , Oceanography, What if we could take an MRI of the ocean and explore it in virtual reality?   

    From “CSIROscope” (AU): “Seeing the sea in 4D with Ocean Explorer” 

    CSIRO bloc

    From “CSIROscope” (AU)

    At

    CSIRO (AU)-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization

    1.13.23
    Madeleine Clarke

    What if we could take an MRI of the ocean and explore it in virtual reality? We’re prototyping tools to bring greater resolution to the study of the world’s oceans.

    Our world’s oceans are teeming with life and data. It’s easy for scientists who study the ocean to become lost in a sea of endless numbers and graphs. It’s harder to find meaningful connections and patterns while drowning in data.

    This is because the ocean is an infinitely complex, gigantic and multidimensional volume with length, width, and depth. It’s also important to consider that the ocean’s properties change by the second. Therefore, we now add an extra dimension into the mix: time.

    Currently, properties of these four dimensions like temperature, salinity, velocity and sea level are largely mapped on flat two dimensional (2D) plots. Because of this, studying them requires a lot of mental gymnastics. As a result, our gymnasts (scientists) translate pages upon pages of graphs into dynamic, multidimensional meanings in their heads.

    We think there’s a better way.

    Meet Ocean Explorer

    1
    Design Thinking expert Viveka Weiley with an early version of the Ocean Explorer prototype.

    Through a program called Reinvent Science, we’re prototyping tools to allow our scientists to dive with ease into multidimensional data.  

    Our Senior Software Engineer Emma Krantz and her colleagues are working on two versions of a tool called “Ocean Explorer”. 

    This tool aims to bring a greater resolution to the study of dynamic ocean variables, which will help to reduce the barriers between scientists and their data.

    “What we’re trying to do is move from data visualizations, which are the equivalent of 2D CT scans, to something like an MRI of the ocean,” Emma said.

    Ocean Explorer will work across two main versions. First, an immersive experience where researchers zoom, rotate, colour-code, and slice-and-dice an ocean volume. They will do this by wearing a virtual reality (VR) headset with augmented reality. With the headset on, users can submerge themselves beneath the ocean surface, exploring currents and other wonders in 4D. 

    Second: a web-based Ocean Explorer. This version allows researchers to manipulate high-quality data visualisations from a desktop computer.  

    2
    By visualizing ocean variables in augmented reality, we hope to bring our researchers closer to their data and closer to discovery.

    Our science steering the ship  

    Physical oceanographer Ming Feng is the Science Lead for Ocean Explorer. He works to translate the science to the development team and ensure the tools will be useful and usable.  

    “Data in oceanography is often a bit opaque. To be able to quickly scan through ocean model data or observational data in 3D or 4D views would allow us to easily detect hidden signals,” Ming said.  

    “As many oceanography questions are multi-disciplinary, this tool could also help us to formulate a working hypothesis and eventually, with further development, evaluate model performances to address these questions.  

    “The tool will also be useful in communicating complex science with stakeholders and the general public.” 

    Floating ideas and grounding them in reality 

    3
    Senior Engineer Emma Krantz and Design Thinking expert Viveka Weiley workshop an early version of the Ocean Explorer prototype.

    The vision that inspired “Ocean Explorer” came from our researchers Beth Fulton and Peter Dobrohotoff. They imagined a world where they could feel their data and interact with it using more of their primary senses. 

    Our software engineers, designers, scientific computing experts, and product managers are currently working backwards from a transformative dream like this and taking realistic steps towards it. The aim: To get future technologies into the hands of our scientists today.  

    The current version of the tool is designed to visualize the BRAN2020 dataset, a key output of the Bluelink partnership between the Australian Department of Defence, Bureau of Meteorology and us. It provides realistic estimates of whole ocean attributes, based on a scientific model. 

    Recently, Ocean Explorer was demonstrated at SIGGRAPH Asia 2022 alongside global pioneers of computer graphics and emerging technology. 

    Program lead Viveka Weiley said the team is exploring how the tool could benefit other scientific domains.   

    “We’re beginning to see a path to solutions that can open up scientific fields to more people and create more opportunities to cross disciplinary boundaries,” Viveka said. 

    “And as we look into scaling Ocean Explorer beyond the current prototype, there’s potential for applications in other fields from atmospheric physics to geological exploration.”

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


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    CSIRO campus

    CSIRO (AU)-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization , is Australia’s national science agency and one of the largest and most diverse research agencies in the world.

    CSIRO works with leading organizations around the world. From its headquarters in Canberra, CSIRO maintains more than 50 sites across Australia and in France, Chile and the United States, employing about 5,500 people.

    Federally funded scientific research began in Australia 104 years ago. The Advisory Council of Science and Industry was established in 1916 but was hampered by insufficient available finance. In 1926 the research effort was reinvigorated by establishment of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), which strengthened national science leadership and increased research funding. CSIR grew rapidly and achieved significant early successes. In 1949 further legislated changes included renaming the organization as CSIRO.

    Notable developments by CSIRO have included the invention of atomic absorption spectroscopy; essential components of Wi-Fi technology; development of the first commercially successful polymer banknote; the invention of the insect repellent in Aerogard and the introduction of a series of biological controls into Australia, such as the introduction of myxomatosis and rabbit calicivirus for the control of rabbit populations.

    Research and focus areas

    Research Business Units

    As at 2019, CSIRO’s research areas are identified as “Impact science” and organized into the following Business Units:

    Agriculture and Food
    Health and Biosecurity
    Data 61
    Energy
    Land and Water
    Manufacturing
    Mineral Resources
    Oceans and Atmosphere

    National Facilities

    CSIRO manages national research facilities and scientific infrastructure on behalf of the nation to assist with the delivery of research. The national facilities and specialized laboratories are available to both international and Australian users from industry and research. As at 2019, the following National Facilities are listed:

    Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL)
    Australia Telescope National Facility – radio telescopes in the Facility include the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the Parkes Observatory, Mopra Radio Telescope Observatory and the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder.

    STCA CSIRO Australia Compact Array (AU), six radio telescopes at the Paul Wild Observatory, is an array of six 22-m antennas located about twenty five kilometres (16 mi) west of the town of Narrabri in Australia.

    CSIRO-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (AU) Parkes Observatory [Murriyang, the traditional Indigenous name], located 20 kilometres north of the town of Parkes, New South Wales, Australia, 414.80m above sea level.

    NASA Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex, AU, Deep Space Network. Credit: The National Aeronautics and Space Agency

    CSIRO Canberra campus

    ESA DSA 1, hosts a 35-metre deep-space antenna with transmission and reception in both S- and X-band and is located 140 kilometres north of Perth, Western Australia, near the town of New Norcia

    CSIRO-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (AU)CSIRO R/V Investigator.

    UK Space NovaSAR-1 satellite (UK) synthetic aperture radar satellite.

    CSIRO Pawsey Supercomputing Centre AU)

    Magnus Cray XC40 supercomputer at Pawsey Supercomputer Centre Perth Australia

    Galaxy Cray XC30 Series Supercomputer at at Pawsey Supercomputer Centre Perth Australia

    Pausey Supercomputer CSIRO Zeus SGI Linux cluster

    Others not shown

    SKA

    SKA- Square Kilometer Array

    Australia Telescope National Facility – radio telescopes included in the Facility include the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the Parkes Observatory, Mopra Radio Telescope Observatory and the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder.

    Haystack Observatory EDGES telescope in a radio quiet zone at the Inyarrimanha Ilgari Bundara Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO), on the traditional lands of the Wajarri peoples.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:59 am on January 12, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Scientists Warn oceans Broke Yet Another Heat Record in 2022", , , , , In 2022 an international team of scientists measured the hottest global ocean temperatures in human history., Layers of ocean water are not mixing like they used to and this disrupts the natural circulation of heat and carbon and oxygen from the atmosphere above., Ocean waters reaching up to 2000 meters (about 6600 feet) deep are now absorbing 10 zettajoules (ZJ) more heat than they were in 2021., Oceanography, , That makes 2022 the seventh year in a row that ocean temperatures have hit new peaks., The 'Blob': a vast and persistent pool of warm water in the Pacific northwest that began circulating in 2013 devastating bird and marine life for years to come., The Pacific Ocean and East Indian Ocean is growing much fresher. But in the midlatitude Atlantic Ocean the Mediterranean Sea and the West Indian Ocean seawater is growing much saltier., The world's oceans absorb 90 percent of the excess heat in our atmosphere., There is a risk that the ocean may not be able to absorb as much carbon as it used to. Greenhouse gases would concentrate in the atmosphere causing severe climate effects., Warmer or saltier waters could strongly influence global weather patterns and sea level rise.   

    From “Science Alert (AU)” : “Scientists Warn oceans Broke Yet Another Heat Record in 2022” 

    ScienceAlert

    From “Science Alert (AU)”

    1.12.23
    Carly Cassella

    1
    (Paul Souders/Getty Images)

    Another year, another climate record broken. In 2022 an international team of scientists measured the hottest global ocean temperatures in human history.

    That makes 2022 the seventh year in a row that ocean temperatures have hit new peaks.

    The record is based on two international timelines of ocean heat data stretching back to the 1950s: one conducted by government researchers in the United States and the other by government researchers in China.

    Both datasets show that ocean waters reaching up to 2000 meters (about 6600 feet) deep are now absorbing 10 zettajoules (ZJ) more heat than they were in 2021. That’s a hundred times more energy than the world’s electricity bill each year.

    Having what’s known as a high specific heat capacity, water is exceptionally good at absorbing huge amounts of heat energy without rising quickly in temperature. What’s more, the oceans contain a lot of water. But storing 10 ZJs in an oceanic bank isn’t without consequences.

    On Earth, the world’s oceans absorb 90 percent of the excess heat in our atmosphere, and like a sponge absorbs water, the effect is fundamentally changing the density, dynamics, and structure of the sea.

    Today, the contrast in ocean salinity has reached an all-time high. In the Pacific Ocean and East Indian Ocean, scientists say seawater is growing much fresher. But in the midlatitude Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, and the West Indian Ocean, seawater is growing much saltier.

    “Salty areas get saltier, and fresh areas get fresher, and so there is a continuing increase in intensity of the hydrological cycle,” explains climate scientists Lijing Cheng from the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

    In basic terms that means layers of ocean water are not mixing like they used to and this disrupts the natural circulation of heat and carbon and oxygen from the atmosphere above.

    In 2022, for instance, the heat content in the upper 2000 meters of the Pacific ocean reached a record level “by a large margin,” researchers say, “which supports the extreme events witnessed, such as intensive heat waves and deoxygenation, and poses a substantial risk to marine life in this region.”

    A reduction in mixing most likely triggered an event known as the ‘Blob’; a vast and persistent pool of warm water in the Pacific northwest that began circulating in 2013, devastating bird and marine life for years to come.

    In 2022, this region’s ocean heat content reached its third highest level on record, which means we probably haven’t seen the last of the Blob.

    It’s not just sea life that’s suffering, either.

    The ocean and atmosphere are closely interconnected, which means that warmer or saltier waters could strongly influence global weather patterns and sea level rise.

    If warmer waters and saltier waters become too stratified in the ocean, there is a risk the ocean may not be able to absorb as much carbon as it used to. Greenhouse gases would concentrate in the atmosphere, causing severe climate effects.

    Earth’s salty bodies of water have been called ‘the greatest ally against climate change’ because they serve as a bulletproof vest against the worst climate blows. But there are only so many hits the ocean can take before it, too, falls.

    Despite warning after warning, very little action has been taken to curb the persistent rise of greenhouse gas emissions, which means oceans have continued to absorb our worsening pollution.

    Since the 1980s, researchers have found a three- to four-fold increase in the rate of ocean warming. In 2022, the level of stratification measured in ocean waters was among the top seven on record.

    “Until we reach net zero emissions, that heating will continue, and we’ll continue to break ocean heat content records, as we did this year,” says climate scientist Michael Mann from the University of Pennsylvania.

    “Better awareness and understanding of the oceans are a basis for the actions to combat climate change.”

    An extreme climate is our reality and our future. How extreme is up to us.

    The study was published in Advances in Atmospheric Sciences.
    https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00376-023-2385-2

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


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    Stem Education Coalition

     
  • richardmitnick 11:50 am on December 24, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Palau’s Rock Islands Harbor Heat-resistant Corals", A stress response called bleaching, , , , , , Finding could help reef managers to develop new defenses against ocean warming., , , Ocean warming is driving an increase in the frequency and severity of marine heatwaves causing untold damage to coral reefs., Oceanography, Scientists have identified genetic subgroups of a common coral species that exhibit remarkable tolerance to the extreme heat associated with marine heatwaves., Scientists sampled the keystone coral species “Porites lobata” (lobe coral) across Palau including the Rock Islands., The scientists found evidence that larvae from these corals are traveling to the outer reef where they survive and grow and maintain their heat tolerance.,   

    From The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution: “Palau’s Rock Islands Harbor Heat-resistant Corals” 

    From The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

    12.21.22

    Authors:
    Hanny E. Rivera1,2,3*
    Anne L. Cohen2*
    Janelle R. Thompson3,4,5
    Iliana B. Baums6
    Michael Fox2,7
    Kirstin Meyer-Kaiser2
    *Corresponding Author

     Affiliations:
    1 MIT-WHOI Joint Program in Oceanography/Applied Ocean Science & Engineering, Cambridge and Woods Hole, MA.
    2 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA.
    3 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
    4 Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
    5 Singapore Centre for Environmental Life Sciences Engineering (SCELSE), Singapore
    6 Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA.
    7 Red Sea Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Saudi Arabia

    Finding could help reef managers to develop new defenses against ocean warming.

    1
    Porites cf. lobata is a key reef-building coral that provides habitats for numerous species, including feather stars (comatulid crinoids) and fish. (Photo by Kharis Schrage, ©Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)

    Ocean warming is driving an increase in the frequency and severity of marine heatwaves, causing untold damage to coral reefs. Tropical corals, which live in symbiosis with tiny single celled algae, are sensitive to high temperatures, and exhibit a stress response called bleaching when the ocean gets too hot. In the last 4 decades, marine heatwaves have caused widespread bleaching, and killed millions of corals. Because of this, a global search is underway for reefs that can withstand the heat stress, survive future warming, and act as sources of heat-tolerant coral larvae to replenish affected areas both naturally and through restoration.

    Now, scientists studying reefs in Palau, an archipelago in the western tropical Pacific, have identified genetic subgroups of a common coral species that exhibit remarkable tolerance to the extreme heat associated with marine heatwaves. Further, the scientists found evidence that larvae from these corals are traveling from their birthing grounds deep in Palau’s lagoons, to the outer reef, where they survive and grow, and maintain their heat tolerance.

    Understanding both the underlying mechanisms that facilitate heat tolerance of these corals, as well as the dispersal capabilities of their larvae will go a long way toward enhancing coral reef conservation and restoration efforts in the 21st century ocean, according to scientists at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution who led the research.

    In Palau’s main lagoon, a network of very ancient, fossilized reefs has been uplifted to form a series of mountains known as the Rock Islands. These formations slow water flow in and around them, creating localized environments in which the water temperatures are consistently higher than other areas of Palau’s reefs.

    Scientists sampled the keystone coral species Porites lobata (lobe coral) across Palau, including the Rock Islands. They took skeletal biopsies and examined the cores for stress bands, which are telltale signs of bleaching, a stress response corals have to high temperatures. They found corals from the Rock Islands bleached less during the intense 1998 heatwave than corals from other areas of the reef, indicating enhanced thermal tolerance.

    Scientists then investigated the genetics of the corals and discovered four distinct lineages within the same species. Within the warmer Rock Islands, certain lineages, designated as “LB” and “RD” lineages, were much more common. The scientists were able to match the genetics of each coral with its own bleaching history and found that fewer individuals from the “LB” and “RD” lineages bleached during 1998, indicating enhanced thermal tolerance.

    2
    Porites cf. lobata is a key reef-building coral in the tropical Indo-Pacific, providing habitats for many species. (Photo by Kharis Schrage, © Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)

    Remarkably, the scientists found the LB lineage was not restricted to the Rock Islands. They found some LB colonies also living on the cooler outer reefs. An examination of the bleaching histories of these colonies again revealed fewer stress bands, indicating that they maintained the thermal tolerance characteristic of their relatives in the Rock Islands.

    “This suggests that the Rock Islands provide naturally tolerant larvae to neighboring areas,” the scientists write in their paper published in Communications Biology [below]. “Finding and protecting such sources of thermally-tolerant corals is key to reef survival under 21st century climate change,” the authors wrote.

    “As oceans worldwide continue to warm, corals derived from extreme habitats will be at a competitive advantage and may enable the survival of otherwise vulnerable reefs,” the authors continue. “Identifying and safeguarding natural breeding grounds of environmentally tolerant corals that can thrive under future climate conditions will be fundamental to the persistence of coral reef ecosystems worldwide in the coming decades.”

    “We found that some of Palau’s reefs with the highest temperatures have corals that are more tolerant than one would expect,” said the paper’s lead author Hanny Rivera, a graduate of the MIT-WHOI Joint Program. Rivera, who conducted this work as part of her Ph.D. and postdoctoral research, is currently an associate director of business development at Ginko Bioworks. “In addition, they are genetically distinct from the same corals found in other parts of Palau, which suggests that there has been natural selection for hardier corals in these regions.”.

    Paper co-author Michael Fox added that the study is particularly exciting because it combines coral genetics with historical records of bleaching preserved in their skeletons to shed light on how corals from extreme habitats with high temperature tolerance can be dispersed across a reefscape. “This integrated perspective is essential for improving projections of coral communities in a warming ocean,” said Fox, who was a postdoctoral scholar at WHOI during the research for this paper. He currently is an assistant research professor in the Red Sea Research Center at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology in Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.

    The Palau research is directly related to the Super Reefs initiative WHOI launched with The Nature Conservancy and Stanford University to locate coral communities that can withstand marine heat waves, and work with local communities and governments to protect them.

    “This work is the scientific basis for the Super Reefs initiative,” said paper co-author Anne Cohen, a scientist at WHOI and Rivera’s advisor on the study. “The Palau research demonstrates that Super Reefs exist and also provides actionable science knowledge that can be used to support their protection.”

    Cohen noted that there are other coral reefs, not just in Palau, where coral communities have not bleached as severely as scientists predicted based on the levels of thermal stress. “When we find the coral communities that are heat-tolerant or bleaching-resistant, and we protect them from other stresses that can kill them—like dynamiting, overfishing, or coastal development— they will produce millions of larvae that will travel on the currents, outside of their places of origin as we see on Palau, and they will repopulate reefs that have been devastated by heatwaves,” she said. “Nature is amazing. Our job with the Super Reefs initiative is to protect these thermally resilient reefs and let nature do the rest.”

    Rivera added she is in awe of the immense appreciation, respect, and stewardship that the Palauan people have for their environment.

    “They have been one of the pioneering countries in promoting marine conservation and ecological protection. It is wonderful to know that these special reefs are in such good hands,” Rivera said. “It is my greatest hope that our research will further support the Palauan people in their efforts to maintain a healthy marine ecosystem.”

    Funding for this research was provided by the National Science Foundation, The Seija Family, The Arthur Vining Davis Foundation, the Atlantic Charter Donor Advised Fund, The Dalio Foundation, Inc., the MIT Sea Grant Office, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Coastal Ocean Institute Grant and Ocean Venture Fund, the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship Program, the Martin Family Fellowship for Sustainability the American Association of University Women Dissertation Fellowship, and an Angell Family Foundation Grant.

    Science paper:
    Communications Biology
    See the science paper for instructive material with images.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

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    Mission Statement

    The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution is dedicated to advancing knowledge of the ocean and its connection with the Earth system through a sustained commitment to excellence in science, engineering, and education, and to the application of this knowledge to problems facing society.

    Vision & Mission

    The ocean is a defining feature of our planet and crucial to life on Earth, yet it remains one of the planet’s last unexplored frontiers. For this reason, WHOI scientists and engineers are committed to understanding all facets of the ocean as well as its complex connections with Earth’s atmosphere, land, ice, seafloor, and life—including humanity. This is essential not only to advance knowledge about our planet, but also to ensure society’s long-term welfare and to help guide human stewardship of the environment. WHOI researchers are also dedicated to training future generations of ocean science leaders, to providing unbiased information that informs public policy and decision-making, and to expanding public awareness about the importance of the global ocean and its resources.

    The Institution is organized into six departments, the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Ocean Research, and a marine policy center. Its shore-based facilities are located in the village of Woods Hole, Massachusetts and a mile and a half away on the Quissett Campus. The bulk of the Institution’s funding comes from grants and contracts from the National Science Foundation and other government agencies, augmented by foundations and private donations.

    WHOI scientists, engineers, and students collaborate to develop theories, test ideas, build seagoing instruments, and collect data in diverse marine environments. Ships operated by WHOI carry research scientists throughout the world’s oceans. The WHOI fleet includes two large research vessels (R/V Atlantis and R/V Neil Armstrong); the coastal craft Tioga; small research craft such as the dive-operation work boat Echo; the deep-diving human-occupied submersible Alvin; the tethered, remotely operated vehicle Jason/Medea; and autonomous underwater vehicles such as the REMUS and SeaBED.
    WHOI offers graduate and post-doctoral studies in marine science. There are several fellowship and training programs, and graduate degrees are awarded through a joint program with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. WHOI is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges . WHOI also offers public outreach programs and informal education through its Exhibit Center and summer tours. The Institution has a volunteer program and a membership program, WHOI Associate.

    On October 1, 2020, Peter B. de Menocal became the institution’s eleventh president and director.

    History

    In 1927, a National Academy of Sciences committee concluded that it was time to “consider the share of the United States of America in a worldwide program of oceanographic research.” The committee’s recommendation for establishing a permanent independent research laboratory on the East Coast to “prosecute oceanography in all its branches” led to the founding in 1930 of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

    A $2.5 million grant from the Rockefeller Foundation supported the summer work of a dozen scientists, construction of a laboratory building and commissioning of a research vessel, the 142-foot (43 m) ketch R/V Atlantis, whose profile still forms the Institution’s logo.

    WHOI grew substantially to support significant defense-related research during World War II, and later began a steady growth in staff, research fleet, and scientific stature. From 1950 to 1956, the director was Dr. Edward “Iceberg” Smith, an Arctic explorer, oceanographer and retired Coast Guard rear admiral.

    In 1977 the institution appointed the influential oceanographer John Steele as director, and he served until his retirement in 1989.

    On 1 September 1985, a joint French-American expedition led by Jean-Louis Michel of IFREMER and Robert Ballard of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution identified the location of the wreck of the RMS Titanic which sank off the coast of Newfoundland 15 April 1912.

    On 3 April 2011, within a week of resuming of the search operation for Air France Flight 447, a team led by WHOI, operating full ocean depth autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) owned by the Waitt Institute discovered, by means of sidescan sonar, a large portion of debris field from flight AF447.

    In March 2017 the institution effected an open-access policy to make its research publicly accessible online.

    The Institution has maintained a long and controversial business collaboration with the treasure hunter company Odyssey Marine. Likewise, WHOI has participated in the location of the San José galleon in Colombia for the commercial exploitation of the shipwreck by the Government of President Santos and a private company.

    In 2019, iDefense reported that China’s hackers had launched cyberattacks on dozens of academic institutions in an attempt to gain information on technology being developed for the United States Navy. Some of the targets included the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The attacks have been underway since at least April 2017.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:43 pm on December 21, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Science at sea", , , , , Oceanography, STEMSEAS program, , This research cruise traveled through the Delaware and Chesapeake Bays as well as the Atlantic Ocean., Undergraduate hands-on research on the open seas as part of the National Science Foundation’s STEM Student Experiences Aboard Ship (STEMSEAS) program.   

    From The University of Delaware : “Science at sea” 

    U Delaware bloc

    From The University of Delaware

    12.20.22
    Adam Thomas
    Photos courtesy of Jordan Rosales

    1
    University of Delaware undergraduate student Jordan Rosales was one of six UD students who took part in the National Science Foundation’s STEM Student Experiences Aboard Ship (STEMSEAS) program in October. Rosales said the experience on the ship helped him realize that he wants to explore research relating to the geology of marine science.

    During the 2022 fall semester, six University of Delaware undergraduate students as well as one student each from The George Washington University, The American University, and a recent Randolph College alumnus, conducted hands-on research on the open seas as part of the National Science Foundation’s STEM Student Experiences Aboard Ship (STEMSEAS) program. 

    The students departed from The University of Delaware’s Hugh R. Sharp campus in Lewes and spent Oct. 15-22 aboard the R/V Hugh R. Sharp, collecting water samples to look for microplastics and taking core samples of sediment from the seafloor.

    1
    University of Delaware R/V Hugh R. Sharp

    The research cruise traveled through the Delaware and Chesapeake Bays as well as the Atlantic Ocean.

    According to the STEMSEAS website, the program’s goal is to provide ship-based exploratory experiences for undergraduates from diverse backgrounds aboard the NSF-funded U.S. academic fleet of research vessels. Students sail with experienced faculty and graduate student mentors and engage in geoscience and oceanography activities. 

    Sue Ebanks, professor at The Savannah State University in the Department of Marine and Environmental Sciences, Michael Toomey from The U.S. Geological Survey, and Savannah Geiger, who recently received her Master of Science degree in marine sciences from The Savannah State University, served as the professional and graduate student mentors for the cruise participants. Geiger also served as the official Chief Scientist for the expedition.  

    Jonathan Cohen, associate professor in The School of Marine Science and Policy and the marine science undergraduate coordinator for The University of Delaware’s College of Earth, Ocean and Environment (CEOE), said that the STEMSEAS research cruise afforded undergraduate students a unique research experience. 

    “Opportunities for undergraduates to experience science on oceanographic vessels are rare. Research cruises are expensive, and berths are limited,” said Cohen. “The STEMSEAS program provides undergraduates with the unique chance to be active participants in a cruise just for them. These sorts of immersive experiences have profound impacts on students, helping them find aspects of science they want to do more of and perhaps aspects they never want to do again. We were fortunate that this recent cruise was in our own backyard and took on some of our students.” 

    For Jordan Rosales, an Honors junior in CEOE majoring in geological sciences with a minor in coastal and marine geological sciences, the cruise allowed him to get experience with a variety of sampling equipment.  

    Rosales said that among the different tools he used during the cruise were a gravity corer — a corer that allows researchers to sample and study sediment layers from the seafloor — as well as a vibracorer, a multi-corer and a sediment grabber.

    “I’ve learned about those instruments previously in my classes so being able to see them in person and be able to help set it up and talk about it was like a really good experience,” said Rosales.

    As someone who has always been interested in rocks as well as the ocean, Rosales said the experience opened his eyes to how he can blend those two interests together for a future career. 

    “I feel like this experience has shaped me and made me want to look at going into the geology of marine science, rather than on-land geology,” said Rosales. “Getting the hands-on opportunity and seeing what a marine geologist actually does and seeing it firsthand, it completely changed everything. I feel like I made a good career choice and am interested in going to graduate school to continue to pursue it.”

    2
    During the National Science Foundation’s STEM Student Experiences Aboard Ship (STEMSEAS) program, undergraduate students from UD got to work with equipment such as a vibracorer which is shown being set up here. This type of equipment allowed the students to get hands-on experience taking core samples of sediment from the seafloor.

    Christina Martinez was the lone first-year student from The University of Delaware on board and heard about the opportunity from an email that Cohen sent out to the undergraduate students. She said that it was a great opportunity to get research experience early in her academic journey, even if it was a bit unnerving to spend so much time out at sea.

    “It was a little scary at first because I have never been on a boat for so long,” said Martinez. “I’ve done the New Jersey-Cape May ferry a bunch of times and small things like that but nothing like the [R/V Sharp].” 

    Martinez said that she enjoyed seeing how the Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) equipment was used to collect water samples for microplastic analysis, and that she enjoyed how the students got to conduct different research at the various stations set up during their journey. 

    “The stations they had us cycle through were really interesting, and there were always new sites to see, new conversations to be had about the research and new questions to be asked,” said Martinez.

    In addition to the research aspect of the cruise, the students also have to keep up with homework in between conducting research at the various stations. 

    Martinez said during these moments in between or after the research was completed, it was great to get to know her fellow cruise participants — especially one night when they all decided to stargaze. 

    “We went to the bow of the Sharp, which is a pretty open place up there, and all of us just laid out on the bow, looked at stars and talked about different aspects of the trip,” said Martinez. “That was definitely my favorite part.” 

    One of the other cruise participants invited Martinez to Lewes to participate in a small business fair in December, where she will be able to display and sell her Otterly Knittable crocheted aquatic stuffed animals — a business venture she does in addition to being a student. 

    She said that those types of connections would not have formed had it not been for participating in the cruise. 

    “Being so young, I was surprised that they even accepted me,” said Martinez. “While it was nerve-wracking at first, once I got there, everybody was so nice and it was a very respectful community. I had no problem fitting right in.” 

    Students interested in sailing on a STEMSEAS expedition can apply online for the 2023 season at http://www.stemseas.com.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

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    U Delaware campus

    The University of Delaware is a public land-grant research university located in Newark, Delaware. University of Delaware (US) is the largest university in Delaware. It offers three associate’s programs, 148 bachelor’s programs, 121 master’s programs (with 13 joint degrees), and 55 doctoral programs across its eight colleges. The main campus is in Newark, with satellite campuses in Dover, the Wilmington area, Lewes, and Georgetown. It is considered a large institution with approximately 18,200 undergraduate and 4,200 graduate students. It is a privately governed university which receives public funding for being a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant state-supported research institution.

    The University of Delaware is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to The National Science Foundation, UD spent $186 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 119th in the nation. It is recognized with the Community Engagement Classification by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

    The University of Delaware is one of only four schools in North America with a major in art conservation. In 1923, it was the first American university to offer a study-abroad program.

    The University of Delaware traces its origins to a “Free School,” founded in New London, Pennsylvania in 1743. The school moved to Newark, Delaware by 1765, becoming the Newark Academy. The academy trustees secured a charter for Newark College in 1833 and the academy became part of the college, which changed its name to Delaware College in 1843. While it is not considered one of the colonial colleges because it was not a chartered institution of higher education during the colonial era, its original class of ten students included George Read, Thomas McKean, and James Smith, all three of whom went on to sign the Declaration of Independence. Read also later signed the United States Constitution.

    Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus

    On October 23, 2009, The University of Delaware signed an agreement with Chrysler to purchase a shuttered vehicle assembly plant adjacent to the university for $24.25 million as part of Chrysler’s bankruptcy restructuring plan. The university has developed the 272-acre (1.10 km^2) site into the Science, Technology and Advanced Research (STAR) Campus. The site is the new home of University of Delaware (US)’s College of Health Sciences, which includes teaching and research laboratories and several public health clinics. The STAR Campus also includes research facilities for University of Delaware (US)’s vehicle-to-grid technology, as well as Delaware Technology Park, SevOne, CareNow, Independent Prosthetics and Orthotics, and the East Coast headquarters of Bloom Energy. In 2020 [needs an update], University of Delaware expects to open the Ammon Pinozzotto Biopharmaceutical Innovation Center, which will become the new home of the UD-led National Institute for Innovation in Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals. Also, Chemours recently opened its global research and development facility, known as the Discovery Hub, on the STAR Campus in 2020. The new Newark Regional Transportation Center on the STAR Campus will serve passengers of Amtrak and regional rail.

    Academics

    The university is organized into nine colleges:

    Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics
    College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
    College of Arts and Sciences
    College of Earth, Ocean and Environment
    College of Education and Human Development
    College of Engineering
    College of Health Sciences
    Graduate College
    Honors College

    There are also five schools:

    Joseph R. Biden, Jr. School of Public Policy and Administration (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)
    School of Education (part of the College of Education & Human Development)
    School of Marine Science and Policy (part of the College of Earth, Ocean and Environment)
    School of Nursing (part of the College of Health Sciences)
    School of Music (part of the College of Arts & Sciences)

     
  • richardmitnick 1:55 pm on December 17, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "NASA launches international mission to survey Earth's water", , , CNES-The National Centre for Space Studies [Centre national d'études spatiales](FR), , , NASA JPL-Caltech/ CNES SWOT [Surface Water and Ocean Topography] spacecraft, Observing nearly all the water on our planet's surface, Oceanography, Precisely determining the height of the water's surface, SWOT will cover the entire Earth's surface between 78 degrees south and 78 degrees north latitude at least once every 21 days., , The SWOT mission will provide is a significantly clearer picture of Earth's freshwater bodies-more than 95% of the world's lakes larger than 15 acres and rivers wider than 330 feet., Warming seas and extreme weather and more severe wildfires—these are only some of the consequences humanity is facing due to climate change.   

    From The National Aeronautics and Space Administration And CNES-The National Centre for Space Studies [Centre national d’études spatiales](FR) Via “phys.org” : “NASA launches international mission to survey Earth’s water” 

    From The National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    And

    CNES The National Centre for Space Studies [Centre national d’études spatiales](FR)

    Via

    “phys.org”

    12.16.22

    A satellite built for NASA and the French space agency Center National d’Études Spatiales (CNES) to observe nearly all the water on our planet’s surface lifted off on its way to low-Earth orbit at 3:46 a.m. PST on Friday. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) spacecraft also has contributions from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and the UK Space Agency.

    The SWOT spacecraft launched atop a SpaceX rocket from Space Launch Complex 4E at Vandenberg Space Force Base in California with a prime mission of three years. The satellite will measure the height of water in freshwater bodies and the ocean on more than 90% of Earth’s surface. This information will provide insights into how the ocean influences climate change; how a warming world affects lakes, rivers, and reservoirs; and how communities can better prepare for disasters, such as floods.

    After SWOT separated from the second stage of a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket, ground controllers successfully acquired the satellite’s signal. Initial telemetry reports showed the spacecraft in good health. SWOT will now undergo a series of checks and calibrations before it starts collecting science data in about six months.

    “Warming seas and extreme weather and more severe wildfires—these are only some of the consequences humanity is facing due to climate change,” said NASA Administrator Bill Nelson. “The climate crisis requires an all-hands-on-deck approach, and SWOT is the realization of a long-standing international partnership that will ultimately better equip communities so that they can face these challenges.”

    SWOT will cover the entire Earth’s surface between 78 degrees south and 78 degrees north latitude at least once every 21 days, sending back about one terabyte of unprocessed data per day. The scientific heart of the spacecraft is an innovative instrument called the Ka-band radar interferometer (KaRIn), which marks a major technological advance. KaRIn bounces radar pulses off the water’s surface and receives the return signal using two antennas on either side of the spacecraft. This arrangement—one signal, two antennas—will enable engineers to precisely determine the height of the water’s surface across two swaths at a time, each of them 30 miles (50 kilometers) wide.

    “We’re eager to see SWOT in action,” said Karen St. Germain, NASA Earth Science Division director. “This satellite embodies how we are improving life on Earth through science and technological innovations. The data that innovation will provide is essential to better understanding how Earth’s air, water, and ecosystems interact—and how people can thrive on our changing planet.”

    Among the many benefits the SWOT mission will provide is a significantly clearer picture of Earth’s freshwater bodies. It will provide data on more than 95% of the world’s lakes larger than 15 acres (62,500 square meters) and rivers wider than 330 feet (100 meters) across. Currently, freshwater researchers have reliable measurements for only a few thousand lakes around the world. SWOT will push that number into the millions.

    Along the coast, SWOT will provide information on sea level, filling in observational gaps in areas that don’t have tide gauges or other instruments that measure sea surface height. Over time, that data can help researchers better track sea level rise, which will directly impact communities and coastal ecosystems.

    Such an ambitious mission is possible because of NASA’s long-standing commitment to working with agencies around the world to study Earth and its climate. NASA and CNES have built upon a decades-long relationship that started in the 1980s to monitor Earth’s oceans. This collaboration pioneered the use of a space-based instrument called an altimeter to study sea level with the launch of the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite in 1992.

    “This mission marks the continuity of 30 years of collaboration between NASA and CNES in altimetry,” said Caroline Laurent, CNES Orbital Systems and Applications director. “It shows how international collaboration can be achieved through a breakthrough mission that will help us better understand climate change and its effects around the world.”

    SWOT measurements will also help researchers, policymakers, and resource managers better assess and plan for things, including floods and droughts. By providing information on where the water is—where it’s coming from and where it’s going—researchers can improve flood projections for rivers and monitor drought effects on lakes and reservoirs.

    “SWOT will provide vital information, given the urgent challenges posed by climate change and sea level rise,” said Laurie Leshin, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory director. JPL developed the KaRIn instrument and manages the U.S. portion of the mission. “That SWOT will fill gaps in our knowledge and inform future action is the direct result of commitment, innovation, and collaboration going back many years. We’re excited to get SWOT science underway.”

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation’s civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research.

    President Dwight D. Eisenhower established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958 with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science. The National Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 29, 1958, disestablishing NASA’s predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency became operational on October 1, 1958.

    Since that time, most U.S. space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo moon-landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle. Currently, NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Commercial Crew vehicles. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program (LSP) which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. Most recently, NASA announced a new Space Launch System that it said would take the agency’s astronauts farther into space than ever before and lay the cornerstone for future human space exploration efforts by the U.S.

    NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System, advancing heliophysics through the efforts of the Science Mission Directorate’s Heliophysics Research Program, exploring bodies throughout the Solar System with advanced robotic missions such as New Horizons, and researching astrophysics topics, such as the Big Bang, through the Great Observatories [Hubble, Chandra,
    Spitzer and associated programs, and now the NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope. NASA shares data with various national and international organizations such as from the [JAXA]Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:40 pm on December 14, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "ACT": Agulhas Current Time Series—three research cruises from 2010 to 2013., "Making waves - Oceanographer braves the elements to unlock secrets of the sea" University of Miami oceanographer Lisa Beal, , , Beal once spent 47 straight days at sea as part of the field phase of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment crossing the Indian Ocean from South Africa to Australia., , It is like being on a roller coaster., Oceanography, Seasoned skippers steer their vessels away from the violent waves and into calmer waters., The Agulhas carries 400 times the discharge of the Amazon River., The Agulhas Current in the Indian Ocean: The powerful swells can break a container ship in half., The Agulhas Current is one of the swiftest and strongest in the world., The current has broadened and not strengthened since the early 1990s., , , These regions of the Indian Ocean are warming at three times the rate of the rest of the world’s oceans.   

    From The Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science At The University of Miami: “Making waves – Oceanographer braves the elements to unlock secrets of the sea” University of Miami oceanographer Lisa Beal 

    1

    From The Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science

    At

    The University of Miami

    12.13.22
    Robert C. Jones Jr.

    1
    University of Miami oceanographer Lisa Beal. University of Miami professor Lisa Beal poses in the water off Key Biscayne holding a MicroCAT scientific instrument that measures conductivity, temperature, and pressure of the ocean water. Photo: Joshua Prezant/University of Miami.

    University of Miami oceanographer Lisa Beal is renowned for her field studies on the Agulhas Current and its impact on climate change.

    The powerful swells can break a container ship in half. 

    Lisa Beal had heard mariners talk about the force of such waves, but she never really believed them, dismissing their accounts as tall sea tales. 

    Then, one day during a research expedition to the Indian Ocean, she experienced what makes rogue waves so dangerous. 

    “I can only describe it as being on a roller coaster. One minute, you’re seeing nothing but the ocean; the next, only the sky,” the University of Miami physical oceanographer recalled of her encounter with the unusually steep swells, which can overwhelm and damage even the largest of ships. 

    Seasoned skippers steer their vessels away from such violent waves and into calmer waters. But on the day Beal experienced them, the sea was unforgiving. The swells, spawned by a storm born in the Southern Ocean, came upon the R/V Melville so fast, there was no time to navigate into safer waters. So, the ship’s captain pointed the bow into the waves to ride out the storm. And Beal, standing on the bridge, grabbed hold of a rail and hung on for dear life. By the time the waves had finished tossing the 279-foot Melville about, the vessel had strayed more than 100 miles from where it was supposed to be.

    If Beal had entertained any thoughts of abandoning the cruise, she quickly dismissed them, for she had come to the Indian Ocean for an important reason. The Agulhas Current, one of the swiftest and strongest in the world, makes its home there, influencing climate patterns around the globe. Beal wanted to learn more about how it does so, and the moorings, current meters, and other scientific equipment she and her team of researchers secured on the Melville’s deck would help her find out. 

    “It’s the Indian Ocean’s version of the Gulf Stream, but it’s a bit of an enigma,” Beal, a professor of ocean sciences at the University’s Rosenstiel School of Marine, Atmospheric, and Earth Science, said of the Agulhas Current. 

    Studying the Agulhas

    A western boundary current, the Agulhas flows along the east coast of South Africa, transporting warm, salty water toward the Southern Ocean. 

    Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama mentions the current in ship’s logs during his 1497 voyage from Lisbon to India, describing how his flotilla of four ships encountered a strong, southward current near South Africa’s Port Elizabeth that held them back for three days. “Western boundary currents are some of the most intense in the ocean,” said Beal, noting that the Agulhas carries 400 times the discharge of the Amazon River. 

    She has studied the Agulhas since her graduate school days at the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom, deploying to the Indian Ocean on nine expeditions that lasted for weeks at sea. As chief scientist on those cruises, Beal quantified how much water, heat, and salt the Agulhas carries as an artery of Earth’s climate system.

    Her Agulhas Current Time (ACT) Series—three research cruises from 2010 to 2013, one of which saw her experience rogue waves while on the Melville—produced some of the most captivating, and surprising, scientific data on the current. Combining shipboard measurements with more than 20 years of satellite data, she and her team discovered that the current has broadened, not strengthened, since the early 1990s. 

    “We weren’t expecting that,” Beal said. “Based on observations from space, we’ve seen that these regions are warming at three times the rate of the rest of the world’s oceans. We also understand from atmospheric scientists that the world’s wind systems are intensifying and expanding poleward with climate change. So, we expected the Agulhas was intensifying over time. But that just isn’t the case. It has broadened, and it may even weaken in the future largely because there are now more eddies. So, the current is more turbulent.” 

    That study, which was funded by the National Science Foundation, suggests that the rapid rates of warming in western boundary current regions may be related to more turbulence of those current systems. 

    She followed up her ACT voyages with a joint scientific mission with South African scientists in 2016—this time, studying heat carried by the Agulhas. The current dominates the heat budget of the Indian Ocean, impacting sea level rise, sea surface temperature, East African rainfall, and storm tracks. And some of the current’s waters even leak directly into the Atlantic Ocean. “Any heat that’s exchanged from the Indian Ocean either continues poleward or moves into the Atlantic, and it can change or moderate climate in those different regions. So, we wanted to get a handle on that,” Beal explained. 

    Combining moored measurements with a cluster of robotic instruments that drift throughout the ocean, moving up and down between the surface and midwater level, Beal and her team were able to estimate for the first time how the heat transport of the Indian Ocean varies over time.

    Upcoming deployment 

    A 26-day expedition in March 2023 aboard the Scripps Institution of Oceanography’s 277-foot Roger Revelle will be unlike any scientific cruise Beal has ever led. “We’ll again be following Agulhas waters, but our focus will expand into the Atlantic,” she said. “The Agulhas flows along the South African coast, but that boundary eventually runs out. You get to the Cape of Good Hope and it’s just open ocean from there.” 

    The main current doubles back on itself to remain in the Indian Ocean, but as it does so, it sheds rings, eddies, and filaments that carry warm, turbulent waters into the Atlantic. “And any time the atmosphere or ocean system can transport heat from one place to another, it’s going to affect climate fundamentally,” Beal said. 

    In the past, scientists, including Beal, have only been able to estimate how much water from the Indian Ocean moves into the Atlantic by observing drifters and floats that have crossed from one of the oceans to the other. But only a handful of those instruments have made that passage, leaving a huge gap in what scientists know about Agulhas leakage. 

    During the upcoming March expedition, Beal, co-principal investigator Kathleen Donohue of the University of Rhode Island, and an international team of researchers will take a novel approach to study the Agulhas, employing a multitude of instruments to measure the diffusion—or eddy flux—of heat through the open ocean of the Cape Basin. They will use surface drifters and robotic floats; ‘tricked out’ moorings with 30 to 40 instruments strung over four kilometers of vertical wire; automated vehicles such as gliders, sail-buoys, and sea-explorers; as well as something called a WireFlyer, a new instrument invented by University of Rhode Island ocean engineer Chris Roman that is capable of sampling vertical swaths of the ocean. All these measurements will dovetail with NASA’s new SWOT satellite that will observe the dynamics of the ocean surface at unprecedented small scales, Beal said.

    The nearly month-long expedition will not be the longest deployment for Beal. She once spent 47 straight days at sea as part of the field phase of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, crossing the Indian Ocean from South Africa to Australia. “I stayed sane by breaking out some Michael Jackson moves on the flying bridge, listening on my fancy, new iPod,” Beal said. 

    Long sea voyages 

    Extended research voyages to unlock the secrets of the sea, Beal said, can strain the emotions, challenging a scientist’s patience when it comes to living in close quarters with others and not being able to see or speak to loved ones for days on end. 

    “It’s this odd other existence away from your typical life, and it’s not for everybody,” Beal said. “You’re sometimes thrown together with other researchers and crew members you don’t know. So, you end up lacking the support of family and friends. So, it can be tough, especially for women.” She recounted experiences of harassment and disrespect at the hands of some male crew members and scientists. “It has gotten better for women, but we still have a way to go,” she said. 

    Long scientific cruises, she said, are also immensely rewarding. “They can bring some intense happiness. While it’s just you and a ship and the endless ocean, you do make friends for life. We know that we’re working together as a team to accomplish something, that we’re working together out there to be safe,” Beal said. “And there’s no substitute for teamwork out there; there’s no individuality about it. Even meals are taken together.”

    Beal has logged 357 days at sea on 17 research voyages to the Atlantic and Indian oceans, serving as chief scientist on many of those expeditions. 

    The role our oceans play in shaping global climate has been vastly underestimated, Beal pointed out. 

    “In terms of the global carbon cycle, our oceans have huge reserves of carbon, and they’re able to cycle that carbon back and forth with the atmosphere on much shorter timescales,” Beal said. “They also hold more than 90 percent of the excess heat trapped in the Earth system due to human-induced climate change. So, the questions we have are, ‘How long will that heat remain in the ocean? Where will it be given up to the atmosphere? And how will those feed-backs from the ocean to the atmosphere affect the future of our climate?’ ” 

    Beal’s ocean deployments are well worth it, as the data she collects, analyzes, and releases can help a myriad of sources around the world, from scientists who write the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports to government officials who want to know where the heat and carbon in the ocean is going. 

    But had Beal pursued a passion born during her teenage years, she might have been hauling people and supplies to remote areas in Africa as an aviator instead of plying the seas as a scientist studying the link between the oceans and climate. “I started out in aeronautical engineering, and I wanted to be a bush pilot,” she recalled. “I saw the movie ‘Out of Africa.’ I wanted to be Robert Redford. It didn’t occur to me that others would expect me to be Meryl Streep.” 

    Beal is a longtime advocate for women and underrepresented groups in the sciences. “In order to embrace what science informs us about ourselves and our planet, everyone needs to be a part of it,” Beal said. “When we do not include everyone in the science, we have blind spots. And the science suffers.” 

    To promote women in oceanography, Beal produced a short film that has been adopted by the Smithsonian. She also led a group of South African schoolchildren on a tour of a U.S. research vessel while in Cape Town, and she co-organized the first American Geophysical Union Chapman Conference on the African continent. On the international stage, Beal led a review of the state of the Indian Ocean observing system on behalf of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, and she is currently diversifying the board at the Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, where she has served as editor in chief since 2021. 

    Beal is forever connected to the ocean. Her favorite pastime? Ocean swimming. 

    “After I moved to Miami, I joined the Nadadores Swim Team. We’re a fun-loving LGBTQ-friendly team with three practices a week. During the pandemic, all the pools were closed, and we started open-water swimming. Now I swim two miles in the ocean most Sundays with the Dolphins and Rainbows swim group, in addition to one or two practices a week with the Nadadores,” Beal said. “For me, ocean swimming is therapy, exercise, and community.”

    See the full article here.

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    2

    The Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science is an academic and research institution for the study of oceanography and the atmospheric sciences within the University of Miami. It is located on a 16-acre (65,000 m^²) campus on Virginia Key in Miami, Florida. It is the only subtropical applied and basic marine and atmospheric research institute in the continental United States.

    Up until 2008, RSMAS was solely a graduate school within the University of Miami, while it jointly administrated an undergraduate program with UM’s College of Arts and Sciences. In 2008, the Rosenstiel School has taken over administrative responsibilities for the undergraduate program, granting Bachelor of Science in Marine and Atmospheric Science (BSMAS) and Bachelor of Arts in Marine Affairs (BAMA) baccalaureate degree. Master’s, including a Master of Professional Science degree, and doctorates are also awarded to RSMAS students by the UM Graduate School.

    The Rosenstiel School’s research includes the study of marine life, particularly Aplysia and coral; climate change; air-sea interactions; coastal ecology; and admiralty law. The school operates a marine research laboratory ship, and has a research site at an inland sinkhole. Research also includes the use of data from weather satellites and the school operates its own satellite downlink facility. The school is home to the world’s largest hurricane simulation tank.

    The University of Miami is a private research university in Coral Gables, Florida. As of 2020, the university enrolled approximately 18,000 students in 12 separate colleges and schools, including the Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine in Miami’s Health District, a law school on the main campus, and the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science focused on the study of oceanography and atmospheric sciences on Virginia Key, with research facilities at the Richmond Facility in southern Miami-Dade County.

    The university offers 132 undergraduate, 148 master’s, and 67 doctoral degree programs, of which 63 are research/scholarship and 4 are professional areas of study. Over the years, the university’s students have represented all 50 states and close to 150 foreign countries. With more than 16,000 full- and part-time faculty and staff, The University of Miami is a top 10 employer in Miami-Dade County. The University of Miami’s main campus in Coral Gables has 239 acres and over 5.7 million square feet of buildings.

    The University of Miami is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. The University of Miami research expenditure in FY 2019 was $358.9 million. The University of Miami offers a large library system with over 3.9 million volumes and exceptional holdings in Cuban heritage and music.

    The University of Miami also offers a wide range of student activities, including fraternities and sororities, and hundreds of student organizations. The Miami Hurricane, the student newspaper, and WVUM, the student-run radio station, have won multiple collegiate awards. The University of Miami’s intercollegiate athletic teams, collectively known as the Miami Hurricanes, compete in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. The University of Miami’s football team has won five national championships since 1983 and its baseball team has won four national championships since 1982.

    Research

    The University of Miami is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. In fiscal year 2016, The University of Miami received $195 million in federal research funding, including $131.3 million from the Department of Health and Human Services and $14.1 million from the National Science Foundation. Of the $8.2 billion appropriated by Congress in 2009 as a part of the stimulus bill for research priorities of The National Institutes of Health, the Miller School received $40.5 million. In addition to research conducted in the individual academic schools and departments, Miami has the following university-wide research centers:

    The Center for Computational Science
    The Institute for Cuban and Cuban-American Studies (ICCAS)
    Leonard and Jayne Abess Center for Ecosystem Science and Policy
    The Miami European Union Center: This group is a consortium with Florida International University (FIU) established in fall 2001 with a grant from the European Commission through its delegation in Washington, D.C., intended to research economic, social, and political issues of interest to the European Union.
    The Sue and Leonard Miller Center for Contemporary Judaic Studies
    John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics – studies possible causes of Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and macular degeneration.
    Center on Research and Education for Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE)
    Wallace H. Coulter Center for Translational Research

    The Miller School of Medicine receives more than $200 million per year in external grants and contracts to fund 1,500 ongoing projects. The medical campus includes more than 500,000 sq ft (46,000 m^2) of research space and the The University of Miami Life Science Park, which has an additional 2,000,000 sq ft (190,000 m^2) of space adjacent to the medical campus. The University of Miami’s Interdisciplinary Stem Cell Institute seeks to understand the biology of stem cells and translate basic research into new regenerative therapies.

    As of 2008, The Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science receives $50 million in annual external research funding. Their laboratories include a salt-water wave tank, a five-tank Conditioning and Spawning System, multi-tank Aplysia Culture Laboratory, Controlled Corals Climate Tanks, and DNA analysis equipment. The campus also houses an invertebrate museum with 400,000 specimens and operates the Bimini Biological Field Station, an array of oceanographic high-frequency radar along the US east coast, and the Bermuda aerosol observatory. The University of Miami also owns the Little Salt Spring, a site on the National Register of Historic Places, in North Port, Florida, where RSMAS performs archaeological and paleontological research.

    The University of Miami built a brain imaging annex to the James M. Cox Jr. Science Center within the College of Arts and Sciences. The building includes a human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) laboratory, where scientists, clinicians, and engineers can study fundamental aspects of brain function. Construction of the lab was funded in part by a $14.8 million in stimulus money grant from the National Institutes of Health.

    In 2016 the university received $161 million in science and engineering funding from the U.S. federal government, the largest Hispanic-serving recipient and 56th overall. $117 million of the funding was through the Department of Health and Human Services and was used largely for the medical campus.

    The University of Miami maintains one of the largest centralized academic cyber infrastructures in the country with numerous assets. The Center for Computational Science High Performance Computing group has been in continuous operation since 2007. Over that time the core has grown from a zero HPC cyberinfrastructure to a regional high-performance computing environment that currently supports more than 1,200 users, 220 TFlops of computational power, and more than 3 Petabytes of disk storage.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:32 am on December 14, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Fighting ocean acidification one oyster at a time", , , , , , , Ocean acidification isn’t just a Washington state issue. It’s a global phenomenon., Ocean acidification’s threat became visible when those oysters’ seeds were reaching unprecedented mortality rates., Oceanography, Oceans absorb nearly 30% of the carbon dioxide produced by human activity., Pacific oysters among other popular west coast seafood products are vulnerable to ocean acidification., Something was causing an usually high mortality rate among the tiny baby oysters: ocean acidification., The shellfish industry now monitors the pH in hatchery waters and adds soda ash — a harmless additive — when needed to allow the seed clams and oysters and geoduck to thrive., , The University of Washington Earth Lab   

    From The University of Washington : “Fighting ocean acidification one oyster at a time” 

    From The University of Washington

    12.14.22
    Story by Jackson Holtz
    Photos by Dennis Wise

    1
    Pacific oysters, among other popular west coast seafood products, are vulnerable to ocean acidification – the oyster industry is a leader on raising awareness of the issue and advocating for action. Credit: The University of Washington Earth Lab.

    Worldwide, the ocean plays an invaluable service to the planet by absorbing nearly 30% of the carbon dioxide produced by human activity. Yet this also drives a series of reactions that change seawater chemistry, and as a result the oceans are becoming more acidified, which poses a suite of problems to some marine organisms.

    At first, Washington shellfish farmers thought it might be bacteria.

    Something was causing an usually high mortality rate among the tiny baby oysters.

    “We were having zero survival,” said Diani Taylor, a fifth-generation shellfish farmer. “We were very concerned.”

    This was back in 2007. What scientists have since learned is that it wasn’t bacteria killing the molluscs at all. It was the seawater itself. The ocean was becoming more acidified.

    But instead of devastating an industry that generates millions of dollars each year, shellfish companies began adapting. The shellfish industry now monitors the pH in hatchery waters and adds soda ash — a harmless additive — when needed to allow the seed clams, oysters and geoduck to thrive.

    “It’s made a huge impact,” said Taylor, who grew up working in the Taylor Shellfish family business and today is the company’s general counsel.

    The company, the largest producer of farmed shellfish in the country, has nearly 600 employees working at its hatcheries, farms, processing facilities and restaurants.

    Taylor Shellfish and other shellfish farmers now are partners with the University of Washington to collect and share data through EarthLab’s Washington Ocean Acidification Center.


    Supporting communities through ocean acidification research.

    Born from a Washington State Blue Ribbon Panel, the center was established at the University of Washington in 2013 by the Legislature to make sure actions to address ocean acidification have a strong backbone in science. Along with colleagues and collaborators at state and federal agencies, it was up to co-directors Jan Newton and Terrie Klinger to bring the new center to life, ensuring it serves the needs of Washington citizens.

    “When we first were funded by the Legislature to stand up the Washington Ocean Acidification Center, there was no precedent. It was exciting to implement the guidance from the panel to build, with our partners, something valuable to the state,” said Newton, a UW oceanographer and professor.

    Ocean acidification isn’t just a Washington state issue. It’s a global phenomenon.

    Worldwide, the ocean plays an invaluable service to the planet by absorbing nearly 30% of the carbon dioxide produced by human activity. Yet this also drives a series of reactions that change seawater chemistry, and as a result the oceans are becoming more acidified, which poses a suite of problems to some marine organisms, including the tide-tumbled oyster varieties like Shigoku, Fat Bastard and Grand Cru.

    In Washington, ocean acidification’s threat became visible when those oysters’ seeds were reaching unprecedented mortality rates. That’s because corrosive seawater compromises the ability of shellfish to form their shells, especially in the animal’s early days.

    Answers began surfacing when scientists, including those at the Washington Ocean Acidification Center, NOAA and Oregon State University, connected with shellfish growers and other partners, helping solve what initially seemed like an intractable problem.

    Now, thanks to the collaborative work between research scientists and shellfish farmers, the industry has new tools to manage corrosive water: real-time monitoring of water conditions at the hatcheries and nearby waters, viewable via the online portal NANOOS; adding buffering agents to incoming seawater; and tracking forecasts of unfavorable water conditions through LiveOcean, a model that forecasts when Washington’s waters are particularly corrosive.

    Using a suite of inputs to the model – like ocean currents, weather, water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and more – LiveOcean issues a three-day forecast of ocean conditions that are useful to numerous communities, including shellfish farmers, like Taylor Shellfish.

    By checking the forecast, farmers can decide if the conditions are favorable to set out baby oysters to start growing in the ocean or if they should wait until conditions improve. All this comes from a free website that provides real-time forecasting data for marine waters across the Pacific Northwest.

    With partners, the Washington Ocean Acidification Center works to monitor and model Washington waters, both on the coast and throughout the Salish Sea, which includes Puget Sound. The center emphasizes using results from both monitoring and modeling together to advance knowledge.

    In many cases, these tools have allowed shellfish – and the industry – to continue thriving.

    2
    The University of Washington Earth Lab.

    Over the years, the center’s approach to research has become even more sophisticated, all while remaining “grounded on the Blue Ribbon Panel recommendations to sustain observations, modeling, and biological experiments relevant to ocean acidification,” Newton said.

    Researchers now can start telling the story of how ocean acidification threatens ocean food webs, which underpin the eye-popping amount of wildlife and productivity in Puget Sound.

    “We’re trying to use the lens of ocean acidification to help solve bigger problems,” said Klinger, a University of Washington professor of marine and environmental affairs. “We’ve grown since our establishment and are moving from just a focus on, let’s say shellfish, also to include salmon, forage fish, harmful algal blooms and other parts of our ecosystem that are really important to the region.”

    Expanding the focus matters because it can answer questions at ecological scales, helping decision-makers better understand the threats to the tiniest creatures in the ecosystem all the way up to the big ones, like the endangered southern resident orca whales.

    “Ocean acidification is one issue we can work around,” said Taylor, the shellfish farmer. “The more we learn the more complicated it becomes.”

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.
    Stem Education Coalition

    u-washington-campus

    The University of Washington is one of the world’s preeminent public universities. Our impact on individuals, on our region, and on the world is profound — whether we are launching young people into a boundless future or confronting the grand challenges of our time through undaunted research and scholarship. Ranked number 10 in the world in Shanghai Jiao Tong University rankings and educating more than 54,000 students annually, our students and faculty work together to turn ideas into impact and in the process transform lives and our world. For more about our impact on the world, every day.

    So what defines us —the students, faculty and community members at the University of Washington? Above all, it’s our belief in possibility and our unshakable optimism. It’s a connection to others, both near and far. It’s a hunger that pushes us to tackle challenges and pursue progress. It’s the conviction that together we can create a world of good. Join us on the journey.

    The University of Washington is a public research university in Seattle, Washington, United States. Founded in 1861, University of Washington is one of the oldest universities on the West Coast; it was established in downtown Seattle approximately a decade after the city’s founding to aid its economic development. Today, the university’s 703-acre main Seattle campus is in the University District above the Montlake Cut, within the urban Puget Sound region of the Pacific Northwest. The university has additional campuses in Tacoma and Bothell. Overall, University of Washington encompasses over 500 buildings and over 20 million gross square footage of space, including one of the largest library systems in the world with more than 26 university libraries, as well as the UW Tower, lecture halls, art centers, museums, laboratories, stadiums, and conference centers. The university offers bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees through 140 departments in various colleges and schools, sees a total student enrollment of roughly 46,000 annually, and functions on a quarter system.

    University of Washington is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to the National Science Foundation, UW spent $1.41 billion on research and development in 2018, ranking it 5th in the nation. As the flagship institution of the six public universities in Washington state, it is known for its medical, engineering and scientific research as well as its highly competitive computer science and engineering programs. Additionally, University of Washington continues to benefit from its deep historic ties and major collaborations with numerous technology giants in the region, such as Amazon, Boeing, Nintendo, and particularly Microsoft. Paul G. Allen, Bill Gates and others spent significant time at Washington computer labs for a startup venture before founding Microsoft and other ventures. The University of Washington’s 22 varsity sports teams are also highly competitive, competing as the Huskies in the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA Division I, representing the United States at the Olympic Games, and other major competitions.

    The university has been affiliated with many notable alumni and faculty, including 21 Nobel Prize laureates and numerous Pulitzer Prize winners, Fulbright Scholars, Rhodes Scholars and Marshall Scholars.

    In 1854, territorial governor Isaac Stevens recommended the establishment of a university in the Washington Territory. Prominent Seattle-area residents, including Methodist preacher Daniel Bagley, saw this as a chance to add to the city’s potential and prestige. Bagley learned of a law that allowed United States territories to sell land to raise money in support of public schools. At the time, Arthur A. Denny, one of the founders of Seattle and a member of the territorial legislature, aimed to increase the city’s importance by moving the territory’s capital from Olympia to Seattle. However, Bagley eventually convinced Denny that the establishment of a university would assist more in the development of Seattle’s economy. Two universities were initially chartered, but later the decision was repealed in favor of a single university in Lewis County provided that locally donated land was available. When no site emerged, Denny successfully petitioned the legislature to reconsider Seattle as a location in 1858.

    In 1861, scouting began for an appropriate 10 acres (4 ha) site in Seattle to serve as a new university campus. Arthur and Mary Denny donated eight acres, while fellow pioneers Edward Lander, and Charlie and Mary Terry, donated two acres on Denny’s Knoll in downtown Seattle. More specifically, this tract was bounded by 4th Avenue to the west, 6th Avenue to the east, Union Street to the north, and Seneca Streets to the south.

    John Pike, for whom Pike Street is named, was the university’s architect and builder. It was opened on November 4, 1861, as the Territorial University of Washington. The legislature passed articles incorporating the University, and establishing its Board of Regents in 1862. The school initially struggled, closing three times: in 1863 for low enrollment, and again in 1867 and 1876 due to funds shortage. University of Washington awarded its first graduate Clara Antoinette McCarty Wilt in 1876, with a bachelor’s degree in science.

    19th century relocation

    By the time Washington state entered the Union in 1889, both Seattle and the University had grown substantially. University of Washington’s total undergraduate enrollment increased from 30 to nearly 300 students, and the campus’s relative isolation in downtown Seattle faced encroaching development. A special legislative committee, headed by University of Washington graduate Edmond Meany, was created to find a new campus to better serve the growing student population and faculty. The committee eventually selected a site on the northeast of downtown Seattle called Union Bay, which was the land of the Duwamish, and the legislature appropriated funds for its purchase and construction. In 1895, the University relocated to the new campus by moving into the newly built Denny Hall. The University Regents tried and failed to sell the old campus, eventually settling with leasing the area. This would later become one of the University’s most valuable pieces of real estate in modern-day Seattle, generating millions in annual revenue with what is now called the Metropolitan Tract. The original Territorial University building was torn down in 1908, and its former site now houses the Fairmont Olympic Hotel.

    The sole-surviving remnants of Washington’s first building are four 24-foot (7.3 m), white, hand-fluted cedar, Ionic columns. They were salvaged by Edmond S. Meany, one of the University’s first graduates and former head of its history department. Meany and his colleague, Dean Herbert T. Condon, dubbed the columns as “Loyalty,” “Industry,” “Faith”, and “Efficiency”, or “LIFE.” The columns now stand in the Sylvan Grove Theater.

    20th century expansion

    Organizers of the 1909 Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition eyed the still largely undeveloped campus as a prime setting for their world’s fair. They came to an agreement with Washington’s Board of Regents that allowed them to use the campus grounds for the exposition, surrounding today’s Drumheller Fountain facing towards Mount Rainier. In exchange, organizers agreed Washington would take over the campus and its development after the fair’s conclusion. This arrangement led to a detailed site plan and several new buildings, prepared in part by John Charles Olmsted. The plan was later incorporated into the overall University of Washington campus master plan, permanently affecting the campus layout.

    Both World Wars brought the military to campus, with certain facilities temporarily lent to the federal government. In spite of this, subsequent post-war periods were times of dramatic growth for the University. The period between the wars saw a significant expansion of the upper campus. Construction of the Liberal Arts Quadrangle, known to students as “The Quad,” began in 1916 and continued to 1939. The University’s architectural centerpiece, Suzzallo Library, was built in 1926 and expanded in 1935.

    After World War II, further growth came with the G.I. Bill. Among the most important developments of this period was the opening of the School of Medicine in 1946, which is now consistently ranked as the top medical school in the United States. It would eventually lead to the University of Washington Medical Center, ranked by U.S. News and World Report as one of the top ten hospitals in the nation.

    In 1942, all persons of Japanese ancestry in the Seattle area were forced into inland internment camps as part of Executive Order 9066 following the attack on Pearl Harbor. During this difficult time, university president Lee Paul Sieg took an active and sympathetic leadership role in advocating for and facilitating the transfer of Japanese American students to universities and colleges away from the Pacific Coast to help them avoid the mass incarceration. Nevertheless, many Japanese American students and “soon-to-be” graduates were unable to transfer successfully in the short time window or receive diplomas before being incarcerated. It was only many years later that they would be recognized for their accomplishments during the University of Washington’s Long Journey Home ceremonial event that was held in May 2008.

    From 1958 to 1973, the University of Washington saw a tremendous growth in student enrollment, its faculties and operating budget, and also its prestige under the leadership of Charles Odegaard. University of Washington student enrollment had more than doubled to 34,000 as the baby boom generation came of age. However, this era was also marked by high levels of student activism, as was the case at many American universities. Much of the unrest focused around civil rights and opposition to the Vietnam War. In response to anti-Vietnam War protests by the late 1960s, the University Safety and Security Division became the University of Washington Police Department.

    Odegaard instituted a vision of building a “community of scholars”, convincing the Washington State legislatures to increase investment in the University. Washington senators, such as Henry M. Jackson and Warren G. Magnuson, also used their political clout to gather research funds for the University of Washington. The results included an increase in the operating budget from $37 million in 1958 to over $400 million in 1973, solidifying University of Washington as a top recipient of federal research funds in the United States. The establishment of technology giants such as Microsoft, Boeing and Amazon in the local area also proved to be highly influential in the University of Washington’s fortunes, not only improving graduate prospects but also helping to attract millions of dollars in university and research funding through its distinguished faculty and extensive alumni network.

    21st century

    In 1990, the University of Washington opened its additional campuses in Bothell and Tacoma. Although originally intended for students who have already completed two years of higher education, both schools have since become four-year universities with the authority to grant degrees. The first freshman classes at these campuses started in fall 2006. Today both Bothell and Tacoma also offer a selection of master’s degree programs.

    In 2012, the University began exploring plans and governmental approval to expand the main Seattle campus, including significant increases in student housing, teaching facilities for the growing student body and faculty, as well as expanded public transit options. The University of Washington light rail station was completed in March 2015, connecting Seattle’s Capitol Hill neighborhood to the University of Washington Husky Stadium within five minutes of rail travel time. It offers a previously unavailable option of transportation into and out of the campus, designed specifically to reduce dependence on private vehicles, bicycles and local King County buses.

    University of Washington has been listed as a “Public Ivy” in Greene’s Guides since 2001, and is an elected member of the American Association of Universities. Among the faculty by 2012, there have been 151 members of American Association for the Advancement of Science, 68 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 67 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 53 members of the National Academy of Medicine, 29 winners of the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, 21 members of the National Academy of Engineering, 15 Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigators, 15 MacArthur Fellows, 9 winners of the Gairdner Foundation International Award, 5 winners of the National Medal of Science, 7 Nobel Prize laureates, 5 winners of Albert Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research, 4 members of the American Philosophical Society, 2 winners of the National Book Award, 2 winners of the National Medal of Arts, 2 Pulitzer Prize winners, 1 winner of the Fields Medal, and 1 member of the National Academy of Public Administration. Among UW students by 2012, there were 136 Fulbright Scholars, 35 Rhodes Scholars, 7 Marshall Scholars and 4 Gates Cambridge Scholars. UW is recognized as a top producer of Fulbright Scholars, ranking 2nd in the US in 2017.

    The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) has consistently ranked University of Washington as one of the top 20 universities worldwide every year since its first release. In 2019, University of Washington ranked 14th worldwide out of 500 by the ARWU, 26th worldwide out of 981 in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, and 28th worldwide out of 101 in the Times World Reputation Rankings. Meanwhile, QS World University Rankings ranked it 68th worldwide, out of over 900.

    U.S. News & World Report ranked University of Washington 8th out of nearly 1,500 universities worldwide for 2021, with University of Washington’s undergraduate program tied for 58th among 389 national universities in the U.S. and tied for 19th among 209 public universities.

    In 2019, it ranked 10th among the universities around the world by SCImago Institutions Rankings. In 2017, the Leiden Ranking, which focuses on science and the impact of scientific publications among the world’s 500 major universities, ranked University of Washington 12th globally and 5th in the U.S.

    In 2019, Kiplinger Magazine’s review of “top college values” named University of Washington 5th for in-state students and 10th for out-of-state students among U.S. public colleges, and 84th overall out of 500 schools. In the Washington Monthly National University Rankings University of Washington was ranked 15th domestically in 2018, based on its contribution to the public good as measured by social mobility, research, and promoting public service.

     
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