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  • richardmitnick 10:08 pm on November 16, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Powerful linear accelerator begins smashing atoms – 2 scientists on the team explain how it could reveal rare forms of matter", 1. What are the properties of atomic nuclei with a large difference between the numbers of protons and neutrons?, 2. How are elements formed in the cosmos?, 3. Do physicists understand the fundamental symmetries of the universe like why there is more matter than antimatter in the universe?, 4. How can the information from rare isotopes be applied in medicine and industry and national security?, A community of roughly 1600 nuclear scientists from all over the world has been waiting for a decade to begin doing science enabled by the new particle accelerator., At full strength the FRIB will be the most powerful heavy-ion accelerator on Earth., , , Even though the facility is currently running at only a fraction of its full power multiple scientific collaborations working at FRIB have already produced and detected about 100 rare isotopes., Experiments at FRIB promise to provide new insights into the fundamental nature of the universe., Nuclear Chemistry, Nuclear physics, Over the coming years FRIB is set to explore four big questions in nuclear physics:, , , The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams [FRIB], , The study of rare isotopes   

    From The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams [FRIB] At The Michigan State University Via “The Conversation (AU)” : “Powerful linear accelerator begins smashing atoms – 2 scientists on the team explain how it could reveal rare forms of matter” 

    From The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams [FRIB]

    At

    Michigan State Bloc

    The Michigan State University

    Via

    “The Conversation (AU)”

    11.14.22

    1
    A new particle accelerator at Michigan State University is set to discover thousands of never-before-seen isotopes. Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, CC BY-ND

    Sean Liddick
    Associate Professor of Chemistry, Michigan State University

    Artemis Spyrou
    Professor of Nuclear Physics, Michigan State University

    “Just a few hundred feet from where we are sitting is a large metal chamber devoid of air and draped with the wires needed to control the instruments inside. A beam of particles passes through the interior of the chamber silently at around half the speed of light until it smashes into a solid piece of material, resulting in a burst of rare isotopes.

    This is all taking place in the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, or FRIB, which is operated by Michigan State University for The DOE Office of Science. Starting in May 2022, national and international teams of scientists converged at Michigan State University and began running scientific experiments at FRIB with the goal of creating, isolating and studying new isotopes. The experiments promised to provide new insights into the fundamental nature of the universe.

    We are two professors in nuclear chemistry and nuclear physics who study rare isotopes. Isotopes are, in a sense, different flavours of an element with the same number of protons in their nucleus but different numbers of neutrons.

    The accelerator at FRIB started working at low power, but when it finishes ramping up to full strength, it will be the most powerful heavy-ion accelerator on Earth. By accelerating heavy ions – electrically charged atoms of elements – FRIB will allow scientists like us to create and study thousands of never-before-seen isotopes. A community of roughly 1,600 nuclear scientists from all over the world has been waiting for a decade to begin doing science enabled by the new particle accelerator.

    The first experiments at FRIB were completed over the summer of 2022. Even though the facility is currently running at only a fraction of its full power, multiple scientific collaborations working at FRIB have already produced and detected about 100 rare isotopes. These early results are helping researchers learn about some of the rarest physics in the universe.


    Put some Uranium 238 in a cloud chamber to see the radioactive particles.

    What is a rare isotope?

    It takes incredibly high amounts of energy to produce most isotopes. In nature, heavy rare isotopes are produced during the cataclysmic deaths of massive stars called supernovas or during the merging of two neutron stars.

    To the naked eye, two isotopes of any element look and behave the same way – all isotopes of the element mercury would look just like the liquid metal used in old thermometers. However, because the nuclei of isotopes of the same element have different numbers of neutrons, they differ in how long they live, what type of radioactivity they emit and in many other ways.

    For example, some isotopes are stable and do not decay or emit radiation, so they are common in the universe. Other isotopes of the very same element can be radioactive so they inevitably decay away as they turn into other elements. Since radioactive isotopes disappear over time, they are relatively rarer.

    Not all decay happens at the same rate though. Some radioactive elements – like potassium-40 – emit particles through decay at such a low rate that a small amount of the isotope can last for billions of years. Other, more highly radioactive isotopes like magnesium-38 exist for only a fraction of a second before decaying away into other elements. Short-lived isotopes, by definition, do not survive long and are rare in the universe. So if you want to study them, you have to make them yourself.

    2
    FRIB at Michigan State University for the DOE delineated.

    Creating isotopes in a lab

    While only about 250 isotopes naturally occur on Earth, theoretical models predict that about 7,000 isotopes should exist in nature. Scientists have used particle accelerators to produce around 3,000 of these rare isotopes.

    3
    The green-colored chambers use electromagnetic waves to accelerate charged ions to nearly half the speed of light. Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, CC BY-ND.

    The FRIB accelerator is 1,600 feet long and made of three segments folded in roughly the shape of a paperclip. Within these segments are numerous, extremely cold vacuum chambers that alternatively pull and push the ions using powerful electromagnetic pulses. FRIB can accelerate any naturally occurring isotope – whether it is as light as oxygen or as heavy as uranium – to approximately half the speed of light.

    To create radioactive isotopes, you only need to smash this beam of ions into a solid target like a piece of beryllium metal or a rotating disk of carbon.

    4
    There are many different instruments designed to measure specific attributes of the particles created during experiments at FRIB – like this instrument called FDSi, which is built to measure charged particles, neutrons and photons. Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, CC BY-ND.

    The impact of the ion beam on the fragmentation target breaks the nucleus of the stable isotope apart and produces many hundreds of rare isotopes simultaneously. To isolate the interesting or new isotopes from the rest, a separator sits between the target and the sensors. Particles with the right momentum and electrical charge will be passed through the separator while the rest are absorbed. Only a subset of the desired isotopes will reach the many instruments built to observe the nature of the particles.

    The probability of creating any specific isotope during a single collision can be very small. The odds of creating some of the rarer exotic isotopes can be on the order of 1 in a quadrillion – roughly the same odds as winning back-to-back Mega Millions jackpots. But the powerful beams of ions used by FRIB contain so many ions and produce so many collisions in a single experiment that the team can reasonably expect to find even the rarest of isotopes. According to calculations, FRIB’s accelerator should be able to produce approximately 80% of all theorized isotopes.

    The first two FRIB scientific experiments

    A multi-institution team led by researchers at The DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, The DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Mississippi State University and Florida State University, together with researchers at MSU, began running the first experiment at FRIB on May 9, 2022. The group directed a beam of calcium-48 – a calcium nucleus with 48 neutrons instead of the usual 20 – into a beryllium target at 1 kW of power. Even at one quarter of a percent of the facility’s 400-kW maximum power, approximately 40 different isotopes passed through the separator to the instruments.

    The FDSi device recorded the time each ion arrived, what isotope it was and when it decayed away. Using this information, the collaboration deduced the half-lives of the isotopes; the team has already reported on five previously unknown half-lives.

    The second FRIB experiment began on June 15, 2022, led by a collaboration of researchers from The DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, ORNL, UTK and MSU. The facility accelerated a beam of selenium-82 and used it to produce rare isotopes of the elements scandium, calcium and potassium. These isotopes are commonly found in neutron stars, and the goal of the experiment was to better understand what type of radioactivity these isotopes emit as they decay. Understanding this process could shed light on how neutron stars lose energy.

    The first two FRIB experiments were just the tip of the iceberg of this new facility’s capabilities. Over the coming years, FRIB is set to explore four big questions in nuclear physics: First, what are the properties of atomic nuclei with a large difference between the numbers of protons and neutrons? Second, how are elements formed in the cosmos? Third, do physicists understand the fundamental symmetries of the universe, like why there is more matter than antimatter in the universe? Finally, how can the information from rare isotopes be applied in medicine, industry and national security?”

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Michigan State Campus

    Michigan State University is a public research university located in East Lansing, Michigan, United States. Michigan State University was founded in 1855 and became the nation’s first land-grant institution under the Morrill Act of 1862, serving as a model for future land-grant universities.

    The university was founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, one of the country’s first institutions of higher education to teach scientific agriculture. After the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, Michigan State University is one of the largest universities in the United States (in terms of enrollment) and has approximately 634,300 living alumni worldwide.

    U.S. News & World Report ranks its graduate programs the best in the U.S. in elementary teacher’s education, secondary teacher’s education, industrial and organizational psychology, rehabilitation counseling, African history (tied), supply chain logistics and nuclear physics in 2019. Michigan State University pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and communication sciences. Michigan State University is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. The university’s campus houses the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, the Abrams Planetarium, the Wharton Center for Performing Arts, the Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, and the country’s largest residence hall system.

    Research

    The university has a long history of academic research and innovation. In 1877, botany professor William J. Beal performed the first documented genetic crosses to produce hybrid corn, which led to increased yields. Michigan State University dairy professor G. Malcolm Trout improved the process for the homogenization of milk in the 1930s, making it more commercially viable. In the 1960s, Michigan State University scientists developed cisplatin, a leading cancer fighting drug, and followed that work with the derivative, carboplatin. Albert Fert, an Adjunct professor at Michigan State University, was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Peter Grünberg.

    Today Michigan State University continues its research with facilities such as the Department of Energy -sponsored Plant Research Laboratory and a particle accelerator called the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory [below]. The Department of Energy Office of Science named Michigan State University as the site for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The $730 million facility will attract top researchers from around the world to conduct experiments in basic nuclear science, astrophysics, and applications of isotopes to other fields.

    Michigan State University FRIB [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams] .

    In 2004, scientists at the Cyclotron produced and observed a new isotope of the element germanium, called Ge-60 In that same year, Michigan State University, in consortium with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the government of Brazil, broke ground on the 4.1-meter Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) in the Andes Mountains of Chile.

    The consortium telescope will allow the Physics & Astronomy department to study galaxy formation and origins. Since 1999, MSU has been part of a consortium called the Michigan Life Sciences Corridor, which aims to develop biotechnology research in the State of Michigan. Finally, the College of Communication Arts and Sciences’ Quello Center researches issues of information and communication management.


    The Michigan State University Spartans compete in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference. Michigan State Spartans football won the Rose Bowl Game in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014, and the university claims a total of six national football championships. Spartans men’s basketball won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and has attained the Final Four eight times since the 1998–1999 season. Spartans ice hockey won NCAA national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007. The women’s cross country team was named Big Ten champions in 2019. In the fall of 2019, MSU student-athletes posted all-time highs for graduation success rates and federal graduation rates, according to NCAA statistics.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:35 am on October 29, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "How Do Neutrons Interact with Reactor Materials?", "Neutron moderators": control the speed of neutrons to help maintain chain reactions., , Neutrons are the drivers of the nuclear energy production processes., Neutrons scattering is ruled by quantum mechanics., Nuclear fission and fusion reactors use the elements carbon and silicon as shielding and structural materials., Nuclear physics, ,   

    From The Department of Energy: “How Do Neutrons Interact with Reactor Materials?” 

    From The Department of Energy

    10.27.22

    1
    Silicon carbide tubes from The DOE’s Oak Ridge National Lab. Inset: University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory data on the probability of neutrons interacting with carbon over the range of neutron energies important in fission and fusion reactors.

    The Science

    Nuclear fission and fusion reactors use the elements carbon and silicon as shielding and structural materials. Nuclear engineers also use these elements in fuel and in “neutron moderators”, which control the speed of neutrons to help maintain chain reactions. Silicon carbide, for example, can be used to clad fuel and as a pellet coating that offers protection from accidents such as the one at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant. Neutrons are the drivers of the nuclear energy production processes. This makes understanding how neutrons scatter from all reactor materials very important. In this research, scientists investigated the interaction of neutrons with silicon and carbon.

    The Impact

    Neutrons scatter from nuclei in ways similar to how balls scatter in a billiards game, except the scattering is ruled by quantum mechanics, as well as by conservation of energy and momentum. Researchers need a detailed knowledge of exactly how these uncharged particles interact with materials because these nuclear data are embedded in modeling and simulation software. These data also determine how well a system will perform. In this research, scientists measured the energy and angle dependence of neutrons scattering from silicon and carbon. The results provide answers that scientists can only uncover through experiments.

    Summary

    Many applications rely on global theoretical models of how neutrons interact with nuclei over a wide range of incident neutron energies. These applications range from energy production to homeland security to medical treatments. Scientists develop these models by comparing calculations with experimental data. Excellent agreement between data and theory indicates that the interaction between the neutron and the material is well understood. This process helps scientists gain confidence in their understanding of the nuclear force, and it helps engineers develop safer and more efficient reactors and scanners.

    Carbon and silicon are just two such important materials investigated at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory by a collaboration of scientists and students from the University of Kentucky, the United States Naval Academy, Mississippi State University, and the University of Dallas. The energy (e.g., see inset image) and angular dependence of neutrons scattering from these materials revealed regions where scientists can improve theoretical models, especially for excited states in each nucleus, which in turn provides improved models for neutron behavior for many diverse applications.

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The The United States Department of Energy is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States’ policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material. Its responsibilities include the nation’s nuclear weapons program; nuclear reactor production for the United States Navy; energy conservation; energy-related research; radioactive waste disposal; and domestic energy production. It also directs research in genomics. the Human Genome Project originated in a DOE initiative. DOE sponsors more research in the physical sciences than any other U.S. federal agency, the majority of which is conducted through its system of National Laboratories. The agency is led by the United States Secretary of Energy, and its headquarters are located in Southwest Washington, D.C., on Independence Avenue in the James V. Forrestal Building, named for James Forrestal, as well as in Germantown, Maryland.

    Formation and consolidation

    In 1942, during World War II, the United States started the Manhattan Project, a project to develop the atomic bomb, under the eye of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. After the war in 1946, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was created to control the future of the project. The Atomic Energy Act of 1946 also created the framework for the first National Laboratories. Among other nuclear projects, the AEC produced fabricated uranium fuel cores at locations such as Fernald Feed Materials Production Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1974, the AEC gave way to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which was tasked with regulating the nuclear power industry and the Energy Research and Development Administration, which was tasked to manage the nuclear weapon; naval reactor; and energy development programs.

    The 1973 oil crisis called attention to the need to consolidate energy policy. On August 4, 1977, President Jimmy Carter signed into law The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Pub.L. 95–91, 91 Stat. 565, enacted August 4, 1977), which created the Department of Energy. The new agency, which began operations on October 1, 1977, consolidated the Federal Energy Administration; the Energy Research and Development Administration; the Federal Power Commission; and programs of various other agencies. Former Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger, who served under Presidents Nixon and Ford during the Vietnam War, was appointed as the first secretary.

    President Carter created the Department of Energy with the goal of promoting energy conservation and developing alternative sources of energy. He wanted to not be dependent on foreign oil and reduce the use of fossil fuels. With international energy’s future uncertain for America, Carter acted quickly to have the department come into action the first year of his presidency. This was an extremely important issue of the time as the oil crisis was causing shortages and inflation. With the Three-Mile Island disaster, Carter was able to intervene with the help of the department. Carter made switches within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in this case to fix the management and procedures. This was possible as nuclear energy and weapons are responsibility of the Department of Energy.

    Recent

    On March 28, 2017, a supervisor in the Office of International Climate and Clean Energy asked staff to avoid the phrases “climate change,” “emissions reduction,” or “Paris Agreement” in written memos, briefings or other written communication. A DOE spokesperson denied that phrases had been banned.

    In a May 2019 press release concerning natural gas exports from a Texas facility, the DOE used the term ‘freedom gas’ to refer to natural gas. The phrase originated from a speech made by Secretary Rick Perry in Brussels earlier that month. Washington Governor Jay Inslee decried the term “a joke”.

    Facilities

    The Department of Energy operates a system of national laboratories and technical facilities for research and development, as follows:

    Ames Laboratory
    Argonne National Laboratory
    Brookhaven National Laboratory
    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
    Idaho National Laboratory
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
    Los Alamos National Laboratory
    National Energy Technology Laboratory
    National Renewable Energy Laboratory
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
    Sandia National Laboratories
    Savannah River National Laboratory
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    Other major DOE facilities include
    Albany Research Center
    Bannister Federal Complex
    Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory – focuses on the design and development of nuclear power for the U.S. Navy
    Kansas City Plant
    Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory – operates for Naval Reactors Program Research under the DOE (not a National Laboratory)
    National Petroleum Technology Office
    Nevada Test Site
    New Brunswick Laboratory
    Office of River Protection
    Pantex
    Radiological and Environmental Laboratory
    Y-12 National Security Complex
    Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository
    Other:

    Pahute Mesa Airstrip – Nye County, Nevada, in supporting Nevada National Security Site

     
  • richardmitnick 9:36 am on October 18, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , "f2": “peak spectral frequency”, , , , , , Nuclear physics,   

    From The Institute for Advanced Study: “New Tool Allows Scientists to Peer Inside Neutron Stars” 

    From The Institute for Advanced Study

    10.17.22
    Lee Sandberg
    lsandberg@ias.edu
    (609) 455-4398

    Imagine taking a star twice the mass of the Sun and crushing it to the size of Manhattan. The result would be a neutron star—one of the densest objects found anywhere in the Universe, exceeding the density of any material found naturally on Earth by a factor of tens of trillions. Neutron stars are extraordinary astrophysical objects in their own right, but their extreme densities might also allow them to function as laboratories for studying fundamental questions of nuclear physics, under conditions that could never be reproduced on Earth.

    Because of these exotic conditions, scientists still do not understand what exactly neutron stars themselves are made from, their so-called “equation of state” (EoS). Determining this is a major goal of modern astrophysics research. A new piece of the puzzle, constraining the range of possibilities, has been discovered by a pair of scholars at IAS: Carolyn Raithel, John N. Bahcall Fellow in the School of Natural Sciences; and Elias Most, Member in the School and John A. Wheeler Fellow at Princeton University. Their work was recently published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters [below].

    1
    Neutron star merger and the gravity waves it produces. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

    Ideally, scientists would like to peek inside these exotic objects, but they are too small and distant to be imaged with standard telescopes. Scientists rely instead on indirect properties that they can measure—like the mass and radius of a neutron star—to calculate the EoS, the same way that one might use the length of two sides of a right-angled triangle to work out its hypotenuse. However, the radius of a neutron star is very difficult to measure precisely. One promising alternative for future observations is to instead use a quantity called the “peak spectral frequency” (or f2) in its place.

    But how is f2 measured? Collisions between neutron stars, which are governed by the laws of Albert Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, lead to strong bursts of gravitational wave emission. In 2017, scientists directly measured such emissions for the first time.

    2
    The collision of two neutron stars, seen in an artist’s rendering, created both gravitational waves and gamma rays. Researchers used those signals to locate the event with optical telescopes.
    Robin Dienel/Carnegie Institution for Science.

    “At least in principle, the peak spectral frequency can be calculated from the gravitational wave signal emitted by the wobbling remnant of two merged neutron stars,” says Most.

    It was previously expected that f2 would be a reasonable proxy for radius, since—until now—researchers believed that a direct, or “quasi-universal,” correspondence existed between them. However, Raithel and Most have demonstrated that this is not always true. They have shown that determining the EoS is not like solving a simple hypotenuse problem. Instead, it is more akin to calculating the longest side of an irregular triangle, where one also needs a third piece of information: the angle between the two shorter sides. For Raithel and Most, this third piece of information is the “slope of the mass-radius relation,” which encodes information about the EoS at higher densities (and thus more extreme conditions) than the radius alone.

    This new finding will allow researchers working with the next generation of gravitational wave observatories (the successors to the currently operating LIGO) to better utilize the data obtained following neutron star mergers.

    ___________________________________________________________________
    LIGO-VIRGO-KAGRA-GEO 600-LIGO-India-ESA/NASA LISA

    Caltech /MIT Advanced aLigo.

    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo detector installation Livingston, LA. installation.

    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo Hanford, WA. installation.

    VIRGO Gravitational Wave interferometer installation, near Pisa (IT).

    KAGRA Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational Wave Telescope Project installation (JP).


    ___________________________________________________________________


    ___________________________________________________________________
    According to Raithel, this data could reveal the fundamental constituents of neutron star matter. “Some theoretical predictions suggest that within neutron star cores, phase transitions could be dissolving the neutrons into sub-atomic particles called quarks,” stated Raithel. “This would mean that the stars contain a sea of free quark matter in their interiors. Our work may help tomorrow’s researchers determine whether such phase transitions actually occur.”

    The Astrophysical Journal Letters
    See the science paper for detailed material with images.

    See the full article here.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Institute for Advanced Study, located in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States, is an independent center for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry. It has served as the academic home of internationally preeminent scholars, including J. Robert Oppenheimer, Albert Einstein, Hermann Weyl, John von Neumann, and Kurt Gödel, many of whom had emigrated from Europe to the United States.

    It was founded in 1930 by American educator Abraham Flexner, together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld. Although it is close to and collaborates with Princeton University, Rutgers University, and other nearby institutions, it is independent and does not charge tuition or fees.

    Flexner’s guiding principle in founding the institute was the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake. The faculty have no classes to teach. There are no degree programs or experimental facilities at the institute. Research is never contracted or directed. It is left to each individual researcher to pursue their own goals. Established during the rise of fascism in Europe, the institute played a key role in the transfer of intellectual capital from Europe to America. It quickly earned its reputation as the pinnacle of academic and scientific life—a reputation it has retained.

    The institute consists of four schools: Historical Studies, Mathematics, Natural Sciences, and Social Sciences. The institute also has a program in Systems Biology.

    It is supported entirely by endowments, grants, and gifts. It is one of eight American mathematics institutes funded by the National Science Foundation. It is the model for the other eight members of the consortium Some Institutes for Advanced Study.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:20 pm on October 3, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "EFTs": Effective Field Theories, "EM": electric and magnetic fields, "HIGS": High Intensity Gamma Ray Source, "How Stiff Is the Proton?", , EM polarizabilities are a measure of the stiffness against the deformation induced by EM fields., In this research scientists validated EFTs using proton Compton scattering., Nuclear physics, Nucleon Compton scattering, , , The current theory of the strong nuclear force called quantum chromodynamics (QCD),   

    From The Department of Energy: “How Stiff Is the Proton?” 

    From The Department of Energy

    9.30.22
    Contact
    Mohammad Ahmed
    North Carolina Central University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory
    mahmed2@nccu.edu

    1
    Compton scattering setup at the High Intensity Gamma Ray Source. The central cylinder is the liquid hydrogen target. High energy gamma rays are scattered from the liquid hydrogen into eight large detectors that measure the gamma rays’ energy. Credit: Mohammad Ahmed, North Carolina Central University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

    The Science

    The proton is a composite particle made up of fundamental building blocks of quarks and gluons. These components and their interactions determine the proton’s structure, including its electrical charges and currents. This structure deforms when exposed to external electric and magnetic (EM) fields, a phenomenon known as polarizability. The EM polarizabilities are a measure of the stiffness against the deformation induced by EM fields. By measuring the EM polarizabilities, scientists learn about the internal structure of the proton. This knowledge helps to validate scientific understanding of how nucleons (protons and neutrons) form by comparing the results to theoretical descriptions of gamma-ray scattering from nucleons. Scientists call this scattering process nucleon Compton scattering.

    The Impact

    When scientists examine the proton at a distance and scale where EM responses dominate, they can determine values of EM polarizabilities with high precision. To do so, they use the theoretical frame of Effective Field Theories (EFTs). The EFTs hold the promise of matching the description of the nucleon structure at low energies to the current theory of the strong nuclear force called quantum chromodynamics (QCD). In this research scientists validated EFTs using proton Compton scattering. This approach also validated the framework and methodology that underlie EFTs.

    Summary

    Proton Compton scattering is the process by which scientists scatter circularly or linearly polarized gamma rays from a hydrogen target (in this case, a liquid target), then measure the angular distribution of the scattered gamma rays. High-energy gamma rays carry strong enough EM fields that the response of the charges and currents in the nucleon becomes significant. In this study, scientists performed new measurements of Compton scattering from the proton at the High Intensity Gamma Ray Source (HIGS) at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. This work provided a novel experimental approach for Compton scattering from the proton at low energies using polarized gamma rays. The study advances the need for new high-precision measurements at HIGS to improve the accuracy of proton and neutron polarizabilities determinations. These measurements validate the theories which link the low-energy description of nucleons to QCD.

    Science paper:
    Physical Review Letters

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The The United States Department of Energy is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States’ policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material. Its responsibilities include the nation’s nuclear weapons program; nuclear reactor production for the United States Navy; energy conservation; energy-related research; radioactive waste disposal; and domestic energy production. It also directs research in genomics. the Human Genome Project originated in a DOE initiative. DOE sponsors more research in the physical sciences than any other U.S. federal agency, the majority of which is conducted through its system of National Laboratories. The agency is led by the United States Secretary of Energy, and its headquarters are located in Southwest Washington, D.C., on Independence Avenue in the James V. Forrestal Building, named for James Forrestal, as well as in Germantown, Maryland.

    Formation and consolidation

    In 1942, during World War II, the United States started the Manhattan Project, a project to develop the atomic bomb, under the eye of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. After the war in 1946, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was created to control the future of the project. The Atomic Energy Act of 1946 also created the framework for the first National Laboratories. Among other nuclear projects, the AEC produced fabricated uranium fuel cores at locations such as Fernald Feed Materials Production Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1974, the AEC gave way to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which was tasked with regulating the nuclear power industry and the Energy Research and Development Administration, which was tasked to manage the nuclear weapon; naval reactor; and energy development programs.

    The 1973 oil crisis called attention to the need to consolidate energy policy. On August 4, 1977, President Jimmy Carter signed into law The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Pub.L. 95–91, 91 Stat. 565, enacted August 4, 1977), which created the Department of Energy. The new agency, which began operations on October 1, 1977, consolidated the Federal Energy Administration; the Energy Research and Development Administration; the Federal Power Commission; and programs of various other agencies. Former Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger, who served under Presidents Nixon and Ford during the Vietnam War, was appointed as the first secretary.

    President Carter created the Department of Energy with the goal of promoting energy conservation and developing alternative sources of energy. He wanted to not be dependent on foreign oil and reduce the use of fossil fuels. With international energy’s future uncertain for America, Carter acted quickly to have the department come into action the first year of his presidency. This was an extremely important issue of the time as the oil crisis was causing shortages and inflation. With the Three-Mile Island disaster, Carter was able to intervene with the help of the department. Carter made switches within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in this case to fix the management and procedures. This was possible as nuclear energy and weapons are responsibility of the Department of Energy.

    Recent

    On March 28, 2017, a supervisor in the Office of International Climate and Clean Energy asked staff to avoid the phrases “climate change,” “emissions reduction,” or “Paris Agreement” in written memos, briefings or other written communication. A DOE spokesperson denied that phrases had been banned.

    In a May 2019 press release concerning natural gas exports from a Texas facility, the DOE used the term ‘freedom gas’ to refer to natural gas. The phrase originated from a speech made by Secretary Rick Perry in Brussels earlier that month. Washington Governor Jay Inslee decried the term “a joke”.

    Facilities

    The Department of Energy operates a system of national laboratories and technical facilities for research and development, as follows:

    Ames Laboratory
    Argonne National Laboratory
    Brookhaven National Laboratory
    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
    Idaho National Laboratory
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
    Los Alamos National Laboratory
    National Energy Technology Laboratory
    National Renewable Energy Laboratory
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
    Sandia National Laboratories
    Savannah River National Laboratory
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    Other major DOE facilities include
    Albany Research Center
    Bannister Federal Complex
    Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory – focuses on the design and development of nuclear power for the U.S. Navy
    Kansas City Plant
    Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory – operates for Naval Reactors Program Research under the DOE (not a National Laboratory)
    National Petroleum Technology Office
    Nevada Test Site
    New Brunswick Laboratory
    Office of River Protection
    Pantex
    Radiological and Environmental Laboratory
    Y-12 National Security Complex
    Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository
    Other:

    Pahute Mesa Airstrip – Nye County, Nevada, in supporting Nevada National Security Site

     
  • richardmitnick 12:02 pm on September 2, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Particles Pick Pair Partners Differently in Small Nuclei", , Correlations may form between a proton and a neutron or between two protons or between two neutrons., Nuclear physics, , Particles may pick different partners depending on how packed the nucleus is.,   

    From The DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility : “Particles Pick Pair Partners Differently in Small Nuclei” 

    From The DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    8.31.22
    Kandice Carter
    Jefferson Lab Communications Office
    kcarter@jlab.org

    1
    Tritium’s three nucleons can make up to three different short-range correlated pairs:

    Neutron 1 + Proton = pair one.
    Proton + Neutron 2 = pair two.
    Neutron 1 + Neutron 2 = pair three

    The protons and neutrons that build the nucleus of the atom frequently pair up. Now, a new high-precision experiment conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has found that these particles may pick different partners depending on how packed the nucleus is.

    The data also reveal new details about short-distance interactions between protons and neutrons in nuclei and may impact results from experiments seeking to tease out further details of nuclear structure. The data are an order of magnitude more precise than previous studies, and the research has just been published in the journal Nature [below].

    Shujie Li is the lead author on the paper and a nuclear physics postdoctoral researcher at The DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. She began work on the experiment as a graduate student at the University of New Hampshire. Li said the experiment was designed to compare fleeting partnerships between protons and neutrons-called “short range correlations”-in small nuclei.

    Protons and neutrons are collectively called nucleons. When nucleons are involved in short-range correlations, they briefly overlap before they fly apart with high momentum. Correlations may form between a proton and a neutron or between two protons or between two neutrons.

    This experiment compared the prevalence of each type of short-range correlation in the so-called mirror nuclei of helium-3 and tritium, an isotope of hydrogen. These nuclei each contain three nucleons. They are considered “mirror nuclei” because each one’s proton content mirrors the other’s neutron content.

    “Tritium is one proton and two neutrons, and helium-3 is two protons and one neutron. By comparing tritium and helium-3, we can assume that neutron-proton pairs in tritium are the same as neutron-proton pairs in helium- 3. And tritium can make one additional neutron-neutron pair, and helium-3 can make one additional proton-proton pair,” Li explained.

    Taken together, the data from both nuclei reveal how often nucleons pair up with others like themselves versus those that are different.

    “The simple idea is just to compare how many pairs the two nuclei have in each configuration,” she said.

    The researchers expected to see a result similar to earlier studies, which found that nucleons prefer pairing up by more than 20 to 1 with a different type (e.g. protons paired up with neutrons 20 times for every one time they paired up with another proton). These studies were conducted in heavier nuclei with far more protons and neutrons available for pairing, such as carbon, iron and lead.

    “The ratio we extracted in this experiment is four neutron-proton pairs per each proton-proton or neutron-neutron pair,” Li revealed.

    According to John Arrington, a spokesperson for the experiment and staff scientist at Berkeley Lab, this surprising result is providing new insight into the interactions between protons and neutrons in nuclei.

    “So in this case, we find that the proton-proton contribution is much, much bigger than expected. So it raises some questions about what’s different here,” he said.

    One idea is that the interactions between nucleons is a driver of this difference, and these interactions are modified somewhat by the distance between the nucleons in tritium versus helium-3 versus very large nuclei.

    “In the nucleon-nucleon interaction, there’s the “tensor” piece, which generates neutron-proton pairs. And there’s a shorter-range “core” that can generate proton-proton pairs. When the nucleons are further apart, as in these very light nuclei, you may get a different balance between these interactions.”

    Differences in the average distances between would-be correlated nucleons can have a strong influence on which particles they pick to pair with in an overlapping short-range correlation. For reference, a proton measures a little less than a femtometer, or fermi, wide. The longer-distance, tensor piece of the short-range interaction dominates as the particles overlap on the order of one-half fermi, or about a half-particle overlap. The shorter-range core part of the interaction dominates as the particles mostly overlap at one fermi.

    He says further research on this topic will help test this idea. In the meantime, the researchers are exploring whether the result will impact other measurements. For instance, in deep inelastic scattering experiments, nuclear physicists use short distance, hard collisions to explore nucleons’ structure.

    “We are pushing the precision in experiments on nuclear structure, and so these seemingly small effects can become very important as we continue to produce high-precision results at Jefferson Lab,” said Douglas Higinbotham, a spokesperson for the experiment and Jefferson Lab staff scientist. “So, if the nuclear effects are not only persistent but unexpected in the light nuclei, that means you can have unexpected things going on in your deep inelastic scattering results.”

    Arrington agreed.

    “We’re still making new measurements in familiar nuclei that are relevant to the nuclear structure and finding surprises. So the fact that we’re still finding surprises on a simple nucleus is very interesting,” Arrington commented. “We really want to understand where it comes from, because it has to tell us something about the way that the nucleons interact at short distance, which is hard to measure anywhere other than Jefferson Lab.”

    This experiment was conducted in Jefferson Lab’s Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF)[below], an Office of Science user facility, in its Experimental Hall A. It featured a unique tritium target that was designed for a series of rare experiments, and it used a different tactic to capture a dataset that is a factor of 10 more precise than earlier experiments: measuring just the electrons that bounced off of a correlated nucleon inside the mirror nuclei.

    “Because of looking at tritium and helium-3, we were able to use inclusive scattering, and that gives us much higher statistics than other measurements. It’s a very unique chance, and a great design, and a lot of effort from the tritium project to get this result,” Li added.

    The nuclear physicists want to follow up this intriguing result with additional measurements in heavier nuclei. The earlier experiments in these nuclei used high-energy electrons generated in CEBAF. The electrons bounced from protons or neutrons engaged in a short-range correlation and the “the triple coincidence” of the outgoing electron, knocked-out proton and correlated partner was measured.

    One challenge for this type of two-nucleon short-range correlation measurement is catching all three particles. Yet, it’s hoped that future measurements will be able to capture three-nucleon short-range correlations for an even more detailed view of what is happening inside the nucleus.

    In the near-term, Arrington is a co-spokesperson on another experiment that is gearing up for additional short-range correlations measurements at CEBAF. The experiment will measure correlations in a range of light nuclei, including isotopes of helium, lithium, beryllium, and boron, as well as a number of heavier targets that vary in their neutron-to-proton ratio.

    Science paper:
    Nature
    See the full article for further reading suggestions.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    JLab campus
    DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is supported by The Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy. DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, visit science.energy.gov.

    Jefferson Science Associates, LLC, a joint venture of the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc. and PAE Applied Technologies, manages and operates the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science.

    History

    DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility was established in 1984 (first initial funding by DOE, Department of Energy) as the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF); the name was changed to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in 1996. The full funding for construction was appropriated by US Congress in 1986 and on February 13, 1987, the construction of the main component, the CEBAF accelerator begun. First beam was delivered to experimental area on 1 July 1994. The design energy of 4 GeV for the beam was achieved during the year 1995. The laboratory dedication took place 24 May 1996 (at this event the name was also changed). Full initial operations with all three initial experiment areas online at the design energy was achieved on June 19, 1998. On August 6, 2000 the CEBAF reached “enhanced design energy” of 6 GeV. In 2001, plans for an energy upgrade to 12 GeV electron beam and plans to construct a fourth experimental hall area started. The plans progressed through various DOE Critical Decision-stages in the 2000s decade, with the final DOE acceptance in 2008 and the construction on the 12 GeV upgrade beginning in 2009. May 18, 2012 the original 6 GeV CEBAF accelerator shut down for the replacement of the accelerator components for the 12 GeV upgrade. 178 experiments were completed with the original CEBAF.

    In addition to the accelerator, the laboratory has housed and continues to house a free electron laser (FEL) instrument.

    The construction of the FEL started 11 June 1996. It achieved first light on June 17, 1998. Since then, the FEL has been upgraded numerous times, increasing its power and capabilities substantially.

    Jefferson Lab was also involved in the construction of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory . Jefferson built the SNS superconducting accelerator and helium refrigeration system. The accelerator components were designed and produced 2000–2005.

    Accelerator

    The laboratory’s main research facility is the CEBAF accelerator, which consists of a polarized electron source and injector and a pair of superconducting RF linear accelerators that are 7/8-mile (1400 m) in length and connected to each other by two arc sections that contain steering magnets.

    As the electron beam makes up to five successive orbits, its energy is increased up to a maximum of 6 GeV (the original CEBAF machine worked first in 1995 at the design energy of 4 GeV before reaching “enhanced design energy” of 6 GeV in 2000; since then, the facility has been upgraded into 12 GeV energy). This leads to a design that appears similar to a racetrack when compared to the classical ring-shaped accelerators found at sites such as The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] or DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Effectively, CEBAF is a linear accelerator, similar to DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory at Stanford University, that has been folded up to a tenth of its normal length.

    The design of CEBAF allows the electron beam to be continuous rather than the pulsed beam typical of ring-shaped accelerators. (There is some beam structure, but the pulses are very much shorter and closer together.) The electron beam is directed onto three potential targets (see below). One of the distinguishing features of Jefferson Lab is the continuous nature of the electron beam, with a bunch length of less than 1 picosecond. Another is Jefferson Lab’s use of superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) technology, which uses liquid helium to cool niobium to approximately 4 K (−452.5 °F), removing electrical resistance and allowing the most efficient transfer of energy to an electron. To achieve this, Jefferson Lab houses the world’s largest liquid helium refrigerator, and it was one of the first large-scale implementations of SRF technology. The accelerator is built 8 meters below the Earth’s surface, or approximately 25 feet, and the walls of the accelerator tunnels are 2 feet thick.

    The beam ends in four experimental halls, labelled Hall A, Hall B, Hall C, and Hall D. Each hall contains specialized spectrometers to record the products of collisions between the electron beam or with real photons and a stationary target. This allows physicists to study the structure of the atomic nucleus, specifically the interaction of the quarks that make up protons and neutrons of the nucleus.

    With each revolution around the accelerator, the beam passes through each of the two LINAC accelerators, but through a different set of bending magnets in semi-circular arcs at the ends of the linacs. The electrons make up to five passes through the linear accelerators.

    When a nucleus in the target is hit by an electron from the beam, an “interaction”, or “event”, occurs, scattering particles into the hall. Each hall contains an array of particle detectors that track the physical properties of the particles produced by the event. The detectors generate electrical pulses that are converted into digital values by analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), time to digital converters (TDCs) and pulse counters (scalers).

    This digital data is gathered and stored so that the physicist can later analyze the data and reconstruct the physics that occurred. The system of electronics and computers that perform this task is called a data acquisition system.

    12 GeV upgrade

    As of June 2010, construction began on a $338 million upgrade to add an end station, Hall D, on the opposite end of the accelerator from the other three halls, as well as to double beam energy to 12 GeV. Concurrently, an addition to the Test Lab, (where the SRF cavities used in CEBAF and other accelerators used worldwide are manufactured) was constructed.

    As of May 2014, the upgrade achieved a new record for beam energy, at 10.5 GeV, delivering beam to Hall D.

    As of December 2016, the CEBAF accelerator delivered full-energy electrons as part of commissioning activities for the ongoing 12 GeV Upgrade project. Operators of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility delivered the first batch of 12 GeV electrons (12.065 Giga electron Volts) to its newest experimental hall complex, Hall D.

    In September 2017, the official notification from the DOE of the formal approval of the 12 GeV upgrade project completion and start of operations was issued. By spring 2018, all fours research areas were successfully receiving beam and performing experiments. On 2 May 2018 the CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade Dedication Ceremony took place.

    As of December 2018, the CEBAF accelerator delivered electron beams to all four experimental halls simultaneously for physics-quality production running.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:45 am on August 31, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , "Signs of Saturation Emerge from Particle Collisions at RHIC", , Nuclear physicists studying particle collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have new evidence that gluons reach a steady “saturated” state inside the speeding ions., Nuclear physics, , Scientists use the quark from the proton like a tool-or probe-to study the gluon inside the other ion., Suppression of a telltale sign of quark-gluon interactions presented as evidence of multiple scatterings and gluon recombination in dense walls of gluons.,   

    From The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory: “Signs of Saturation Emerge from Particle Collisions at RHIC” 

    From The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory

    8.31.22
    Karen McNulty Walsh
    kmcnulty@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-8350

    Peter Genzer
    genzer@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-3174

    Suppression of a telltale sign of quark-gluon interactions presented as evidence of multiple scatterings and gluon recombination in dense walls of gluons.

    1
    Members of the STAR collaboration report new data that indicate nuclei accelerated to very high energies at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) may be reaching a state where gluons are starting to saturate.

    Nuclear physicists studying particle collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)—a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science user facility at DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory—have new evidence that particles called gluons reach a steady “saturated” state inside the speeding ions. The evidence is suppression of back-to-back pairs of particles emerging from collisions between protons and heavier ions (the nuclei of atoms), as tracked by RHIC’s STAR detector. In a paper just published in Physical Review Letters [below], the STAR collaboration shows that the bigger the nucleus the proton collides with, the larger the suppression in this key signature, as predicted by theoretical models of gluon saturation.

    “We varied the species of the colliding ion beam because theorists predicted that this sign of saturation would be easier to observe in heavier nuclei,” explained Brookhaven Lab physicist Xiaoxuan Chu, a member of the STAR collaboration who led the analysis. “The good thing is RHIC, the world’s most flexible collider, can accelerate different species of ion beams. In our analysis, we used collisions of protons with other protons, aluminum, and gold.”

    Saturation should be easier to see in aluminum, and even easier in gold, when compared to simpler protons, Chu explained, because these bigger nuclei have more protons and neutrons, each made up of quarks and gluons.

    2
    As nuclei are accelerated close to the speed of light, they become flattened like pancakes. This flattening causes the large number of gluons within the nuclei—generated by individual gluons splitting—to overlap and recombine. If gluon recombination balances out gluon splitting, the nuclei reach a steady state called gluon saturation.

    Previous experiments have shown that when ions are accelerated to high energies, gluons split, one into two, to multiply to very high numbers. But scientists suspect that gluon multiplication can’t go on forever. Instead, in nuclei moving close to the speed of light, where relativistic motion flattens the nuclei into speeding gluon “pancakes,” overlapping gluons should start to recombine.

    “If the rate of two gluons recombining into one balances out the rate of single gluons splitting, gluon density reaches a steady state, or plateau, where it is not going up or going down. That is saturation,” Chu said. “Because there are more gluons and more overlapping gluons in larger nuclei, these bigger ions should show signs of recombination and saturation more readily than smaller ones,” she added.

    Scanning for back-to-back pairs

    To search for those signs, the STAR scientists scanned data collected in 2015 for collisions where a pair of “π0” particles hit STAR’s forward meson spectrometer in a back-to-back configuration. In this case, back-to-back means 180 degrees from one another around a circular target at the end of the detector in the forward-going direction of the probing proton beam. These collisions select for interactions between a single high-energy quark from the probing proton with a single low-momentum gluon in the target ion (proton, aluminum, or gold).

    “We use the quark from the proton like a tool, or probe, to study the gluon inside the other ion,” Chu said.

    3
    STAR scientists searched for signs of saturation in collisions of a proton (black) with a nucleus (multicolored). By tracking events where a pair of neutral pion particles (π0) strikes a forward detector at back-to-back positions, they select for interactions between a high-momentum-fraction quark from the proton and a low-momentum-fraction gluon from the nucleus. In large nuclei they saw suppression of this back-to-back signal. This suppression—a key prediction of models describing a saturated state of gluons—likely results from multiple gluon scatterings and recombination of abundant overlapping gluons.

    The team was particularly interested in the “low momentum fraction” gluons—the multitude of gluons that each carry a tiny fraction of the overall momentum of the nucleus. Experiments at the HERA accelerator in Germany (1992-2007) have shown that, at high energy, protons and all nuclei are dominated by these low-momentum-fraction gluons.

    In the proton-proton collisions, the quark-gluon interactions are very straightforward, Chu explained. “The two particles—quark and gluon—hit each other and generate two π0 particles back-to-back,” she said.

    But when a quark from the proton strikes a gluon in a larger flattened-out nucleus, where many gluons overlap, the interactions can be more complex. The quark—or the struck gluon—might strike multiple additional gluons. Or the gluon might recombine with another gluon, losing all “memory” of its original tendency to emit a π0.

    Both processes—multiple scatterings and gluon recombination—should “smear” the back-to-back π0 signal, explained Elke Aschenauer, the leader of Brookhaven Lab’s “Cold QCD” experimental group, which explores details of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory governing the interactions of quarks and gluons in protons and nuclei.

    “So, the proton-proton collisions give us a baseline,” said Chu. “In these collisions we don’t have saturation because there aren’t enough gluons and not enough overlap. To look for saturation, we compare the observable of the two-particle correlation across the three collision systems.”

    Results match theory prediction

    The results came out just as the theories predicted, with the physicists observing the fewest back-to-back correlated particles striking the detector in the proton-gold collisions, an intermediate level in proton-aluminum collisions, and the highest correlation in the baseline proton-proton collisions.

    The suppression of the π0 correlation in the larger nuclei, and the fact that the suppression gets stronger the larger the nucleus gets, are clear evidence, the scientists say, of gluon recombination needed to reach gluon saturation.

    3
    Brookhaven Lab physicists Xiaoxuan Chu and Elke-Caroline Aschenauer at the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

    “STAR will follow up these measurements by collecting additional data in 2024 using recently upgraded forward detector components, tracking other observables that should also be sensitive to saturation,” explained Brookhaven Lab physicist Akio Ogawa, a member of the STAR collaboration and a key player in building the new forward STAR detector systems.

    Together, the RHIC results will also be an important basis for very similar measurements at the future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), being built at Brookhaven to collide electrons with ions.

    According to Aschenauer, one of the physicists laying out the plans for research at that facility, “If we measure this now at RHIC, at a collision energy of 200 billion electron volts (GeV), that is very similar to the collision energy we will get at the EIC. That means we can use the same observable at the EIC to test whether recombination and saturation are universal properties of the nuclei, as predicted by the saturation models.”

    Seeing the same result at both facilities, “would prove that these properties don’t depend on structure and type of the probe we use to study them,” she said.

    This research was funded by the DOE Office of Science (NP), the National Science Foundation, and a range of international agencies spelled out in the published paper. The STAR team used computational resources at the RHIC and ATLAS Computing Facility/Scientific Data and Computing Center at Brookhaven Lab, the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)—a DOE Office of Science user facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory—and the Open Science Grid consortium.

    Science paper:
    Physical Review Letters

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Brookhaven Campus

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the The DOE Office of Science, The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

    Research at BNL specializes in nuclear and high energy physics, energy science and technology, environmental and bioscience, nanoscience and national security. The 5300 acre campus contains several large research facilities, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider [below] and National Synchrotron Light Source II [below]. Seven Nobel prizes have been awarded for work conducted at Brookhaven lab.

    BNL is staffed by approximately 2,750 scientists, engineers, technicians, and support personnel, and hosts 4,000 guest investigators every year. The laboratory has its own police station, fire department, and ZIP code (11973). In total, the lab spans a 5,265-acre (21 km^2) area that is mostly coterminous with the hamlet of Upton, New York. BNL is served by a rail spur operated as-needed by the New York and Atlantic Railway. Co-located with the laboratory is the Upton, New York, forecast office of the National Weather Service.

    Major programs

    Although originally conceived as a nuclear research facility, Brookhaven Lab’s mission has greatly expanded. Its foci are now:

    Nuclear and high-energy physics
    Physics and chemistry of materials
    Environmental and climate research
    Nanomaterials
    Energy research
    Nonproliferation
    Structural biology
    Accelerator physics

    Operation

    Brookhaven National Lab was originally owned by the Atomic Energy Commission and is now owned by that agency’s successor, the United States Department of Energy (DOE). DOE subcontracts the research and operation to universities and research organizations. It is currently operated by Brookhaven Science Associates LLC, which is an equal partnership of Stony Brook University and Battelle Memorial Institute. From 1947 to 1998, it was operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), but AUI lost its contract in the wake of two incidents: a 1994 fire at the facility’s high-beam flux reactor that exposed several workers to radiation and reports in 1997 of a tritium leak into the groundwater of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens on which the facility sits.

    Foundations

    Following World War II, the US Atomic Energy Commission was created to support government-sponsored peacetime research on atomic energy. The effort to build a nuclear reactor in the American northeast was fostered largely by physicists Isidor Isaac Rabi and Norman Foster Ramsey Jr., who during the war witnessed many of their colleagues at Columbia University leave for new remote research sites following the departure of the Manhattan Project from its campus. Their effort to house this reactor near New York City was rivalled by a similar effort at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to have a facility near Boston, Massachusetts. Involvement was quickly solicited from representatives of northeastern universities to the south and west of New York City such that this city would be at their geographic center. In March 1946 a nonprofit corporation was established that consisted of representatives from nine major research universities — Columbia University, Cornell University, Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University, University of Pennsylvania, University of Rochester, and Yale University.

    Out of 17 considered sites in the Boston-Washington corridor, Camp Upton on Long Island was eventually chosen as the most suitable in consideration of space, transportation, and availability. The camp had been a training center from the US Army during both World War I and World War II. After the latter war, Camp Upton was deemed no longer necessary and became available for reuse. A plan was conceived to convert the military camp into a research facility.

    On March 21, 1947, the Camp Upton site was officially transferred from the U.S. War Department to the new U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

    Research and facilities

    Reactor history

    In 1947 construction began on the first nuclear reactor at Brookhaven, the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor. This reactor, which opened in 1950, was the first reactor to be constructed in the United States after World War II. The High Flux Beam Reactor operated from 1965 to 1999. In 1959 Brookhaven built the first US reactor specifically tailored to medical research, the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, which operated until 2000.

    Accelerator history

    In 1952 Brookhaven began using its first particle accelerator, the Cosmotron. At the time the Cosmotron was the world’s highest energy accelerator, being the first to impart more than 1 GeV of energy to a particle.

    BNL Cosmotron 1952-1966.

    The Cosmotron was retired in 1966, after it was superseded in 1960 by the new Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    The AGS was used in research that resulted in 3 Nobel prizes, including the discovery of the muon neutrino, the charm quark, and CP violation.

    In 1970 in BNL started the ISABELLE project to develop and build two proton intersecting storage rings.

    The groundbreaking for the project was in October 1978. In 1981, with the tunnel for the accelerator already excavated, problems with the superconducting magnets needed for the ISABELLE accelerator brought the project to a halt, and the project was eventually cancelled in 1983.

    The National Synchrotron Light Source operated from 1982 to 2014 and was involved with two Nobel Prize-winning discoveries. It has since been replaced by the National Synchrotron Light Source II. [below].

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source.

    After ISABELLE’S cancellation, physicist at BNL proposed that the excavated tunnel and parts of the magnet assembly be used in another accelerator. In 1984 the first proposal for the accelerator now known as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)[below] was put forward. The construction got funded in 1991 and RHIC has been operational since 2000. One of the world’s only two operating heavy-ion colliders, RHIC is as of 2010 the second-highest-energy collider after the Large Hadron Collider (CH). RHIC is housed in a tunnel 2.4 miles (3.9 km) long and is visible from space.

    On January 9, 2020, it was announced by Paul Dabbar, undersecretary of the US Department of Energy Office of Science, that the BNL eRHIC design has been selected over the conceptual design put forward by DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility [Jlab] as the future Electron–ion collider (EIC) in the United States.

    In addition to the site selection, it was announced that the BNL EIC had acquired CD-0 from the Department of Energy. BNL’s eRHIC design proposes upgrading the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, which collides beams light to heavy ions including polarized protons, with a polarized electron facility, to be housed in the same tunnel.

    Other discoveries

    In 1958, Brookhaven scientists created one of the world’s first video games, Tennis for Two. In 1968 Brookhaven scientists patented Maglev, a transportation technology that utilizes magnetic levitation.

    Major facilities

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which was designed to research quark–gluon plasma and the sources of proton spin. Until 2009 it was the world’s most powerful heavy ion collider. It is the only collider of spin-polarized protons.

    Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), used for the study of nanoscale materials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven’s newest user facility, opened in 2015 to replace the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which had operated for 30 years. NSLS was involved in the work that won the 2003 and 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

    Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, a particle accelerator that was used in three of the lab’s Nobel prizes.
    Accelerator Test Facility, generates, accelerates and monitors particle beams.
    Tandem Van de Graaff, once the world’s largest electrostatic accelerator.

    Computational Science resources, including access to a massively parallel Blue Gene series supercomputer that is among the fastest in the world for scientific research, run jointly by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University-SUNY.

    Interdisciplinary Science Building, with unique laboratories for studying high-temperature superconductors and other materials important for addressing energy challenges.
    NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, where scientists use beams of ions to simulate cosmic rays and assess the risks of space radiation to human space travelers and equipment.

    Off-site contributions

    It is a contributing partner to the ATLAS experiment, one of the four detectors located at the The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] Large Hadron Collider(LHC).

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] map.

    Iconic view of the European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear] [Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] ATLAS detector.

    It is currently operating at The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organization européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organization für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] near Geneva, Switzerland.

    Brookhaven was also responsible for the design of the Spallation Neutron Source at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee.

    DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source annotated.

    Brookhaven plays a role in a range of neutrino research projects around the world, including the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China.

    Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China .


    BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II.

    BNL NSLS II.

    BNL Relative Heavy Ion Collider Campus.

    BNL/RHIC Phenix detector.


     
  • richardmitnick 9:48 pm on August 2, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "The Strength of the Strong Force", A mechanism that accounts for 99 percent of the ordinary mass in the universe, , Jefferson Lab experiments hone in on a never-before-measured region of strong force coupling-a quantity that supports theories accounting for 99% of the ordinary mass in the universe., Nuclear physics, , , , The flattening of the strong force coupling at large distances provides evidence that physicists can apply a new cutting-edge technique called Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) duality., The scientists extracted this value of the strong force from a handful of Jefferson Lab experiments that were actually designed to study something completely different: proton and neutron spin., These results are a true breakthrough for the advancement of quantum chromodynamics and hadron physics., With Jefferson Lab data the physicists were able to determine the strong force coupling at the largest distances yet.   

    From The DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility : “The Strength of the Strong Force” 

    From The DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    8.2.22
    Written by Chris Patrick

    Kandice Carter
    Jefferson Lab Communications Office
    kcarter@jlab.org

    Jefferson Lab experiments hone in on a never-before-measured region of strong force coupling-a quantity that supports theories accounting for 99% of the ordinary mass in the universe.

    Much ado was made about the Higgs boson when this elusive particle was discovered in 2012. Though it was touted as giving ordinary matter mass, interactions with the Higgs field only generate about 1 percent of ordinary mass. The other 99 percent comes from phenomena associated with the strong force, the fundamental force that binds smaller particles called quarks into larger particles called protons and neutrons that comprise the nucleus of the atoms of ordinary matter.

    Now, researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility have experimentally extracted the strength of the strong force, a quantity that firmly supports theories explaining how most of the mass or ordinary matter in the universe is generated.

    This quantity, known as the coupling of the strong force, describes how strongly two bodies interact or “couple” under this force. Strong force coupling varies with distance between the particles affected by the force. Prior to this research, theories disagreed on how strong force coupling should behave at large distance: some predicted it should grow with distance, some that it should decrease, and some that it should become constant.

    With Jefferson Lab data the physicists were able to determine the strong force coupling at the largest distances yet. Their results, which provide experimental support for theoretical predictions, were recently featured on the cover of the journal Particles [paper is below].

    1

    “We are happy and excited to see our effort get recognized,” said Jian-Ping Chen, senior staff scientist at Jefferson Lab and a co-author of the paper.

    Though this paper is the culmination of years of data collection and analysis, it wasn’t entirely intentional at first.

    A spinoff of a spin experiment

    At smaller distances between quarks, strong force coupling is small, and physicists can solve for it with a standard iterative method. At larger distances, however, strong force coupling becomes so big that the iterative method doesn’t work anymore.

    “This is both a curse and a blessing,” said Alexandre Deur, a staff scientist at Jefferson Lab and a co-author of the paper. “While we have to use more complicated techniques to compute this quantity, its sheer value unleashes a host of very important emerging phenomena.”

    This includes a mechanism that accounts for 99 percent of the ordinary mass in the universe. (But we’ll get to that in a bit.)

    Despite the challenge of not being able to use the iterative method, Deur, Chen and their co-authors extracted strong force coupling at the largest distances between affected bodies ever.

    They extracted this value from a handful of Jefferson Lab experiments that were actually designed to study something completely different: proton and neutron spin.

    These experiments were conducted in the lab’s Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility [below], a DOE user facility. CEBAF is capable of providing polarized electron beams, which can be directed onto specialized targets containing polarized protons and neutrons in the experimental halls. When an electron beam is polarized, that means that a majority of the electrons are all spinning in the same direction.

    These experiments shot Jefferson Lab’s polarized electron beam at polarized proton or neutron targets. During the several years of data analysis afterward, the researchers realized they could combine information gathered about the proton and neutron to extract strong force coupling at larger distances.

    “Only Jefferson Lab’s high-performance polarized electron beam, in combination with developments in polarized targets and detection systems allowed us to get such data,” Chen said.

    They found that as distance increases between affected bodies, strong force coupling grows quickly before leveling off and becoming constant.

    “There are some theories that predicted that this should be the case, but this is the first time experimentally that we actually saw this,” Chen said. “This gives us detail on how the strong force, at the scale of the quarks forming protons and neutrons, actually works.”

    Leveling off supports massive theories

    These experiments were conducted about 10 years ago, when Jefferson Lab’s electron beam was capable of providing electrons at up to 6 GeV in energy (it’s now capable of up to 12 GeV). The lower-energy electron beam was required to examine the strong force at these larger distances: a lower-energy probe allows access to longer time scales and, therefore, larger distances between affected particles.

    Similarly, a higher-energy probe is essential for zooming in for views of shorter timescales and smaller distances between particles. Labs with higher-energy beams, such as CERN, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, have already examined strong force coupling at these smaller spacetime scales, when this value is relatively small.

    The zoomed-in view offered by higher-energy beams has shown that mass of a quark is small, only a few MeV. At least, that’s their textbook mass. But when quarks are probed with lower energy, their mass effectively grows to 300 MeV.

    This is because the quarks gather a cloud of gluons, the particle that carries the strong force, as they move across larger distances. The mass-generating effect of this cloud accounts for most of the mass in the universe – without this additional mass, the textbook mass of quarks can only account for about 1% of the mass of protons and neutrons. The other 99% comes from this acquired mass.

    Similarly, a theory posits that gluons are massless at short distances but effectively acquire mass as they travel further. The leveling of strong force coupling at large distances supports this theory.

    “If gluons remained massless at long range, strong force coupling would keep growing unchecked,” Deur said. “Our measurements show that strong force coupling becomes constant as the distance probed gets larger, which is a sign that gluons have acquired mass through the same mechanism that gives 99% of mass to the proton and the neutron.”

    This means strong force coupling at large distances is important for understanding this mass generation mechanism. These results also help verify new ways to solve equations for quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the accepted theory describing the strong force.

    For instance, the flattening of the strong force coupling at large distances provides evidence that physicists can apply a new cutting-edge technique called Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) duality. The AdS/CFT technique allows physicists to solve equations non-iteratively, which can help with strong force calculations at large distances where iterative methods fail.

    The conformal in “Conformal Field Theory” means the technique is based on a theory that behaves the same at all spacetime scales. Because strong force coupling levels off at larger distances, it is no longer dependent on spacetime scale, meaning the strong force is conformal and AdS/CFT can be applied. While theorists have already been applying AdS/CFT to QCD, this data supports use of the technique.

    “AdS/CFT has allowed us to solve problems of QCD or quantum gravity that were hitherto intractable or addressed very roughly using not very rigorous models,” Deur said. “This has yielded many exciting insights into fundamental physics.”

    So, while these results were generated by experimentalists, they affect theorists the most.

    “I believe that these results are a true breakthrough for the advancement of quantum chromodynamics and hadron physics,” said Stanley Brodsky, emeritus professor at The DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and a QCD theorist. “I congratulate the Jefferson Lab physics community, particularly, Dr. Alexandre Deur, for this major advance in physics.”

    Years have passed since the experiments that accidentally bore these results were conducted. A whole new suite of experiments now use Jefferson Lab’s higher energy 12 GeV beam to explore nuclear physics.

    “One thing I’m very happy about with all these older experiments is that we trained many young students and they have now become leaders of future experiments,” Chen said.

    Only time will tell which theories these new experiments support.

    Science paper:
    Particles

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    JLab campus
    DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is supported by The Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy. DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, visit science.energy.gov.

    Jefferson Science Associates, LLC, a joint venture of the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc. and PAE Applied Technologies, manages and operates the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility for the Department of Energy’s Office of Science.

    History

    DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility was established in 1984 (first initial funding by DOE, Department of Energy) as the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF); the name was changed to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in 1996. The full funding for construction was appropriated by US Congress in 1986 and on February 13, 1987, the construction of the main component, the CEBAF accelerator begun. First beam was delivered to experimental area on 1 July 1994. The design energy of 4 GeV for the beam was achieved during the year 1995. The laboratory dedication took place 24 May 1996 (at this event the name was also changed). Full initial operations with all three initial experiment areas online at the design energy was achieved on June 19, 1998. On August 6, 2000 the CEBAF reached “enhanced design energy” of 6 GeV. In 2001, plans for an energy upgrade to 12 GeV electron beam and plans to construct a fourth experimental hall area started. The plans progressed through various DOE Critical Decision-stages in the 2000s decade, with the final DOE acceptance in 2008 and the construction on the 12 GeV upgrade beginning in 2009. May 18, 2012 the original 6 GeV CEBAF accelerator shut down for the replacement of the accelerator components for the 12 GeV upgrade. 178 experiments were completed with the original CEBAF.

    In addition to the accelerator, the laboratory has housed and continues to house a free electron laser (FEL) instrument. The construction of the FEL started 11 June 1996. It achieved first light on June 17, 1998. Since then, the FEL has been upgraded numerous times, increasing its power and capabilities substantially.

    Jefferson Lab was also involved in the construction of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at The DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory . Jefferson built the SNS superconducting accelerator and helium refrigeration system. The accelerator components were designed and produced 2000–2005.

    Accelerator

    The laboratory’s main research facility is the CEBAF accelerator, which consists of a polarized electron source and injector and a pair of superconducting RF linear accelerators that are 7/8-mile (1400 m) in length and connected to each other by two arc sections that contain steering magnets.

    As the electron beam makes up to five successive orbits, its energy is increased up to a maximum of 6 GeV (the original CEBAF machine worked first in 1995 at the design energy of 4 GeV before reaching “enhanced design energy” of 6 GeV in 2000; since then, the facility has been upgraded into 12 GeV energy). This leads to a design that appears similar to a racetrack when compared to the classical ring-shaped accelerators found at sites such as The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] or DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Effectively, CEBAF is a linear accelerator, similar to DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory at Stanford University, that has been folded up to a tenth of its normal length.

    The design of CEBAF allows the electron beam to be continuous rather than the pulsed beam typical of ring-shaped accelerators. (There is some beam structure, but the pulses are very much shorter and closer together.) The electron beam is directed onto three potential targets (see below). One of the distinguishing features of Jefferson Lab is the continuous nature of the electron beam, with a bunch length of less than 1 picosecond. Another is Jefferson Lab’s use of superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) technology, which uses liquid helium to cool niobium to approximately 4 K (−452.5 °F), removing electrical resistance and allowing the most efficient transfer of energy to an electron. To achieve this, Jefferson Lab houses the world’s largest liquid helium refrigerator, and it was one of the first large-scale implementations of SRF technology. The accelerator is built 8 meters below the Earth’s surface, or approximately 25 feet, and the walls of the accelerator tunnels are 2 feet thick.

    The beam ends in four experimental halls, labelled Hall A, Hall B, Hall C, and Hall D. Each hall contains specialized spectrometers to record the products of collisions between the electron beam or with real photons and a stationary target. This allows physicists to study the structure of the atomic nucleus, specifically the interaction of the quarks that make up protons and neutrons of the nucleus.

    With each revolution around the accelerator, the beam passes through each of the two LINAC accelerators, but through a different set of bending magnets in semi-circular arcs at the ends of the linacs. The electrons make up to five passes through the linear accelerators.

    When a nucleus in the target is hit by an electron from the beam, an “interaction”, or “event”, occurs, scattering particles into the hall. Each hall contains an array of particle detectors that track the physical properties of the particles produced by the event. The detectors generate electrical pulses that are converted into digital values by analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), time to digital converters (TDCs) and pulse counters (scalers).

    This digital data is gathered and stored so that the physicist can later analyze the data and reconstruct the physics that occurred. The system of electronics and computers that perform this task is called a data acquisition system.

    12 GeV upgrade

    As of June 2010, construction began on a $338 million upgrade to add an end station, Hall D, on the opposite end of the accelerator from the other three halls, as well as to double beam energy to 12 GeV. Concurrently, an addition to the Test Lab, (where the SRF cavities used in CEBAF and other accelerators used worldwide are manufactured) was constructed.

    As of May 2014, the upgrade achieved a new record for beam energy, at 10.5 GeV, delivering beam to Hall D.

    As of December 2016, the CEBAF accelerator delivered full-energy electrons as part of commissioning activities for the ongoing 12 GeV Upgrade project. Operators of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility delivered the first batch of 12 GeV electrons (12.065 Giga electron Volts) to its newest experimental hall complex, Hall D.

    In September 2017, the official notification from the DOE of the formal approval of the 12 GeV upgrade project completion and start of operations was issued. By spring 2018, all fours research areas were successfully receiving beam and performing experiments. On 2 May 2018 the CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade Dedication Ceremony took place.

    As of December 2018, the CEBAF accelerator delivered electron beams to all four experimental halls simultaneously for physics-quality production running.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:15 am on July 23, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Halos and dark matter:: A recipe for discovery", , Beryllium-10, Beta decay, Boron-11, Dark decay, , , Michigan State University NSCL [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory], Nuclear physics, , , Reaccelerator technology, The Michigan State University FRIB [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams], Time-reversed reaction, TRIUMF- Canada's particle accelerator centre [Centre canadien d'accélération des particules](CA)   

    From The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams [FRIB]: “Halos and dark matter:: A recipe for discovery” 

    From The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams [FRIB].

    At

    Michigan State Bloc

    Michigan State University

    July 22, 2022
    Matt Davenport

    1
    This Hubble Space Telescope image centers on what’s known as a low surface brightness, or LSB, galaxy (blue), surrounded by more familiar-looking galaxies (yellow). Astrophysics believe that more than 95% of the matter found in LSBs is dark matter. Credit: D. Calzetti/NASA/ESAHubble.

    Scientists still don’t know what Dark Matter is. But Michigan State University scientists helped uncover new physics while looking for it.

    About three years ago, Wolfgang “Wolfi” Mittig and Yassid Ayyad went looking for the universe’s missing mass, better known as Dark Matter, in the heart of an atom.

    Their expedition didn’t lead them to Dark Matter, but they still found something that had never been seen before, something that defied explanation. Well, at least an explanation that everyone could agree on.

    “We started out looking for Dark Matter and we didn’t find it,” he said. “Instead, we found other things that have been challenging for theory to explain.”

    So the team got back to work, doing more experiments, gathering more evidence to make their discovery make sense. Mittig, Ayyad and their colleagues bolstered their case at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, or NSCL [below], at Michigan State University.

    Working at NSCL, the team found a new path to their unexpected destination, which they detailed June 28 in the journal Physical Review Letters [below]. In doing so, they also revealed interesting physics that’s afoot in the ultra-small quantum realm of subatomic particles.

    In particular, the team confirmed that when an atom’s core, or nucleus, is overstuffed with neutrons, it can still find a way to a more stable configuration by spitting out a proton instead.

    “It’s been something like a detective story,” said Mittig, a Hannah Distinguished Professor in Michigan State University’s Department of Physics and Astronomy and a faculty member at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams [below].

    Shot in the dark

    Dark Matter is one of the most famous things in the universe that we know the least about. For decades, scientists have known that the cosmos contains more mass than we can see based on the trajectories of stars and galaxies.

    For gravity to keep the celestial objects tethered to their paths, there had to be unseen mass and a lot of it — six times the amount of regular matter that we can observe, measure and characterize. Although scientists are convinced Dark Matter is out there, they have yet to find where and devise how to detect it directly.

    “Finding Dark Matter is one of the major goals of physics,” said Ayyad, a nuclear physics researcher at the Galician Institute of High Energy Physics, or IGFAE, of the University of Santiago de Compostela in Spain.

    Speaking in round numbers, scientists have launched about 100 experiments to try to illuminate what exactly Dark Matter is, Mittig said.

    “None of them has succeeded after 20, 30, 40 years of research,” he said.

    “But there was a theory, a very hypothetical idea, that you could observe Dark Matter with a very particular type of nucleus,” said Ayyad, who was previously a detector systems physicist at NSCL.

    This theory centered on what it calls a dark decay. It posited that certain unstable nuclei, nuclei that naturally fall apart, could jettison Dark Matter as they crumbled.
    __________________________________
    Dark Matter Background
    Fritz Zwicky discovered Dark Matter in the 1930s when observing the movement of the Coma Cluster., Vera Rubin a Woman in STEM, denied the Nobel, some 30 years later, did most of the work on Dark Matter.

    Fritz Zwicky.
    Coma cluster via NASA/ESA Hubble, the original example of Dark Matter discovered during observations by Fritz Zwicky and confirmed 30 years later by Vera Rubin.
    In modern times, it was astronomer Fritz Zwicky, in the 1930s, who made the first observations of what we now call dark matter. His 1933 observations of the Coma Cluster of galaxies seemed to indicated it has a mass 500 times more than that previously calculated by Edwin Hubble. Furthermore, this extra mass seemed to be completely invisible. Although Zwicky’s observations were initially met with much skepticism, they were later confirmed by other groups of astronomers.

    Thirty years later, astronomer Vera Rubin provided a huge piece of evidence for the existence of dark matter. She discovered that the centers of galaxies rotate at the same speed as their extremities, whereas, of course, they should rotate faster. Think of a vinyl LP on a record deck: its center rotates faster than its edge. That’s what logic dictates we should see in galaxies too. But we do not. The only way to explain this is if the whole galaxy is only the center of some much larger structure, as if it is only the label on the LP so to speak, causing the galaxy to have a consistent rotation speed from center to edge.

    Vera Rubin, following Zwicky, postulated that the missing structure in galaxies is dark matter. Her ideas were met with much resistance from the astronomical community, but her observations have been confirmed and are seen today as pivotal proof of the existence of dark matter.
    Astronomer Vera Rubin at the Lowell Observatory in 1965, worked on Dark Matter (The Carnegie Institution for Science).

    Vera Rubin, with Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM) image tube spectrograph attached to the Kitt Peak 84-inch telescope, 1970.

    Vera Rubin measuring spectra, worked on Dark Matter(Emilio Segre Visual Archives AIP SPL).
    Dark Matter Research

    Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search from DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory at Stanford University at SNOLAB (Vale Inco Mine, Sudbury, Canada).

    LBNL LZ Dark Matter Experiment xenon detector at Sanford Underground Research Facility Credit: Matt Kapust.

    Lamda Cold Dark Matter Accerated Expansion of The universe http scinotions.com the-cosmic-inflation-suggests-the-existence-of-parallel-universes. Credit: Alex Mittelmann.

    DAMA at Gran Sasso uses sodium iodide housed in copper to hunt for dark matter LNGS-INFN.

    Yale HAYSTAC axion dark matter experiment at Yale’s Wright Lab.

    DEAP Dark Matter detector, The DEAP-3600, suspended in the SNOLAB (CA) deep in Sudbury’s Creighton Mine.

    The LBNL LZ Dark Matter Experiment Dark Matter project at SURF, Lead, SD.

    DAMA-LIBRA Dark Matter experiment at the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics’ (INFN’s) Gran Sasso National Laboratories (LNGS) located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy.

    DARWIN Dark Matter experiment. A design study for a next-generation, multi-ton dark matter detector in Europe at The University of Zurich [Universität Zürich](CH).

    PandaX II Dark Matter experiment at Jin-ping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in Sichuan, China.

    Inside the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment U Washington (US) Credit : Mark Stone U. of Washington. Axion Dark Matter Experiment.
    __________________________________

    So Ayyad, Mittig and their team designed an experiment that could look for a dark decay, knowing the odds were against them. But the gamble wasn’t as big as it sounds because probing exotic decays also lets researchers better understand the rules and structures of the nuclear and quantum worlds.

    The researchers had a good chance of discovering something new. The question was what that would be.

    Help from a halo

    When people imagine a nucleus, many may think of a lumpy ball made up of protons and neutrons, Ayyad said. But nuclei can take on strange shapes, including what are known as halo nuclei.

    Beryllium-11 is an example of a halo nucleus. It’s a form, or isotope, of the element beryllium that has four protons and seven neutrons in its nucleus. It keeps 10 of those 11 nuclear particles in a tight central cluster. But one neutron floats far away from that core, loosely bound to the rest of the nucleus, kind of like the moon ringing around the Earth, Ayyad said.

    Beryllium-11 is also unstable. After a lifetime of about 13.8 seconds, it falls apart by what’s known as beta decay. One of its neutrons ejects an electron and becomes a proton. This transforms the nucleus into a stable form of the element boron with five protons and six neutrons, boron-11.

    2
    In the team’s experiment published in 2019, beryllium-11 decays through beta decay to an excited state of boron-11, which decays to beryllium-10 and a proton. In the new experiment, the team accesses the boron-11 state by adding a proton to beryllium-10, that is, by running the time-reversed reaction.

    But according to that very hypothetical theory, if the neutron that decays is the one in the halo, beryllium-11 could go an entirely different route: It could undergo a dark decay.

    In 2019, the researchers launched an experiment at Canada’s national particle accelerator facility, TRIUMF- Canada’s particle accelerator centre [Centre canadien d’accélération des particules](CA), looking for that very hypothetical decay.

    And they did find a decay with unexpectedly high probability, but it wasn’t a dark decay.

    It looked like the beryllium-11’s loosely bound neutron was ejecting an electron like normal beta decay, yet the beryllium wasn’t following the known decay path to boron.

    The team hypothesized that the high probability of the decay could be explained if a state in boron-11 existed as a doorway to another decay, to beryllium-10 and a proton. For anyone keeping score, that meant the nucleus had once again become beryllium. Only now it had six neutrons instead of seven.

    “This happens just because of the halo nucleus,” Ayyad said. “It’s a very exotic type of radioactivity. It was actually the first direct evidence of proton radioactivity from a neutron-rich nucleus.”

    But science welcomes scrutiny and skepticism, and the team’s 2019 report was met with a healthy dose of both. That “doorway” state in boron-11 did not seem compatible with most theoretical models. Without a solid theory that made sense of what the team saw, different experts interpreted the team’s data differently and offered up other potential conclusions.

    “We had a lot of long discussions,” Mittig said. “It was a good thing.”

    As beneficial as the discussions were — and continue to be — Mittig and Ayyad knew they’d have to generate more evidence to support their results and hypothesis. They’d have to design new experiments.

    The NSCL experiments

    In the team’s 2019 experiment, TRIUMF generated a beam of beryllium-11 nuclei that the team directed into a detection chamber where researchers observed different possible decay routes. That included the beta decay to proton emission process that created beryllium-10.

    For the new experiments, which took place in August 2021, the team’s idea was to essentially run the time-reversed reaction. That is, the researchers would start with beryllium-10 nuclei and add a proton.

    Collaborators in Switzerland created a source of beryllium-10, which has a half-life of 1.4 million years, that NSCL could then use to produce radioactive beams with new reaccelerator technology. The technology evaporated and injected the beryllium into an accelerator and made it possible for researchers to make a highly sensitive measurement.

    When beryllium-10 absorbed a proton of the right energy, the nucleus entered the same excited state the researchers believed they discovered three years earlier. It would even spit the proton back out, which can be detected as signature of the process.

    “The results of the two experiments are very compatible,” Ayyad said.

    That wasn’t the only good news. Unbeknownst to the team, an independent group of scientists at Florida State University had devised another way to probe the 2019 result. Ayyad happened to attend a virtual conference where the Florida State team presented its preliminary results, and he was encouraged by what he saw.

    “I took a screenshot of the Zoom meeting and immediately sent it to Wolfi,” he said. “Then we reached out to the Florida State team and worked out a way to support each other.”

    The two teams were in touch as they developed their reports, and both scientific publications now appear in the same issue of Physical Review Letters [below]. And the new results are already generating a buzz in the community.

    “The work is getting a lot of attention. Wolfi will visit Spain in a few weeks to talk about this,” Ayyad said.

    An open case on open quantum systems

    Part of the excitement is because the team’s work could provide a new case study for what are known as open quantum systems. It’s an intimidating name, but the concept can be thought of like the old adage, “nothing exists in a vacuum.”

    3
    In an open quantum system, a discrete, or isolated, state, analogous to boron-11 (left), mixes with an adjacent continuum of states, related to beryllium-10 (middle), which results in a new “resonant” state (right). Credit: Facility for Rare Isotope Beams.

    Quantum physics has provided a framework to understand the incredibly tiny components of nature: atoms, molecules and much, much more. This understanding has advanced virtually every realm of physical science, including energy, chemistry and materials science.

    Much of that framework, however, was developed considering simplified scenarios. The super small system of interest would be isolated in some way from the ocean of input provided by the world around it. In studying open quantum systems, physicists are venturing away from idealized scenarios and into the complexity of reality.

    Open quantum systems are literally everywhere, but finding one that’s tractable enough to learn something from is challenging, especially in matters of the nucleus. Mittig and Ayyad saw potential in their loosely bound nuclei and they knew that NSCL, and now FRIB could help develop it.

    NSCL, a National Science Foundation user facility that served the scientific community for decades, hosted the work of Mittig and Ayyad, which is the first published demonstration of the stand-alone reaccelerator technology. FRIB, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science user facility that officially launched on May 2, 2022 is where the work can continue in the future.

    “Open quantum systems are a general phenomenon, but they’re a new idea in nuclear physics,” Ayyad said. “And most of the theorists who are doing the work are at FRIB.”

    But this detective story is still in its early chapters. To complete the case, researchers still need more data, more evidence to make full sense of what they’re seeing. That means Ayyad and Mittig are still doing what they do best and investigating.

    “We’re going ahead and making new experiments,” said Mittig. “The theme through all of this is that it’s important to have good experiments with strong analysis.”

    NSCL was a national user facility funded by the National Science Foundation, supporting the mission of the Nuclear Physics program in the NSF Physics Division.

    Michigan State University (MSU) operates the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) as a user facility for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC), supporting the mission of the DOE-SC Office of Nuclear Physics. Hosting what is designed to be the most powerful heavy-ion accelerator, FRIB enables scientists to make discoveries about the properties of rare isotopes in order to better understand the physics of nuclei, nuclear astrophysics, fundamental interactions and applications for society, including in medicine, homeland security and industry.

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of today’s most pressing challenges. For more information, visit energy.gov/science.

    Science paper:
    Physical Review Letters

    Physical Review Letters

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Michigan State Campus

    Michigan State University is a public research university located in East Lansing, Michigan, United States. Michigan State University was founded in 1855 and became the nation’s first land-grant institution under the Morrill Act of 1862, serving as a model for future land-grant universities.

    The university was founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, one of the country’s first institutions of higher education to teach scientific agriculture. After the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, Michigan State University is one of the largest universities in the United States (in terms of enrollment) and has approximately 634,300 living alumni worldwide.

    U.S. News & World Report ranks its graduate programs the best in the U.S. in elementary teacher’s education, secondary teacher’s education, industrial and organizational psychology, rehabilitation counseling, African history (tied), supply chain logistics and nuclear physics in 2019. Michigan State University pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and communication sciences. Michigan State University is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. The university’s campus houses the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, the Abrams Planetarium, the Wharton Center for Performing Arts, the Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, and the country’s largest residence hall system.

    Research

    The university has a long history of academic research and innovation. In 1877, botany professor William J. Beal performed the first documented genetic crosses to produce hybrid corn, which led to increased yields. Michigan State University dairy professor G. Malcolm Trout improved the process for the homogenization of milk in the 1930s, making it more commercially viable. In the 1960s, Michigan State University scientists developed cisplatin, a leading cancer fighting drug, and followed that work with the derivative, carboplatin. Albert Fert, an Adjunct professor at Michigan State University, was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Peter Grünberg.

    Today Michigan State University continues its research with facilities such as the Department of Energy -sponsored Plant Research Laboratory and a particle accelerator called the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory [below]. The Department of Energy Office of Science named Michigan State University as the site for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The $730 million facility will attract top researchers from around the world to conduct experiments in basic nuclear science, astrophysics, and applications of isotopes to other fields.

    Michigan State University FRIB [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams] .

    In 2004, scientists at the Cyclotron produced and observed a new isotope of the element germanium, called Ge-60 In that same year, Michigan State University, in consortium with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the government of Brazil, broke ground on the 4.1-meter Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) in the Andes Mountains of Chile.

    The consortium telescope will allow the Physics & Astronomy department to study galaxy formation and origins. Since 1999, MSU has been part of a consortium called the Michigan Life Sciences Corridor, which aims to develop biotechnology research in the State of Michigan. Finally, the College of Communication Arts and Sciences’ Quello Center researches issues of information and communication management.


    The Michigan State University Spartans compete in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference. Michigan State Spartans football won the Rose Bowl Game in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014, and the university claims a total of six national football championships. Spartans men’s basketball won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and has attained the Final Four eight times since the 1998–1999 season. Spartans ice hockey won NCAA national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007. The women’s cross country team was named Big Ten champions in 2019. In the fall of 2019, MSU student-athletes posted all-time highs for graduation success rates and federal graduation rates, according to NCAA statistics.

     
  • richardmitnick 5:14 pm on July 16, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "A new spin on nuclear magnetic moments", An unexpected feature of atomic nuclei when a “magic” number of neutrons is reached., , , Nuclear physics, , The MIT Laboratory for Nuclear Science, The team artificially created the nuclei using a particle accelerator at CERN., These nuclei do not exist in nature.   

    From The MIT Laboratory for Nuclear Science: “A new spin on nuclear magnetic moments” 

    From The MIT Laboratory for Nuclear Science

    AT

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    July 14, 2022

    New results from researchers at MIT reveal an unexpected feature of atomic nuclei when a “magic” number of neutrons is reached.

    1
    When measuring a nucleus with a certain “magic” number of neutrons — 82 — the magnetic field of the nucleus exhibits a drastic change, and the properties of these very complex nuclei appear to be governed by just one of the protons of the nucleus. Image: Adam Vernon.

    A curious thing happened when MIT researchers Adam Vernon and Ronald Garcia Ruiz, along an international team of scientists, recently performed an experiment in which a sensitive laser spectroscopy technique was used to measure how the nuclear electromagnetic properties of indium isotopes evolve when an extreme number of neutrons are added to the nucleus. These nuclei do not exist in nature, and once created, their lifetimes can be as short as a fraction of a second, so the team artificially created the nuclei using a particle accelerator at the CERN research facility in Switzerland. By using a combination of multiple lasers and an ion trap, the team isolated the isotopes of interest and performed precision measurements of atoms containing these exotic nuclei. In turn, it allowed the extraction of their nuclear properties.

    Vernon, a postdoc in the Laboratory for Nuclear Science (LNS); Garcia Ruiz, an assistant professor of physics and LNS affiliate; and their colleagues achieved a surprising result. When measuring a nucleus with a certain “magic” number of neutrons — 82 — the magnetic field of the nucleus exhibited a drastic change, and the properties of these very complex nuclei appear to be governed by just one of the protons of the nucleus.

    “The new observation at 82 total neutrons changes this picture of the nucleus. We had to come up with new nuclear theories to explain the result,” says Vernon.

    The motion of protons and neutrons orbiting inside the atomic nucleus generates a magnetic field, effectively turning the nucleus into a femtometre-scale (one-quadrillionth of a meter) magnet. Understanding how nuclear electromagnetism emerges from the underlying fundamental forces of nature is one of the major open problems of nuclear physics.

    The nuclear electromagnetic properties of indium isotopes (nuclei with the same atomic number but different number of neutrons) are considered a particularly intriguing example in nature. With 49 protons, and between 60 and 80 neutrons, the electromagnetic properties of indium isotopes appear to be governed by just one proton, regardless of the number of even neutrons.

    “The electromagnetic properties of indium isotopes have been considered a textbook example in our understanding of nuclear structure,” states Garcia Ruiz, who leads research on laser spectroscopy experiments of atoms and molecules containing short-lived nuclei within LNS’s Exotic Molecules and Atoms Lab.

    Two state-of-the-art “ab-initio” and “density functional theory” calculations for the atomic nucleus were independently developed by collaborators to describe the experimental results. They showed the magnetic field suddenly changing to be given by a single proton in the nucleus when 82 neutrons was reached, just as the MIT researchers and collaborators observed in the lab.

    The researchers’ work is described today in a paper in Nature. It serves as a milestone for nuclear physics, as it challenges our previous understanding of these nuclei. Moreover, detailed calculations of the atomic nucleus are highly challenging, especially with large numbers of protons and neutrons such as in this work.

    Vernon adds, “It is rare when calculations can investigate the atomic nucleus with such detail, and this is what our observation of this new phenomena enabled.”

    The results are an essential step toward a microscopic understanding of the atomic nucleus and the nuclear force, not just important for describing atomic nuclei, but also critical to understanding astrophysical systems such as neutron stars. Their findings provide important guidance to refine theoretical models, which are essential input for a diverse range of studies such as searches for dark matter searches and neutrino physics.

    The work was supported under the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science’s Office of Nuclear Physics.

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    The MIT Laboratory for Nuclear Science studies the fundamental nature and seeks to answer basic questions about the origin and structure of our universe through both experimental and theoretical research.

    MIT Seal

    USPS “Forever” postage stamps celebrating Innovation at MIT.

    MIT Campus

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private land-grant research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The institute has an urban campus that extends more than a mile (1.6 km) alongside the Charles River. The institute also encompasses a number of major off-campus facilities such as the MIT Lincoln Laboratory , the MIT Bates Research and Engineering Center , and the Haystack Observatory , as well as affiliated laboratories such as the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard and Whitehead Institute.

    Massachusettes Institute of Technology-Haystack Observatory Westford, Massachusetts, USA, Altitude 131 m (430 ft).

    Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, Massachusetts Institute of Technology adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. It has since played a key role in the development of many aspects of modern science, engineering, mathematics, and technology, and is widely known for its innovation and academic strength. It is frequently regarded as one of the most prestigious universities in the world.

    As of December 2020, 97 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, and 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 80 Marshall Scholars, 3 Mitchell Scholars, 22 Schwarzman Scholars, 41 astronauts, and 16 Chief Scientists of the U.S. Air Force have been affiliated with The Massachusetts Institute of Technology . The university also has a strong entrepreneurial culture and MIT alumni have founded or co-founded many notable companies. Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a member of the Association of American Universities (AAU).

    Foundation and vision

    In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a “Conservatory of Art and Science”, but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by John Albion Andrew, the governor of Massachusetts, on April 10, 1861.

    Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia , wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances. He did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that:

    “The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, and along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.”

    The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories.

    Early developments

    Two days after The Massachusetts Institute of Technology was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT’s first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865. The new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions “to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes” and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst ). In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay.

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology was informally called “Boston Tech”. The institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker. Programs in electrical, chemical, marine, and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, and the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand.

    The curriculum drifted to a vocational emphasis, with less focus on theoretical science. The fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these “Boston Tech” years, Massachusetts Institute of Technology faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president (and former MIT faculty) Charles W. Eliot’s repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College’s Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding. Eventually, the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty, students, and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court effectively put an end to the merger scheme.

    In 1916, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT’s move to a spacious new campus largely consisting of filled land on a one-mile-long (1.6 km) tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River. The neoclassical “New Technology” campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded largely by anonymous donations from a mysterious “Mr. Smith”, starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, and founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million ($236.6 million in 2015 dollars) in cash and Kodak stock to MIT.

    Curricular reforms

    In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President (effectively Provost) Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios. The Compton reforms “renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering”. Unlike Ivy League schools, Massachusetts Institute of Technology catered more to middle-class families, and depended more on tuition than on endowments or grants for its funding. The school was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1934.

    Still, as late as 1949, the Lewis Committee lamented in its report on the state of education at The Massachusetts Institute of Technology that “the Institute is widely conceived as basically a vocational school”, a “partly unjustified” perception the committee sought to change. The report comprehensively reviewed the undergraduate curriculum, recommended offering a broader education, and warned against letting engineering and government-sponsored research detract from the sciences and humanities. The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences and the MIT Sloan School of Management were formed in 1950 to compete with the powerful Schools of Science and Engineering. Previously marginalized faculties in the areas of economics, management, political science, and linguistics emerged into cohesive and assertive departments by attracting respected professors and launching competitive graduate programs. The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences continued to develop under the successive terms of the more humanistically oriented presidents Howard W. Johnson and Jerome Wiesner between 1966 and 1980.

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology‘s involvement in military science surged during World War II. In 1941, Vannevar Bush was appointed head of the federal Office of Scientific Research and Development and directed funding to only a select group of universities, including MIT. Engineers and scientists from across the country gathered at Massachusetts Institute of Technology ‘s Radiation Laboratory, established in 1940 to assist the British military in developing microwave radar. The work done there significantly affected both the war and subsequent research in the area. Other defense projects included gyroscope-based and other complex control systems for gunsight, bombsight, and inertial navigation under Charles Stark Draper’s Instrumentation Laboratory; the development of a digital computer for flight simulations under Project Whirlwind; and high-speed and high-altitude photography under Harold Edgerton. By the end of the war, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology became the nation’s largest wartime R&D contractor (attracting some criticism of Bush), employing nearly 4000 in the Radiation Laboratory alone and receiving in excess of $100 million ($1.2 billion in 2015 dollars) before 1946. Work on defense projects continued even after then. Post-war government-sponsored research at MIT included SAGE and guidance systems for ballistic missiles and Project Apollo.

    These activities affected The Massachusetts Institute of Technology profoundly. A 1949 report noted the lack of “any great slackening in the pace of life at the Institute” to match the return to peacetime, remembering the “academic tranquility of the prewar years”, though acknowledging the significant contributions of military research to the increased emphasis on graduate education and rapid growth of personnel and facilities. The faculty doubled and the graduate student body quintupled during the terms of Karl Taylor Compton, president of The Massachusetts Institute of Technology between 1930 and 1948; James Rhyne Killian, president from 1948 to 1957; and Julius Adams Stratton, chancellor from 1952 to 1957, whose institution-building strategies shaped the expanding university. By the 1950s, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology no longer simply benefited the industries with which it had worked for three decades, and it had developed closer working relationships with new patrons, philanthropic foundations and the federal government.

    In late 1960s and early 1970s, student and faculty activists protested against the Vietnam War and The Massachusetts Institute of Technology ‘s defense research. In this period Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s various departments were researching helicopters, smart bombs and counterinsurgency techniques for the war in Vietnam as well as guidance systems for nuclear missiles. The Union of Concerned Scientists was founded on March 4, 1969 during a meeting of faculty members and students seeking to shift the emphasis on military research toward environmental and social problems. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology ultimately divested itself from the Instrumentation Laboratory and moved all classified research off-campus to the MIT Lincoln Laboratory facility in 1973 in response to the protests. The student body, faculty, and administration remained comparatively unpolarized during what was a tumultuous time for many other universities. Johnson was seen to be highly successful in leading his institution to “greater strength and unity” after these times of turmoil. However six Massachusetts Institute of Technology students were sentenced to prison terms at this time and some former student leaders, such as Michael Albert and George Katsiaficas, are still indignant about MIT’s role in military research and its suppression of these protests. (Richard Leacock’s film, November Actions, records some of these tumultuous events.)

    In the 1980s, there was more controversy at The Massachusetts Institute of Technology over its involvement in SDI (space weaponry) and CBW (chemical and biological warfare) research. More recently, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s research for the military has included work on robots, drones and ‘battle suits’.

    Recent history

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology has kept pace with and helped to advance the digital age. In addition to developing the predecessors to modern computing and networking technologies, students, staff, and faculty members at Project MAC, the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and the Tech Model Railroad Club wrote some of the earliest interactive computer video games like Spacewar! and created much of modern hacker slang and culture. Several major computer-related organizations have originated at MIT since the 1980s: Richard Stallman’s GNU Project and the subsequent Free Software Foundation were founded in the mid-1980s at the AI Lab; the MIT Media Lab was founded in 1985 by Nicholas Negroponte and Jerome Wiesner to promote research into novel uses of computer technology; the World Wide Web Consortium standards organization was founded at the Laboratory for Computer Science in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee; the MIT OpenCourseWare project has made course materials for over 2,000 Massachusetts Institute of Technology classes available online free of charge since 2002; and the One Laptop per Child initiative to expand computer education and connectivity to children worldwide was launched in 2005.

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology was named a sea-grant college in 1976 to support its programs in oceanography and marine sciences and was named a space-grant college in 1989 to support its aeronautics and astronautics programs. Despite diminishing government financial support over the past quarter century, MIT launched several successful development campaigns to significantly expand the campus: new dormitories and athletics buildings on west campus; the Tang Center for Management Education; several buildings in the northeast corner of campus supporting research into biology, brain and cognitive sciences, genomics, biotechnology, and cancer research; and a number of new “backlot” buildings on Vassar Street including the Stata Center. Construction on campus in the 2000s included expansions of the Media Lab, the Sloan School’s eastern campus, and graduate residences in the northwest. In 2006, President Hockfield launched the MIT Energy Research Council to investigate the interdisciplinary challenges posed by increasing global energy consumption.

    In 2001, inspired by the open source and open access movements, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology launched OpenCourseWare to make the lecture notes, problem sets, syllabi, exams, and lectures from the great majority of its courses available online for no charge, though without any formal accreditation for coursework completed. While the cost of supporting and hosting the project is high, OCW expanded in 2005 to include other universities as a part of the OpenCourseWare Consortium, which currently includes more than 250 academic institutions with content available in at least six languages. In 2011, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology announced it would offer formal certification (but not credits or degrees) to online participants completing coursework in its “MITx” program, for a modest fee. The “edX” online platform supporting MITx was initially developed in partnership with Harvard and its analogous “Harvardx” initiative. The courseware platform is open source, and other universities have already joined and added their own course content. In March 2009 the Massachusetts Institute of Technology faculty adopted an open-access policy to make its scholarship publicly accessible online.

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology has its own police force. Three days after the Boston Marathon bombing of April 2013, MIT Police patrol officer Sean Collier was fatally shot by the suspects Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev, setting off a violent manhunt that shut down the campus and much of the Boston metropolitan area for a day. One week later, Collier’s memorial service was attended by more than 10,000 people, in a ceremony hosted by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology community with thousands of police officers from the New England region and Canada. On November 25, 2013, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology announced the creation of the Collier Medal, to be awarded annually to “an individual or group that embodies the character and qualities that Officer Collier exhibited as a member of The Massachusetts Institute of Technology community and in all aspects of his life”. The announcement further stated that “Future recipients of the award will include those whose contributions exceed the boundaries of their profession, those who have contributed to building bridges across the community, and those who consistently and selflessly perform acts of kindness”.

    In September 2017, the school announced the creation of an artificial intelligence research lab called the MIT-IBM Watson AI Lab. IBM will spend $240 million over the next decade, and the lab will be staffed by MIT and IBM scientists. In October 2018 MIT announced that it would open a new Schwarzman College of Computing dedicated to the study of artificial intelligence, named after lead donor and The Blackstone Group CEO Stephen Schwarzman. The focus of the new college is to study not just AI, but interdisciplinary AI education, and how AI can be used in fields as diverse as history and biology. The cost of buildings and new faculty for the new college is expected to be $1 billion upon completion.

    The Caltech/MIT Advanced aLIGO was designed and constructed by a team of scientists from California Institute of Technology , Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and industrial contractors, and funded by the National Science Foundation .

    Caltech /MIT Advanced aLigo

    It was designed to open the field of gravitational-wave astronomy through the detection of gravitational waves predicted by general relativity. Gravitational waves were detected for the first time by the LIGO detector in 2015. For contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves, two Caltech physicists, Kip Thorne and Barry Barish, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology physicist Rainer Weiss won the Nobel Prize in physics in 2017. Weiss, who is also a Massachusetts Institute of Technology graduate, designed the laser interferometric technique, which served as the essential blueprint for the LIGO.

    The mission of The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is to advance knowledge and educate students in science, technology, and other areas of scholarship that will best serve the nation and the world in the twenty-first century. We seek to develop in each member of The Massachusetts Institute of Technology community the ability and passion to work wisely, creatively, and effectively for the betterment of humankind.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:25 am on May 27, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "'Quark Matter 2022' New Results from RHIC and LHC—Plus Plans for the Future", , , , , High-energy heavy ion physics, Nuclear physics, , , , RHIC and the LHC collide heavy ions which are the nuclei of heavy atoms such as gold and lead that have been stripped of their electrons., RHIC’s "STAR" experiment, The ATLAS detector project at CERN’s LHC, , The Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) at RHIC, The interplay of theory and experiment is essential to advancing our understanding of how quarks and gluons interact., , ,   

    From The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory: “‘Quark Matter 2022’ New Results from RHIC and LHC—Plus Plans for the Future” 

    From The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory

    May 24, 2022
    Karen McNulty Walsh
    kmcnulty@bnl.gov

    Meeting highlights include detailed descriptions of fundamental matter and explorations of intriguing physics.

    1

    Theoretical and experimental physicists from around the world gathered last month at Quark Matter 2022 to discuss new developments in high energy heavy ion physics. The “29th International Conference on Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions” took place April 4-10, 2022, with both in-person talks in Kraków, Poland, and many participants logging in remotely from around the globe.

    Highlights included a series of presentations and discussions about the latest findings from heavy ion research facilities—notably the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) [below] at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Large Hadron Collider [below]at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN)—as well as future research directions for the field.

    During parts of their research runs, RHIC and the LHC collide heavy ions, which are the nuclei of heavy atoms such as gold and lead that have been stripped of their electrons. These highly energetic, nearly light speed head-on collisions generate temperatures more than 250,000 times hotter than the center of the sun and set free the innermost building blocks of the nuclei—the quarks and gluons that make up protons and neutrons.

    The resulting nearly-perfect liquid, the “quark-gluon plasma” (QGP), reflects the conditions of the very early universe nearly 14 billion years ago—an era just a microsecond after the Big Bang before protons and neutrons first formed. By tracking particles that stream out of these collisions, scientists can expand their understanding how matter evolved from the hot quark soup into everything made of atoms in the universe today.

    “Quark Matter is the major event for physicists in our field,” said Peter Steinberg, a nuclear physicist at Brookhaven Lab who participates in experiments at both RHIC and the LHC and attended the meeting virtually from his home in Brooklyn, New York. “Held approximately every 18 months, it’s where we usually first share and hear about preliminary results, discuss them with our colleagues, and always learn from one another so that we can strengthen our analyses and experimental approaches.”

    Theorists also presented their latest studies including analyses and interpretations of data.

    “The field of high-energy heavy ion physics has witnessed major advances through close collaborations between theory and experiment,” said Haiyan Gao, Associate Laboratory Director (ALD) for Nuclear and Particle Physics (NPP) at Brookhaven Lab. “This interplay of theory and experiment is essential to advancing our understanding of how quarks and gluons interact to build of the properties and structure of the matter that makes up our world.”

    In addition, several presentations highlighted how results from (and improvements to) heavy-ion experiments at RHIC and the LHC, as well as new theoretical approaches, are paving the way for exciting results to come. That future includes the start of Run 3 at the LHC, installation of the sPHENIX detector at RHIC for the experimental run starting in 2023, and eventually the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) [below], a brand-new nuclear physics research facility in the preliminary design stage at Brookhaven that is expected to come online early in the next decade.

    As is customary for Quark Matter meetings, the day prior to the start of the detailed scientific presentations was dedicated to welcoming students to the field of heavy-ion physics.

    “Talks covering the history and goals of heavy ion physics during the student day are designed to encourage undergraduates and graduate students to join us,” Steinberg said.

    213 students from undergraduate to PhD levels and 115 early-career postdoctoral fellows registered for the student day, representing institutions in Europe, Asia, North America, South America, and more. Approximately 20 percent of the total were female, with slightly higher female representation (23 percent) in the student group.

    “Projects like RHIC and the LHC and the future EIC have been designed from the start as truly international endeavors, seeking to serve the worldwide nuclear and high-energy physics communities,” said Gao. “It is particularly exciting to see so many young people from different backgrounds eager to learn about our research and potentially become the next generation of leaders for these fields. We also recognize that we still have a long way to go to have a more diverse pipeline in our field.”

    Highlights from The STAR detector [below]

    Brookhaven Lab physicist Prithwish Tribedy presented the highlights from RHIC’s STAR experiment. These included results from RHIC’s isobar collisions. The isobar collisions were designed to explore the effects of the magnetic field generated by colliding ions.

    The first isobar analysis looking for evidence of something called the chiral magnetic effect, released last summer, didn’t turn out as expected. Those results indicated that there might be “background” processes that had not yet been considered. Still, the results presented at QM22 demonstrate a definitive difference in the initial magnetic field strength produced in the two types of collisions analyzed, and provide new background estimates for future analyses. The isobar collisions are also offering insight into how the shape of colliding nuclei might influence how particles emerge from these collisions.

    Several STAR results helped elucidate characteristics of the phase transition from hadrons (composite particles made of quarks, such as protons and neutrons) to quark-gluon plasma. Tribedy pointed to results showing how that transition happens at different energies. He also discussed how STAR physicists are using results from RHIC’s Beam Energy Scan (BES) to map out features of the nuclear phase diagram and search for a critical point on that plot of nuclear phases.

    New data presented on results from 3.85 GeV giga-electron-volt (GeV) collisions of gold ions with a fixed target are consistent with a model calculation which does not have a critical point. With high-statistics data from BES-II, STAR will really explore the critical behavior in the 3-19.6 GeV energy region.

    There were also results tracking rare “hypernuclei,” including the first observation of anti-hyper-hydrogen-4. These nuclei contain particles called hyperons, which have at least one “strange” quark, and thus they offer insight into the properties of neutron stars where strange particles are widely thought to be more abundant than they are in normal matter. New STAR results also confirm that the temperature of the QGP is hotter than the sun, and provide a deeper understanding of its detailed properties.

    Tribedy ended by describing how new forward detectors have expanded STAR’s capabilities, noting that these forward upgrades will open paths to study the microstructure of the QGP and enable measurements that will bridge the RHIC and EIC science programs. And he pointed attendees to the many later QM22 talks and posters that would elaborate on the details of the topics he’d introduced.

    “The rich and diverse physics programs at STAR come from the versatile machine and detector capabilities at RHIC, and the hard work and intellectual contributions of collaborators and scientists from all over the world,” said Lijuan Ruan, a physicist at Brookhaven and co-spokesperson for STAR.

    New PHENIX [below] analyses

    RHIC’s PHENIX experiment completed operations in 2016, but members of the collaboration are still actively analyzing its data. At QM22, Sanghoon Lim of Pusan National University presented an overview of the collaboration’s latest results.

    Lim summarized a wide range of analyses exploring collisions of different types of ions—from “small” protons, deuterons, and helium ions to larger nuclei such as copper, gold, and uranium. These experiments provide a detailed understanding of how features of the nuclear matter created in collisions (and particle interactions with that medium) change with the size of the system.

    The newest results further confirm a wide range of data from both Brookhaven and CERN including a string of successive results from PHENIX showing that QGP can be created even in collisions of small particles with larger nuclei. Low-energy photons (particles of light emitted from the QGP) provide a way to probe the temperature of the medium produced and have shown a smooth transition to hot QGP temperatures in both small and large systems.

    QM22 also featured long-awaited measurements of high-energy direct photons emitted from head-on and more peripheral deuteron-gold collisions. These measurements are helping scientists understand how much hadrons created in these small systems are being modified by their interactions with the QGP.

    Meanwhile the collisions of large nuclei are providing detailed information about the QGP, such as how jets of particles produced in the collisions lose energy as they traverse it. PHENIX physicists extracted new observations by looking at how the angles between particles that make up a jet are correlated with one another. These analyses allow the scientists to probe how the distribution of particles associated with jets might be modified—for example, “quenched” as they lose energy through their interactions with the QGP.

    “We are using a technique to study jets that we have been using since the early days of RHIC, but we are now extracting additional quantities from the data that are also being extracted from jet measurements at the LHC,” said Megan Connors, a PHENIX collaborator from Georgia State University (GSU) who presented these results at QM22. “These additional analyses can further constrain theoretical models and improve our understanding of the jet quenching process.”

    In addition, PHENIX presented measurements of heavy quarks to study how quarks of different masses lose energy to the QGP as they get caught up in its flow. Final low-energy photon results were also shown. These results zero in on the temperature of the QGP and its evolution as the QGP expands and cools with higher precision than any previous measurements. Lim noted that PHENIX will continue to analyze data, including from 35 billion gold-gold collision events recorded in 2014 and 2016, to further elucidate these properties. And he pointed to a list of newly published and submitted papers—and detailed QM22 talks—for anyone interested in learning more about these results.

    “There is no question that PHENIX measurements will continue to play an important role in our field and impact our understanding from small to large collision systems,” GSU’s Connors said.

    Brookhaven ATLAS [below] results of note

    ATLAS, one of the detectors at the LHC, presented a wide range of results from lead-lead collisions, covering both well-established diagnostics of the QGP as well as an extensive array of new measurements using photons (particles of light) that are present in the intense electromagnetic fields surrounding the lead ions.

    ATLAS released a new set of measurements showing how the QGP responds to different types of particle jets produced in lead-lead collisions. By analyzing these data, scientists are trying to distinguish between quarks that come in different “flavors,” as well as between quark and gluon jets. There were also exciting new results exploring how pairs of back-to-back jets (typically referred to as “dijets”) are affected by traversing the plasma. These new findings were a major update of the very first ATLAS result submitted only weeks after the first lead beams collided in the LHC in 2010.

    Timothy Rinn, a Brookhaven Lab postdoctoral associate who presented these results, said, “This result provides new insight into the nature of how jets lose energy, or become ‘quenched,’ in dijet events. Many scientists had developed an explanation for earlier jet quenching data based on the belief that the higher energy jet was formed near the surface, and thus must have suffered much less energy loss, while the lower energy jet traveled through a longer distance in the QGP, losing energy along the way. The recent result suggests that both jets in the event typically experience significant energy loss, and pairs of jets where both have a similar energy are observed much less often than expected. These exciting new results are already of great interest to the theoretical community developing sophisticated models of this phenomenon.”

    ATLAS also presented a major new result on the “anomalous magnetic moment” of the tau lepton. This is a measure of how tau particles, the heaviest cousin of the electron, “wobble” in a magnetic field, and is commonly referred to as “g-2.” As with measurements of the g-2 for particles called muons (another electron cousin, studied at both Brookhaven and more recently at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory), seeing deviations from tau leptons’ predicted g-2 value could be an indication that some yet-to-be-discovered particles—physics “beyond the standard model”—are affecting the results. While the ATLAS measurements so far show no significant difference, the results were based on only a small number of events with large uncertainties. Much more data will be collected in LHC Runs 3 and 4, which could be much more exciting.

    Plans for sPHENIX and EIC physics

    On the final day of the conference, Brookhaven Lab physicist and co-spokesperson of the sPHENIX collaboration David Morrison gave an overview of “The near- and mid-term future of RHIC, EIC and sPHENIX.” Morrison noted how RHIC is well on its way to achieving goals spelled out in the 2015 Long Range Plan for Nuclear Science. These included completing the Beam Energy Scan to map out the phases of quark matter and probing the properties of QGP at shorter and shorter length scales at both RHIC and the LHC.

    4
    Dave Morrison, Brookhaven Lab physicist and co-spokesperson for the sPHENIX collaboration, in front of the sPHENIX detector during an early stage of assembly.

    The latter goal will be a central focus of sPHENIX, a detector currently under construction at RHIC with the anticipation of taking its first data early next year. During RHIC’s final three years of operation, before conversion of some of its key components into the EIC begins, sPHENIX will collect and analyze data to make precision measurements of jets of particles and bound quark states with different masses, while recent STAR upgrades continue to provide insight into the detailed properties of the QGP.

    As described in other talks at QM22, some of those STAR components have also been contributing to a scientific goal that will be a key feature of the EIC—mapping out the internal distribution of quarks and gluons that make up protons and neutrons. The technique for making those measurements at RHIC uses one proton beam’s upward spin alignment as a frame of reference for tracking particle interactions at a wide range of angles from that reference point.

    Other recent advances using particles of light that surround the speeding gold ions at RHIC will help pave the way for the EIC science program. In ultraperipheral collisions, where the gold ions graze by one another without direct ion-to-ion impact, the photons surrounding the ions can interact to produce interesting physics—and also serve as probes of the structure within the nuclear particles. At the EIC, speeding electrons will emit virtual photons for probing the inner components of protons and heavier nuclei.

    “At RHIC, we also use these ‘photonuclear’ events to study how quarks and gluons contribute to ‘baryon number’—a quantum number that adds up to one in particles made of three quarks—and how that number is affected when these three-quark particles (including protons and neutrons) interact with matter,” said STAR co-spokesperson Ruan. This analysis was done by Nicole Lewis, a postdoctoral fellow in the STAR group at Brookhaven Lab, whose poster contribution was one of 10 (out of 500) selected to be featured in a flash talk at the conference.

    “It is wonderful to see so many new results presented at Quark Matter 2022,” concluded Brookhaven Lab NPP ALD Gao. “It takes an enormous effort to prepare for this meeting—and to run the facilities that produce the data presented there. The thousands of physicists, engineers, and technicians at RHIC, the LHC, and their detectors all deserve our sincere gratitude for making this great science possible.”

    RHIC operations are funded by the DOE Office of Science, which runs the machine as a User Facility open to an international community of physicists. Each collaboration receives additional funding from a range of international partners and agencies. Brookhaven’s involvement in research at the LHC and the EIC Project are also funded by the DOE Office of Science.

    See the full article here .


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    Brookhaven Campus

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the The DOE Office of Science, The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

    Research at BNL specializes in nuclear and high energy physics, energy science and technology, environmental and bioscience, nanoscience and national security. The 5,300 acre campus contains several large research facilities, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider [below] and National Synchrotron Light Source II [below]. Seven Nobel prizes have been awarded for work conducted at Brookhaven lab.

    BNL is staffed by approximately 2,750 scientists, engineers, technicians, and support personnel, and hosts 4,000 guest investigators every year. The laboratory has its own police station, fire department, and ZIP code (11973). In total, the lab spans a 5,265-acre (21 km^2) area that is mostly coterminous with the hamlet of Upton, New York. BNL is served by a rail spur operated as-needed by the New York and Atlantic Railway. Co-located with the laboratory is the Upton, New York, forecast office of the National Weather Service.

    Major programs

    Although originally conceived as a nuclear research facility, Brookhaven Lab’s mission has greatly expanded. Its foci are now:

    Nuclear and high-energy physics
    Physics and chemistry of materials
    Environmental and climate research
    Nanomaterials
    Energy research
    Nonproliferation
    Structural biology
    Accelerator physics

    Operation

    Brookhaven National Lab was originally owned by the Atomic Energy Commission(US) and is now owned by that agency’s successor, the United States Department of Energy (DOE). DOE subcontracts the research and operation to universities and research organizations. It is currently operated by Brookhaven Science Associates LLC, which is an equal partnership of Stony Brook University and Battelle Memorial Institute. From 1947 to 1998, it was operated by Associated Universities, Inc.(AUI), but AUI lost its contract in the wake of two incidents: a 1994 fire at the facility’s high-beam flux reactor that exposed several workers to radiation and reports in 1997 of a tritium leak into the groundwater of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens on which the facility sits.

    Foundations

    Following World War II, the US Atomic Energy Commission was created to support government-sponsored peacetime research on atomic energy. The effort to build a nuclear reactor in the American northeast was fostered largely by physicists Isidor Isaac Rabi and Norman Foster Ramsey Jr., who during the war witnessed many of their colleagues at Columbia University leave for new remote research sites following the departure of the Manhattan Project from its campus. Their effort to house this reactor near New York City was rivalled by a similar effort at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to have a facility near Boston, Massachusetts. Involvement was quickly solicited from representatives of northeastern universities to the south and west of New York City such that this city would be at their geographic center. In March 1946 a nonprofit corporation was established that consisted of representatives from nine major research universities — Columbia University, Cornell University, Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University, University of Pennsylvania, University of Rochester, and Yale University.

    Out of 17 considered sites in the Boston-Washington corridor, Camp Upton on Long Island was eventually chosen as the most suitable in consideration of space, transportation, and availability. The camp had been a training center from the US Army during both World War I and World War II. After the latter war, Camp Upton was deemed no longer necessary and became available for reuse. A plan was conceived to convert the military camp into a research facility.

    On March 21, 1947, the Camp Upton site was officially transferred from the U.S. War Department to the new U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

    Research and facilities

    Reactor history

    In 1947 construction began on the first nuclear reactor at Brookhaven, the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor. This reactor, which opened in 1950, was the first reactor to be constructed in the United States after World War II. The High Flux Beam Reactor operated from 1965 to 1999. In 1959 Brookhaven built the first US reactor specifically tailored to medical research, the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, which operated until 2000.

    Accelerator history

    In 1952 Brookhaven began using its first particle accelerator, the Cosmotron. At the time the Cosmotron was the world’s highest energy accelerator, being the first to impart more than 1 GeV of energy to a particle.

    BNL Cosmotron 1952-1966.

    The Cosmotron was retired in 1966, after it was superseded in 1960 by the new Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    The AGS was used in research that resulted in 3 Nobel prizes, including the discovery of the muon neutrino, the charm quark, and CP violation.

    In 1970 in BNL started the ISABELLE project to develop and build two proton intersecting storage rings.

    The groundbreaking for the project was in October 1978. In 1981, with the tunnel for the accelerator already excavated, problems with the superconducting magnets needed for the ISABELLE accelerator brought the project to a halt, and the project was eventually cancelled in 1983.

    The National Synchrotron Light Source operated from 1982 to 2014 and was involved with two Nobel Prize-winning discoveries. It has since been replaced by the National Synchrotron Light Source II. [below].

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source.

    After ISABELLE’S cancellation, physicist at BNL proposed that the excavated tunnel and parts of the magnet assembly be used in another accelerator. In 1984 the first proposal for the accelerator now known as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)[below] was put forward. The construction got funded in 1991 and RHIC has been operational since 2000. One of the world’s only two operating heavy-ion colliders, RHIC is as of 2010 the second-highest-energy collider after the Large Hadron Collider(CH). RHIC is housed in a tunnel 2.4 miles (3.9 km) long and is visible from space.

    On January 9, 2020, It was announced by Paul Dabbar, undersecretary of the US Department of Energy Office of Science, that the BNL eRHIC design has been selected over the conceptual design put forward by DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility [Jlab] (US) as the future Electron–ion collider (EIC) in the United States.

    Brookhaven Lab Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) to be built inside the tunnel that currently houses the RHIC.

    In addition to the site selection, it was announced that the BNL EIC had acquired CD-0 from the Department of Energy. BNL’s eRHIC design proposes upgrading the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, which collides beams light to heavy ions including polarized protons, with a polarized electron facility, to be housed in the same tunnel.

    Other discoveries

    In 1958, Brookhaven scientists created one of the world’s first video games, Tennis for Two. In 1968 Brookhaven scientists patented Maglev, a transportation technology that utilizes magnetic levitation.

    Major facilities

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which was designed to research quark–gluon plasma and the sources of proton spin. Until 2009 it was the world’s most powerful heavy ion collider. It is the only collider of spin-polarized protons.

    Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), used for the study of nanoscale materials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven’s newest user facility, opened in 2015 to replace the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which had operated for 30 years. NSLS was involved in the work that won the 2003 and 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

    Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, a particle accelerator that was used in three of the lab’s Nobel prizes.
    Accelerator Test Facility, generates, accelerates and monitors particle beams.
    Tandem Van de Graaff, once the world’s largest electrostatic accelerator.

    Computational Science resources, including access to a massively parallel Blue Gene series supercomputer that is among the fastest in the world for scientific research, run jointly by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University-SUNY.

    Interdisciplinary Science Building, with unique laboratories for studying high-temperature superconductors and other materials important for addressing energy challenges.
    NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, where scientists use beams of ions to simulate cosmic rays and assess the risks of space radiation to human space travelers and equipment.

    Off-site contributions

    It is a contributing partner to the ATLAS experiment, one of the four detectors located at the The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] Large Hadron Collider(LHC).

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] map.

    Iconic view of the European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear] [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] ATLAS detector.

    It is currently operating at The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] near Geneva, Switzerland.

    Brookhaven was also responsible for the design of the Spallation Neutron Source at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee.

    DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source annotated.

    Brookhaven plays a role in a range of neutrino research projects around the world, including the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China.

    Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China .


    BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II.

    BNL NSLS II.

    BNL Relative Heavy Ion Collider Campus.

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector.

    BNL/RHIC Phenix detector.

     
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