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  • richardmitnick 11:13 am on September 26, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Women Aren’t Promoted Because Managers Underestimate Their Potential", Not science - just a great story,   

    From Yale University (US) : “Women Aren’t Promoted Because Managers Underestimate Their Potential” 

    From Yale University (US)

    September 17, 2021
    Kelly Shue

    Why are fewer women promoted to senior positions than men? In a study of evaluation and promotion data from a large retail chain, Prof. Kelly Shue and her co-authors found that women got higher performance ratings than men but were consistently—and incorrectly—judged as having less leadership potential.

    The Gender Promotion Gap.

    Video edited by John Zebrowski
    Illustrations by Justine-Juliette Grindley
    Article by Ben Mattison


    At the large North American retail chain that was the subject of Professor Kelly Shue’s new research, more than half of entry-level workers—56%—are women. But at each rung up the ladder, there are fewer and fewer women: women are 48% of department managers, 35% of store managers, and 14% of district managers—the glass ceiling at work. Why?

    The study, co-authored with Alan Benson of the University of Minnesota and Danielle Li of MIT and based on assessment and promotion records for nearly 30,000 workers, finds that women are 14% less likely to be promoted at the company in each year, and that a major factor preventing women from being promoted is that they are consistently judged as having lower leadership potential than men. In a two-part annual assessment, according to the records, women’s performance at the company is rated higher than men’s, on average. But their potential is rated lower—a pattern than continues even when women exceed those expectations.

    Read the study: “‘Potential’ and the Gender Promotion Gap”

    At the company in the study, managers use a “nine-box” grid—a commonly used tool at large organizations—to evaluate their employees, giving them a low, medium, or high score on their performance over the prior year and a low, medium, or high score on their potential for growth and development. The employees with high scores for both performance and potential—those in the upper right quadrant of the grid—are most likely to be promoted.

    While managers can consider real-world metrics in evaluating performance, potential is more abstract—and that might make it more subject to bias.

    “What is commonly talked about in terms of management and potential are characteristics such as assertiveness, execution skills, charisma, leadership, ambition,” Shue says. “These are, I believe, real traits. They’re also highly subjective and stereotypically associated with male leaders. And what we saw in the data is a pretty strong bias against women in assessments of potential.”

    Specifically, Shue and her colleagues found that while women receive higher performance ratings—they are 7.3% more likely than men to receive a “high” rating in performance—their potential ratings are 5.8% lower. The authors estimate that lower potential ratings explain up to 50% of the gap in promotions.

    Could managers be correct in their assessment that women at the company are excellent performers in their current roles but lack the skills to be successful at a higher level? To the contrary, the researchers found that managers consistently underestimate women’s ability to perform in the future. They identified women and men with similar performance and potential scores for a given evaluation period, then looked forward to the next period and found that women tended to have higher performance scores than men, whether or not they been promoted into a more senior role.

    “It appears that they were held to a higher standard,” Shue says.

    And even when women have exceeded expectations, they still don’t get the benefit of the doubt. Women continue to receive lower potential scores after they have demonstrated through their performance that the previous period’s potential score was inaccurate.

    This effect gets stronger for more senior positions, Shue points out. “Women get progressively lower potential scores relative to their actual future performance as we rise up the corporate ladder. So this is going to contribute, I think, to a stronger and stronger glass ceiling the higher up we go.”

    Not surprisingly, being shut out of more senior roles also keeps women from earning as much as men. The authors estimate that 70% of the gender pay gap at the company is attributable to gender differences in job levels.

    What can companies do to combat this kind of bias in their evaluation systems? One solution would be to remove potential scores from annual assessments altogether, and simply promote employees based on their performance. But, as Shue explored in earlier research, the best performers don’t always make the best managers. And, the authors point out, the data shows that despite the gender bias that they are subject to, potential scores do help the company in the study identify effective managers more accurately than performance scores alone.

    The authors also wondered if having more women managers would help reduce bias in evaluating potential. “We thought the group that would be least likely to have these stereotypes of a male leadership in mind would be female managers,” Shue says. But they found that women also give lower scores for potential to their high-performing women subordinates.

    Shue and her colleagues suggest that to avoid this type of bias, companies should pay close attention to their own internal data. For example, companies can use algorithms to look for systematic gaps between performance and potential ratings of the kind found in the study.

    Or they can look beyond manager evaluations and identify other metrics that predict leadership talent, Shue says: “Look at other available data and see what variables actually forecast being a good manager.”

    See the full article here .


    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Yale University (US) is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 as the Collegiate School, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The Collegiate School was renamed Yale College in 1718 to honor the school’s largest private benefactor for the first century of its existence, Elihu Yale. Yale University is consistently ranked as one of the top universities and is considered one of the most prestigious in the nation.

    Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the Collegiate School was established in 1701 by clergy to educate Congregational ministers before moving to New Haven in 1716. Originally restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first PhD in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Yale’s faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research.

    Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools. While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school’s faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven, Connecticut, and forests and nature preserves throughout New England. As of June 2020, the university’s endowment was valued at $31.1 billion, the second largest of any educational institution. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Students compete in intercollegiate sports as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.

    As of October 2020, 65 Nobel laureates, five Fields Medalists, four Abel Prize laureates, and three Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U.S. Presidents, 19 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires, and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U.S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 252 Rhodes Scholars, 123 Marshall Scholars, and nine Mitchell Scholars have been affiliated with the university.


    Yale is a member of the Association of American Universities (AAU) (US) and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to the National Science Foundation (US), Yale spent $990 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 15th in the nation.

    Yale’s faculty include 61 members of the National Academy of Sciences (US), 7 members of the National Academy of Engineering (US) and 49 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (US). The college is, after normalization for institution size, the tenth-largest baccalaureate source of doctoral degree recipients in the United States, and the largest such source within the Ivy League.

    Yale’s English and Comparative Literature departments were part of the New Criticism movement. Of the New Critics, Robert Penn Warren, W.K. Wimsatt, and Cleanth Brooks were all Yale faculty. Later, the Yale Comparative literature department became a center of American deconstruction. Jacques Derrida, the father of deconstruction, taught at the Department of Comparative Literature from the late seventies to mid-1980s. Several other Yale faculty members were also associated with deconstruction, forming the so-called “Yale School”. These included Paul de Man who taught in the Departments of Comparative Literature and French, J. Hillis Miller, Geoffrey Hartman (both taught in the Departments of English and Comparative Literature), and Harold Bloom (English), whose theoretical position was always somewhat specific, and who ultimately took a very different path from the rest of this group. Yale’s history department has also originated important intellectual trends. Historians C. Vann Woodward and David Brion Davis are credited with beginning in the 1960s and 1970s an important stream of southern historians; likewise, David Montgomery, a labor historian, advised many of the current generation of labor historians in the country. Yale’s Music School and Department fostered the growth of Music Theory in the latter half of the 20th century. The Journal of Music Theory was founded there in 1957; Allen Forte and David Lewin were influential teachers and scholars.

    In addition to eminent faculty members, Yale research relies heavily on the presence of roughly 1200 Postdocs from various national and international origin working in the multiple laboratories in the sciences, social sciences, humanities, and professional schools of the university. The university progressively recognized this working force with the recent creation of the Office for Postdoctoral Affairs and the Yale Postdoctoral Association.

    Notable alumni

    Over its history, Yale has produced many distinguished alumni in a variety of fields, ranging from the public to private sector. According to 2020 data, around 71% of undergraduates join the workforce, while the next largest majority of 16.6% go on to attend graduate or professional schools. Yale graduates have been recipients of 252 Rhodes Scholarships, 123 Marshall Scholarships, 67 Truman Scholarships, 21 Churchill Scholarships, and 9 Mitchell Scholarships. The university is also the second largest producer of Fulbright Scholars, with a total of 1,199 in its history and has produced 89 MacArthur Fellows. The U.S. Department of State Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs ranked Yale fifth among research institutions producing the most 2020–2021 Fulbright Scholars. Additionally, 31 living billionaires are Yale alumni.

    At Yale, one of the most popular undergraduate majors among Juniors and Seniors is political science, with many students going on to serve careers in government and politics. Former presidents who attended Yale for undergrad include William Howard Taft, George H. W. Bush, and George W. Bush while former presidents Gerald Ford and Bill Clinton attended Yale Law School. Former vice-president and influential antebellum era politician John C. Calhoun also graduated from Yale. Former world leaders include Italian prime minister Mario Monti, Turkish prime minister Tansu Çiller, Mexican president Ernesto Zedillo, German president Karl Carstens, Philippine president José Paciano Laurel, Latvian president Valdis Zatlers, Taiwanese premier Jiang Yi-huah, and Malawian president Peter Mutharika, among others. Prominent royals who graduated are Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, and Olympia Bonaparte, Princess Napoléon.

    Yale alumni have had considerable presence in U.S. government in all three branches. On the U.S. Supreme Court, 19 justices have been Yale alumni, including current Associate Justices Sonia Sotomayor, Samuel Alito, Clarence Thomas, and Brett Kavanaugh. Numerous Yale alumni have been U.S. Senators, including current Senators Michael Bennet, Richard Blumenthal, Cory Booker, Sherrod Brown, Chris Coons, Amy Klobuchar, Ben Sasse, and Sheldon Whitehouse. Current and former cabinet members include Secretaries of State John Kerry, Hillary Clinton, Cyrus Vance, and Dean Acheson; U.S. Secretaries of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott, Robert Rubin, Nicholas F. Brady, Steven Mnuchin, and Janet Yellen; U.S. Attorneys General Nicholas Katzenbach, John Ashcroft, and Edward H. Levi; and many others. Peace Corps founder and American diplomat Sargent Shriver and public official and urban planner Robert Moses are Yale alumni.

    Yale has produced numerous award-winning authors and influential writers, like Nobel Prize in Literature laureate Sinclair Lewis and Pulitzer Prize winners Stephen Vincent Benét, Thornton Wilder, Doug Wright, and David McCullough. Academy Award winning actors, actresses, and directors include Jodie Foster, Paul Newman, Meryl Streep, Elia Kazan, George Roy Hill, Lupita Nyong’o, Oliver Stone, and Frances McDormand. Alumni from Yale have also made notable contributions to both music and the arts. Leading American composer from the 20th century Charles Ives, Broadway composer Cole Porter, Grammy award winner David Lang, and award-winning jazz pianist and composer Vijay Iyer all hail from Yale. Hugo Boss Prize winner Matthew Barney, famed American sculptor Richard Serra, President Barack Obama presidential portrait painter Kehinde Wiley, MacArthur Fellow and contemporary artist Sarah Sze, Pulitzer Prize winning cartoonist Garry Trudeau, and National Medal of Arts photorealist painter Chuck Close all graduated from Yale. Additional alumni include architect and Presidential Medal of Freedom winner Maya Lin, Pritzker Prize winner Norman Foster, and Gateway Arch designer Eero Saarinen. Journalists and pundits include Dick Cavett, Chris Cuomo, Anderson Cooper, William F. Buckley, Jr., and Fareed Zakaria.

    In business, Yale has had numerous alumni and former students go on to become founders of influential business, like William Boeing (Boeing, United Airlines), Briton Hadden and Henry Luce (Time Magazine), Stephen A. Schwarzman (Blackstone Group), Frederick W. Smith (FedEx), Juan Trippe (Pan Am), Harold Stanley (Morgan Stanley), Bing Gordon (Electronic Arts), and Ben Silbermann (Pinterest). Other business people from Yale include former chairman and CEO of Sears Holdings Edward Lampert, former Time Warner president Jeffrey Bewkes, former PepsiCo chairperson and CEO Indra Nooyi, sports agent Donald Dell, and investor/philanthropist Sir John Templeton,

    Yale alumni distinguished in academia include literary critic and historian Henry Louis Gates, economists Irving Fischer, Mahbub ul Haq, and Nobel Prize laureate Paul Krugman; Nobel Prize in Physics laureates Ernest Lawrence and Murray Gell-Mann; Fields Medalist John G. Thompson; Human Genome Project leader and National Institutes of Health (US) director Francis S. Collins; brain surgery pioneer Harvey Cushing; pioneering computer scientist Grace Hopper; influential mathematician and chemist Josiah Willard Gibbs; National Women’s Hall of Fame inductee and biochemist Florence B. Seibert; Turing Award recipient Ron Rivest; inventors Samuel F.B. Morse and Eli Whitney; Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate John B. Goodenough; lexicographer Noah Webster; and theologians Jonathan Edwards and Reinhold Niebuhr.

    In the sporting arena, Yale alumni include baseball players Ron Darling and Craig Breslow and baseball executives Theo Epstein and George Weiss; football players Calvin Hill, Gary Fenick, Amos Alonzo Stagg, and “the Father of American Football” Walter Camp; ice hockey players Chris Higgins and Olympian Helen Resor; Olympic figure skaters Sarah Hughes and Nathan Chen; nine-time U.S. Squash men’s champion Julian Illingworth; Olympic swimmer Don Schollander; Olympic rowers Josh West and Rusty Wailes; Olympic sailor Stuart McNay; Olympic runner Frank Shorter; and others.

  • richardmitnick 7:34 pm on September 23, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A reimagining of Gorecki's 3rd Symphony, Colon Stetson - Sorrow, Henryk Gorecki - Symphony of Sorrowful Songs - Symphony #3, Not science - just a great story   

    It’s Not science, but it is Worth Your Time – Colon Stetson: Sorrow – A reimagining of Gorecki’s 3rd Symphony 

    Henryk Gorecki
    The Symphony No. 3, Op. 36, also known as the Symphony of Sorrowful Songs (Polish: Symfonia pieśni żałosnych), is a symphony in three movements composed by Henryk Górecki in Katowice, Poland, between October and December 1976. The work is indicative of the transition between Górecki’s dissonant earlier manner and his more tonal later style. It was premièred on 4 April 1977, at the Royan International Festival, with Stefania Woytowicz as soprano and Ernest Bour as conductor.[1]

    A solo soprano sings Polish texts [2] in each of the three movements. The first is a 15th-century Polish lament of Mary, mother of Jesus, the second a message written on the wall of a Gestapo cell during World War II, and the third a Silesian folk song of a mother searching for her son killed by the Germans in the Silesian uprisings.[3] The first and third movements are written from the perspective of a parent who has lost a child, and the second movement from that of a child separated from a parent. The dominant themes of the symphony are motherhood and separation through war.

    Until 1992, Górecki was known only to connoisseurs, primarily as one of several composers from the Polish School responsible for the postwar Polish music renaissance.[4] That year, Elektra-Nonesuch released a recording of the 14-year-old symphony that topped the classical charts in Britain and the United States. To date, it has sold more than a million copies, vastly exceeding the expected lifetime sales of a typical symphonic recording by a 20th-century composer. This success, however, has not generated similar interest in Górecki’s other works.

    Published on Apr 8, 2016yya reimagining of Gorecki’s 3rd Symphony

    Colin Stetson is an American saxophonist and multireedist. He is best known as a regular collaborator of the indie rock acts Arcade Fire, Bon Iver, and Bell Orchestre. In addition to saxophone, he plays clarinet, bass clarinet, French horn, flute, and cornet.

    Contributors to SORROW:
    Colin Stetson: Alto, Tenor, Bass Saxophones; Contrabass Clarinet; Lyricon
    Dan Bennett: Tenor, Baritone Saxophones; Clarinet
    Greg Fox: Drums
    Grey Mcmurray: Guitar
    Gyda Valtysdottir: Cello
    Justin Walter: Keyboards, EVI
    Matt Bauder: Tenor, Baritone Saxophones; Clarinet
    Megan Stetson: Voice
    Rebecca Foon: Cello
    Ryan Ferreira: Guitar
    Sarah Neufeld: Violin
    Shahzad Ismaily: Synth

    Studio: Figure 8 Studios, Brooklyn NY
    Engineer: Eli Crews
    Producer: Colin Stetson
    Mastering engineer: Mell Dettmer

  • richardmitnick 8:16 am on May 16, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Arcade Fire’s Will Butler graduates from HKS, , Not science - just a great story   

    From Harvard: “Moving the needle” Arcade Fire’s Will Butler graduates from HKS 

    Harvard University
    Harvard University

    May 15, 2017
    Jill Radsken

    William Butler, multi-instrumentalist for Arcade Fire, enrolled in the Kennedy School’s midcareer master’s program in public administration to broaden and enhance the band’s award-winning humanitarian efforts. Stephanie Mitchell/Harvard Staff Photographer

    It took Will Butler a few years to find the time, but where to continue his education was never in question.

    “Part of why I’m at a policy school and not an art school is because I care about context, and the context of the humanity enriches the art,” said Butler, a multi-instrumentalist in the indie rock band Arcade Fire who graduates from Harvard Kennedy School’s (HKS) midcareer master’s program in public administration. “I don’t think historicizing art has to cheapen it. I think you can be of two minds [on] things.”

    Butler first applied to HKS in 2012 but band commitments intervened. After deferring a second acceptance, he began his studies in fall 2016 and found it valuable to be in an academic environment during and after the election.

    “It’s nice to be in a space hearing how government works, and foreign policy works, from the horse’s mouth,” said Butler, whose areas of interest are international development and the state of America. “It feels very apropos to be plugged into that world.”

    He said Arcade Fire’s music making has never been simply about the music.

    “You try to be a human and then it’s a bit of a mystery how the art is produced. We’ve always had to take time off and live just on a human level. That’s always been our method — engaging with the community and then questioning ourselves and then making art,” he said.

    The band’s efforts to affect change helped point Will toward HKS. His older brother, Win, founded Arcade Fire with Régine Chassagne, whose family had fled Haiti for Canada during the Duvalier dictatorship. In 2007, the band began giving $1 from every concert ticket sold to Partners In Health. After a decade of sales (and engaging other musical groups to do the same through the nonprofit Plus 1) and having trained thousands of outreach volunteers, Arcade Fire helped raise more than $4 million, earning the band the 2016 Allan Waters Humanitarian Award in Canada.

    “I came here to figure out how to help them better and, in a general sense, how to move this mission [forward], of caring for people who have less power,” Butler said. “It’s part of the same conversation that Haitians are having and Rwandans are having, and I’ll be doing it in a slightly more informed manner than just going around playing shows.”

    The band, which will release an album this year and has scheduled a European tour this summer, typically plays to crowds of 10,000, a size Butler said makes him think about the way he interacts with them “that is real and human.” That may be why History and Literature lecturer Timothy P. McCarthy’s course “The Art of Communication” offered him so much insight.

    “After the election, I felt like I need to talk to everybody,” Butler said. “It’s a rare resource to have (such a big stage). An artistic experience is not nothing, but maybe there is more to be done.”

    He plugged into the School’s diverse cohort, connecting with students from Nigeria and Azerbaijan and hearing freedom of speech arguments from a range of voices that included a student from Singapore and former Obama administration officials.

    “Part of what has been great about being here and being a little older,” said Butler, who is 35, “is not caring terribly much about formal constraints or hierarchy. I really see everyone as my peer. That’s how I approach music and performance as well. It’s communicating with as opposed to performing for.”

    Butler will return to the stage with a deeper appreciation of how music is so closely tied to issues of race, equality, and social justice. In his fall course “Political Revolutions” with Leah Wright Rigueur, assistant professor of public policy, he studied Detroit, learning about the black struggle for civil rights, the White Citizens’ Councils, and the 1967 riots in that city.

    “Motown is three-quarters of a mile from where the riots started. It’s not an ahistorical force. Marvin Gaye was recording ‘Ain’t Nothing Like the Real Thing.’ ‘Ain’t No Mountain High Enough’ also happened. You can look at those songs from a policy lens and a political lens,” Butler said, “but you can also divorce them from that and hear them as an aesthetic event. I vote for engaging on all levels.”
    ‘Where the Roads All End’ is where story begins
    View all posts in Arts & Culture

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Harvard University campus
    Harvard is the oldest institution of higher education in the United States, established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. It was named after the College’s first benefactor, the young minister John Harvard of Charlestown, who upon his death in 1638 left his library and half his estate to the institution. A statue of John Harvard stands today in front of University Hall in Harvard Yard, and is perhaps the University’s best known landmark.

    Harvard University has 12 degree-granting Schools in addition to the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. The University has grown from nine students with a single master to an enrollment of more than 20,000 degree candidates including undergraduate, graduate, and professional students. There are more than 360,000 living alumni in the U.S. and over 190 other countries.

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