From NOAO: “First Night of AEON Queue Operations on SOAR a Success!”

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From NOAO

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Cesar Briceno, Jay Elias (NOAO)

The Astronomical Event Observatory Network (AEON), a collaboration between Las Cumbres Observatory (LCO), NOAO, SOAR and Gemini, is aimed at building an ecosystem of world-class telescope facilities for the follow up of transients and time-domain astronomy, in preparation for the LSST era.

LCOGT Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Haleakala Hawaii, USA, Elevation 10,023 ft (3,055 m)


SART telescope (SOAR) situated on Cerro Pachón, just to the southeast of Cerro Tololo on the AURA site at an altitude of 2,700 meters (8,775 feet) above sea level


Gemini/South telescope, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) campus near La Serena, Chile, at an altitude of 7200 feet

LSST

LSST Camera, built at SLAC



LSST telescope, currently under construction on the El Peñón peak at Cerro Pachón Chile, a 2,682-meter-high mountain in Coquimbo Region, in northern Chile, alongside the existing Gemini South and Southern Astrophysical Research Telescopes.


LSST Data Journey, Illustration by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova

The night of 6 August 2019 set a milestone for the project, as the first of 20 nights scheduled on the SOAR telescope this semester in AEON-queue mode. The night was successful, with a total of 10 different targets studied under excellent observing conditions. Additional queue-scheduled observing nights are anticipated at a rate of 3-4 per month for the remainder of the 2019B semester.

Over this semester, SOAR’s AEON-scheduled queue will carry out observations that have been approved through the standard NOAO TAC process. The approved programs, eight regular programs and four Target-of-Opportunity programs, pursue diverse science cases, ranging from the characterization and study of Near Earth Objects, microlensing events, young supernovae, RR Lyrae stars in ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, solar-like pre-main sequence stars, to the follow up of Galactic transients and gravitational wave events.

AEON builds on the infrastructure of the existing network of small telescopes run by LCO to incorporate 4-m and 8-m class telescopes. The underlying idea is to create an integrated “follow-up” ecosystem, as outlined in the figure below.

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The AEON concept. The red rectangle on the right highlights the portions currently under development and testing. SOAR is the pathfinder facility for bringing other telescopes into a highly automated system, running unsupervised software, that generates a dynamic and flexible schedule roughly every 15 minutes.

SOAR’s Goodman instrument is currently available through the AEON queue in a subset of modes: imaging with the VR, SDSS-g, SDSS-r, SDSS-i filters, and spectroscopy with the red camera, 400 line grating and 1 arcsecond slit. Users can submit their targets at any time during the semester, through the LCO Observing Portal or with custom software that connects to LCO via their API. On an AEON night, the observing schedule is downloaded from LCO and executed by software that runs both the telescope and the Goodman instrument; guide star and on-slit target acquisition (for spectroscopic observations) are the only steps still carried out manually. Users can obtain the status of their observations and retrieve their raw data through the LCO Observing Portal. Data reduction can be carried out in an automated way using the Goodman Spectroscopic Data Reduction Pipeline. Further information on observing with AEON is available at the LCO-AEON web site.

SOAR intends to expand the range of Goodman configurations available in queue mode and to eventually add additional instruments such as TripleSpec 4.1. The underlying objective is to provide flexible observing in an era of complex observing requirements ranging from large survey programs to focused time-domain programs.

To learn more: Interested SOAR-AEON users, including those affiliated with other SOAR partners, are invited to consult future issues of Currents and calls for the proposals for additional opportunities and information. Updates on available instruments or observing configurations for the 2020A semester will be provided when the NOAO call for proposals is issued in early September. We are also very much interested in including programs from other SOAR partners in the AEON queue. Developing the AEON Network will be a major topic of discussion at the upcoming TOM Toolkit Workshop. Further information on the current status and related matters at the SOAR AEON page.

SOAR’s success in reaching this milestone is due to the effort of a many people, including Diego Gomez and Omar Estay of NOAO and Jon Nation, Elizabeth Heinrich, and Mark Bowman of Las Cumbres Observatory. Queue operations also rely on the skill and efficiency of the regular SOAR operators. Funding for much of this work was provided by supplementary funding from the National Science Foundation.

See the full article here .


five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

Stem Education Coalition

NOAO is the US national research & development center for ground-based night time astronomy. In particular, NOAO is enabling the development of the US optical-infrared (O/IR) System, an alliance of public and private observatories allied for excellence in scientific research, education and public outreach.

Our core mission is to provide public access to qualified professional researchers via peer-review to forefront scientific capabilities on telescopes operated by NOAO as well as other telescopes throughout the O/IR System. Today, these telescopes range in aperture size from 2-m to 10-m. NOAO is participating in the development of telescopes with aperture sizes of 20-m and larger as well as a unique 8-m telescope that will make a 10-year movie of the Southern sky.

In support of this mission, NOAO is engaged in programs to develop the next generation of telescopes, instruments, and software tools necessary to enable exploration and investigation through the observable Universe, from planets orbiting other stars to the most distant galaxies in the Universe.

To communicate the excitement of such world-class scientific research and technology development, NOAO has developed a nationally recognized Education and Public Outreach program. The main goals of the NOAO EPO program are to inspire young people to become explorers in science and research-based technology, and to reach out to groups and individuals who have been historically under-represented in the physics and astronomy science enterprise.

The National Optical Astronomy Observatory is proud to be a US National Node in the International Year of Astronomy, 2009.

About Our Observatories:
Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO)

Kitt Peak

Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) has its headquarters in Tucson and operates the Mayall 4-meter, the 3.5-meter WIYN , the 2.1-meter and Coudé Feed, and the 0.9-meter telescopes on Kitt Peak Mountain, about 55 miles southwest of the city.

Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO)

NOAO Cerro Tolo

The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is located in northern Chile. CTIO operates the 4-meter, 1.5-meter, 0.9-meter, and Curtis Schmidt telescopes at this site.

The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC)

NOAO Gemini North on MaunaKea, Hawaii, USA, Altitude 4,213 m (13,822 ft)


Gemini North

Gemini/South telescope, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) campus near La Serena, Chile, at an altitude of 7200 feet

The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC) at NOAO is the gateway for the U.S. astronomical community to the International Gemini Project: twin 8.1 meter telescopes in Hawaii and Chile that provide unprecedented coverage (northern and southern skies) and details of our universe.

NOAO is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Science Foundation.

#aeon-astronomical-event-observatory-network, #astronomy, #astrophysics, #basic-research, #cosmology, #noao

From NOAO: “NEID Extreme Precision Radial Velocity Spectrometer on Track for Installation at WIYN in 2019”

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From NOAO

11.7.18

NEID chamber for the WIYN telescope. Photos courtesy of NOAO WIYN and Washburn Labs-University of Wisconsin.

The cornerstone of a partnership between NSF and NASA to advance exoplanet science, the NEID extreme precision radial velocity spectrometer is on schedule to be installed and commissioned at the 3.5-m WIYN telescope starting in April 2019 and to be available to the community in the 2019B semester.

Radial Velocity Method-Las Cumbres Observatory

Radial velocity Image via SuperWasp http:// www.superwasp.org/exoplanets.htm

NOAO WIYN 3.5 meter telescope at Kitt Peak, AZ, USA, Altitude 2,096 m (6,877 ft)

NOAO WIYN 3.5 meter telescope at Kitt Peak, AZ, USA, Altitude 2,096 m (6,877 ft)

Kitt Peak National Observatory of the Quinlan Mountains in the Arizona-Sonoran Desert on the Tohono O’odham Nation, 88 kilometers 55 mi west-southwest of Tucson, Arizona, Altitude 2,096 m (6,877 ft)

The aggressive development and deployment schedule is dictated by the main mandate for the project: to support the NASA TESS mission, which launched in April of this year and is already producing data.

NASA/MIT TESS

A WIYN facility instrument, NEID will be available to the exoplanet community for up to approximately 40% of the observing time on the WIYN telescope (roughly 120 nights). Proposals will be accepted through the NOAO TAC process. Additional details about the NASA-NSF partnership and the NEID spectrometer are available in a September 2016 NOAO Newsletter article. A splinter meeting on NEID has been scheduled at the January AAS meeting in Seattle, where the community can learn more about NEID’s capabilities and operation plans.

As part of the instrument development effort, NOAO has been busy designing and fabricating two major subsystems for NEID:

Port Adaptor: A fiber feed to be mounted on the mirror cell at the Bent Cassegrain Port, the Port Adaptor will provide a highly stable, tip-tilt corrected starlight beam with image motion controlled to better than 50 milliarcseconds.

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NEID chamber: Light from the Port Adaptor will be carried by optical fibers down to the ground-floor room where NEID will be housed. The NEID chamber is tightly thermally controlled, to within a tenth of a degree throughout the year, while outside temperatures range from freezing to near 100 degrees.

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See the full article here .


five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

Stem Education Coalition

NOAO News
NOAO is the US national research & development center for ground-based night time astronomy. In particular, NOAO is enabling the development of the US optical-infrared (O/IR) System, an alliance of public and private observatories allied for excellence in scientific research, education and public outreach.

Our core mission is to provide public access to qualified professional researchers via peer-review to forefront scientific capabilities on telescopes operated by NOAO as well as other telescopes throughout the O/IR System. Today, these telescopes range in aperture size from 2-m to 10-m. NOAO is participating in the development of telescopes with aperture sizes of 20-m and larger as well as a unique 8-m telescope that will make a 10-year movie of the Southern sky.

In support of this mission, NOAO is engaged in programs to develop the next generation of telescopes, instruments, and software tools necessary to enable exploration and investigation through the observable Universe, from planets orbiting other stars to the most distant galaxies in the Universe.

To communicate the excitement of such world-class scientific research and technology development, NOAO has developed a nationally recognized Education and Public Outreach program. The main goals of the NOAO EPO program are to inspire young people to become explorers in science and research-based technology, and to reach out to groups and individuals who have been historically under-represented in the physics and astronomy science enterprise.

The National Optical Astronomy Observatory is proud to be a US National Node in the International Year of Astronomy, 2009.

About Our Observatories:
Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO)

Kitt Peak

Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) has its headquarters in Tucson and operates the Mayall 4-meter, the 3.5-meter WIYN , the 2.1-meter and Coudé Feed, and the 0.9-meter telescopes on Kitt Peak Mountain, about 55 miles southwest of the city.

Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO)

NOAO Cerro Tolo

The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is located in northern Chile. CTIO operates the 4-meter, 1.5-meter, 0.9-meter, and Curtis Schmidt telescopes at this site.

The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC)

Gemini North
Gemini North

Gemini South telescope
Gemini South

The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC) at NOAO is the gateway for the U.S. astronomical community to the International Gemini Project: twin 8.1 meter telescopes in Hawaii and Chile that provide unprecendented coverage (northern and southern skies) and details of our universe.

NOAO is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Science Foundation.

#096-m-6, #877-ft, #neid-chamber-for-the-wiyn-telescope, #noao, #noao-wiyn-3-5-meter-telescope-at-kitt-peak-az-usa-altitude-2

From NOAO: “The US Extremely Large Telescope Program”

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From NOAO

11.7.18
Mark Dickinson

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NOAO, the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) Organization, and the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) International Observatory, are continuing our joint effort to develop a US Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) Program.

Giant Magellan Telescope, to be at the Carnegie Institution for Science’s Las Campanas Observatory, to be built some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high

TMT-Thirty Meter Telescope, proposed and now approved for Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA4,207 m (13,802 ft) above sea level

Our primary goal is to enable forefront research by the broad US astronomical community via open access to significant shares of observing time with both TMT and GMT. In the coming decade, ELTs with 20-m to 40-m primary mirror diameters will peer out into the Universe with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution, enabling scientific investigations beyond the reach of present-day observatories, in nearly all fields of astronomical research from our Solar System to cosmology. The combination of TMT and GMT provides access to both hemispheres and more diverse observing capabilities, enabling integrated science programs that go beyond the reach of a single facility.

In recent news and activities related to the US ELT Program:

The importance of national access to (and federal investment in) these capabilities was again highlighted in the recent Exoplanet Science Strategy report commissioned by the National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine. The report recommended that “the National Science Foundation (NSF) invest in both the GMT and TMT and their exoplanet instrumentation to provide all-sky access to the US Community.”

More than 250 astronomers are currently working together to develop concepts for Key Science Programs (KSPs) using TMT and GMT. KSPs will address questions of fundamental scientific importance that may require tens to hundreds of observing nights with GMT, TMT, or both observatories working in concert, taking advantage of their combined view of the full sky, or of their complementary instrumental capabilities. It is envisioned that KSPs will follow open collaboration models that encourage broad, diverse participation by observers, theorists, and data scientists throughout the US community. More than 85 scientists will gather in Tucson for a KSP Development Workshop in mid-November. If you would like to contribute to KSP development, please register using the on-line form.

Site excavation for the GMT’s concrete pier and enclosure began at Las Campanas Observatory in August, and is expected to take about five months to complete.

The Supreme Court of the State of Hawai’i has upheld an earlier decision by the State Board of Land and Natural Resources to issue a Conservation District Use Permit for the construction of TMT on Maunakea.

See the full article here .


five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

Stem Education Coalition


NOAO News
NOAO is the US national research & development center for ground-based night time astronomy. In particular, NOAO is enabling the development of the US optical-infrared (O/IR) System, an alliance of public and private observatories allied for excellence in scientific research, education and public outreach.

Our core mission is to provide public access to qualified professional researchers via peer-review to forefront scientific capabilities on telescopes operated by NOAO as well as other telescopes throughout the O/IR System. Today, these telescopes range in aperture size from 2-m to 10-m. NOAO is participating in the development of telescopes with aperture sizes of 20-m and larger as well as a unique 8-m telescope that will make a 10-year movie of the Southern sky.

In support of this mission, NOAO is engaged in programs to develop the next generation of telescopes, instruments, and software tools necessary to enable exploration and investigation through the observable Universe, from planets orbiting other stars to the most distant galaxies in the Universe.

To communicate the excitement of such world-class scientific research and technology development, NOAO has developed a nationally recognized Education and Public Outreach program. The main goals of the NOAO EPO program are to inspire young people to become explorers in science and research-based technology, and to reach out to groups and individuals who have been historically under-represented in the physics and astronomy science enterprise.

The National Optical Astronomy Observatory is proud to be a US National Node in the International Year of Astronomy, 2009.

About Our Observatories:
Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO)

Kitt Peak

Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) has its headquarters in Tucson and operates the Mayall 4-meter, the 3.5-meter WIYN , the 2.1-meter and Coudé Feed, and the 0.9-meter telescopes on Kitt Peak Mountain, about 55 miles southwest of the city.

Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO)

NOAO Cerro Tolo

The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is located in northern Chile. CTIO operates the 4-meter, 1.5-meter, 0.9-meter, and Curtis Schmidt telescopes at this site.

The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC)

NOAO Gemini North

Gemini South telescope

The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC) at NOAO is the gateway for the U.S. astronomical community to the International Gemini Project: twin 8.1 meter telescopes in Hawaii and Chile that provide unprecendented coverage (northern and southern skies) and details of our universe.

NOAO is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Science Foundation.

#astronomy, #astrophysics, #basic-research, #cosmology, #gmt-giant-magellan-telescope, #noao, #tmt-thirty-meter-telescope

From NOAO: U S EXTREMELY LARGE TELESCOPE PROGRAM

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From NOAO

U.S. EXTREMELY LARGE TELESCOPE PROGRAM
21 May 2018
U.S. national observatory and two extremely large telescope projects team up to enhance U.S. scientific leadership in astronomy and astrophysics
A new research frontier in astronomy and astrophysics will open in the mid-2020s with the advent of ground-based extremely large optical-infrared telescopes (ELTs) with primary mirrors in the 20-m – 40-m range. U.S. scientific leadership in astronomy and astrophysics will be significantly enhanced if the broad U.S. community can take advantage of the power of these new ELTs.
In that context, the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the Giant Magellan Telescope Organization (GMTO), and the Thirty Meter Telescope International Observatory (TIO) have embarked on the development of a U.S. Extremely Large Telescope (US-ELT) Program.
Our shared mission is to strengthen scientific leadership by the U.S. community-at-large through access to extremely large telescopes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. This two-hemisphere model will provide the U.S. science community with greater and more diverse research opportunities than can be achieved with a single telescope, and hence more opportunities for leadership.
Our immediate task is advocacy for frontier research programs led by U.S community scientists that can achieve exceptional advancements in humanity’s understanding of the cosmos.
Our audience is the U.S. research community as represented by the upcoming Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics (an enterprise of the U.S. National Academies).
As an essential part of that immediate task, we will work with the U.S. research community to develop exemplar Key Science Programs (KSPs) within major research areas including the dark universe, first stars & first galaxies, exoplanet atmospheres, the surfaces of satellites and other small bodies throughout Solar System, and/or other topics to be proposed and prioritized by community-based working groups.
Key Science Programs are envisioned to be open collaborations that gather observers, theorists, and data scientists together to exploit significant investments of Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) observing time, from tens to hundreds of nights.

TMT-Thirty Meter Telescope, proposed and now approved for Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA4,207 m (13,802 ft) above sea level

Giant Magellan Telescope, to be at the Carnegie Institution for Science’s Las Campanas Observatory, to be built some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high

Some of these collaborations are expected to be international in nature. If well-justified by KSP plans, we envisage that at least 25% of the observing time at each international observatory will be available for the U.S. community.
The KSPs chosen for presentation to the Decadal Survey will not be the final programs. Astronomy and astrophysics will continue to evolve rapidly during construction of GMT and TMT, thanks to previous investments in ground– and space-based observatories, such as the NASA Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), the NASA James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). Actual KSPs will be selected by peer-review before the start of GMT and TMT science operations.

NASA/MIT TESS

NASA/ESA/CSA Webb Telescope annotated

LSST


LSST Camera, built at SLAC



LSST telescope, currently under construction on the El Peñón peak at Cerro Pachón Chile, a 2,682-meter-high mountain in Coquimbo Region, in northern Chile, alongside the existing Gemini South and Southern Astrophysical Research Telescopes.

NOAO, TIO, and GMTO are committed to enabling diversity within KSP collaborations. We seek to empower the best minds, no matter their gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or institutional affiliation.
More information about the U.S. ELT Program and how community scientists can join KSP development groups will be available after mid-June 2018.
Issued by the National Science Foundation’s National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), with concurrence of the Thirty Meter Telescope International Observatory (TIO) and Giant Magellan Telescope Organization (GMTO)
CONTACT: Dr. David Silva, Director, NOAO, dsilva@noao.edu


five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

stem

Stem Education Coalition

NOAO News
NOAO is the US national research & development center for ground-based night time astronomy. In particular, NOAO is enabling the development of the US optical-infrared (O/IR) System, an alliance of public and private observatories allied for excellence in scientific research, education and public outreach.

Our core mission is to provide public access to qualified professional researchers via peer-review to forefront scientific capabilities on telescopes operated by NOAO as well as other telescopes throughout the O/IR System. Today, these telescopes range in aperture size from 2-m to 10-m. NOAO is participating in the development of telescopes with aperture sizes of 20-m and larger as well as a unique 8-m telescope that will make a 10-year movie of the Southern sky.

In support of this mission, NOAO is engaged in programs to develop the next generation of telescopes, instruments, and software tools necessary to enable exploration and investigation through the observable Universe, from planets orbiting other stars to the most distant galaxies in the Universe.

To communicate the excitement of such world-class scientific research and technology development, NOAO has developed a nationally recognized Education and Public Outreach program. The main goals of the NOAO EPO program are to inspire young people to become explorers in science and research-based technology, and to reach out to groups and individuals who have been historically under-represented in the physics and astronomy science enterprise.

The National Optical Astronomy Observatory is proud to be a US National Node in the International Year of Astronomy, 2009.

About Our Observatories:
Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO)

Kitt Peak

Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) has its headquarters in Tucson and operates the Mayall 4-meter, the 3.5-meter WIYN , the 2.1-meter and Coudé Feed, and the 0.9-meter telescopes on Kitt Peak Mountain, about 55 miles southwest of the city.

Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO)

NOAO Cerro Tolo

The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is located in northern Chile. CTIO operates the 4-meter, 1.5-meter, 0.9-meter, and Curtis Schmidt telescopes at this site.

The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC)

Gemini North
Gemini North

Gemini South telescope
Gemini South

The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC) at NOAO is the gateway for the U.S. astronomical community to the International Gemini Project: twin 8.1 meter telescopes in Hawaii and Chile that provide unprecendented coverage (northern and southern skies) and details of our universe.

NOAO is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Science Foundation.

#astronomy, #astrophysics, #basic-research, #cosmology, #decadal-survey-of-astronomy-and-astrophysics, #gmt-giant-magellan-telescope, #noao, #nsf, #tmt-thirty-meter-telescope, #u-s-extremely-large-telescope-us-elt-program

From NOAO: “Sixth Data Release of the DESI Legacy Surveys: More Stars & Galaxies, More Science Opportunities”

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Figure 1: A selection of image cutouts from the DR5 and DR6 Legacy Surveys data illustrating the variety of astronomical objects covered by the surveys and highlighting the capability of the surveys to image low surface brightness features. The horizontal white bar in the lower-right corner of each image corresponds to one arcminute. No image credit.

The DESI Legacy Surveys are a collection of three imaging surveys jointly mapping approximately 14,000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky visible from the northern hemisphere. The Legacy Surveys have just published their sixth data release (DR6) which covers ~4000 square degrees, primarily north of declination +32 degrees.

The Legacy Surveys DR6 release includes images and catalogs based on z-band data from the Mayall z-band Legacy Survey (MzLS; PI Arjun Dey), r- and g-band data from the Beijing-Arizona Sky Survey (BASS; PIs Xu Zhou and Xiaohui Fan), and mid-infrared photometry from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) satellite for all optically detected sources. The WISE photometry is measured on new coadded images from the WISE mission and its subsequent reactivation as NEOWISE. DR6 includes astrometry, photometry and shape parameters for approximately 310 million sources. Combined with DR5, the Legacy Surveys catalogs contain information on roughly 990 million astronomical objects.

The primary motivation behind the Legacy Surveys is to providing targeting data for the Dark Energy Spectroscopy Instrument (DESI) surveys. DESI, which is currently being installed at the Mayall 4m telescope at Kitt Peak, will probe the largest volume of the universe to date by compiling distances to 30 million galaxies and quasars, reaching further out than previous work, and providing us with a new 3-D map of the universe. Comparing the observed structures to predictions from cosmological models will tell us about the nature of dark energy, the distribution of dark matter, and the backbone structure of the matter distribution in the universe onto which the galaxies are painted.

The ~4000 sq deg footprint covered by the latest DR6 release complements the ~10,000 sq. deg. footprint covered by the DR5 release. The DR5 and DR6 releases overlap in a strip in the north Galactic cap near declination +32 and in some scattered equatorial fields.

In addition to a broader footprint and improved depth, the substantially increased overlap with the SDSS/BOSS spectroscopic survey creates exciting opportunities to conduct a variety of astrophysical studies (e.g., galaxy evolution, searching for high-redshift quasars, probing stellar populations, or the discovery of moving objects). The astronomical community is invited to conduct science projects and get in touch with the LS team and/or NOAO Data Lab team as needed.

As in previous data releases, DR6 includes images, photometric catalogs, as well as an Image Gallery compiled by LS team member John Moustakas. The DR6 Gallery includes different categories of astronomical objects such as globular clusters, spiral disk galaxies, lenticular or elliptical galaxies (see Figures 1 & 2). Many more beautiful examples can be discovered by exploring interactively in the online sky viewer.

We encourage usage of the data from the Legacy Surveys. The DR6 data products are available through: [1] direct access through the Legacy Survey Team website; [2] the NOAO Science Archive; and [3] the NOAO Data Lab. The NOAO Science Archive provides access to both the DR6 raw, and processed images. The NOAO Data Lab provides tools to access databases containing the catalogs. The Data Lab tools enable complex user queries and analyses of the data using a Jupyter Notebook server, a Simple Image Access (SIA) service and a TAP handle (which allows, for example, users to connect to the databases via commonly used tools such as TOPCAT). Example Jupyter Notebooks are also provided to users. We also note opportunities for combined analyses using other datasets accessible through the Data Lab such as the first data release from the Dark Energy Survey (DES), and the NOAO Source Catalog (NSC).

Dark Energy Survey


Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL


NOAO/CTIO Victor M Blanco 4m Telescope which houses the DECam at Cerro Tololo, Chile, housing DECam at an altitude of 7200 feet

The next data release of the Legacy Surveys is planned for July 2018, and will include all DECam data obtained by the survey through March 2018.

See the full article here .

Please help promote STEM in your local schools.
STEM Icon

Stem Education Coalition

NOAO News
NOAO is the US national research & development center for ground-based night time astronomy. In particular, NOAO is enabling the development of the US optical-infrared (O/IR) System, an alliance of public and private observatories allied for excellence in scientific research, education and public outreach.

Our core mission is to provide public access to qualified professional researchers via peer-review to forefront scientific capabilities on telescopes operated by NOAO as well as other telescopes throughout the O/IR System. Today, these telescopes range in aperture size from 2-m to 10-m. NOAO is participating in the development of telescopes with aperture sizes of 20-m and larger as well as a unique 8-m telescope that will make a 10-year movie of the Southern sky.

In support of this mission, NOAO is engaged in programs to develop the next generation of telescopes, instruments, and software tools necessary to enable exploration and investigation through the observable Universe, from planets orbiting other stars to the most distant galaxies in the Universe.

To communicate the excitement of such world-class scientific research and technology development, NOAO has developed a nationally recognized Education and Public Outreach program. The main goals of the NOAO EPO program are to inspire young people to become explorers in science and research-based technology, and to reach out to groups and individuals who have been historically under-represented in the physics and astronomy science enterprise.

The National Optical Astronomy Observatory is proud to be a US National Node in the International Year of Astronomy, 2009.

About Our Observatories:
Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO)

Kitt Peak

Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) has its headquarters in Tucson and operates the Mayall 4-meter, the 3.5-meter WIYN , the 2.1-meter and Coudé Feed, and the 0.9-meter telescopes on Kitt Peak Mountain, about 55 miles southwest of the city.

Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO)

NOAO Cerro Tolo

The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is located in northern Chile. CTIO operates the 4-meter, 1.5-meter, 0.9-meter, and Curtis Schmidt telescopes at this site.

The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC)

Gemini North
Gemini North

Gemini South telescope
Gemini South

The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC) at NOAO is the gateway for the U.S. astronomical community to the International Gemini Project: twin 8.1 meter telescopes in Hawaii and Chile that provide unprecendented coverage (northern and southern skies) and details of our universe.

NOAO is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Science Foundation.

#astronomy, #astrophysics, #basic-research, #cosmology, #des-dark-energy-survey, #noao

From NOAO: “DECam Plane Survey Data Release: Catalogs and Images Now Available”

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11.14.17
Eddie Schlafly (Lawrence Berkeley National Lab)

A new publicly available data set offers a wealth of information on the structure of the disk of the Milky Way and its interstellar medium.

The DECam Plane Survey (DECaPS), which uses the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to observe the southern Galactic plane (dec < -30 degrees), has released data covering roughly one-third of the Milky Way’s disk: a swath within 5 degrees of the Galactic plane that extends over 1000 square degrees of the sky through Galactic longitudes between 5 degrees and -120 degrees. The survey reaches a depth of 23.7, 22.8, 22.2, 21.8, and 21.0 magnitudes in the g, r, i, z, and Y bands, roughly suitable for detecting main-sequence turn-off stars at the distance to the Galactic center through a reddening of 1.5 magnitudes E(B-V).

Dark Energy Survey


Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL


NOAO/CTIO Victor M Blanco 4m Telescope which houses the DECam at Cerro Tololo, Chile, housing DECam at an altitude of 7200 feet

The data release includes images and catalogs. The full catalogs contain more than twenty billion detections of two billion objects, mostly corresponding to highly reddened stars deep in the Galactic disk. All of the images making up the survey can be browsed interactively through the DECam Legacy Survey viewer and are available through the NOAO Science Archive.

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Some images from the DECaPS Data Release. Hover your mouse over the image to pause the slideshow. [This only works at the full article.]

The DECam Plane Survey

The DECam Plane Survey was designed to measure the fluxes of billions of stars in the southern Galactic plane to reveal the three-dimensional distribution of dust in the Milky Way. In concert with Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) observations of the northern Galactic plane, the survey results allow a full 360 degree map of the dust in the Milky Way.

Pann-STARS telescope, U Hawaii, Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA, 4,207 m (13,802 ft) above sea level

DECaPS is not just an extension of PS1, however. It is significantly deeper than other wide-area surveys of the Galactic plane, reaching stars roughly one magnitude fainter than PS1 in individual images. The DECaPS pipeline is optimized for crowded fields of point sources, allowing precise photometry even in the inner Galaxy where the huge number of stars blend together in the typical 1″ seeing obtained by DECaPS.

Nor is DECaPS just about dust. By studying many stars, the structure of the Milky Way’s disk can be characterized in detail. Color-magnitude diagrams from the survey show a rich array of stellar populations that vary from place to place within the Galaxy. The DECaPS catalog is only a first step intended to enable many different scientific analyses of the survey.

Each part of the survey footprint was observed three times, usually on different nights, using the same tiling of the sky developed for the DECam Legacy Survey. This strategy was designed to enable precise photometric calibration, but it also provides some limited variability information about all of the observed stars. Observations for the survey took place over 22 nights from March 2016 to May 2017. The large etendue and low downtime of the DECam/Blanco system made this survey efficiency possible. Further details on the survey are available in a preprint by Schlafly et al. (2017).
DECaPS Images

Color images from DECaPS can be interactively browsed through the DECam Legacy Survey viewer, built by Dustin Lang. The three colors show the g, r, and z bands. Both the actual observations and “model observations” generated from the DECaPS catalogs and the pipeline-estimated PSF can be viewed, providing an immediate sense of the accuracy of the modeling. For example, compare the actual observations with the best-fit models in the viewer.

All of the images making up the survey are also available through the NOAO Science Archive (select all images with Program Number 2016A-0323 or 2016B-0279, PI: Finkbeiner).

Catalogs

The DECam Plane Survey catalogs were constructed using a custom pipeline optimized for crowded stellar fields. The pipeline follows in the tradition of DAOPHOT, simultaneously fitting for the positions and fluxes of all of the stars in each image. This fit is performed by linearizing the problem and passing the optimization off to a large, sparse, linear-least-squares optimizer. In the densest regions, this can require simultaneously fitting the positions and fluxes of 60,000 stars per 1024×1024 pixel region.

Each DECaPS image is independently analyzed. In order to provide multiband information, single-image catalogs are matched together, and detections within 0.5” of one another are considered to be detections of the same star. All of the detections of the same object are then grouped together to provide average photometry and astrometry of each star in each band. Both the single-image and band-merged catalogs are available at the survey web site.

See the full article here .

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NOAO News
NOAO is the US national research & development center for ground-based night time astronomy. In particular, NOAO is enabling the development of the US optical-infrared (O/IR) System, an alliance of public and private observatories allied for excellence in scientific research, education and public outreach.

Our core mission is to provide public access to qualified professional researchers via peer-review to forefront scientific capabilities on telescopes operated by NOAO as well as other telescopes throughout the O/IR System. Today, these telescopes range in aperture size from 2-m to 10-m. NOAO is participating in the development of telescopes with aperture sizes of 20-m and larger as well as a unique 8-m telescope that will make a 10-year movie of the Southern sky.

In support of this mission, NOAO is engaged in programs to develop the next generation of telescopes, instruments, and software tools necessary to enable exploration and investigation through the observable Universe, from planets orbiting other stars to the most distant galaxies in the Universe.

To communicate the excitement of such world-class scientific research and technology development, NOAO has developed a nationally recognized Education and Public Outreach program. The main goals of the NOAO EPO program are to inspire young people to become explorers in science and research-based technology, and to reach out to groups and individuals who have been historically under-represented in the physics and astronomy science enterprise.

The National Optical Astronomy Observatory is proud to be a US National Node in the International Year of Astronomy, 2009.

About Our Observatories:
Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO)

Kitt Peak

Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) has its headquarters in Tucson and operates the Mayall 4-meter, the 3.5-meter WIYN , the 2.1-meter and Coudé Feed, and the 0.9-meter telescopes on Kitt Peak Mountain, about 55 miles southwest of the city.

Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO)

NOAO Cerro Tolo

The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is located in northern Chile. CTIO operates the 4-meter, 1.5-meter, 0.9-meter, and Curtis Schmidt telescopes at this site.

The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC)

Gemini North
Gemini North

Gemini South telescope
Gemini South

The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC) at NOAO is the gateway for the U.S. astronomical community to the International Gemini Project: twin 8.1 meter telescopes in Hawaii and Chile that provide unprecendented coverage (northern and southern skies) and details of our universe.

NOAO is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Science Foundation.

#decam-built-at-fnal, #decaps, #des-dark-energy-survey, #noao, #noao-science-archive, #the-decam-plane-survey, #the-decam-plane-survey-decaps

From NOAO: “Distant Galaxies ‘Lift the Veil’ on the End of the Cosmic Dark Ages”

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July 11, 2017

Dr. Junxian Wang
Department of Astronomy
University of Science and Technology of China
96 Jinzhai Road Hefei, Anhui 230026 China
jxw@ustc.edu.cn

Dr. Sangeeta Malhotra
ASU School of Earth and Space Exploration
and
Astrophysics Science Division,
Goddard Space Flight Center
8800 Greenbelt Road
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771
sangeeta.malhotra@asu.edu

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False color image of a 2 square degree region of the LAGER survey field, created from images taken in the optical at 500 nm (blue), in the near-infrared at 920 nm (red), and in a narrow-band filter centered at 964 nm (green). The last is sensitive to hydrogen Lyman alpha emission at z ~ 7. The small white boxes indicate the positions of the 23 LAEs discovered in the survey. The detailed insets (yellow) show two of the brightest LAEs; they are 0.5 arcminutes on a side, and the white circles are 5 arcseconds in diameter. Image Credit: Zhen-Ya Zheng (SHAO) & Junxian Wang (USTC).

Astronomers studying the distant Universe have found that small star-forming galaxies were abundant when the Universe was only 800 million years old, a few percent of its present age. The results suggest that the earliest galaxies, which illuminated and ionized the Universe, formed at even earlier times.

Long ago, about 300,000 years after the beginning of the Universe (the Big Bang), the Universe was dark. There were as yet no stars and galaxies, and the Universe was filled with neutral hydrogen gas. At some point the first galaxies appeared, and their energetic radiation ionized their surroundings, the intergalactic gas, illuminating and transforming the Universe.

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While this dramatic transformation is known to have occurred sometime in the interval between 300 million years and 1 billion years after the Big Bang, determining when the first galaxies formed is a challenge. The intergalactic gas, which is initially neutral, strongly absorbs and scatters the ultraviolet light emitted by the galaxies, making them difficult to detect.

To home in on when the transformation occurred, astronomers take an indirect approach. Using the demographics of small star-forming galaxies to determine when the intergalactic gas became ionized, they can infer when the ionizing sources, the first galaxies, formed. If star forming galaxies, which glow in the light of the hydrogen Lyman alpha line, are surrounded by neutral hydrogen gas, the Lyman alpha photons are readily scattered, much like headlights in fog, obscuring the galaxies. When the gas is ionized, the fog lifts, and the galaxies are easier to detect.

A new study taking this approach has discovered 23 candidate Lyman alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) that were present 800 million years after the Big Bang (at a redshift of z~7), the largest sample detected to date at that epoch. The study, “Lyman-Alpha Galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization” (LAGER), was carried out by an international team of astronomers from China, the US, and Chile using the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the CTIO 4-m Blanco telescope.

Dark Energy Survey


Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL


NOAO/CTIO Victor M Blanco 4m Telescope which houses the DECam at Cerro Tololo, Chile, housing DECam at an altitude of 7200 feet

While the study detected many LAEs, it also found that LAEs were 4 times less common at 800 million years than they were a short time later, at 1 billion years (at a redshift of z~5.7). The results imply that the process of ionizing the Universe began early and was still incomplete at 800 million years, with the intergalactic gas about half neutral and half ionized at that epoch. The low incidence rate of LAEs at 800 million years results from the suppression of their Lyman alpha emission by neutral intergalactic gas.

The study shows that “the fog was already lifting when the universe was 5% of its current age”, explained Sangeeta Malhotra (Goddard Space Flight Center and Arizona State University), one of the co-leads of the survey.

Junxian Wang (USTC), the organizer of the study, further explained, “Our finding that the intergalactic gas is 50% ionized at z ~ 7 implies that a large fraction of the first galaxies that ionized and illuminated the universe formed early, less than 800 million years after the Big Bang.”

For Zhenya Zheng (Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, CAS), the lead author of the paper describing these results, “800 million years is the current frontier in reionization studies.” While hundreds of LAEs have been found at later epochs, only about two dozen candidate LAEs were known at 800 million years prior to the current study. The new results dramatically increase the number of LAEs known at this epoch.

“None of this science would have been possible without the widefield capabilities of DECam and its community pipeline for data reduction,” remarked coauthor James Rhoads. “These capabilities enable efficient surveys and thereby the discovery of faint galaxies as well as rare, bright ones.”

To build on these results, the team is “continuing the search for distant star forming galaxies over a larger volume of the Universe”, said Leopoldo Infante (Pontificia Catolica University of Chile and the Carnegie Institution for Science), “to study the clustering of LAEs.” Clustering provides unique insights into how the fog lifts. The team is also investigating the nature of these distant galaxies.

Reference:
First Results from the Lyman Alpha Galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization (LAGER) Survey: Cosmological Reionization at z ~ 7, Zhenya Zheng et al. 2017, Astrophysical Journal Letters, 842, 22.
Preprint: https://arxiv.org/abs/1703.02985

See the full article here .

Please help promote STEM in your local schools.
STEM Icon

Stem Education Coalition

NOAO News
NOAO is the US national research & development center for ground-based night time astronomy. In particular, NOAO is enabling the development of the US optical-infrared (O/IR) System, an alliance of public and private observatories allied for excellence in scientific research, education and public outreach.

Our core mission is to provide public access to qualified professional researchers via peer-review to forefront scientific capabilities on telescopes operated by NOAO as well as other telescopes throughout the O/IR System. Today, these telescopes range in aperture size from 2-m to 10-m. NOAO is participating in the development of telescopes with aperture sizes of 20-m and larger as well as a unique 8-m telescope that will make a 10-year movie of the Southern sky.

In support of this mission, NOAO is engaged in programs to develop the next generation of telescopes, instruments, and software tools necessary to enable exploration and investigation through the observable Universe, from planets orbiting other stars to the most distant galaxies in the Universe.

To communicate the excitement of such world-class scientific research and technology development, NOAO has developed a nationally recognized Education and Public Outreach program. The main goals of the NOAO EPO program are to inspire young people to become explorers in science and research-based technology, and to reach out to groups and individuals who have been historically under-represented in the physics and astronomy science enterprise.

The National Optical Astronomy Observatory is proud to be a US National Node in the International Year of Astronomy, 2009.

About Our Observatories:
Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO)

Kitt Peak

Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) has its headquarters in Tucson and operates the Mayall 4-meter, the 3.5-meter WIYN , the 2.1-meter and Coudé Feed, and the 0.9-meter telescopes on Kitt Peak Mountain, about 55 miles southwest of the city.

Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO)

NOAO Cerro Tolo

The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is located in northern Chile. CTIO operates the 4-meter, 1.5-meter, 0.9-meter, and Curtis Schmidt telescopes at this site.

The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC)

Gemini North
Gemini North

Gemini South telescope
Gemini South

The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC) at NOAO is the gateway for the U.S. astronomical community to the International Gemini Project: twin 8.1 meter telescopes in Hawaii and Chile that provide unprecendented coverage (northern and southern skies) and details of our universe.

NOAO is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Science Foundation.

#astronomy, #astrophysics, #basic-research, #cosmology, #des-dark-energy-survey, #lae-lyman-alpha-emission, #noao, #the-fog-was-already-lifting-when-the-universe-was-5-of-its-current-age