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  • richardmitnick 11:06 am on October 21, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Milliarcsecond Astrophysics Through Open Access to the CHARA Array, NOAO   

    From NOAO: “Milliarcsecond Astrophysics Through Open Access to the CHARA Array” 

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    10.20.16
    Doug Gies, Georgia State University

    1

    2

    The Georgia State University Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array at Mount Wilson Observatory is now open to investigators interested in exploring the universe at milliarcsecond resolution in the optical and near-infrared. A long-baseline interferometer, the CHARA Array offers the longest operating baselines in the world and enables diverse investigations, such as the measurement stellar angular diameters and shapes, and studies of orbiting companions and circumstellar environments. Community access to CHARA is funded by an NSF/MSIP award.

    Located at Mount Wilson Observatory, the CHARA Array consists of six 1-m aperture telescopes arranged in a Y-shaped configuration with baselines ranging from 33 to 331 meters. By combining the light from these distributed telescopes, the angular resolution is equivalent to that of a single aperture telescope more than 300 meters in diameter, making it the highest angular resolution optical telescope in the world. A complement of six beam combiners offers interferometric capability in the wavelength range 0.5 to 2.5 microns. Multibeam combiners (up to six telescopes) support interferometric imaging studies. Depending on the spectral resolution and number of telescope beams feeding the combiner, the faint magnitude limit ranges from 5 to 9. However, these limits will undoubtedly improve with the introduction of adaptive optics now underway.

    Open access to the Array will be phased in beginning in the 2017B observing semester, and some 50 to 75 nights per year will be available to the community. Proposals will be selected through the NOAO time allocation process. Many potential investigators may be new to interferometry, so CHARA scientists are planning to host a series of community workshops at locations around the US beginning in 2017. In addition, a new CHARA Visitor Support Scientist will work with visiting astronomers to help design, implement, and analyze CHARA observations. Financial support will be offered to those astronomers who opt to travel to Mount Wilson to make observations with the Array. The NSF/MSIP funding will also support the development of an open database of CHARA archival data and the renewal of several subsystems to optimize performance during the open access time.

    For further information, please visit the CHARA and NOAO web pages at:

    http://www.chara.gsu.edu/
    http://www.noao.edu/gateway/chara/

    See the full article here .

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    Stem Education Coalition

    NOAO News
    NOAO is the US national research & development center for ground-based night time astronomy. In particular, NOAO is enabling the development of the US optical-infrared (O/IR) System, an alliance of public and private observatories allied for excellence in scientific research, education and public outreach.

    Our core mission is to provide public access to qualified professional researchers via peer-review to forefront scientific capabilities on telescopes operated by NOAO as well as other telescopes throughout the O/IR System. Today, these telescopes range in aperture size from 2-m to 10-m. NOAO is participating in the development of telescopes with aperture sizes of 20-m and larger as well as a unique 8-m telescope that will make a 10-year movie of the Southern sky.

    In support of this mission, NOAO is engaged in programs to develop the next generation of telescopes, instruments, and software tools necessary to enable exploration and investigation through the observable Universe, from planets orbiting other stars to the most distant galaxies in the Universe.

    To communicate the excitement of such world-class scientific research and technology development, NOAO has developed a nationally recognized Education and Public Outreach program. The main goals of the NOAO EPO program are to inspire young people to become explorers in science and research-based technology, and to reach out to groups and individuals who have been historically under-represented in the physics and astronomy science enterprise.

    The National Optical Astronomy Observatory is proud to be a US National Node in the International Year of Astronomy, 2009.

    About Our Observatories:
    Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO)

    Kitt Peak

    Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) has its headquarters in Tucson and operates the Mayall 4-meter, the 3.5-meter WIYN , the 2.1-meter and Coudé Feed, and the 0.9-meter telescopes on Kitt Peak Mountain, about 55 miles southwest of the city.

    Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO)

    NOAO Cerro Tolo

    The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is located in northern Chile. CTIO operates the 4-meter, 1.5-meter, 0.9-meter, and Curtis Schmidt telescopes at this site.

    The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC)

    Gemini North
    Gemini North

    Gemini South telescope
    Gemini South

    The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC) at NOAO is the gateway for the U.S. astronomical community to the International Gemini Project: twin 8.1 meter telescopes in Hawaii and Chile that provide unprecendented coverage (northern and southern skies) and details of our universe.

    NOAO is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Science Foundation.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:47 am on October 21, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Maximizing Science in the Era of LSST: Study Report Posted, NOAO   

    From NOAO: “Maximizing Science in the Era of LSST: Study Report Posted” 

    NOAO Banner

    10.20.16

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a discovery machine for the astronomy and physics communities, revealing astrophysical phenomena from the Solar System to the outer reaches of the observable Universe.

    LSST/Camera, built at SLAC
    LSST/Camera, built at SLAC

    LSST Interior
    LSST telescope, currently under construction at Cerro Pachón Chile
    LSST telescope, currently under construction at Cerro Pachón Chile

    While many discoveries will be made using LSST data alone, taking full scientific advantage of LSST will require ground-based optical-infrared (OIR) supporting capabilities, e.g., observing time on telescopes, instrumentation, computing resources, and other infrastructure.

    A recent community-based study identifies, from a science-driven perspective, capabilities that are needed to maximize LSST science. Expanding on the initial steps taken in the 2015 OIR System Report (Optimizing the U.S. Optical and Infrared System in the Era of LSST, Elmegreen et al. 2015), the study takes a detailed, quantitative look at the capabilities needed to accomplish six representative LSST-enabled science programs that connect closely with scientific priorities from the 2010 decadal surveys (New Worlds, New Horizons and Vision and Voyages for Planetary Sciences in the Decade 2013–2022). The , led by NOAO and LSST, is funded by the Kavli Foundation and the study concept endorsed by NSF/AST.

    The <a href="http://study“>study report [6.9 MB PDF], recently published on arXiv and at the study website, (1) quantifies and prioritizes the resources needed to accomplish the science programs and (2) highlights ways that existing, planned, and future resources could be positioned to accomplish the science goals. The results overlap closely with and expand on those of the OIR System Report. The study recommendations, reproduced below, relate to the capabilities that were found to have particularly high priority and high demand from multiple communities.

    Study Recommendations:

    Develop or obtain access to a highly multiplexed, wide-field optical multi-object spectroscopic capability on an 8m-class telescope, preferably in the Southern Hemisphere. This high priority, high-demand capability is not currently available to the broad US community. Given the long lead time to develop any new capability, there is an urgent need to investigate possible development pathways now, so that the needed capabilities can be available in the LSST era. Possibilities include implementing a new wide-field, massively multiplexed optical spectrograph on a Southern Hemisphere 6-8m telescope, e.g., as in the Southern Spectroscopic Survey Instrument, a project recommended for consideration by the DOE’s Cosmic Visions panel (arxiv.org/abs/1604.07626 and arxiv.org/abs/1604.07821); open access to the PFS instrument on the Subaru telescope in order to propose and execute new large surveys; and alternatively, joining an international effort to implement a wide-field spectroscopic survey telescope (e.g., the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer at CFHT or a future ESO wide-field spectroscopic facility) if the facility will deliver data well before the end of the LSST survey.

    CFHT Telescope, Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA
    CFHT Telescope, Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA

    Deploy a broad wavelength coverage, moderate-resolution (R = 2000 or larger) OIR spectrograph on Gemini South.

    Gemini South telescope, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) campus near La Serena, Chile
    Gemini South telescope, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) campus near La Serena, Chile

    The Gen 4#3 instrument is an ideal opportunity. It is critical that development plans for these capabilities proceed in a timely way so that the capabilities are available when LSST operations begin. A basic, workhorse instrument, deployed early in the LSST mission, is greatly preferred to a multi-mode instrument that arrives later in the mission. A wavelength range of at least 0.36–2.5 microns would provide the highest scientific impact.

    Ensure the development and early deployment of an alert broker, scalable to LSST. Public broker(s), and supporting community data and filtering resources, are essential to select priority targets for follow-up. The development of an alert broker that can process the LSST alert stream has challenges beyond the field of astronomy alone. The key questions can be best addressed by computer scientists working with astronomers on this multi-disciplinary problem, and support is needed to enable effective collaboration across the relevant fields.

    Support into the LSST era high-priority capabilities that are currently available. Wide-field optical imaging (e.g., DECam on the Blanco 4m at CTIO) is one valuable, but relatively uncommon, capability, as is AO-fed diffraction limited imaging (e.g., NIFS on the 8m Gemini telescope). Other important capabilities are standard on many facilities. Those called out in this report include

    single-object, multi-color imaging on < 5m facilities
    single-object R = 100–5000 spectroscopy on 3–5m facilities

    Support costs for these capabilities include those associated with routine operations as well as timely repair and refurbishment.

    Support OIR system infrastructure developments that enable efficient follow-up programs. Two of LSST’s strengths are the large statistical samples it will produce and LSST’s ability to provide rapid alerts for a wide variety of time domain phenomena. An efficient OIR system can capitalize on these strengths by (i) developing target and observation management software and increasing the availability of (ii) follow-up telescopes accessible in queue-scheduled modes, as well as (iii) data reduction pipelines that provide rapid access to data products. Following up large samples will be time and cost prohibitive if on-site observing is required and/or large programs and triage observations are not part of the time allocation infrastructure. To develop and prioritize community needs along these lines, we recommend a study aimed at developing a follow-up system for real-time, large-volume, time domain observations. As part of this study, discussions with the operators of observing facilities (e.g., through targeted workshops) are important in developing workable, cost-efficient procedures.

    Study and prioritize needs for computing, software, and data resources. LSST is the most data-intensive project in the history of optical astronomy. To maximize the science from LSST, support is needed for (i) the development and deployment of data analysis and exploration tools that work at the scale of LSST; (ii) training for scientists at all career stages in LSST-related analysis techniques and computing technologies; (iii) cross-disciplinary workshops that facilitate the cross-pollination of ideas and tools between astronomy and other fields. We recommend a follow-on systematic study to prioritize community needs for computing, software, and data resources. The study should account for the capabilities that will be delivered by the LSST project and other efforts, the demands of forefront LSST-enabled research, and the opportunities presented by new technology.

    Continue community planning and development. It is critical to continue the community-wide planning process, begun here, to motivate and review the development of the ground-based OIR System capabilities that will be needed to maximize LSST science. The current study focused primarily on instrumentation. Further work is needed to define the needs for observing infrastructure and computing, as described above. Regular review of progress (and lack thereof) in all of these areas is important to ensure the development of an OIR System that does maximize LSST science. Studies like these form the basis for a development roadmap and take a step in the direction envisioned by the Elmegreen committee that “a system organizing committee, chosen to represent all segments of the community … would produce the prioritized plan. NSF would then solicit, review, and select proposals to meet those capabilities, within available funding.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.
    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    NOAO News
    NOAO is the US national research & development center for ground-based night time astronomy. In particular, NOAO is enabling the development of the US optical-infrared (O/IR) System, an alliance of public and private observatories allied for excellence in scientific research, education and public outreach.

    Our core mission is to provide public access to qualified professional researchers via peer-review to forefront scientific capabilities on telescopes operated by NOAO as well as other telescopes throughout the O/IR System. Today, these telescopes range in aperture size from 2-m to 10-m. NOAO is participating in the development of telescopes with aperture sizes of 20-m and larger as well as a unique 8-m telescope that will make a 10-year movie of the Southern sky.

    In support of this mission, NOAO is engaged in programs to develop the next generation of telescopes, instruments, and software tools necessary to enable exploration and investigation through the observable Universe, from planets orbiting other stars to the most distant galaxies in the Universe.

    To communicate the excitement of such world-class scientific research and technology development, NOAO has developed a nationally recognized Education and Public Outreach program. The main goals of the NOAO EPO program are to inspire young people to become explorers in science and research-based technology, and to reach out to groups and individuals who have been historically under-represented in the physics and astronomy science enterprise.

    The National Optical Astronomy Observatory is proud to be a US National Node in the International Year of Astronomy, 2009.

    About Our Observatories:
    Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO)

    Kitt Peak

    Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) has its headquarters in Tucson and operates the Mayall 4-meter, the 3.5-meter WIYN , the 2.1-meter and Coudé Feed, and the 0.9-meter telescopes on Kitt Peak Mountain, about 55 miles southwest of the city.

    Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO)

    NOAO Cerro Tolo

    The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is located in northern Chile. CTIO operates the 4-meter, 1.5-meter, 0.9-meter, and Curtis Schmidt telescopes at this site.

    The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC)

    Gemini North
    Gemini North

    Gemini South telescope
    Gemini South

    The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC) at NOAO is the gateway for the U.S. astronomical community to the International Gemini Project: twin 8.1 meter telescopes in Hawaii and Chile that provide unprecendented coverage (northern and southern skies) and details of our universe.

    NOAO is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Science Foundation.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:45 am on October 8, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , NOAO, Ultra-faint stellar systems discovered toward the Sagittarius stream   

    From NOAO: “Ultra-faint stellar systems discovered toward the Sagittarius stream” 

    NOAO Banner

    10.8.16
    No writer credit

    2

    1
    Image Credit: K. Vivas & CTIO/NOAO/AURA/NSF

    Astronomers have discovered ultra-faint stellar systems in the direction of the Sagittarius stream, the stream of stars that is being pulled out of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy as it interacts gravitationally with our own Milky Way galaxy (Figure 1, left). Similar in size to globular clusters but more than 100 times fainter, the new stellar systems straddle the fuzzy boundary between dwarf galaxies and stellar clusters and belong to an emerging class of ultra-faint, compact stellar systems (Figure 2, right). The discoveries were made by a team using data from the Dark Energy Survey, which is being carried out with DECam on the Blanco telescope at CTIO.

    Dark Energy Icon

    DECam, built at FNAL
    “DECam, built at FNAL

    NOAO/CTIO Victor M Blanco 4m Telescope which houses the DECam at Cerro Tololo, Chile
    NOAO/CTIO Victor M Blanco 4m Telescope which houses the DECam at Cerro Tololo, Chile

    The team was leaded by Elmer Luque from Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and includes NOAO astronomers Kathy Vivas, Tim Abbott, David James, Chris Smith and Alistair Walker.

    Link to preprint: http://xxx.lanl.gov/pdf/1608.04033v1

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.
    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    NOAO News
    NOAO is the US national research & development center for ground-based night time astronomy. In particular, NOAO is enabling the development of the US optical-infrared (O/IR) System, an alliance of public and private observatories allied for excellence in scientific research, education and public outreach.

    Our core mission is to provide public access to qualified professional researchers via peer-review to forefront scientific capabilities on telescopes operated by NOAO as well as other telescopes throughout the O/IR System. Today, these telescopes range in aperture size from 2-m to 10-m. NOAO is participating in the development of telescopes with aperture sizes of 20-m and larger as well as a unique 8-m telescope that will make a 10-year movie of the Southern sky.

    In support of this mission, NOAO is engaged in programs to develop the next generation of telescopes, instruments, and software tools necessary to enable exploration and investigation through the observable Universe, from planets orbiting other stars to the most distant galaxies in the Universe.

    To communicate the excitement of such world-class scientific research and technology development, NOAO has developed a nationally recognized Education and Public Outreach program. The main goals of the NOAO EPO program are to inspire young people to become explorers in science and research-based technology, and to reach out to groups and individuals who have been historically under-represented in the physics and astronomy science enterprise.

    The National Optical Astronomy Observatory is proud to be a US National Node in the International Year of Astronomy, 2009.

    About Our Observatories:
    Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO)

    Kitt Peak

    Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) has its headquarters in Tucson and operates the Mayall 4-meter, the 3.5-meter WIYN , the 2.1-meter and Coudé Feed, and the 0.9-meter telescopes on Kitt Peak Mountain, about 55 miles southwest of the city.

    Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO)

    NOAO Cerro Tolo

    The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is located in northern Chile. CTIO operates the 4-meter, 1.5-meter, 0.9-meter, and Curtis Schmidt telescopes at this site.

    The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC)

    Gemini North
    Gemini North

    Gemini South telescope
    Gemini South

    The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC) at NOAO is the gateway for the U.S. astronomical community to the International Gemini Project: twin 8.1 meter telescopes in Hawaii and Chile that provide unprecendented coverage (northern and southern skies) and details of our universe.

    NOAO is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Science Foundation.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:37 pm on May 25, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A Young Mammoth Cluster of Galaxies Sighted in the Early Universe, , , NOAO   

    From NOAO: “A Young Mammoth Cluster of Galaxies Sighted in the Early Universe” 

    NOAO Banner

    May 25, 2016

    Dr. Kyoung-Soo Lee
    Purdue University
    Tel: 765-494-3047
    email: soolee@purdue.edu

    Dr. Arjun Dey
    National Optical Astronomy Observatory
    Tel: 520-318-8429
    email: dey@noao.edu

    1
    The newly discovered protocluster of galaxies located in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-field Survey.
    Green circles identify the confirmed cluster members. Density contours (white lines) emphasize the concentration of member galaxies toward the center of the image. The patch of sky shown is roughly 20 arcminutes x 17 arcminutes in size. The cluster galaxies are typically very faint, about 10 million times fainter than the faintest stars visible to the naked eye on a dark night. The inset images highlight two example members that glow in the Ly-alpha line of atomic hydrogen. The protocluster is massive, with its core weighing as much as a quadrillion suns. The protocluster is likely to evolve, over 12 billion years, into a system much like the nearby Coma cluster of galaxies, shown in the image below. Credit: Dr. Rui Xue, Purdue University.

    2
    Coma Cluster image from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Credit: Dustin Lang and SDSS Collaboration

    SDSS Telescope at Apache Point, NM, USA
    SDSS Telescope at Apache Point, NM, USA

    Astronomers have uncovered evidence for a vast collection of young galaxies 12 billion light years away. The newly discovered “proto-cluster” of galaxies, observed when the universe was only 1.7 billion years old (12% of its present age), is one of the most massive structures known at that distance. The discovery, made using telescopes at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona and the W. M. Keck Observatory on Mauna Kea, has been reported* in the Astrophysical Journal.

    Keck Observatory, Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA
    Keck Observatory Interior
    Keck Observatory, Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA

    “The protocluster will very likely grow into a massive cluster of galaxies like the Coma cluster, which weighs more than a quadrillion suns,” said Purdue University astrophysicist Dr. Kyoung-Soo Lee, who initially spotted the protocluster and is one of the authors in this study. Clusters this massive are extremely rare: only a handful of candidates are known at such early times. The new system is the first to be confirmed using extensive spectroscopy to establish cluster membership.

    The team, led by Dr. Lee (Purdue University) and Dr. Arjun Dey of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, used the Mayall telescope on Kitt Peak to obtain very deep images of a small patch of sky, about the size of two full moons, in the constellation of Bootes. The team then used the Keck II Telescope on Mauna Kea to measure distances to faint galaxies in this patch, which revealed the large grouping. “Many of the faint galaxies in this patch lie at the same distance,” say Dr. Dey. “They are clumped together due to gravity and the evidence suggests that the cluster is in the process of forming.”

    Matter in the universe organizes itself into large structures through the action of gravity. Most stars are in galaxies, which in turn collect in groups and clusters. Galaxy clusters are commonly observed in the present-day universe and contain some of the oldest and most massive galaxies known. The formation and early history of these clusters is not well understood. The discovery of young proto-clusters allows scientists to directly witness and study their formation. The prevalence of massive clusters in the young universe can help constrain the size and expansion history of the universe.

    The team is now searching larger areas of sky to uncover more examples of such young and massive protoclusters. “The discovery and confirmation of one distant and very massive protocluster is very exciting,” said Dr. Naveen Reddy, an astrophysicist at the University of California at Riverside and a coauthor of the study, “but it is important to find a large sample of these so we can understand the possibly varied formation history of the population as a whole.”

    The other members of the team are Dr. Michael Cooper (University of California, Irvine), Dr. Hanae Inami (Observatoire de Lyon), Dr. Sungryong Hong (University of Texas, Austin), Dr. Anthony Gonzalez (University of Florida), and Dr. Buell Jannuzi (University of Arizona).

    Reference: Spectroscopic Confirmation of a Protocluster at z=3.786, Arjun Dey, Kyoung-Soo Lee, Naveen Reddy et al., 2016 May 20, Astrophysical Journal preprint: http://arxiv.org/abs/1604.08627

    *Science paper:
    SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF A PROTOCLUSTER AT z ≈ 3.786

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.
    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    NOAO News
    NOAO is the US national research & development center for ground-based night time astronomy. In particular, NOAO is enabling the development of the US optical-infrared (O/IR) System, an alliance of public and private observatories allied for excellence in scientific research, education and public outreach.

    Our core mission is to provide public access to qualified professional researchers via peer-review to forefront scientific capabilities on telescopes operated by NOAO as well as other telescopes throughout the O/IR System. Today, these telescopes range in aperture size from 2-m to 10-m. NOAO is participating in the development of telescopes with aperture sizes of 20-m and larger as well as a unique 8-m telescope that will make a 10-year movie of the Southern sky.

    In support of this mission, NOAO is engaged in programs to develop the next generation of telescopes, instruments, and software tools necessary to enable exploration and investigation through the observable Universe, from planets orbiting other stars to the most distant galaxies in the Universe.

    To communicate the excitement of such world-class scientific research and technology development, NOAO has developed a nationally recognized Education and Public Outreach program. The main goals of the NOAO EPO program are to inspire young people to become explorers in science and research-based technology, and to reach out to groups and individuals who have been historically under-represented in the physics and astronomy science enterprise.

    The National Optical Astronomy Observatory is proud to be a US National Node in the International Year of Astronomy, 2009.

    About Our Observatories:
    Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO)

    Kitt Peak

    Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) has its headquarters in Tucson and operates the Mayall 4-meter, the 3.5-meter WIYN , the 2.1-meter and Coudé Feed, and the 0.9-meter telescopes on Kitt Peak Mountain, about 55 miles southwest of the city.

    Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO)

    NOAO Cerro Tolo

    The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is located in northern Chile. CTIO operates the 4-meter, 1.5-meter, 0.9-meter, and Curtis Schmidt telescopes at this site.

    The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC)

    Gemini North
    Gemini North

    Gemini South telescope
    Gemini South

    The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC) at NOAO is the gateway for the U.S. astronomical community to the International Gemini Project: twin 8.1 meter telescopes in Hawaii and Chile that provide unprecendented coverage (northern and southern skies) and details of our universe.

    NOAO is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Science Foundation.

     
  • richardmitnick 5:14 pm on May 24, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , NOAO, Puffy Giant Planet Discovered by KELT-S Transit Survey   

    From NOAO: “Puffy Giant Planet Discovered by KELT-S Transit Survey” 

    NOAO Banner

    1
    The discovery lightcurve of exoplanet KELT-10b is overlaid on an image of the KELT-S Telescope in South Africa. The lightcurve was obtained using 4967 observations over about 4-years. A 30-minute binned lightcurve is shown in red. Image Credit: R. Kuhn & Vanderbilt University/SAAO.

    Transiting planets orbiting bright stars provide a golden opportunity to learn about the nature of exoplanets, their composition and origin. A robotic survey of the southern sky, designed to detect such systems, has discovered its first exoplanet: KELT-10b, a highly inflated giant planet. Although it is only 2/3 the mass of Jupiter, KELT-10b is 40% larger than Jupiter in radius. Because of its large size, when the planet passes in front of its star, it blocks out a whopping 1.4% of the star’s light, generating a transit signal that is relatively easy to detect. As one of only 25 planets known to transit bright stars (V < 11) in the southern hemisphere, KELT-10b is an attractive target for future studies aimed at characterizing planetary atmospheres.

    KELT-10b was discovered by the Kilodegree Extremely LIttle Telescope-South (KELT-S) transit survey. KELT-S is a robotic telescope located at the Sutherland site of the South African Astronomical Observatory. It is operated by Vanderbilt University and the South African Astronomical Observatory. NOAO astronomer David James is a founding member of the project.

    KELT South robotic telescope, Southerland, South Africa

    Describing his enthusiasm for the KELT-S project, James explained, “Efforts to detect and characterize extra-solar planets are driven by the deep-rooted desires of humanity to understand the origin of the solar system and their place in it. Although small aperture planet-hunting telescopes like KELT-S are typically are modest in budget, they deliver a strong return in science. They are also a powerful educational experience for students.”

    James is excited by the future of exoplanet research, as it moves from the era of exoplanet detection and taxonomy to the characterization of their atmospheres and searches for bio-signatures. He mused, “When my daughter is my age, perhaps having detected exoplanets of her own, she may well be using a 30-50m class telescope to describe their biology and potential for hosting life.”

    Science paper:
    KELT-10b: The First Transiting Exoplanet from the KELT-South Survey – A Hot Sub-Jupiter Transiting a V=10.7 Early G-Star

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.
    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    NOAO News
    NOAO is the US national research & development center for ground-based night time astronomy. In particular, NOAO is enabling the development of the US optical-infrared (O/IR) System, an alliance of public and private observatories allied for excellence in scientific research, education and public outreach.

    Our core mission is to provide public access to qualified professional researchers via peer-review to forefront scientific capabilities on telescopes operated by NOAO as well as other telescopes throughout the O/IR System. Today, these telescopes range in aperture size from 2-m to 10-m. NOAO is participating in the development of telescopes with aperture sizes of 20-m and larger as well as a unique 8-m telescope that will make a 10-year movie of the Southern sky.

    In support of this mission, NOAO is engaged in programs to develop the next generation of telescopes, instruments, and software tools necessary to enable exploration and investigation through the observable Universe, from planets orbiting other stars to the most distant galaxies in the Universe.

    To communicate the excitement of such world-class scientific research and technology development, NOAO has developed a nationally recognized Education and Public Outreach program. The main goals of the NOAO EPO program are to inspire young people to become explorers in science and research-based technology, and to reach out to groups and individuals who have been historically under-represented in the physics and astronomy science enterprise.

    The National Optical Astronomy Observatory is proud to be a US National Node in the International Year of Astronomy, 2009.

    About Our Observatories:
    Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO)

    Kitt Peak

    Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) has its headquarters in Tucson and operates the Mayall 4-meter, the 3.5-meter WIYN , the 2.1-meter and Coudé Feed, and the 0.9-meter telescopes on Kitt Peak Mountain, about 55 miles southwest of the city.

    Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO)

    NOAO Cerro Tolo

    The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is located in northern Chile. CTIO operates the 4-meter, 1.5-meter, 0.9-meter, and Curtis Schmidt telescopes at this site.

    The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC)

    Gemini North
    Gemini North

    Gemini South telescope
    Gemini South

    The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC) at NOAO is the gateway for the U.S. astronomical community to the International Gemini Project: twin 8.1 meter telescopes in Hawaii and Chile that provide unprecendented coverage (northern and southern skies) and details of our universe.

    NOAO is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Science Foundation.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:44 pm on November 24, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , NOAO   

    From NOAO: “Oodles of Faint Dwarf Galaxies in Fornax Shed Light on a Cosmological Mystery” 

    NOAO Banner

    November 23, 2015
    Dr. Joan Najita
    National Optical Astronomy Observatory
    950 N Cherry Ave
    Tucson AZ 85719 USA
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    1
    Image of the inner 3 square degrees of the NGFS survey footprint compared with the size of the Moon. Low surface brightness dwarf galaxies are marked by red circles. Gray circles indicate previously known dwarf galaxies. The dwarf galaxies, which vastly outnumber the bright galaxies, may be the “missing satellites” predicted by cosmological simulations.

    An astonishing number of faint low surface brightness dwarf galaxies recently discovered in the Fornax cluster of galaxies may help to solve the long-standing cosmological mystery of “The Missing Satellites”. The discovery, made by an international team of astronomers led by Roberto Muñoz and Thomas Puzia of Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, was carried out using the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4-m Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). CTIO is operated by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO).

    DECam
    CTIO Victor M Blanco 4m Telescope
    DECam (built at FNAL) and the CTIO Victor M Blanco telescope in Chile in which it is housed.

    Computer simulations of the evolution of the matter distribution in the Universe predict that dwarf galaxies should vastly outnumber galaxies like the Milky Way, with hundreds of low mass dwarf galaxies predicted for every Milky Way-like galaxy. The apparent shortage of dwarf galaxies relative to these predictions, “the missing satellites problem,” could imply that the cosmological simulations are wrong or that the predicted dwarf galaxies have simply not yet been discovered. The discovery of numerous faint dwarf galaxies in Fornax suggests that the “missing satellites” are now being found.

    The discovery, recently published in the Astrophysical Journal, comes as one of the first results from the Next Generation Fornax Survey (NGFS), a study of the central 30 square degree region of the Fornax galaxy cluster using optical imaging with DECam and near-infrared imaging with ESO’s VISTA/VIRCam. The Fornax cluster, located at a distance of 62 million light-years, is the second richest galaxy cluster within 100 million light-years after the much richer Virgo cluster.

    The deep, high-quality images of the Fornax cluster core obtained with DECam were critical to the recovery of the missing dwarf galaxies. “With the combination of DECam’s huge field of view (3 square degrees) and our novel observing strategy and data reduction algorithms, we were able to detect extremely diffuse low-surface brightness galaxies,” explained Roberto Muñoz, the lead author of the study.

    Because the low surface brightness dwarf galaxies are extremely diffuse, stargazers residing in one of these galaxies would see a night sky very different from that seen from Earth. The stellar density of the faint dwarf galaxies (one star per million cubic parsecs) is about a million times lower than that in the neighborhood of the Sun, or almost a billion times lower than in the bulge of the Milky Way.

    As a result, “inhabitants of worlds in one of our NGFS ultra-faint dwarfs would find their sky sparsely populated with visible objects and extremely boring. They would perhaps not even realize that they live in a galaxy!” mused coauthor Thomas Puzia.

    The large number of dwarf galaxies discovered in the Fornax cluster echoes the emerging census of satellites of our own Galaxy, the Milky Way. More than 20 dwarf galaxy companions have been discovered in the past year, many of which were also discovered with DECam.

    Reference: “Unveiling a Rich System of Faint Dwarf Galaxies in the Next Generation Fornax Survey,” Roberto P. Muñoz et al., 2015 November 1, Astrophysical Journal Letters [http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2041-8205/813/1/L15, preprint: http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.02475%5D.

    Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory is managed by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy Inc. (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

    See the full article here .

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    NOAO News
    NOAO is the US national research & development center for ground-based night time astronomy. In particular, NOAO is enabling the development of the US optical-infrared (O/IR) System, an alliance of public and private observatories allied for excellence in scientific research, education and public outreach.

    Our core mission is to provide public access to qualified professional researchers via peer-review to forefront scientific capabilities on telescopes operated by NOAO as well as other telescopes throughout the O/IR System. Today, these telescopes range in aperture size from 2-m to 10-m. NOAO is participating in the development of telescopes with aperture sizes of 20-m and larger as well as a unique 8-m telescope that will make a 10-year movie of the Southern sky.

    In support of this mission, NOAO is engaged in programs to develop the next generation of telescopes, instruments, and software tools necessary to enable exploration and investigation through the observable Universe, from planets orbiting other stars to the most distant galaxies in the Universe.

    To communicate the excitement of such world-class scientific research and technology development, NOAO has developed a nationally recognized Education and Public Outreach program. The main goals of the NOAO EPO program are to inspire young people to become explorers in science and research-based technology, and to reach out to groups and individuals who have been historically under-represented in the physics and astronomy science enterprise.

    The National Optical Astronomy Observatory is proud to be a US National Node in the International Year of Astronomy, 2009.

    About Our Observatories:
    Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO)

    Kitt Peak

    Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) has its headquarters in Tucson and operates the Mayall 4-meter, the 3.5-meter WIYN , the 2.1-meter and Coudé Feed, and the 0.9-meter telescopes on Kitt Peak Mountain, about 55 miles southwest of the city.

    Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO)

    NOAO Cerro Tolo

    The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is located in northern Chile. CTIO operates the 4-meter, 1.5-meter, 0.9-meter, and Curtis Schmidt telescopes at this site.

    The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC)

    Gemini North
    Gemini North

    Gemini South telescope
    Gemini South

    The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC) at NOAO is the gateway for the U.S. astronomical community to the International Gemini Project: twin 8.1 meter telescopes in Hawaii and Chile that provide unprecendented coverage (northern and southern skies) and details of our universe.

    NOAO is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Science Foundation.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:48 pm on July 28, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , NOAO, Ultracompact galaxies   

    From EarthSky: “Tiny, but still densest known galaxies” 

    EarthSky logo

    EarthSky

    Jul 27, 2015
    No Writer Credit

    1
    Two ultra-dense galaxies have been found, orbiting larger host galaxies. They might be the remnants of once normal galaxies that were swallowed by the host, a process that removed the fluffy outer parts of the systems, leaving the dense centers behind. Image via A. Romanowsky (SJSU), Subaru, Hubble Legacy Archive

    Two undergraduate students in astronomy at San José State University have discovered two galaxies that are now considered the densest known. The National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) made the announcement today (July 27, 2015) in conjunction with the publication of the work at arxiv.org. They said these galaxies are reminiscent of the ordinary globular star clusters that orbit the centers of our galaxy and others. But the ultra-dense galaxies are 100 to 1,000 times brighter.

    The first system is called M59-UCD3 by astronomers. It’s 200 times smaller in width than our own Milky Way galaxy, but the density of its stars is 10,000 times larger than that in the neighborhood of our sun. For an observer on a planet orbiting one of the stars in the core of M59-UCD3, the night sky would be a dazzling display, lit up by a million stars.

    The second system, M85-HCC1, has an even higher density: its stars are packed about a million times more tightly than in our sun’s neighborhood.

    Both systems belong to the new class of galaxies known as ultracompact dwarfs.

    Undergraduate students Michael Sandoval and Richard Vo discovered the two galaxies, using imaging data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Subaru Telescope, and Hubble Space Telescope, as well as spectroscopy from the the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) in Chile. NOAO, which made today’s announcement, is a SOAR partner.

    SDSS Telescope
    SDSS telescope

    NAOJ Subaru Telescope
    NAOJ Subaru Telescope interior
    NAOJ/Subaru telescope

    NASA Hubble Telescope
    NASA/ESA HUbble

    NOAO SOAR telescope
    NOAO SOAR telescope interior
    SOAR telescope

    The SOAR spectrum was used to show that M59-UCD3 is associated with a larger host galaxy, M59, and to measure the age and elemental abundances of the galaxy’s stars.

    4
    M59 2MASS (near-infrared)

    Richard Vo explained:

    Ultracompact stellar systems like these are easy to find once you know what to look for. However, they were overlooked for decades because no one imagined such objects existed: they were hiding in plain sight.

    When we discovered one … serendipitously, we realized there must be others, and we set out to find them.

    According to the NOAO statement:

    The students were motivated by the idea that all it takes to initiate a discovery is a good idea, archival data, and dedication. The last element was critical, because the students worked on the project on their own time.

    So what are these ultracompact dwarf galaxies, and how did they become so small and compact? At present, no one knows. The dense galaxies may be stripped-down cores of formerly normal galaxies. Or they might be super-clusters of stars that somehow merged. Or they might be genuine compact dwarf galaxies formed by minute fluctuation in the dark matter believed to form all galaxies.

    Michael Sandoval favors the stripped hypothesis. He said:

    One of the best clues is that some ultracompact dwarfs host overweight supermassive black holes. This suggests they were originally much bigger galaxies with normal supermassive black holes, whose fluffy outer parts were stripped away, leaving their dense centers behind. This is plausible because the known UCDs are found near massive galaxies that could have done the stripping.

    The video below shows how that might happen.

    An additional line of evidence is the high abundance of heavy elements such as iron in ultracompact dwarf galaxies. Because large galaxies are more efficient factories to make these metals, a high metal content may indicate that the galaxy used to be much larger.

    To test this hypothesis, the team will investigate the motions of stars in the center of M59-UCD3 to look for a supermassive black hole. They are also on the hunt for more UCDs, to understand how commonly they occur and how diverse they are.

    Bottom line: Two astronomy undergraduates have discovered what are now the densest known galaxies, called ultracompact dwarfs (UCDs). One – known as M59-UCD3 – is 200 times smaller in width than our own Milky Way galaxy, but the density of its stars is 10,000 times larger than that in the neighborhood of our sun. The second system, M85-HCC1, has an even higher density of stars, a million times that of our sun’s neighborhood.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 12:28 pm on August 26, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , NOAO,   

    From NOAO: “The F8 secondary mirror has been installed on the Blanco telescope “ 

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    NOAO News

    b8
    Photo courtesy Tim Abbott.

    The F8 secondary mirror has been installed on the Blanco telescope (note the sparkly mirror in top left corner of photo). The secondary mirror was removed the same day, as at least one re-alignment cycle is required. Here is a photo of the F8 installation crew and their charge installed. The ongoing F8 engineering on the Blanco telescope is scheduled until August 30, 2013.

    For the complete article, please visit Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) Fan Page on Facebook

    NOAO is the US national research & development center for ground-based night time astronomy. In particular, NOAO is enabling the development of the US optical-infrared (O/IR) System, an alliance of public and private observatories allied for excellence in scientific research, education and public outreach.

    Our core mission is to provide public access to qualified professional researchers via peer-review to forefront scientific capabilities on telescopes operated by NOAO as well as other telescopes throughout the O/IR System. Today, these telescopes range in aperture size from 2-m to 10-m. NOAO is participating in the development of telescopes with aperture sizes of 20-m and larger as well as a unique 8-m telescope that will make a 10-year movie of the Southern sky.

    In support of this mission, NOAO is engaged in programs to develop the next generation of telescopes, instruments, and software tools necessary to enable exploration and investigation through the observable Universe, from planets orbiting other stars to the most distant galaxies in the Universe.

    To communicate the excitement of such world-class scientific research and technology development, NOAO has developed a nationally recognized Education and Public Outreach program. The main goals of the NOAO EPO program are to inspire young people to become explorers in science and research-based technology, and to reach out to groups and individuals who have been historically under-represented in the physics and astronomy science enterprise.

    The National Optical Astronomy Observatory is proud to be a US National Node in the International Year of Astronomy, 2009.

    About Our Observatories:
    Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO)

    Kitt Peak

    Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) has its headquarters in Tucson and operates the Mayall 4-meter, the 3.5-meter WIYN , the 2.1-meter and Coudé Feed, and the 0.9-meter telescopes on Kitt Peak Mountain, about 55 miles southwest of the city.

    Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO)

    NOAO Cerro Tolo

    The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is located in northern Chile. CTIO operates the 4-meter, 1.5-meter, 0.9-meter, and Curtis Schmidt telescopes at this site.

    The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC)

    Gemini North
    Gemini North

    The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC) at NOAO is the gateway for the U.S. astronomical community to the International Gemini Project: twin 8.1 meter telescopes in Hawaii and Chile that provide unprecendented coverage (northern and southern skies) and details of our universe.

    NOAO is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Science Foundation.

     
  • richardmitnick 6:08 am on July 26, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , NOAO   

    From NOAO: “M51, the Whirlpool Galaxy, seen with new ODI Camera on WIYN Telescope” 

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    NOAO News

    July 25, 2013
    Media Contact:
    Dr. Katy Garmany
    Deputy Press Officer
    National Optical Astronomy Observatory
    950 N Cherry Ave
    Tucson AZ 85719 USA
    +1 520-318-8526
    E-mail: kgarmany@noao.edu

    “The Whirlpool Galaxy (Messier 51) has been a popular night sky target for astronomers for centuries. Charles Messier first identified it in 1773 and listed it as number 51 in his catalog. To him, it looked like a faint, fuzzy object that might be a comet. William Parsons, the 3rd Earl of Rosse, used his 72-inch telescope ‘Leviathan’ to observe the Whirlpool in 1845. Since then, Messier 51 has likely been targeted by virtually every telescope in the northern hemisphere. It is found in the constellation Canes Venatici (the Hunting Dogs) and is a classic example of a spiral galaxy.

    pool
    Whirlpool Galaxy (Messier 51)

    Now, a new camera on the WIYN 3.5-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory has imaged the Whirlpool Galaxy anew. The wide field of the One Degree Imager (ODI) camera makes it possible to capture the entire galaxy and its companion in one pointing, something that even the Hubble Space Telescope cannot do.

    Indiana University (IU) astronomy professor Katherine Rhode led this effort as part of an imaging survey of spiral and elliptical galaxies. The survey is aimed at understanding how these so-called ‘giant galaxies’ form and evolve.

    ‘The WIYN telescope is an ideal telescope for the survey because of its wide field and because it produces some of the sharpest, highest-quality images possible with a ground-based telescope’, explained Rhode. ‘WIYN’s 3.5-meter mirror is also very efficient at gathering light from astronomical objects, so it allows us to image faint objects, like individual star clusters within the galaxies.'”

    See the full article here.

    NOAO is the US national research & development center for ground-based night time astronomy. In particular, NOAO is enabling the development of the US optical-infrared (O/IR) System, an alliance of public and private observatories allied for excellence in scientific research, education and public outreach.

    Our core mission is to provide public access to qualified professional researchers via peer-review to forefront scientific capabilities on telescopes operated by NOAO as well as other telescopes throughout the O/IR System. Today, these telescopes range in aperture size from 2-m to 10-m. NOAO is participating in the development of telescopes with aperture sizes of 20-m and larger as well as a unique 8-m telescope that will make a 10-year movie of the Southern sky.

    In support of this mission, NOAO is engaged in programs to develop the next generation of telescopes, instruments, and software tools necessary to enable exploration and investigation through the observable Universe, from planets orbiting other stars to the most distant galaxies in the Universe.

    To communicate the excitement of such world-class scientific research and technology development, NOAO has developed a nationally recognized Education and Public Outreach program. The main goals of the NOAO EPO program are to inspire young people to become explorers in science and research-based technology, and to reach out to groups and individuals who have been historically under-represented in the physics and astronomy science enterprise.

    The National Optical Astronomy Observatory is proud to be a US National Node in the International Year of Astronomy, 2009.

    About Our Observatories:
    Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO)

    Kitt Peak

    Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) has its headquarters in Tucson and operates the Mayall 4-meter, the 3.5-meter WIYN , the 2.1-meter and Coudé Feed, and the 0.9-meter telescopes on Kitt Peak Mountain, about 55 miles southwest of the city.

    Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO)

    NOAO Cerro Tolo

    The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is located in northern Chile. CTIO operates the 4-meter, 1.5-meter, 0.9-meter, and Curtis Schmidt telescopes at this site.

    The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC)

    Gemini North
    Gemini North

    The NOAO System Science Center (NSSC) at NOAO is the gateway for the U.S. astronomical community to the International Gemini Project: twin 8.1 meter telescopes in Hawaii and Chile that provide unprecendented coverage (northern and southern skies) and details of our universe.

    NOAO is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Science Foundation.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:04 pm on June 5, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , NOAO,   

    From NOAO: “NGC 6334 – A Mini Starburst Region?” 

    NOAO News

    Stars are known to form in dense clouds of gas and dust, but why do some regions show prodigious rates of star formation, while others barely produce any young stars at all? Many of the richest sites are found in distant galaxies: the name “starburst” is applied to them. Now, a team has identified a region in our own galaxy that may deserve this title, and help explain what leads to the furious production of new stars in a starburst region.

    burst
    Fig. 1: In this false-color image of NGC 6334, red represents the Herschel 70 micron IR image, green represents the IRAC 8 micron image and blue represents the NEWFIRM 1 micron J band. The region is about 70 light years wide. Image credit: S. Willis (CfA+ISU); ESA/Herschel; NASA/JPL-Caltech/ Spitzer; CTIO/NOAO/AURA/NSF.

    This region, NGC 6334 or informally named the Cat’s Paw Nebula, is rich in gas and dust. Long known to contain very massive young stars, NGC 6334 lies in the constellation Scorpius, toward the galactic center at a distance of about 5,500 light years, and practically in the plane of the Milky Way. It is the massive, hottest stars, classified by astronomers as type O, that cause the gas surrounding them to glow in the optical spectrum.

    Imaging done at the NOAO Blanco 4-meter telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile, combined with data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, have enabled the team, led by Sarah Willis (Iowa State University), to catalog much fainter young stars in NGC 6334 than has been done before. Figure 1 shows combined images from space and ground-based telescopes. In this false color composite, blue is assigned to a ground-based image, green to a longer-wavelength image from †he Spitzer Space Telescope, and red to an even longer-wavelength image from the Herschel Space Telescope. The ground-based data were taken with the NOAO Extremely Wide-Field Infrared Imager, or NEWFIRM. (Figure 2).

    See the full article here.

    About NOAO

    NOAO is the US national research & development center for ground-based night time astronomy. In particular, NOAO is enabling the development of the US optical-infrared (O/IR) System, an alliance of public and private observatories allied for excellence in scientific research, education and public outreach.

    Our core mission is to provide public access to qualified professional researchers via peer-review to forefront scientific capabilities on telescopes operated by NOAO as well as other telescopes throughout the O/IR System. Today, these telescopes range in aperture size from 2-m to 10-m. NOAO is participating in the development of telescopes with aperture sizes of 20-m and larger as well as a unique 8-m telescope that will make a 10-year movie of the Southern sky.

    In support of this mission, NOAO is engaged in programs to develop the next generation of telescopes, instruments, and software tools necessary to enable exploration and investigation through the observable Universe, from planets orbiting other stars to the most distant galaxies in the Universe.

    To communicate the excitement of such world-class scientific research and technology development, NOAO has developed a nationally recognized Education and Public Outreach program. The main goals of the NOAO EPO program are to inspire young people to become explorers in science and research-based technology, and to reach out to groups and individuals who have been historically under-represented in the physics and astronomy science enterprise.

    The National Optical Astronomy Observatory is proud to be a US National Node in the International Year of Astronomy, 2009.

    NOAO is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Science Foundation.

     
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