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  • richardmitnick 2:24 pm on November 23, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "One in five galaxies in the early universe could still be hidden behind cosmic dust", , , , , Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet] (DK),   

    From Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet] (DK) at The University of Copenhagen [Københavns Universitet] (DK): “One in five galaxies in the early universe could still be hidden behind cosmic dust” 

    Niels Bohr Institute bloc

    From Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet] (DK)

    at

    University of Copenhagen [Københavns Universitet] [UCPH] (DK)

    22 November 2021

    Pascal Oesch
    Associate Professor
    Niels Bohr Institute, Cosmic Dawn Center
    University of Copenhagen
    Mobile: + 45 21 78 98 24
    Pascal.oesch@unige.ch

    Michael Skov Jensen
    Journalist
    The Faculty of Science
    University of Copenhagen
    Mobile: + 45 93 56 58 97
    msj@science.ku.dk

    Astronomers at the University of Copenhagen’s Cosmic Dawn Center have discovered two previously invisible galaxies billions of light-years away. Their discovery suggests that up to one in five such distant galaxies remain hidden from our telescopes, camouflaged by cosmic dust. The new knowledge changes perceptions of our universe’s evolution since the Big Bang.

    1
    Photo of a galaxy Photo: Getty Images.

    Researchers at the University of Copenhagen’s Niels Bohr Institute have just discovered two previously invisible galaxies 29 billion light-years away from Earth. The two galaxies have been invisible to the optical lens of the Hubble Space Telescope, hidden behind a thick layer of cosmic dust that surrounds them.

    But with the help of the giant ALMA radio telescopes (Atacama Large Milimeter Array) in Chile’s Atacama Desert, which can capture radio waves emitted from the coldest, darkest depths of the universe, the two invisible galaxies suddenly appeared.

    European Southern Observatory/National Radio Astronomy Observatory(US)/National Astronomical Observatory of Japan(JP) ALMA Observatory (CL)

    “We were looking at a sample of very distant galaxies, which we already knew existed from the Hubble Space Telescope. And then we noticed that two of them had a neighbor that we didn’t expect to be there at all. As both of these neighboring galaxies are surrounded by dust, some of their light is blocked, making them invisible to Hubble,” explains Associate Professor Pascal Oesch of the Cosmic Dawn Center at the Niels Bohr Institute.

    The study has just been published in the scientific journal Nature.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Copenhagen campus

    The University of Copenhagen [Københavns Universitet] (DK)] is a public research university in Copenhagen, Denmark. Founded in 1479, the University of Copenhagen is the second-oldest university in Scandinavia, and ranks as one of the top universities in the Nordic countries and Europe.

    Its establishment sanctioned by Pope Sixtus IV, the University of Copenhagen was founded by Christian I of Denmark as a Catholic teaching institution with a predominantly theological focus. After 1537, it became a Lutheran seminary under King Christian III. Up until the 18th century, the university was primarily concerned with educating clergymen. Through various reforms in the 18th and 19th century, the University of Copenhagen was transformed into a modern, secular university, with science and the humanities replacing theology as the main subjects studied and taught.

    The University of Copenhagen consists of six different faculties, with teaching taking place in its four distinct campuses, all situated in Copenhagen. The university operates 36 different departments and 122 separate research centres in Copenhagen, as well as a number of museums and botanical gardens in and outside the Danish capital. The University of Copenhagen also owns and operates multiple research stations around Denmark, with two additional ones located in Greenland. Additionally, The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences and the public hospitals of the Capital and Zealand Region of Denmark constitute the conglomerate Copenhagen University Hospital.

    A number of prominent scientific theories and schools of thought are namesakes of the University of Copenhagen. The famous Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum mechanics was conceived at the Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet](DK), which is part of the university. The Department of Political Science birthed the Copenhagen School of Security Studies which is also named after the university. Others include the Copenhagen School of Theology and the Copenhagen School of Linguistics.

    As of October 2020, 39 Nobel laureates and 1 Turing Award laureate have been affiliated with the University of Copenhagen as students, alumni or faculty. Alumni include one president of the United Nations General Assembly and at least 24 prime ministers of Denmark. The University of Copenhagen fosters entrepreneurship, and between 5 and 6 start-ups are founded by students, alumni or faculty members each week.

    History

    The university is a member of the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU), along with University of Cambridge (UK), Yale University (US), The Australian National University (AU), and University of California, Berkeley(US), amongst others. The 2016 Academic Ranking of World Universities ranks the University of Copenhagen as the best university in Scandinavia and 30th in the world, the 2016-2017 Times Higher Education World University Rankings as 120th in the world, and the 2016-2017 QS World University Rankings as 68th in the world. The university has had 9 alumni become Nobel laureates and has produced one Turing Award recipient.

    The University of Copenhagen was founded in 1479 and is the oldest university in Denmark. In 1474, Christian I of Denmark journeyed to Rome to visit Pope Sixtus IV, whom Christian I hoped to persuade into issuing a papal bull permitting the establishment of university in Denmark. Christian I failed to persuade the pope to issue the bull however and the king returned to Denmark the same year empty-handed. In 1475 Christian I’s wife Dorothea of Brandenburg Queen of Denmark made the same journey to Rome as her husband did a year before. Unlike Christian I Dorothea managed to persuade Pope Sixtus IV into issuing the papal bull. On the 19th of June, 1475 Pope Sixtus IV issued an official papal bull permitting the establishment of what was to become the University of Copenhagen.

    On the 4th of October, 1478 Christian I of Denmark issued a royal decree by which he officially established the University of Copenhagen. In this decree Christian I set down the rules and laws governing the university. The royal decree elected magistar Peder Albertsen as vice chancellor of the university and the task was his to employ various learned scholars at the new university and thereby establish its first four faculties: theology; law; medicine; and philosophy. The royal decree made the University of Copenhagen enjoy royal patronage from its very beginning. Furthermore, the university was explicitly established as an autonomous institution giving it a great degree of juridical freedom. As such the University of Copenhagen was to be administered without royal interference and it was not subject to the usual laws governing the Danish people.

    The University of Copenhagen was closed by the Church in 1531 to stop the spread of Protestantism and re-established in 1537 by King Christian III after the Lutheran Reformation and transformed into an evangelical-Lutheran seminary. Between 1675 and 1788 the university introduced the concept of degree examinations. An examination for theology was added in 1675 followed by law in 1736. By 1788 all faculties required an examination before they would issue a degree.

    In 1807 the British Bombardment of Copenhagen destroyed most of the university’s buildings. By 1836 however the new main building of the university was inaugurated amid extensive building that continued until the end of the century. The University Library (now a part of the Royal Library); the Zoological Museum; the Geological Museum; the Botanic Garden with greenhouses; and the Technical College were also established during this period.

    Between 1842 and 1850 the faculties at the university were restructured. Starting in 1842 the University Faculty of Medicine and the Academy of Surgeons merged to form the Faculty of Medical Science while in 1848 the Faculty of Law was reorganised and became the Faculty of Jurisprudence and Political Science. In 1850 the Faculty of Mathematics and Science was separated from the Faculty of Philosophy. In 1845 and 1862 Copenhagen co-hosted nordic student meetings with Lund University [Lunds universitet] (SE).

    The first female student was enrolled at the university in 1877. The university underwent explosive growth between 1960 and 1980. The number of students rose from around 6,000 in 1960 to about 26,000 in 1980 with a correspondingly large growth in the number of employees. Buildings built during this time period include the new Zoological Museum; the Hans Christian Ørsted and August Krogh Institutes; the campus centre on Amager Island; and the Panum Institute.

    The new university statute instituted in 1970 involved democratisation of the management of the university. It was modified in 1973 and subsequently applied to all higher education institutions in Denmark. The democratisation was later reversed with the 2003 university reforms. Further change in the structure of the university from 1990 to 1993 made a Bachelor’s degree programme mandatory in virtually all subjects.

    Also in 1993 the law departments broke off from the Faculty of Social Sciences to form a separate Faculty of Law. In 1994 the University of Copenhagen designated environmental studies; north–south relations; and biotechnology as areas of special priority according to its new long-term plan. Starting in 1996 and continuing to the present the university planned new buildings including for the University of Copenhagen Faculty of Humanities at Amager (Ørestaden) along with a Biotechnology Centre. By 1999 the student population had grown to exceed 35,000 resulting in the university appointing additional professors and other personnel.

    In 2003 the revised Danish university law removed faculty staff and students from the university decision process creating a top-down control structure that has been described as absolute monarchy since leaders are granted extensive powers while being appointed exclusively by higher levels in the organization.

    In 2005 the Center for Health and Society (Center for Sundhed og Samfund – CSS) opened in central Copenhagen housing the Faculty of Social Sciences and Institute of Public Health which until then had been located in various places throughout the city. In May 2006 the university announced further plans to leave many of its old buildings in the inner city of Copenhagen- an area that has been home to the university for more than 500 years. The purpose of this has been to gather the university’s many departments and faculties on three larger campuses in order to create a bigger more concentrated and modern student environment with better teaching facilities as well as to save money on rent and maintenance of the old buildings. The concentration of facilities on larger campuses also allows for more inter-disciplinary cooperation. For example the Departments of Political Science and Sociology are now located in the same facilities at CSS and can pool resources more easily.

    In January 2007 the University of Copenhagen merged with the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University and the Danish University of Pharmaceutical Science. The two universities were converted into faculties under the University of Copenhagen and were renamed as the Faculty of Life Sciences and the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences. In January 2012 the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the veterinary third of the Faculty of Life Sciences merged with the Faculty of Health Sciences forming the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences and the other two thirds of the Faculty of Life Sciences were merged into the Faculty of Science.

    Cooperative agreements with other universities

    The university cooperates with universities around the world. In January 2006, the University of Copenhagen entered into a partnership of ten top universities, along with the Australian National University (AU), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich [ETH Zürich] [Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich](CH), The National University of Singapore [Universiti Nasional Singapura] (SG), Peking University [北京大学](CN), University of California Berkeley (US), University of Cambridge (UK), University of Oxford (UK), University of Tokyo {東京大学](JP) and Yale University (US). The partnership is referred to as the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU).

    The Department of Scandinavian Studies and Linguistics at University of Copenhagen signed a cooperation agreement with the Danish Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2009.

    Niels Bohr Institute Campus

    Niels Bohr Institutet (DK) is a research institute of the Københavns Universitet [UCPH] (DK). The research of the institute spans astronomy, geophysics, nanotechnology, particle physics, quantum mechanics and biophysics.

    The Institute was founded in 1921, as the Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Københavns Universitet [UCPH] (DK), by the Danish theoretical physicist Niels Bohr, who had been on the staff of the University of Copenhagen since 1914, and who had been lobbying for its creation since his appointment as professor in 1916. On the 80th anniversary of Niels Bohr’s birth – October 7, 1965 – the Institute officially became The Niels Bohr Institutet (DK). Much of its original funding came from the charitable foundation of the Carlsberg brewery, and later from the Rockefeller Foundation.

    During the 1920s, and 1930s, the Institute was the center of the developing disciplines of atomic physics and quantum physics. Physicists from across Europe (and sometimes further abroad) often visited the Institute to confer with Bohr on new theories and discoveries. The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics is named after work done at the Institute during this time.

    On January 1, 1993 the institute was fused with the Astronomic Observatory, the Ørsted Laboratory and the Geophysical Institute. The new resulting institute retained the name Niels Bohr Institutet (DK)).

     
  • richardmitnick 11:07 am on July 24, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , In the vicinity of black holes space is so warped that even light rays may curve around them several times. This phenomenon may enable us to see multiple versions of the same thing., Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet] (DK)   

    From Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet] (DK): “Danish Student solves how the Universe is reflected near black holes” 

    Niels Bohr Institute bloc

    From Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet] (DK)

    at

    University of Copenhagen [Københavns Universitet] [UCPH] (DK)

    12 July 2021

    Albert Sneppen
    asneppen@gmail.com
    +45 2897 6434

    Astrophysics:In the vicinity of black holes space is so warped that even light rays may curve around them several times. This phenomenon may enable us to see multiple versions of the same thing. While this has been known for decades, only now do we have an exact, mathematical expression, thanks to Albert Sneppen, student at the Niels Bohr Institute. The result, which even is more useful in realistic black holes, has just been published in the journal Scientific Reports.

    1
    A disk of glowing gas swirls into the black hole “Gargantua” from the movie Interstellar. Because space curves around the black hole, it is possible to look round its far side and see the part of the gas disk that would otherwise be hidden by the hole. Our understanding of this mechanism has now been increased by Danish master’s student at NBI, Albert Sneppen (credit: interstellar.wiki/CC BY-NC License).

    You have probably heard of black holes — the marvelous lumps of gravity from which not even light can escape. You may also have heard that space itself and even time behave oddly near black holes; space is warped.

    In the vicinity of a black hole, space curves so much that light rays are deflected, and very nearby light can be deflected so much that it travels several times around the black hole. Hence, when we observe a distant background galaxy (or some other celestial body), we may be lucky to see the same image of the galaxy multiple times, albeit more and more distorted.

    Galaxies in multiple versions

    The mechanism is shown on the figure below: A distant galaxy shines in all directions — some of its light comes close to the black hole and is lightly deflected; some light comes even closer and circumvolves the hole a single time before escaping down to us, and so on. Looking near the black hole, we see more and more versions of the same galaxy, the closer to the edge of the hole we are looking.

    3
    Light circling black hole side
    Light from the background galaxy circles a black hole an increasing number of times, the closer it passes the hole, and we therefore see the same galaxy in several directions. Credit: Peter Laursen.

    How much closer to the black hole do you have to look from one image to see the next image? The result has been known for over 40 years, and is some 500 times (for the math aficionados, it is more accurately the “exponential function of two pi”, written e^2π).

    Calculating this is so complicated that, until recently, we had not yet developed a mathematical and physical intuition as to why it happens to be this exact factor. But using some clever, mathematical tricks, master’s student Albert Sneppen from the Cosmic Dawn Center — a basic research center under both the Niels Bohr Institute and DTU Space — has now succeeded in proving why.

    “There is something fantastically beautiful in now understanding why the images repeat themselves in such an elegant way. On top of that, it provides new opportunities to test our understanding of gravity and black holes,” Albert Sneppen clarifies.

    Proving something mathematically is not only satisfying in itself; indeed, it brings us closer to an understanding of this marvelous phenomenon. The factor “500” follows directly from how black holes and gravity work, so the repetitions of the images now become a way to examine and test gravity.

    Spinning black holes

    As a completely new feature, Sneppen’s method can also be generalized to apply not only to “trivial” black holes, but also to black holes that rotate. Which, in fact, they all do.

    4
    The situation seen “face-on”, i.e. how we would actually observe it from Earth. The extra images of the galaxy become increasingly squeezed and distorted, the closer we look at the black hole. Credit: Peter Laursen.

    It turns out that when the it rotates really fast, you no longer have to get closer to the black hole by a factor 500, but significantly less. In fact, each image is now only 50, or 5, or even down to just 2 times closer to the edge of the black hole”, explains Albert Sneppen.

    Having to look 500 times closer to the black hole for each new image, means that the images are quickly “squeezed” into one annular image, as seen in the figure on the right. In practice, the many images will be difficult to observe. But when black holes rotate, there is more room for the “extra” images, so we can hope to confirm the theory observationally in a not-too-distant future. In this way, we can learn about not just black holes, but also the galaxies behind them:

    The travel time of the light increases, the more times it has to go around the black hole, so the images become increasingly “delayed”. If, for example, a star explodes as a supernova in a background galaxy, one would be able to see this explosion again and again.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Stem Education Coalition

    Niels Bohr Institute Campus

    Niels Bohr Institutet (DK) is a research institute of the Københavns Universitet [UCPH] (DK). The research of the institute spans astronomy, geophysics, nanotechnology, particle physics, quantum mechanics and biophysics.

    The Institute was founded in 1921, as the Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Københavns Universitet [UCPH] (DK), by the Danish theoretical physicist Niels Bohr, who had been on the staff of the University of Copenhagen since 1914, and who had been lobbying for its creation since his appointment as professor in 1916. On the 80th anniversary of Niels Bohr’s birth – October 7, 1965 – the Institute officially became The Niels Bohr Institutet (DK). Much of its original funding came from the charitable foundation of the Carlsberg brewery, and later from the Rockefeller Foundation.

    During the 1920s, and 1930s, the Institute was the center of the developing disciplines of atomic physics and quantum physics. Physicists from across Europe (and sometimes further abroad) often visited the Institute to confer with Bohr on new theories and discoveries. The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics is named after work done at the Institute during this time.

    On January 1, 1993 the institute was fused with the Astronomic Observatory, the Ørsted Laboratory and the Geophysical Institute. The new resulting institute retained the name Niels Bohr Institutet (DK)).

    Københavns Universitet (UCPH) (DK) is the oldest university and research institution in Denmark. Founded in 1479 as a studium generale, it is the second oldest institution for higher education in Scandinavia after Uppsala University (1477). The university has 23,473 undergraduate students, 17,398 postgraduate students, 2,968 doctoral students and over 9,000 employees. The university has four campuses located in and around Copenhagen, with the headquarters located in central Copenhagen. Most courses are taught in Danish; however, many courses are also offered in English and a few in German. The university has several thousands of foreign students, about half of whom come from Nordic countries.

    The university is a member of the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU), along with University of Cambridge (UK), Yale University (US), The Australian National University (AU), and University of California-Berkeley (US), amongst others. The 2016 Academic Ranking of World Universities ranks the University of Copenhagen as the best university in Scandinavia and 30th in the world, the 2016-2017 Times Higher Education World University Rankings as 120th in the world, and the 2016-2017 QS World University Rankings as 68th in the world. The university has had 9 alumni become Nobel laureates and has produced one Turing Award recipient.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:24 pm on July 12, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Albert Sneppen, , , , , In the vicinity of black holes space is so warped that even light rays may curve around them several times., Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet] (DK)   

    From Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet] (DK): “Danish Student solves how the Universe is reflected near black holes” 

    Niels Bohr Institute bloc

    From Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet] (DK)

    at

    University of Copenhagen [Københavns Universitet] [UCPH] (DK)

    12 July 2021

    Astrophysics: In the vicinity of black holes space is so warped that even light rays may curve around them several times. This phenomenon may enable us to see multiple versions of the same thing. While this has been known for decades, only now do we have an exact, mathematical expression, thanks to Albert Sneppen, student at the Niels Bohr Institute. The result, which even is more useful in realistic black holes, has just been published in the journal Scientific Reports.

    1
    A disk of glowing gas swirls into the black hole “Gargantua” from the movie Interstellar. Because space curves around the black hole, it is possible to look round its far side and see the part of the gas disk that would otherwise be hidden by the hole. Our understanding of this mechanism has now been increased by Danish master’s student at NBI, Albert Sneppen (credit: interstellar.wiki/CC BY-NC License).

    You have probably heard of black holes — the marvelous lumps of gravity from which not even light can escape. You may also have heard that space itself and even time behave oddly near black holes; space is warped.

    In the vicinity of a black hole, space curves so much that light rays are deflected, and very nearby light can be deflected so much that it travels several times around the black hole. Hence, when we observe a distant background galaxy (or some other celestial body), we may be lucky to see the same image of the galaxy multiple times, albeit more and more distorted.

    Galaxies in multiple versions

    The mechanism is shown on the figure below: A distant galaxy shines in all directions — some of its light comes close to the black hole and is lightly deflected; some light comes even closer and circumvolves the hole a single time before escaping down to us, and so on. Looking near the black hole, we see more and more versions of the same galaxy, the closer to the edge of the hole we are looking.

    2
    Light from the background galaxy circles a black hole an increasing number of times, the closer it passes the hole, and we therefore see the same galaxy in several directions (credit: Peter Laursen).

    How much closer to the black hole do you have to look from one image to see the next image? The result has been known for over 40 years, and is some 500 times (for the math aficionados, it is more accurately the “exponential function of two pi”, written e2π).

    Calculating this is so complicated that, until recently, we had not yet developed a mathematical and physical intuition as to why it happens to be this exact factor. But using some clever, mathematical tricks, master’s student Albert Sneppen from the Cosmic Dawn Center — a basic research center under both the Niels Bohr Institute and DTU Space — has now succeeded in proving why.

    “There is something fantastically beautiful in now understanding why the images repeat themselves in such an elegant way. On top of that, it provides new opportunities to test our understanding of gravity and black holes,” Albert Sneppen clarifies.

    Proving something mathematically is not only satisfying in itself; indeed, it brings us closer to an understanding of this marvelous phenomenon. The factor “500” follows directly from how black holes and gravity work, so the repetitions of the images now become a way to examine and test gravity.

    Spinning black holes

    As a completely new feature, Sneppen’s method can also be generalized to apply not only to “trivial” black holes, but also to black holes that rotate. Which, in fact, they all do.

    3
    The situation seen “face-on”, i.e. how we would actually observe it from Earth. The extra images of the galaxy become increasingly squeezed and distorted, the closer we look at the black hole (credit: Peter Laursen).

    “It turns out that when the it rotates really fast, you no longer have to get closer to the black hole by a factor 500, but significantly less. In fact, each image is now only 50, or 5, or even down to just 2 times closer to the edge of the black hole”, explains Albert Sneppen.

    Having to look 500 times closer to the black hole for each new image, means that the images are quickly “squeezed” into one annular image, as seen in the figure on the right. In practice, the many images will be difficult to observe. But when black holes rotate, there is more room for the “extra” images, so we can hope to confirm the theory observationally in a not-too-distant future. In this way, we can learn about not just black holes, but also the galaxies behind them:

    The travel time of the light increases, the more times it has to go around the black hole, so the images become increasingly “delayed”. If, for example, a star explodes as a supernova in a background galaxy, one would be able to see this explosion again and again.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Stem Education Coalition

    Niels Bohr Institute Campus

    Niels Bohr Institutet (DK) is a research institute of the Københavns Universitet [UCPH] (DK). The research of the institute spans astronomy, geophysics, nanotechnology, particle physics, quantum mechanics and biophysics.

    The Institute was founded in 1921, as the Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Københavns Universitet [UCPH] (DK), by the Danish theoretical physicist Niels Bohr, who had been on the staff of the University of Copenhagen since 1914, and who had been lobbying for its creation since his appointment as professor in 1916. On the 80th anniversary of Niels Bohr’s birth – October 7, 1965 – the Institute officially became The Niels Bohr Institutet (DK). Much of its original funding came from the charitable foundation of the Carlsberg brewery, and later from the Rockefeller Foundation.

    During the 1920s, and 1930s, the Institute was the center of the developing disciplines of atomic physics and quantum physics. Physicists from across Europe (and sometimes further abroad) often visited the Institute to confer with Bohr on new theories and discoveries. The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics is named after work done at the Institute during this time.

    On January 1, 1993 the institute was fused with the Astronomic Observatory, the Ørsted Laboratory and the Geophysical Institute. The new resulting institute retained the name Niels Bohr Institutet (DK)).

    Københavns Universitet (UCPH) (DK) is the oldest university and research institution in Denmark. Founded in 1479 as a studium generale, it is the second oldest institution for higher education in Scandinavia after Uppsala University (1477). The university has 23,473 undergraduate students, 17,398 postgraduate students, 2,968 doctoral students and over 9,000 employees. The university has four campuses located in and around Copenhagen, with the headquarters located in central Copenhagen. Most courses are taught in Danish; however, many courses are also offered in English and a few in German. The university has several thousands of foreign students, about half of whom come from Nordic countries.

    The university is a member of the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU), along with University of Cambridge (UK), Yale University (US), The Australian National University (AU), and University of California-Berkeley (US), amongst others. The 2016 Academic Ranking of World Universities ranks the University of Copenhagen as the best university in Scandinavia and 30th in the world, the 2016-2017 Times Higher Education World University Rankings as 120th in the world, and the 2016-2017 QS World University Rankings as 68th in the world. The university has had 9 alumni become Nobel laureates and has produced one Turing Award recipient.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:16 pm on June 18, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New invention keeps qubits of light stable at room temperature", Even though the new discovery is a breakthrough in quantum research it stills needs more work., Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet] (DK), Normally warm temperatures disturb the energy of each quantum bit of light., , QUANTUM RESEARCH-Researchers from University of Copenhagen have developed a new technique that keeps quantum bits of light stable at room temperature instead of only working at -270 degrees., Scientists developed a special coating for our memory chips that helps the quantum bits of light to be identical and stable while being in room temperature., Single photons or qubits of light as they are also called are extremely difficult to hack., University of Copenhagen [Københavns Universitet] [UCPH] (DK)   

    From Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet] (DK): “New invention keeps qubits of light stable at room temperature” 

    Niels Bohr Institute bloc

    From Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet] (DK)

    at

    University of Copenhagen [Københavns Universitet] [UCPH] (DK)

    17 June 2021

    Eugene Simon Polzik, Professor
    The Niels Bohr Institute
    University of Copenhagen
    +45 23 38 20 45
    polzik@nbi.ku.dk

    Ida Eriksen, Journalist
    Faculty of Science
    University of Copenhagen
    +4593516002
    ier@science.ku.dk

    QUANTUM RESEARCH-Researchers from University of Copenhagen have developed a new technique that keeps quantum bits of light stable at room temperature instead of only working at -270 degrees. Their discovery saves power and money and is a breakthrough in quantum research.

    1
    Photo: Eugene Simon Polzik.

    As almost all our private information is digitalized, it is increasingly important that we find ways to protect our data and ourselves from being hacked. Quantum Cryptography is the researchers’ answer to this problem, and more specifically a certain kind of qubit – consisting of single photons: particles of light.

    Single photons or qubits of light as they are also called are extremely difficult to hack. However, in order for these qubits of light to be stable and work properly they need to be stored at temperatures close to absolute zero – that is minus 270 C – something that requires huge amounts of power and resources.

    Yet in a recently published study [Nature Communications], researchers from University of Copenhagen, demonstrate a new way to store these qubits at room temperature for a hundred times longer than ever shown before.

    “We have developed a special coating for our memory chips that helps the quantum bits of light to be identical and stable while being in room temperature. In addition, our new method enables us to store the qubits for a much longer time, which is milliseconds instead of microseconds – something that has not been possible before. We are really excited about it,” says Eugene Simon Polzik, professor in quantum optics at the Niels Bohr Institute.

    The special coating of the memory chips makes it much easier to store the qubits of light without big freezers, which are troublesome to operate and require a lot of power. Therefore, the new invention will be cheaper and more compatible with the demands of the industry in the future.

    “The advantage of storing these qubits at room temperature is that it does not require liquid helium or complex laser-systems for cooling. Also it is a much more simple technology that can be implemented more easily in a future quantum internet,” says Karsten Dideriksen, a UCPH-PhD on the project.

    2
    Photo of the memory chip, protected in a glasscell. Credit: Eugene Simon Polzik.

    A special coating keeps the qubits stable

    Normally warm temperatures disturb the energy of each quantum bit of light.

    “In our memory chips, thousands of atoms are flying around emitting photons also known as qubits of light. When the atoms are exposed to heat, they start moving faster and collide with one another and with the walls of the chip. This leads them to emit photons that are very different from each other. But we need them to be exactly the same in order to use them for safe communication in the future,” explains Eugene Polzik and adds:

    “That is why we have developed a method that protects the atomic memory with the special coating for the inside of the memory chips. The coating consists of paraffin that has a wax like structure and it works by softening the collision of the atoms, making the emitted photons or qubits identical and stable. Also we used special filters to make sure that only identical photons were extracted from the memory chips”.

    Even though the new discovery is a breakthrough in quantum research it stills needs more work.

    “Right now we produce the qubits of light at a low rate – one photon per second, while cooled systems can produce millions in the same amount of time. But we believe there are important advantages to this new technology and that we can overcome this challenge in time,” Eugene concludes.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Stem Education Coalition

    Niels Bohr Institute Campus

    Niels Bohr Institutet (DK) is a research institute of the Københavns Universitet [UCPH] (DK). The research of the institute spans astronomy, geophysics, nanotechnology, particle physics, quantum mechanics and biophysics.

    The Institute was founded in 1921, as the Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Københavns Universitet [UCPH] (DK), by the Danish theoretical physicist Niels Bohr, who had been on the staff of the University of Copenhagen since 1914, and who had been lobbying for its creation since his appointment as professor in 1916. On the 80th anniversary of Niels Bohr’s birth – October 7, 1965 – the Institute officially became The Niels Bohr Institutet (DK). Much of its original funding came from the charitable foundation of the Carlsberg brewery, and later from the Rockefeller Foundation.

    During the 1920s, and 1930s, the Institute was the center of the developing disciplines of atomic physics and quantum physics. Physicists from across Europe (and sometimes further abroad) often visited the Institute to confer with Bohr on new theories and discoveries. The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics is named after work done at the Institute during this time.

    On January 1, 1993 the institute was fused with the Astronomic Observatory, the Ørsted Laboratory and the Geophysical Institute. The new resulting institute retained the name Niels Bohr Institutet (DK)).

    Københavns Universitet (UCPH) (DK) is the oldest university and research institution in Denmark. Founded in 1479 as a studium generale, it is the second oldest institution for higher education in Scandinavia after Uppsala University [ Uppsala universitet] (SE) (1477). The university has 23,473 undergraduate students, 17,398 postgraduate students, 2,968 doctoral students and over 9,000 employees. The university has four campuses located in and around Copenhagen, with the headquarters located in central Copenhagen. Most courses are taught in Danish; however, many courses are also offered in English and a few in German. The university has several thousands of foreign students, about half of whom come from Nordic countries.

    The university is a member of the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU), along with University of Cambridge (UK), Yale University (US), The Australian National University (AU), and University of California-Berkeley (US), amongst others. The 2016 Academic Ranking of World Universities ranks the University of Copenhagen as the best university in Scandinavia and 30th in the world, the 2016-2017 Times Higher Education World University Rankings as 120th in the world, and the 2016-2017 QS World University Rankings as 68th in the world. The university has had 9 alumni become Nobel laureates and has produced one Turing Award recipient.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:42 am on June 7, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Basic research in physics leads to promising results for biology and medicine", , Are different types of dynamics elements in nature’s toolbox?, Basic research in oscillation is the starting point for the new results., , , DNA damage-what regulates it and can controlled oscillations help repair it?, Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet] (DK), P53 – the super-protein-which regulates other proteins in a cell-has attracted particular interest., , Synchronisation between coupled oscillations regulates the proteins in a cell.   

    From Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet] (DK): “Basic research in physics leads to promising results for biology and medicine” 

    Niels Bohr Institute bloc

    From Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet] (DK)

    at

    University of Copenhagen [Københavns Universitet] [UCPH] (DK)

    26 April 2021 [Just Now in social media.]

    Biocomplexity: Oscillations are a fundamental phenomenon in physics. But it is not always readily apparent why these oscillations occur in nature. Why the oscillations in the populations of fireflies, in the concentration of proteins in a cell, neurons in the brain or other fundamental phenomena, for example? Researchers at the Niels Bohr Institute, the University of Copenhagen have now shown that when oscillations are synchronised with each other, it is possible to regulate the presence of crucial proteins in cells, by regulating the oscillations of just one protein. The results show promising potential in biological and medicinal research, and have recently been published in the science journal Cell Systems.

    1
    Figure showing the strange attractor of the NF-kB network – i.e. the interactions between the proteins, ultimately controlling NF-kB – after the transition to chaotic dynamics. Here each point represents a combination of proteins at a specific point in time, and from the structure, it is evident that a point is never visited twice as time evolves – one of the observations found for chaotic dynamics.

    ”It’s not quite logical”, explains Mathias Heltberg, postdoctoral fellow at the Niels Bohr Institute, ”exactly why these conditions aren’t simply constant. There is something absolutely fundamental at stake in oscillations, which applies across a broad field of areas within biology and physics, and perhaps, most importantly in the combination of the two”.

    Basic research in oscillation is the starting point for the new results.

    Oscillations occur in all shapes and sizes, from proteins in a cell to the rhythms of a day or a month. This study builds on research going all the way back to the 1980’s, when Mogens Høgh Jensen, Professor at the Niels Bohr Institute, collaborated with Professor Leo Kadanoff. Leo Kadanoff was a pioneer in statistical physics and dynamic systems. He recognised, already back at the start of the millennium, that there must exist a potential within oscillation systems, because there were so many different systems that oscillate.

    P53 – the super-protein-which regulates other proteins in a cell-has attracted particular interest.

    Professor Mogens Høgh Jensen and postdoctoral fellow Mathias Heltberg have long worked with the protein P53, whose occurrence oscillates over a period of about five hours. P53 is the most well- described protein in cells because it regulates a series of other proteins that are important for wound healing, DNA damage and the development of cancer. The oscillations in the amounts and presence of P53 are therefore, in many ways, the key to understanding how P53 regulates the other proteins in the cell.

    Synchronisation between coupled oscillations regulates the proteins in a cell.

    The previous research on oscillation, which forms the basis for the new results, focused on so-called coupled oscillations: If one starts an oscillation with one frequency and combine it with an oscillation at another frequency then a synchronisation occurs. This is the principal that the researchers have worked from, in an effort to understand synchronisation as an inherent element in the functioning of the biological system, so that one can gain control and regulate oscillations, in particular in relation to developments in medical research across a wide range of fields.

    Are different types of dynamics elements in nature’s toolbox?

    Taking normal oscillations as a starting point, it is possible by combing just two systems to arrive at a multitude of different types of dynamics, including chaos. This fact is of special interest to physicists. “It’s actually quite impressive that if you combine to oscillations and if you do so at one coupling strength, then they synchronise and the result is a tightly controlled system. If, on the other hand, you use a different coupling strength it can become chaotic and create an extremely disorderly system containing a spectrum of amplitudes” says Mathias Heltberg. The researchers hope to demonstrate how the cells can benefit from the fact that many varied types of dynamics can occur, and potentially become different tools in the cell’s toolbox, and eventually helping to create the perfect regulation.

    DNA damage-what regulates it and can controlled oscillations help repair it?

    The researchers are currently trying to define how the protein networks are connected by examining the periods that P53 oscillates within, for example. ”It is a fundamental new understanding that one could say goes from physics over to biology. The basic principal of oscillation and how oscillations affect each other would appear to be transmissible to biology, so that we perhaps can create ideal conditions for the cellular reparation of DNA damage, or other biological phenomena, that can later be applied in medicinal and biological research”, clarifies Mathias Heltberg.

    ”This is why we have taken physics as our starting point, but kept a watchful eye on the implications for biology”, Mathias Heltberg continues. ”In physics, we basically describe how dynamic systems evolve over time, and illustrate this through mathematics. We can use this in biology; it allows us to regulate the way in which we control, for example, the amount of proteins in a cell to achieve the best result”.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Stem Education Coalition

    Niels Bohr Institute Campus

    Niels Bohr Institutet (DK) is a research institute of the Københavns Universitet [UCPH] (DK). The research of the institute spans astronomy, geophysics, nanotechnology, particle physics, quantum mechanics and biophysics.

    The Institute was founded in 1921, as the Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Københavns Universitet [UCPH] (DK), by the Danish theoretical physicist Niels Bohr, who had been on the staff of the University of Copenhagen since 1914, and who had been lobbying for its creation since his appointment as professor in 1916. On the 80th anniversary of Niels Bohr’s birth – October 7, 1965 – the Institute officially became The Niels Bohr Institutet (DK). Much of its original funding came from the charitable foundation of the Carlsberg brewery, and later from the Rockefeller Foundation.

    During the 1920s, and 1930s, the Institute was the center of the developing disciplines of atomic physics and quantum physics. Physicists from across Europe (and sometimes further abroad) often visited the Institute to confer with Bohr on new theories and discoveries. The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics is named after work done at the Institute during this time.

    On January 1, 1993 the institute was fused with the Astronomic Observatory, the Ørsted Laboratory and the Geophysical Institute. The new resulting institute retained the name Niels Bohr Institutet (DK)).

    Københavns Universitet (UCPH) (DK) is the oldest university and research institution in Denmark. Founded in 1479 as a studium generale, it is the second oldest institution for higher education in Scandinavia after Uppsala University (1477). The university has 23,473 undergraduate students, 17,398 postgraduate students, 2,968 doctoral students and over 9,000 employees. The university has four campuses located in and around Copenhagen, with the headquarters located in central Copenhagen. Most courses are taught in Danish; however, many courses are also offered in English and a few in German. The university has several thousands of foreign students, about half of whom come from Nordic countries.

    The university is a member of the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU), along with University of Cambridge (UK), Yale University, The Australian National University (AU), and UC Berkeley, amongst others. The 2016 Academic Ranking of World Universities ranks the University of Copenhagen as the best university in Scandinavia and 30th in the world, the 2016-2017 Times Higher Education World University Rankings as 120th in the world, and the 2016-2017 QS World University Rankings as 68th in the world. The university has had 9 alumni become Nobel laureates and has produced one Turing Award recipient.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:44 pm on May 21, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Study reveals new details on what happened in the first microsecond of Big Bang", About 14 billion years ago our universe changed from being a lot hotter and denser to expanding radically – a process that scientists have named "The Big Bang"., , , , First the plasma that consisted of quarks and gluons was separated by the hot expansion of the universe. Then the pieces of quark reformed into so-called hadrons., From fluent and smooth to the strong building blocks of life., Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet] (DK), , , , The details of how it all happened are still unknown., The Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) was present in the first 0.000001 second of Big Bang and thereafter it disappeared because of the expansion.   

    From Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet] (DK): “Study reveals new details on what happened in the first microsecond of Big Bang” 

    Niels Bohr Institute bloc

    From Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet] (DK)

    at

    University of Copenhagen [Københavns Universitet] [UCPH] (DK)

    21 May 2021

    You Zhou
    Associate Professor
    Niels Bohr Institute
    University of Copenhagen
    +45 41 86 02 05
    you.zhou@nbi.ku.dk

    Ida Eriksen
    Journalist
    The Faculty of Science
    University of Copenhagen
    +45 93 51 60 02
    ier@science.ku.dk

    1
    Illustration of Big Bang. Credit: Getty Images.[False picture]

    About 14 billion years ago our universe changed from being a lot hotter and denser to expanding radically – a process that scientists have named “The Big Bang”.

    And even though we know that this fast expansion created particles, atoms, stars, galaxies and life as we know it today, the details of how it all happened are still unknown.

    Now a new study [Physics Letters B] performed by researchers from University of Copenhagen reveals insights on how it all began.

    “We have studied a substance called Quark-Gluon Plasma that was the only matter, which existed during the first microsecond of Big Bang. Our results tell us a unique story of how the plasma evolved in the early stage of the universe,” explains You Zhou, Associate Professor at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen.

    “First the plasma that consisted of quarks and gluons was separated by the hot expansion of the universe. Then the pieces of quark reformed into so-called hadrons. A hadron with three quarks makes a proton, which is part of atomic cores. These cores are the building blocks that constitutes earth, ourselves and the universe that surrounds us,” he adds.

    From fluent and smooth to the strong building blocks of life.

    The Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) was present in the first 0.000001 second of Big Bang and thereafter it disappeared because of the expansion. But by using the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, researchers were able to recreate this first matter in history and trace back what happened to it.

    “The collider smashes together ions from the plasma with great velocity – almost like the speed of light. This makes us able to see how the QGP evolved from being its own matter to the cores in atoms and the building blocks of life,” says You Zhou.

    “In addition to using the Large Hadron Collider, the researches also developed an algorithm that is able to analyze the collective expansion of more produced particles at once, than ever possible before. Their results show that the QGP used to be a fluent liquid form and that it distinguishes itself from other matters by constantly changing its shape over time.

    “For a long time researchers thought that the plasma was a form of gas, but our analysis confirm the latest milestone measurement, where the Hadron Collider showed that QGP was fluent and had a smooth soft texture like water. The new details we provide is that the plasma has changed its shape over time, which is quite surprising and different from any other matter we know and what we would have expected,” says You Zhou.

    Iconic view of the European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH) (EU) [CERN] ATLAS detector

    European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH) (EU) [CERN] CMS

    3
    The illustration shows the expansion of The Universe – Big Bang – that consisted of a soup of Quark-Gluon plasma in the first microsecond (see left side). After that, protons and neutrons were formed and later atoms, stars and galaxies (see the right side). Illustration: M. WEISS/ National Aeronautics Space Agency (US)/Chandra X-ray Center (US).

    One step closer to the truth about Big Bang

    Even though this might seem like a small detail, it brings us one step closer to solving the puzzle of the Big Bang and how the universe developed in the first microsecond, he elaborates.

    “Every discovery is a brick that improves our chances of finding out the truth about Big Bang. It has taken us about 20 years to find out that the Quark-Gluon Plasma was fluent before it changed into hadrons and the building blocks of life. Therefore our new knowledge on the ever changing behavior of the plasma, is a major breakthrough for us,” You Zhou concludes.

    ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
    QGP has been the subject of much work at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider [RHIC] at DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (US).

    [caption id="attachment_31050" align="alignnone" width="474"] DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (US)/Relative Heavy Ion Collider (US).

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Stem Education Coalition

    Niels Bohr Institute Campus

    Niels Bohr Institutet (DK) is a research institute of the Københavns Universitet [UCPH] (DK). The research of the institute spans astronomy, geophysics, nanotechnology, particle physics, quantum mechanics and biophysics.

    The Institute was founded in 1921, as the Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Københavns Universitet [UCPH] (DK), by the Danish theoretical physicist Niels Bohr, who had been on the staff of the University of Copenhagen since 1914, and who had been lobbying for its creation since his appointment as professor in 1916. On the 80th anniversary of Niels Bohr’s birth – October 7, 1965 – the Institute officially became The Niels Bohr Institutet (DK). Much of its original funding came from the charitable foundation of the Carlsberg brewery, and later from the Rockefeller Foundation.

    During the 1920s, and 1930s, the Institute was the center of the developing disciplines of atomic physics and quantum physics. Physicists from across Europe (and sometimes further abroad) often visited the Institute to confer with Bohr on new theories and discoveries. The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics is named after work done at the Institute during this time.

    On January 1, 1993 the institute was fused with the Astronomic Observatory, the Ørsted Laboratory and the Geophysical Institute. The new resulting institute retained the name Niels Bohr Institutet (DK)).

    Københavns Universitet (UCPH) (DK) is the oldest university and research institution in Denmark. Founded in 1479 as a studium generale, it is the second oldest institution for higher education in Scandinavia after Uppsala University (1477). The university has 23,473 undergraduate students, 17,398 postgraduate students, 2,968 doctoral students and over 9,000 employees. The university has four campuses located in and around Copenhagen, with the headquarters located in central Copenhagen. Most courses are taught in Danish; however, many courses are also offered in English and a few in German. The university has several thousands of foreign students, about half of whom come from Nordic countries.

    The university is a member of the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU), along with University of Cambridge (UK), Yale University, The Australian National University (AU), and UC Berkeley, amongst others. The 2016 Academic Ranking of World Universities ranks the University of Copenhagen as the best university in Scandinavia and 30th in the world, the 2016-2017 Times Higher Education World University Rankings as 120th in the world, and the 2016-2017 QS World University Rankings as 68th in the world. The university has had 9 alumni become Nobel laureates and has produced one Turing Award recipient.

     
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