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  • richardmitnick 1:41 pm on May 13, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Detector Technology Developed at Berkeley Lab Yields Unprecedented 3D Images Heralding Far Larger Application to Study Neutrinos", , , , , FNAL DUNE LBNF (US), Neutrinos,   

    From DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (US): “Detector Technology Developed at Berkeley Lab Yields Unprecedented 3D Images Heralding Far Larger Application to Study Neutrinos” 

    From DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (US)

    May 13, 2021

    Media Relations
    media@lbl.gov
    (510) 486-5183

    Bill Schulz

    1
    A LArPix sensor with 4900 pixels under testing at Berkeley Lab before shipment to the University of Bern [Universität Bern](CH) for installation. Credit: Thor Swift, Berkeley Lab.

    An experiment to capture unprecedented 3D images of the trajectories of charged particles has been demonstrated using cosmic rays as they strike and travel through a cryostat filled with a ton of liquid argon. The results confirm the capabilities of a novel detector technology for particle physics developed by researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) in collaboration with several university and industrial partners.

    Groundbreaking in scale for this new technology, the experiment at University of Bern [Universität Bern](CH) – directed remotely because of the COVID-19 pandemic – demonstrates readiness for a far larger and more ambitious project: the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory DUNE/LBNF experiment (US), said Berkeley Lab scientist and team leader Dan Dwyer.

    In just a few short years, the Berkeley Lab team has turned an ambitious concept called LArPix (liquid argon pixels) into a reality, Dwyer said. “We have overcome challenges in noise, power consumption, cryogenic compatibility, and most recently scalability/reliability by transferring many aspects of this technology to industrial fabrication.”

    DUNE is a major new science facility being built by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to study the properties of subatomic neutrinos that will be fired off underground from an accelerator at DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) near Chicago, Dwyer explained. Neutrinos are extremely light particles that interact weakly with matter ­– something researchers would like to understand better in their quest to answer fundamental questions about the universe.

    Neutrinos produced by the Fermilab accelerator will pass through a near detector, instrumented with LArPix, on the Fermilab site before moving on to complete their 700-mile journey at a deep underground mine in South Dakota.

    LArPix is a leap forward in how to detect and record signals in liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs), a technology of choice for future neutrino and dark matter experiments, Dwyer explained.

    In a LArTPC, energetic subatomic particles enter the chamber and liberate or ionize electrons in the liquid argon. A strong, externally applied electric field drifts the electrons toward an anode side of the detector chamber where typically a plane of wires acts as sensitive antennae to read these signals and create stereoscopic 2D images of the event. But this technology is not enough to cope with the intensity and complexity of the neutrino events to be read for the DUNE Near Detector, Dwyer said.

    “So, that’s where we at Berkeley Lab come in with this true 3D pixel readout provided by LArPix,” Dwyer said. “It will allow us to image DUNE neutrinos with high fidelity in a very busy environment.“

    Using LArPix, he explained, the planes of wires are replaced with arrays of metallic pixels fabricated on standard electronic circuit boards, which can be readily manufactured. The low-power electronics, he said, are compatible with the demands of the cryogenic state of the liquid argon medium.

    This latest achievement would not have been possible without the strong partnership with the ArgonCube Collaboration, a team of scientists focused on advancing LArTPC technology, centered at the University of Bern. For the Bern experiments, the researchers used a detector chamber with 80,000 pixels submerged in a ton of liquid argon at -330 degrees Fahrenheit. The system, he said, provided high fidelity, true 3D-imaging of cosmic ray showers as they traveled through the detector.

    “This is a major milestone in the development of LArTPCs and the DUNE Near Detector,” said Michele Weber, Director of the Laboratory for High Energy Physics at the University of Bern who also serves as leader of the DUNE International Consortium responsible for building this detector.

    “It’s vastly more complicated than anything that’s ever been built for LArTPCs,” said Brooke Russell, a postdoctoral fellow at Berkeley Lab and member of the LArPix team. With 80,000 channels, she said, the LArPix run at Bern far surpassed the previous state-of-the-art 15,000 channel LArTPC. “The level of complexity going from wires to pixels grew exponentially,” she said.

    Partners from University of California at Berkeley (US), California Institute of Technology (US), Colorado State University (US), Rutgers University (US), University of California Davis (US), University of California Irvine (US), University of California Santa Barbara (US), University of Pennsylvania (US), and the University of Texas- Arlington (US) helped the researchers develop and test this much larger system.

    For DUNE, Dwyer said, the system must scale to more than 10 million pixels that will sit in some 300 tons of liquid argon. He said this is doable both because of the modular nature of the detector chambers as well as the ability to tile LArPix boards made up of thousands of individual pixel detectors.

    “This technology will enable the DUNE Near Detector to overcome signal pileup resulting from the high-intensity of the neutrino beam at the site,” Dwyer said. “It may also find use in the DUNE Far Detectors, other physics experiments, as well as non-physics applications,” he said.

    At the DUNE Far Detectors, scientists will measure how the quantum flavor of the neutrinos changes in transit from the near detector.

    By studying neutrinos, “we think we can learn something about the deeper mysteries of the universe – particularly such questions as why there’s more matter than antimatter in the universe,” Dwyer explained.

    For DUNE to succeed, particle physicists “needed a level of thinking outside the box when it comes to detector technology,” Russell said. “For any breakthroughs in experimental particle physics of course you need novel ideas,” she added. “But if your hardware can’t deliver then you simply can’t make the measurement.”

    This research is supported by the Department of Energy’s Office of Science, in part through the Office of Science Early Career Research Program.

    See the full article here .

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    LBNL campus


    Bringing Science Solutions to the World

    In the world of science, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) (US) is synonymous with “excellence.” Thirteen Nobel prizes are associated with Berkeley Lab. Seventy Lab scientists are members of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), one of the highest honors for a scientist in the United States. Thirteen of our scientists have won the National Medal of Science, our nation’s highest award for lifetime achievement in fields of scientific research. Eighteen of our engineers have been elected to the National Academy of Engineering, and three of our scientists have been elected into the Institute of Medicine. In addition, Berkeley Lab has trained thousands of university science and engineering students who are advancing technological innovations across the nation and around the world.

    Berkeley Lab is a member of the national laboratory system supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through its Office of Science. It is managed by the University of California(UC) and is charged with conducting unclassified research across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Located on a 202-acre site in the hills above the UC Berkeley campus that offers spectacular views of the San Francisco Bay, Berkeley Lab employs approximately 3,232 scientists, engineers and support staff. The Lab’s total costs for FY 2014 were $785 million. A recent study estimates the Laboratory’s overall economic impact through direct, indirect and induced spending on the nine counties that make up the San Francisco Bay Area to be nearly $700 million annually. The Lab was also responsible for creating 5,600 jobs locally and 12,000 nationally. The overall economic impact on the national economy is estimated at $1.6 billion a year. Technologies developed at Berkeley Lab have generated billions of dollars in revenues, and thousands of jobs. Savings as a result of Berkeley Lab developments in lighting and windows, and other energy-efficient technologies, have also been in the billions of dollars.

    Berkeley Lab was founded in 1931 by Ernest Orlando Lawrence, a University of California, Berkeley(US) physicist who won the 1939 Nobel Prize in physics for his invention of the cyclotron, a circular particle accelerator that opened the door to high-energy physics. It was Lawrence’s belief that scientific research is best done through teams of individuals with different fields of expertise, working together. His teamwork concept is a Berkeley Lab legacy that continues today.

    History

    1931–1941

    The laboratory was founded on August 26, 1931, by Ernest Lawrence, as the Radiation Laboratory of the University of California, Berkeley, associated with the Physics Department. It centered physics research around his new instrument, the cyclotron, a type of particle accelerator for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1939.

    LBNL 88 inch cyclotron.


    Throughout the 1930s, Lawrence pushed to create larger and larger machines for physics research, courting private philanthropists for funding. He was the first to develop a large team to build big projects to make discoveries in basic research. Eventually these machines grew too large to be held on the university grounds, and in 1940 the lab moved to its current site atop the hill above campus. Part of the team put together during this period includes two other young scientists who went on to establish large laboratories; J. Robert Oppenheimer founded DOE’s Los Alamos Laboratory(US), and Robert Wilson founded Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US).

    1942–1950

    Leslie Groves visited Lawrence’s Radiation Laboratory in late 1942 as he was organizing the Manhattan Project, meeting J. Robert Oppenheimer for the first time. Oppenheimer was tasked with organizing the nuclear bomb development effort and founded today’s Los Alamos National Laboratory to help keep the work secret. At the RadLab, Lawrence and his colleagues developed the technique of electromagnetic enrichment of uranium using their experience with cyclotrons. The “calutrons” (named after the University) became the basic unit of the massive Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Lawrence’s lab helped contribute to what have been judged to be the three most valuable technology developments of the war (the atomic bomb, proximity fuse, and radar). The cyclotron, whose construction was stalled during the war, was finished in November 1946. The Manhattan Project shut down two months later.

    1951–2018

    After the war, the Radiation Laboratory became one of the first laboratories to be incorporated into the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) (now Department of Energy(US). The most highly classified work remained at Los Alamos, but the RadLab remained involved. Edward Teller suggested setting up a second lab similar to Los Alamos to compete with their designs. This led to the creation of an offshoot of the RadLab (now the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory(US)) in 1952. Some of the RadLab’s work was transferred to the new lab, but some classified research continued at Berkeley Lab until the 1970s, when it became a laboratory dedicated only to unclassified scientific research.

    Shortly after the death of Lawrence in August 1958, the UC Radiation Laboratory (both branches) was renamed the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory. The Berkeley location became the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in 1971, although many continued to call it the RadLab. Gradually, another shortened form came into common usage, LBNL. Its formal name was amended to Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1995, when “National” was added to the names of all DOE labs. “Ernest Orlando” was later dropped to shorten the name. Today, the lab is commonly referred to as “Berkeley Lab”.

    The Alvarez Physics Memos are a set of informal working papers of the large group of physicists, engineers, computer programmers, and technicians led by Luis W. Alvarez from the early 1950s until his death in 1988. Over 1700 memos are available on-line, hosted by the Laboratory.

    The lab remains owned by the Department of Energy(US), with management from the University of California(US). Companies such as Intel were funding the lab’s research into computing chips.

    Science mission

    From the 1950s through the present, Berkeley Lab has maintained its status as a major international center for physics research, and has also diversified its research program into almost every realm of scientific investigation. Its mission is to solve the most pressing and profound scientific problems facing humanity, conduct basic research for a secure energy future, understand living systems to improve the environment, health, and energy supply, understand matter and energy in the universe, build and safely operate leading scientific facilities for the nation, and train the next generation of scientists and engineers.

    The Laboratory’s 20 scientific divisions are organized within six areas of research: Computing Sciences; Physical Sciences; Earth and Environmental Sciences; Biosciences; Energy Sciences; and Energy Technologies. Berkeley Lab has six main science thrusts: advancing integrated fundamental energy science; integrative biological and environmental system science; advanced computing for science impact; discovering the fundamental properties of matter and energy; accelerators for the future; and developing energy technology innovations for a sustainable future. It was Lawrence’s belief that scientific research is best done through teams of individuals with different fields of expertise, working together. His teamwork concept is a Berkeley Lab tradition that continues today.

    Berkeley Lab operates five major National User Facilities for the DOE Office of Science(US):

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a synchrotron light source with 41 beam lines providing ultraviolet, soft x-ray, and hard x-ray light to scientific experiments.

    LBNL/ALS


    The ALS is one of the world’s brightest sources of soft x-rays, which are used to characterize the electronic structure of matter and to reveal microscopic structures with elemental and chemical specificity. About 2,500 scientist-users carry out research at ALS every year. Berkeley Lab is proposing an upgrade of ALS which would increase the coherent flux of soft x-rays by two-three orders of magnitude.

    The Joint Genome Institute (JGI) supports genomic research in support of the DOE missions in alternative energy, global carbon cycling, and environmental management. The JGI’s partner laboratories are Berkeley Lab, Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL), DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory(US)(ORNL), DOE’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory(US) (PNNL), and the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology(US). The JGI’s central role is the development of a diversity of large-scale experimental and computational capabilities to link sequence to biological insights relevant to energy and environmental research. Approximately 1,200 scientist-users take advantage of JGI’s capabilities for their research every year.

    The LBNL Molecular Foundry(US) [above] is a multidisciplinary nanoscience research facility. Its seven research facilities focus on Imaging and Manipulation of Nanostructures; Nanofabrication; Theory of Nanostructured Materials; Inorganic Nanostructures; Biological Nanostructures; Organic and Macromolecular Synthesis; and Electron Microscopy. Approximately 700 scientist-users make use of these facilities in their research every year.

    The DOE’s NERSC National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center(US) is the scientific computing facility that provides large-scale computing for the DOE’s unclassified research programs. Its current systems provide over 3 billion computational hours annually. NERSC supports 6,000 scientific users from universities, national laboratories, and industry.

    National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    The Genepool system is a cluster dedicated to the DOE Joint Genome Institute’s computing needs. Denovo is a smaller test system for Genepool that is primarily used by NERSC staff to test new system configurations and software.

    PDSF is a networked distributed computing cluster designed primarily to meet the detector simulation and data analysis requirements of physics, astrophysics and nuclear science collaborations.

    Future:

    NERSC is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

    The DOE’s Energy Science Network(US) is a high-speed network infrastructure optimized for very large scientific data flows. ESNet provides connectivity for all major DOE sites and facilities, and the network transports roughly 35 petabytes of traffic each month.

    Berkeley Lab is the lead partner in the DOE’s Joint Bioenergy Institute(US) (JBEI), located in Emeryville, California. Other partners are the DOE’s Sandia National Laboratory(US), the University of California (UC) campuses of Berkeley and Davis, the Carnegie Institution for Science(US), and DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory(US) (LLNL). JBEI’s primary scientific mission is to advance the development of the next generation of biofuels – liquid fuels derived from the solar energy stored in plant biomass. JBEI is one of three new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Research Centers (BRCs).

    Berkeley Lab has a major role in two DOE Energy Innovation Hubs. The mission of the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) is to find a cost-effective method to produce fuels using only sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. The lead institution for JCAP is the California Institute of Technology(US) and Berkeley Lab is the second institutional center. The mission of the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) is to create next-generation battery technologies that will transform transportation and the electricity grid. DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US) leads JCESR and Berkeley Lab is a major partner.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:55 am on May 13, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Which neutrino is the heaviest?", , Neutrinos, ,   

    From Symmetry: “Which neutrino is the heaviest?” 

    Symmetry Mag

    From Symmetry

    05/13/21
    Scott Hershberger

    1
    Illustration by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Corinne Mucha.

    The question may seem simple, but physicists don’t yet know the answer. New measurements aim to change that.

    Neutrinos are the featherweights of the subatomic world. These extremely plentiful, rarely interacting particles are at least 500,000 times lighter than electrons. They are produced in the sun, in exploding stars, and in decay processes on Earth—even ones in your own body. But they interact so infrequently with other matter that you’d hardly know there are so many of them around.

    For decades physicists thought these ghostly particles were massless. But experiments revealed that neutrinos do have mass. In fact, there are three types of neutrinos and three different masses.

    Scientists have yet to measure the exact value of each of these masses. But even finding out which neutrino is the heaviest would be a huge leap in our understanding of both neutrinos and the physics that govern our universe. A lot rides on the answer to this puzzle, known as the “neutrino mass hierarchy” or “neutrino mass ordering.”

    Sun, sky and earth

    Neutrinos interact with matter as electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos or tau neutrinos, named after the partner particles they like to hang around with. And neutrinos can oscillate, meaning they shift between those three identities.

    The nuclear processes in the sun’s core generate a deluge of electron neutrinos, many of which turn into muon and tau neutrinos by the time they reach Earth. When high-energy particles strike Earth’s atmosphere, muon neutrinos are created; they may oscillate to electron or tau neutrinos before being detected.

    But the three types of neutrinos do not correspond directly to the three masses. Instead, there are three “neutrino mass states” numbered 1, 2 and 3, each with different likelihoods of interacting with matter as an electron neutrino, a muon neutrino or a tau neutrino.

    Knowing the rates at which neutrinos oscillate from one type to another allows scientists to make some inferences about the relationships between the three mass states. Careful measurements of solar neutrinos show that the second mass state is only slightly heavier than the first. Measurements of the oscillations of atmospheric and accelerator-made muon neutrinos indicate a large difference in mass between the third mass state and the other two.

    But so far scientists have been unable to determine whether mass state 3 is much heavier or much lighter than states 1 and 2.

    To distinguish between the “normal mass hierarchy” (the order 1, 2, 3) and the “inverted mass hierarchy” (3, 1, 2), researchers fire beams of neutrinos through hundreds of kilometers of solid rock in what are called “long-baseline” neutrino experiments.

    “When a neutrino is traveling, the electron neutrino part of it wants to interact with the electrons in the Earth, and the muon and tau neutrino parts are unaffected,” says Zoya Vallari, a postdoc at Caltech. “This extra impact affects how much oscillation will happen.”

    The current leading long-baseline experiments—the NOvA experiment in the United States and the T2K experiment in Japan—have helped refine scientists’ understanding of oscillation. But their measurements of the mass hierarchy so far remain inconclusive.

    A key puzzle piece

    Whether the third neutrino is the lightest or the heaviest carries massive implications (pun intended) for our understanding of these abundant particles. For instance, the source of neutrinos’ mass remains unknown. Determining if it is akin to the Higgs mechanism, which is responsible for other particles’ mass, depends in part on figuring out the hierarchy.

    Also, since neutrinos have no electric charge, they could theoretically be their own antimatter particles. Knowing the mass ordering will guide experiments that are testing this hypothesis, a gateway to deep questions about the entire universe.

    In pursuit of an answer to the neutrino hierarchy question, the NOvA experiment sends beams of neutrinos and antineutrinos about 500 miles from Fermilab in Illinois to a detector in Ash River, Minnesota. The T2K experiment sends them about 190 miles from J-PARC in Tokai, Japan, to a detector under Mount Ikeno.

    Scientists at the experiments compare the rate of neutrino oscillations to the rate of antineutrino oscillations. Any differences between them could help scientists figure out what’s going on with neutrino masses. It could also help them discern why matter won over antimatter in the early universe. We might owe our existence to neutrinos, but we can’t be sure yet.

    NOvA currently does not see a strong asymmetry between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations. The T2K experiment has reported tantalizing evidence that neutrinos may oscillate differently than antineutrinos. T2K is currently undergoing an upgrade, and NOvA will continue collecting data through the middle of the decade.

    Between the two possibilities, the inverted hierarchy would make several future experiments easier. “So if I could choose, I would choose the inverted hierarchy, but apparently it’s not up to me,” says Pedro Machado, a theorist at the US Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. “And without experimental results, theory doesn’t go forward.”

    For Vallari, too, the inverted hierarchy would be more “fun,” but “if I had to place a bet, I would do it on the normal hierarchy,” she says.

    An answer within reach

    Unlike many mysteries in particle physics, the neutrino mass hierarchy has a clear path toward resolution. The answer lies well within the capabilities of the next generation of experiments.

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment [ depiction above], an international experiment hosted by DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US) and scheduled to come online in the late 2020s, will send neutrinos on a 1300-kilometer journey from Illinois to South Dakota—60% farther than NOvA, providing more matter for the neutrinos to interact with. Both experiments receive support from the DOE Office of Science and other funding agencies.

    Such a long voyage will amplify the Earth’s influence on neutrino oscillations, enabling researchers to tease out the mass hierarchy, says Vallari, who is part of the DUNE and NOvA collaborations. In Japan, the planned Hyper-Kamiokande upgrade to the T2K experiment should also yield an answer within a few years of data collection.

    “I feel pretty confident in saying that in the early 2030s, we should have a definitive measurement of the mass hierarchy from at least one of the experiments,” Vallari says.

    Even then, we will know only the differences between the three neutrino masses—the overall magnitude of the masses will remain a mystery.

    See the full article here .


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    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 1:20 pm on May 5, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Rock transportation system is ready for excavation of DUNE caverns", , , , Neutrinos   

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US) and Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF: “Rock transportation system is ready for excavation of DUNE caverns” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US) , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research worldwide.

    Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF

    May 5, 2021
    Brianna Barbu

    The Fermilab-hosted international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment will shoot the world’s most powerful beam of neutrinos from the Department of Energy’s Fermilab in Illinois to detectors 800 miles (1,300 kilometers) away at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota. Data collected from this ambitious experiment will help scientists answer such lofty questions as how black holes form and why the universe itself exists.

    But in order to make this groundbreaking project happen, a lot of literal ground will have to be broken.

    Now, Fermilab contractors working on the construction of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility in South Dakota have successfully tested a system that will move almost 800,000 tons of rock over the course of three years to make room for DUNE’s massive underground detectors. The system will use a combination of refurbished mining hoists and a new conveyor belt system to bring rock up from the LBNF excavation area nearly a mile underground and send it to a former open mining pit three-quarters of a mile away in Lead, South Dakota.

    “LBNF is a long project, and that’s why we’re excited to start the excavation work for the detector caverns. We want to start building the detectors as soon as possible,” said Chris Mossey, Fermilab deputy director for LBNF/DUNE-US.

    1
    The conveyor belt taking the rocks from the crusher to the Open Cut passes close to the town of Lead, South Dakota. Image: Fermilab.

    LBNF encompasses all of the infrastructure that will support the DUNE collaboration, including caverns for four liquid-argon detector modules, each as tall as a four-story building and as long as a football field.

    The detector modules will be installed 4,850 feet (1,480 meters) underground — the depth made possible by Sanford Lab’s former life as a gold mine — to shield the experiment from cosmic rays.

    Excavated rock from the LBNF construction will go through underground chutes into skips — essentially giant buckets — that will be hoisted up Sanford Lab’s Ross Shaft to a rock crusher in the Ross Headframe, on the surface. After being crushed, the rock will be dumped into a giant bin. The bin will feed the rock onto the first of two underground conveyor belts that will take it out of the mountain, down the mountainside and to the huge Open Cut. The entire system is designed to move about 3,000 tons of rock per day.

    The hoists, first built in 1934, were recently upgraded with new digital controls to get them ready for LBNF construction. The conveyor belts start off following the same path as an old mine tramway through the mountain but take a different path down the side of the mountain to bring the rock to a new destination.

    “The new thing is that we’re taking rock to the Open Cut. When the Open Cut was being mined in the 1980s, the miners were doing the opposite, bringing rock from the Open Cut over to the mill system,” said Josh Willhite, the Fermilab Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility far-site conventional facilities design manager.

    2
    This graphic shows the route that the rock will follow from the LBNF/DUNE excavation to the Open Cut pit. Image: Fermilab.

    Two different conveyor belts will transport the rock 4,200 feet (1,280 meters) from the crusher to the Open Cut. The first, covering about 60% of the total distance, runs entirely underground. The second is mostly aboveground, at one point passing over a state highway. Parts of the second belt curve to accommodate the mountain terrain while minimizing the number of times the rock is transferred to a new belt so that fewer noise and dust controls are needed.

    The fact that the conveyor system, built by contractor Kiewit Alberici Joint Venture, is in a populated town was taken into account in the conveyor design: It has controls for dust and noise, and the conveyor operates only during weekdays (though the hoists will bring rock up the shaft more or less constantly during the excavation).

    As enormous as 800,000 tons sounds — it’s twice the weight of the Empire State Building — the rocks from the LBNF excavation will fill less than 1% of the Open Cut, which is 1,200 feet deep.

    The first step in commissioning the rock transportation system was a dry run to make sure all of its parts work and to break in the conveyor belts. Now, the system has successfully been tested with 1,600 tons of rock dug up during pre-excavation projects. It’s the culmination of eight years of work for Willhite and the far-site conventional facilities team.

    “We’re thrilled to say, ‘Hey, this step is complete, and it’s a big deal!’ And more importantly, it allows us to do the main construction,” Willhite said.

    Thyssen Mining, the company contracted to excavate the main LBNF caverns, started moving their equipment underground in April. Their first scheduled blast for the main excavation will be in late June. It will take about three years to excavate the caverns before construction can begin on cryogenics for the neutrino detectors.

    Mossey said the investment that the Department of Energy is putting into constructing a huge facility 800 miles away from Fermilab speaks to the fact that the impact of LBNF/DUNE will go far beyond the lab hosting it.

    “This world-class facility will enable the world’s neutrino science community to research some of the fundamental unanswered questions in physics,” he said. “It’s a privilege to be a part of the team effort that is going to have that type of reach and impact.”

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility and Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment at Fermilab is supported by the DOE Office of Science.

    Fermilab is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit energy.gov/science.

    See the full article here.


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    About us: The Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF in Lead, South Dakota, advances our understanding of the universe by providing laboratory space deep underground, where sensitive physics experiments can be shielded from cosmic radiation. Researchers at the Sanford Lab explore some of the most challenging questions facing 21st century physics, such as the origin of matter, the nature of dark matter and the properties of neutrinos. The facility also hosts experiments in other disciplines—including geology, biology and engineering.

    The Sanford Lab is located at the former Homestake gold mine, which was a physics landmark long before being converted into a dedicated science facility. Nuclear chemist Ray Davis earned a share of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2002 for a solar neutrino experiment he installed 4,850 feet underground in the mine.

    Homestake closed in 2003, but the company donated the property to South Dakota in 2006 for use as an underground laboratory. That same year, philanthropist T. Denny Sanford donated $70 million to the project. The South Dakota Legislature also created the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to operate the lab. The state Legislature has committed more than $40 million in state funds to the project, and South Dakota also obtained a $10 million Community Development Block Grant to help rehabilitate the facility.

    In 2007, after the National Science Foundation named Homestake as the preferred site for a proposed national Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) began reopening the former gold mine.

    In December 2010, the National Science Board decided not to fund further design of DUSEL. However, in 2011 the Department of Energy, through the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, agreed to support ongoing science operations at Sanford Lab, while investigating how to use the underground research facility for other longer-term experiments. The SDSTA, which owns Sanford Lab, continues to operate the facility under that agreement with Berkeley Lab.

    The first two major physics experiments at the Sanford Lab are 4,850 feet underground in an area called the Davis Campus, named for the late Ray Davis. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is housed in the same cavern excavated for Ray Davis’s experiment in the 1960s.

    The LBNL LZ Dark Matter Experiment (US) Dark Matter project at SURF, Lead, SD, USA.

    In October 2013, after an initial run of 80 days, LUX was determined to be the most sensitive detector yet to search for dark matter—a mysterious, yet-to-be-detected substance thought to be the most prevalent matter in the universe.

    The U Washington Large Underground Xenon at SURF, Lead, SD, USA dark matter detector | Sanford Underground Research Facility mission was to scour the universe for WIMPs, vetoing all other signatures. It would continue to do just that for another three years before it was decommissioned in 2016.

    In the midst of the excitement over first results, the LUX collaboration was already casting its gaze forward. Planning for a next-generation dark matter experiment at Sanford Lab was already under way. Named LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ), the next-generation experiment would increase the sensitivity of LUX 100 times.

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory(US) physicist Tom Shutt, a previous co-spokesperson for LUX, said one goal of the experiment was to figure out how to build an even larger detector.

    “LZ will be a thousand times more sensitive than the LUX detector,” Shutt said. “It will just begin to see an irreducible background of neutrinos that may ultimately set the limit to our ability to measure dark matter.”

    We celebrate five years of LUX, and look into the steps being taken toward the much larger and far more sensitive experiment.

    Another major experiment, the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE)—a collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and Sanford Lab, is in the preliminary design stages. The project got a major boost last year when Congress approved and the president signed an Omnibus Appropriations bill that will fund LBNE operations through FY 2014. Called the “next frontier of particle physics,” LBNE will follow neutrinos as they travel 800 miles through the earth, from FermiLab in Batavia, Ill., to Sanford Lab.

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) from FNAL to SURF ,Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) Caverns at Sanford Lab.

    U Washington MAJORANA Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay Experiment (US) at SURF.

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will contain 40 kg of germanium; up to 30 kg will be enriched to 86% in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will be deployed deep underground in an ultra-low-background shielded environment in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. The goal of the DEMONSTRATOR is to determine whether a future 1-tonne experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a 4-keV region of interest around the 76Ge 0νββ Q-value at 2039 keV. MAJORANA plans to collaborate with Germanium Detector Array (or GERDA) experiment is searching for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in Ge-76 at the underground Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) for a future tonne-scale 76Ge 0νββ search.

    Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR). Credit: Nick Hubbard..

    Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR). Credit: Nick Hubbard.

    CASPAR is a low-energy particle accelerator that allows researchers to study processes that take place inside collapsing stars.

    The scientists are using space in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, to work on a project called the Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR). CASPAR uses a low-energy particle accelerator that will allow researchers to mimic nuclear fusion reactions in stars. If successful, their findings could help complete our picture of how the elements in our universe are built. “Nuclear astrophysics is about what goes on inside the star, not outside of it,” said Dan Robertson, a Notre Dame assistant research professor of astrophysics working on CASPAR. “It is not observational, but experimental. The idea is to reproduce the stellar environment, to reproduce the reactions within a star.”

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Wilson Hall (US).

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, and the Universities Research Association (URA). Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor.

    Fermilab’s Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator; until the startup in 2008 of the Large Hadron Collider(CH) near Geneva, Switzerland, it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating antiprotons to energies of 500 GeV, and producing proton-proton collisions with energies of up to 1.6 TeV, the first accelerator to reach one “tera-electron-volt” energy. At 3.9 miles (6.3 km), it was the world’s fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron’s CDF and DØ detectors. It was shut down in 2011.

    In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment), NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) and SeaQuest. Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment). The MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE sat in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but had fine-grained tracking capabilities. The NOνA experiment uses, and the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, Minnesota, site of the NOνA far detector. In 2017, the ICARUS neutrino experiment was moved from CERN to Fermilab.

    In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia, classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. The site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors who present valid photo identification.
    Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.

    Weston, Illinois, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab.

    The laboratory was founded in 1969 as the National Accelerator Laboratory; it was renamed in honor of Enrico Fermi in 1974. The laboratory’s first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation. He is the namesake of the site’s high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and which is the center of activity on the campus.

    After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job. It was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman stepped down in 1989. The science education center at the site was named in his honor.
    The later directors include:

    John Peoples, 1989 to 1996
    Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005
    Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013
    Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the present

    Fermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); it serves as a Tier 1 site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) campus .

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)/MINERvA. Photo: Reidar Hahn.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) DAMIC | Fermilab Cosmic Physics Center

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Muon g-2 studio. As muons race around a ring at the Muon g-2 studio, their spin axes twirl, reflecting the influence of unseen particles..

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam] built at DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory DUNE/LBNF experiment (US) Argon tank at Sanford Underground Research Facility(US)

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) MINOS

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Cryomodule Testing Facility

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) MINOS Far Detector

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) from FNAL to SURF Lead, South Dakota, USA .

    European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] (CH) ProtoDune.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) NOvA experiment map.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) NOvA Near Detector at Batavia IL, USA

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)ICARUS.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Holometer.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) LArIAT.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) ICEBERG particle detector.

    FNAL Icon

     
  • richardmitnick 2:48 pm on April 24, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "How the Daya Bay experiment helped China build a neutrino legacy", , Institute of High Energy Physics-Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN), Neutrinos,   

    From physicsworld.com (UK) : “How the Daya Bay experiment helped China build a neutrino legacy” 

    From physicsworld.com (UK)

    21 Apr 2021

    Ling Xin examines the legacy of the recently closed Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment on neutrino physics, US–China collaborations and future neutrino facilities.

    In an underground laboratory near Shenzhen, southern China, officials gathered on 12 December 2020 to say goodbye to a decade-old experiment that not only unveiled secrets of the neutrino but also fostered China–US scientific collaboration. A little after 10.30 a.m., Yifang Wang from the Institute of High Energy Physics-Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN), pressed a red button that stopped the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment from taking data. A few minutes later, covers were removed and four massive, cylindrical tanks appeared in a pool filled with highly purified water.

    “Today we are here to celebrate the completion of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment, which has fulfilled all its missions,” noted Jun Cao, co-spokesperson of the collaboration, during the ceremony. Only a small audience was present due to coronavirus restrictions, but 1.7 million people joined online to see the experiment come to an end. Among them was Kam-Biu Luk, a particle physicist from the University of California at Berkeley (US) and DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (US) and the experiment’s US spokesperson, who watched the livestream from his home in California. “I’ve worked on a number of experiments in my life,” he told Physics World, “but Daya Bay has achieved so much that it is extremely rewarding. This is certainly a happy ending for all of us.”

    Early days

    Born in nuclear interactions, neutrinos are extremely light and hard to catch, yet they are everywhere around us. They come in three types – electron, muon and tau – that morph into each other as they travel near the speed of light. Thanks to large-scale neutrino detectors in Japan, the US, Canada and other countries, by the early 2000s physicists had a good idea about how electron neutrinos transform into muon and tau neutrinos (as in solar neutrino oscillation) and how muon neutrinos transform into tau neutrinos (as in atmospheric neutrino oscillation). However, the case of electron–muon oscillation – the last missing piece in the puzzle of neutrino oscillations and dictated by the parameter “theta-13” – remained unclear.

    Some scientists proposed using nuclear reactors to study this neutrino oscillation, since reactors are well-understood neutrino sources, and Luk realized it could be the best way to solve the theta-13 problem. He started searching for potential sites in Japan, South Korea and the US. Originally from Hong Kong, Luk also knew about the Daya Bay nuclear power plant and added it to his list.

    Daya Bay stood out in many ways, not least because the Daya Bay and Ling Ao reactors are powerful enough to produce a large number of antineutrinos. The site is also next to a mountain range, making the construction and shielding of cosmic rays much easier. Given that the most efficient scheme to infer theta-13 was to compare antineutrino events at the near and far sites, the team planned eight detectors, four placed between 300 and 500 m from the reactors – dubbed “near detectors” – and four positioned 2 km away.

    Daya Bay remains the largest collaboration between China and the US in basic research and has benefited scientists from both sides

    Luk opted for Daya Bay and in late 2003 contacted IHEP for potential collaboration. Despite a lack of neutrino researchers in China, Wang, who was leading the institute’s experimental department, knew that it was an opportunity not to be missed and began searching for funding and people. The idea also quickly won support from the US’s Department of Energy, which later contributed about one third of the total cost, with Cao among the first to join. Wrapping up his postdoctoral research in the US at DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), he immediately got down to basic design issues such as the shape of the detectors and the development of the liquid scintillator, which was done together with collaborators at DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (US).

    Students also got involved in the project. They included Liangjian Wen, who was studying nuclear physics at the University of Science and Technology [中国科学技术大学] (CN) at Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN) in Hefei, and came to IHEP Beijing to work on his undergraduate project. Inexperienced with building detectors, he was asked to develop the reflecting panels placed at the top and bottom inside the detector, a technique never used in similar experiments before. “The panels can reflect photons to the side, so we got to use fewer photomultiplier tubes and save about 20 million yuan,” says Wen. Doing everything from scratch, Wen learned what materials to use for the supporting structure, how to apply the reflecting film between the panels, and how to assemble the panels with high precision. “We made it in the end,” he adds. “The reflecting panels gave the detectors a simpler structure and better performance.”

    Surprising findings

    Daya Bay began taking data on 24 December 2011, when only six of the eight detectors were in place. Researchers were quick to remove noise signals and identify something indicative from data collected within the first few days. Cao remembers vividly how they worked late into the night, had lots of meetings and used a variety of cross-checking methods to make sure the results were correct. Then on 8 March 2012 the collaboration announced its groundbreaking findings on theta-13 at a press conference in Beijing.

    Based on tens of thousands of antineutrino events observed, about 6% of the reactor’s antineutrinos transformed into other types of neutrinos on their way from the reactors to the far site. The transformation rate was surprisingly large, allowing Wang to announce the discovery of a new type of neutrino oscillation. For Cao, it was a wonderful surprise given it only took 55 days to get a definitive answer to the critically important theta-13 problem, the value of which turned out to be much larger than expected. In the eight years that followed, as the team collected and analysed more data, the measurement precision of theta-13 improved by sixfold to 3.4%, a milestone no other experiment is expected to surpass in the next 20 years.

    Besides theta-13, the experiment also made other important findings. For example, it strongly challenged the assumption that a fourth type of neutrino, the sterile neutrino, exists. Observations at the near detector clearly showed that the reactors gave off far fewer antineutrinos than predicted – potentially because some had morphed into sterile neutrinos. To clarify the case, the team made separate measurements on uranium and plutonium, two major reactor fuel components and antineutrino sources. They found that the modelling and observation matched well for plutonium but there was a major discrepancy with uranium. “This largely ruled out the theory of explaining the deficit with sterile neutrinos,” says Wang. “If sterile neutrinos did exist, they should have acted on plutonium and uranium the same way.”

    The Daya Bay legacy

    Daya Bay remains the largest collaboration between China and the US in basic research and has benefited scientists from both sides. For China, the neutrino research team has grown from a small number of people in the early 2000s to about 100 today. For the US, the Daya Bay experiment turned out to be much cheaper and quicker than if the US had done the experiment alone.

    Since the shutdown ceremony, the eight detectors have been taken apart, with some components such as the electronics being reused in the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory JUNO [地下天文台] (CN) – China’s next major neutrino experiment.

    Other parts have been donated to overseas experiments, including 32 tonnes of gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator and 50 tonnes of undoped liquid scintillator to a Japanese experiment called JSNS2.

    The rest of the experiment will be given to schools for educational or outreach use. The main laboratory hall, meanwhile, will be repurposed into an exhibition facility about the experiment. The team will also continue to analyse the complete dataset, which will take another year or two to complete.

    IHEP researchers are working hard to make sure that JUNO will be up and running by the end of 2022. It will seek to work out the mass ordering of different types of neutrinos, which will help other upcoming neutrino facilities such as the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment in the US and the Hyper-Kamiokande neutrino observatory in Japan to examine their absolute values as well as possibly reveal why the universe is made up of matter instead of antimatter.

    “These questions will keep particle physicists fully occupied for a few decades from now,” says Luk.

    Researchers are also developing crucial technologies for a second phase of JUNO, which will conduct a neutrino-less double-beta decay experiment to study whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles and seek to measure the absolute masses of neutrinos. Yet Cao does not feel sorry to witness the end of Daya Bay. “On the contrary, we yearn for tomorrow,” he says, “to reveal more unknowns in neutrino physics with the new generation of experiments.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    PhysicsWorld(UK) is a publication of the Institute of Physics(UK). The Institute of Physics is a leading scientific society. We are a charitable organisation with a worldwide membership of more than 50,000, working together to advance physics education, research and application.

    We engage with policymakers and the general public to develop awareness and understanding of the value of physics and, through IOP Publishing, we are world leaders in professional scientific communications.
    IOP Institute of Physics

     
  • richardmitnick 9:22 pm on April 15, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "IceCube Neutrino Observatory Detects New High-Energy Particle", , Neutrinos, , , ,   

    From UC San Diego: “IceCube Neutrino Observatory Detects New High-Energy Particle” 

    From UC San Diego

    April 15, 2021
    Cynthia Dillon
    858-822-6673
    cdillon@ucsd.edu

    1
    A visualization of the Glashow event recorded by the IceCube detector. Each colored circle shows an IceCube sensor that was triggered by the event; red circles indicate sensors triggered earlier in time, and green-blue circles indicate sensors triggered later. This event was nicknamed “Hydrangea.” Credit: IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole (US).

    In December 2016, a high-energy particle called an electron antineutrino hurtled to Earth from outer space at close to the speed of light. Deep inside the ice sheet at the South Pole, it smashed into an electron and produced a particle, called W− boson, that quickly decayed into a shower of secondary particles. The interaction was captured by a massive telescope buried in the Antarctic glacier, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory (IceCube).

    U Wisconsin IceCube neutrino observatory

    U Wisconsin IceCube Neutrino Observatory(US) neutrino detector at the at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica South Pole, elevation of 2,835 metres (9,301 feet).

    IceCube employs more than 5000 detectors lowered on 86 strings into almost 100 holes in the Antarctic ice NSF B. Gudbjartsson, IceCube Collaboration.

    Lunar Icecube.

    IceCube DeepCore annotated .

    IceCube neutrino detector interior.

    IceCube employs more than 5000 detectors lowered on 86 strings into almost 100 holes in the Antarctic ice NSF B. Gudbjartsson, IceCube Collaboration.

    Lunar Icecube.

    IceCube DeepCore annotated.

    IceCube PINGU annotated.

    DM-Ice II at IceCube annotated.

    IceCube Gen-2 DeepCore PINGU annotated.

    DM-Ice II at IceCube annotated.

    IceCube had detected a Glashow resonance event, a phenomenon predicted by Nobel Laureate Physicist Sheldon Glashow in 1960. With this detection, scientists provided another confirmation of the Standard Model of particle physics.

    It also further demonstrated the ability of IceCube, which detects nearly massless particles called neutrinos using thousands of sensors embedded in the Antarctic ice, to do fundamental physics. The result recently published in Nature is so important because it shows that IceCube can detect anti-neutrinos as different from neutrinos, thus opening a new window to the universe.

    The multinational team of scientists—including researchers from UC Irvine (US) and UC Berkeley (US)—searched for very-high-energy astrophysical neutrinos with IceCube. Using San Diego Supercomputer Center’s (SDSC) Comet at UC San Diego, Bridges at Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center (PSC), and Frontera at Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC), one interaction of one antineutrino (known as an “event”) was found with a visible energy of 6.05 ± 0.72 PeV.

    San Diego Supercomputer Center Dell Comet supercomputer.

    Bridges HPE Apollo 2000 XSEDE-allocated supercomputer at Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center.

    University of Texas at Austin-Texas Advanced Computing Center Frontera Dell EMC supercomputer fastest at any university.

    Given its energy and direction, it is classified as an astrophysical neutrino at the 5σ level. Furthermore, data collected by the sensors closest to the interaction point, as well as the measured energy, are consistent with the hadronic decay of a W− boson produced on the Glashow resonance as outlined in the 1960 prediction. The latter unambiguously identifies the incoming particle as an anti-neutrino rather than a neutrino, or anti-matter rather than matter.


    IceCube Neutrino Observatory Detects New High-Energy Particle.

    “To simulate this detection, our IceCube collaborators used millions of hours on multiple supercomputers to sort through the data, understand the detector response and calculate the direction of origin for this particular anti-neutrino,” explained Frank Würthwein, a UC San Diego physics professor and executive director of the Open Science Grid (OSG) at SDSC. “We were excited about the detection and fortunate that our resources could support this groundbreaking science.”

    Würthwein has been working closely with the observatory’s Global Computing Manager Benedickt Riedel and an international team of scientists for the past decade.

    “Constructing a comparable observatory anywhere else would have been astronomically expensive,” said Riedel. “Antarctica ice provides us with the perfect optical material and we moved from the traditional view of a guy with a telescope looking up at the sky to large-scale instruments and now on to particle physics and particle observatories.”

    Riedel explained that with this new paradigm, large amounts of computing for short periods of time to do big time-sensitive computing was needed, with big scientific computing centers like TACC, SDSC, and PSC.

    While these supercomputer resource allocations were funded by the National Science Foundation’s Extreme Science and Engineering Environment , additional computing resources included the OSG and the Pacific Research Platform (PRP), partnerships of more than 100 institutions led by researchers at UC San Diego, and that include NSF- and Department of Energy (US)-funded resources, and multiple research universities around the world.

    San Diego Supercomputer Center Among Resources Used to Prove 60-Year-Old Theory.

    San Diego Supercomputer Center

    SDSC Triton HP supercomputer

    SDSC Gordon-Simons supercomputer

    SDSC Dell Comet supercomputer

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of California, San Diego, is a public research university located in the La Jolla area of San Diego, California, in the United States. The university occupies 2,141 acres (866 ha) near the coast of the Pacific Ocean with the main campus resting on approximately 1,152 acres (466 ha). Established in 1960 near the pre-existing Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego is the seventh oldest of the 10 University of California campuses and offers over 200 undergraduate and graduate degree programs, enrolling about 22,700 undergraduate and 6,300 graduate students. UC San Diego is one of America’s Public Ivy universities, which recognizes top public research universities in the United States. UC San Diego was ranked 8th among public universities and 37th among all universities in the United States, and rated the 18th Top World University by U.S. News & World Report’s 2015 rankings.

    UC San Diego is organized into seven undergraduate residential colleges (Revelle; John Muir; Thurgood Marshall; Earl Warren; Eleanor Roosevelt; Sixth; and Seventh), four academic divisions (Arts and Humanities; Biological Sciences; Physical Sciences; and Social Sciences), and seven graduate and professional schools (Jacobs School of Engineering; Rady School of Management; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; School of Global Policy and Strategy; School of Medicine; Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences; and the newly established Wertheim School of Public Health and Human Longevity Science). UC San Diego Health, the region’s only academic health system, provides patient care; conducts medical research; and educates future health care professionals at the UC San Diego Medical Center, Hillcrest; Jacobs Medical Center; Moores Cancer Center; Sulpizio Cardiovascular Center; Shiley Eye Institute; Institute for Genomic Medicine; Koman Family Outpatient Pavilion and various express care and urgent care clinics throughout San Diego.

    The university operates 19 organized research units (ORUs), including the Center for Energy Research; Qualcomm Institute (a branch of the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology); San Diego Supercomputer Center; and the Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind, as well as eight School of Medicine research units, six research centers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography and two multi-campus initiatives, including the Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation. UC San Diego is also closely affiliated with several regional research centers, such as the Salk Institute; the Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute; the Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine; and the Scripps Research Institute. It is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. According to the National Science Foundation(US), UC San Diego spent $1.265 billion on research and development in fiscal year 2018, ranking it 7th in the nation.

    UC San Diego is considered one of the country’s Public Ivies. As of February 2021, UC San Diego faculty, researchers and alumni have won 27 Nobel Prizes and three Fields Medals, eight National Medals of Science, eight MacArthur Fellowships, and three Pulitzer Prizes. Additionally, of the current faculty, 29 have been elected to the National Academy of Engineering, 70 to the National Academy of Sciences(US), 45 to the National Academy of Medicine(US) and 110 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

    History

    When the Regents of the University of California originally authorized the San Diego campus in 1956, it was planned to be a graduate and research institution, providing instruction in the sciences, mathematics, and engineering. Local citizens supported the idea, voting the same year to transfer to the university 59 acres (24 ha) of mesa land on the coast near the preexisting Scripps Institution of Oceanography(US). The Regents requested an additional gift of 550 acres (220 ha) of undeveloped mesa land northeast of Scripps, as well as 500 acres (200 ha) on the former site of Camp Matthews from the federal government, but Roger Revelle, then director of Scripps Institution and main advocate for establishing the new campus, jeopardized the site selection by exposing the La Jolla community’s exclusive real estate business practices, which were antagonistic to minority racial and religious groups. This outraged local conservatives, as well as Regent Edwin W. Pauley.

    UC President Clark Kerr satisfied San Diego city donors by changing the proposed name from University of California, La Jolla, to University of California, San Diego. The city voted in agreement to its part in 1958, and the UC approved construction of the new campus in 1960. Because of the clash with Pauley, Revelle was not made chancellor. Herbert York, first director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was designated instead. York planned the main campus according to the “Oxbridge” model, relying on many of Revelle’s ideas.

    According to Kerr, “San Diego always asked for the best,” though this created much friction throughout the UC system, including with Kerr himself, because UC San Diego often seemed to be “asking for too much and too fast.” Kerr attributed UC San Diego’s “special personality” to Scripps, which for over five decades had been the most isolated UC unit in every sense: geographically, financially, and institutionally. It was a great shock to the Scripps community to learn that Scripps was now expected to become the nucleus of a new UC campus and would now be the object of far more attention from both the university administration in Berkeley and the state government in Sacramento.

    UC San Diego was the first general campus of the University of California to be designed “from the top down” in terms of research emphasis. Local leaders disagreed on whether the new school should be a technical research institute or a more broadly based school that included undergraduates as well. John Jay Hopkins of General Dynamics Corporation pledged one million dollars for the former while the City Council offered free land for the latter. The original authorization for the San Diego campus given by the UC Regents in 1956 approved a “graduate program in science and technology” that included undergraduate programs, a compromise that won both the support of General Dynamics and the city voters’ approval.

    Nobel laureate Harold Urey, a physicist from the University of Chicago(US), and Hans Suess, who had published the first paper on the greenhouse effect with Revelle in the previous year, were early recruits to the faculty in 1958. Maria Goeppert-Mayer, later the second female Nobel laureate in physics, was appointed professor of physics in 1960. The graduate division of the school opened in 1960 with 20 faculty in residence, with instruction offered in the fields of physics, biology, chemistry, and earth science. Before the main campus completed construction, classes were held in the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

    By 1963, new facilities on the mesa had been finished for the School of Science and Engineering, and new buildings were under construction for Social Sciences and Humanities. Ten additional faculty in those disciplines were hired, and the whole site was designated the First College, later renamed after Roger Revelle, of the new campus. York resigned as chancellor that year and was replaced by John Semple Galbraith. The undergraduate program accepted its first class of 181 freshman at Revelle College in 1964. Second College was founded in 1964, on the land deeded by the federal government, and named after environmentalist John Muir two years later. The School of Medicine also accepted its first students in 1966.

    Political theorist Herbert Marcuse joined the faculty in 1965. A champion of the New Left, he reportedly was the first protester to occupy the administration building in a demonstration organized by his student, political activist Angela Davis. The American Legion offered to buy out the remainder of Marcuse’s contract for $20,000; the Regents censured Chancellor William J. McGill for defending Marcuse on the basis of academic freedom, but further action was averted after local leaders expressed support for Marcuse. Further student unrest was felt at the university, as the United States increased its involvement in the Vietnam War during the mid-1960s, when a student raised a Viet Minh flag over the campus. Protests escalated as the war continued and were only exacerbated after the National Guard fired on student protesters at Kent State University in 1970. Over 200 students occupied Urey Hall, with one student setting himself on fire in protest of the war.

    Early research activity and faculty quality, notably in the sciences, was integral to shaping the focus and culture of the university. Even before UC San Diego had its own campus, faculty recruits had already made significant research breakthroughs, such as the Keeling Curve, a graph that plots rapidly increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere and was the first significant evidence for global climate change; the Kohn–Sham equations, used to investigate particular atoms and molecules in quantum chemistry; and the Miller–Urey experiment, which gave birth to the field of prebiotic chemistry.

    Engineering, particularly computer science, became an important part of the university’s academics as it matured. University researchers helped develop UCSD Pascal, an early machine-independent programming language that later heavily influenced Java; the National Science Foundation Network, a precursor to the Internet; and the Network News Transfer Protocol during the late 1970s to 1980s. In economics, the methods for analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH), and with common trends (cointegration) were developed. UC San Diego maintained its research intense character after its founding, racking up 25 Nobel Laureates affiliated within 50 years of history; a rate of five per decade.

    Under Richard C. Atkinson’s leadership as chancellor from 1980 to 1995, the university strengthened its ties with the city of San Diego by encouraging technology transfer with developing companies, transforming San Diego into a world leader in technology-based industries. He oversaw a rapid expansion of the School of Engineering, later renamed after Qualcomm founder Irwin M. Jacobs, with the construction of the San Diego Supercomputer Center(US) and establishment of the computer science, electrical engineering, and bioengineering departments. Private donations increased from $15 million to nearly $50 million annually, faculty expanded by nearly 50%, and enrollment doubled to about 18,000 students during his administration. By the end of his chancellorship, the quality of UC San Diego graduate programs was ranked 10th in the nation by the National Research Council.

    The university continued to undergo further expansion during the first decade of the new millennium with the establishment and construction of two new professional schools — the Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Rady School of Management—and the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology, a research institute run jointly with University of California Irvine(US). UC San Diego also reached two financial milestones during this time, becoming the first university in the western region to raise over $1 billion in its eight-year fundraising campaign in 2007 and also obtaining an additional $1 billion through research contracts and grants in a single fiscal year for the first time in 2010. Despite this, due to the California budget crisis, the university loaned $40 million against its own assets in 2009 to offset a significant reduction in state educational appropriations. The salary of Pradeep Khosla, who became chancellor in 2012, has been the subject of controversy amidst continued budget cuts and tuition increases.

    On November 27, 2017, the university announced it would leave its longtime athletic home of the California Collegiate Athletic Association, an NCAA Division II league, to begin a transition to Division I in 2020. At that time, it will join the Big West Conference, already home to four other UC campuses (Davis, Irvine, Riverside, Santa Barbara). The transition period will run through the 2023–24 school year. The university prepares to transition to NCAA Division I competition on July 1, 2020.

    Research

    Applied Physics and Mathematics

    The Nature Index lists UC San Diego as 6th in the United States for research output by article count in 2019. In 2017, UC San Diego spent $1.13 billion on research, the 7th highest expenditure among academic institutions in the U.S. The university operates several organized research units, including the Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences (CASS), the Center for Drug Discovery Innovation, and the Institute for Neural Computation. UC San Diego also maintains close ties to the nearby Scripps Research Institute(US) and Salk Institute for Biological Studies(US). In 1977, UC San Diego developed and released the UCSD Pascal programming language. The university was designated as one of the original national Alzheimer’s disease research centers in 1984 by the National Institute on Aging. In 2018, UC San Diego received $10.5 million from the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration(US) to establish the Center for Matters under Extreme Pressure (CMEC).

    The university founded the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) in 1985, which provides high performance computing for research in various scientific disciplines. In 2000, UC San Diego partnered with UC Irvine to create the Qualcomm Institute – UC San Diego(US), which integrates research in photonics, nanotechnology, and wireless telecommunication to develop solutions to problems in energy, health, and the environment.

    UC San Diego also operates the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO)(US), one of the largest centers of research in earth science in the world, which predates the university itself. Together, SDSC and SIO, along with funding partner universities California Institute of Technology(US), San Diego State University(US), and UC Santa Barbara, manage the High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network.

     
  • richardmitnick 7:49 pm on April 12, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Search for sterile neutrinos- It's all about a bend in the curve", , MPG Institute for Physics [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik](DE), Neutrinos, , The KATRIN experiment   

    From MPG Institute for Physics [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik](DE): “Search for sterile neutrinos- It’s all about a bend in the curve” 

    From From MPG Institute for Physics [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik](DE)

    03/25/2021

    Prof. Dr. Susanne Mertens
    +49 89 32354-590
    mertens@mpp.mpg.de

    Dr. Thierry Lasserre
    +49 89 32354-590
    lasserre@mpp.mpg.de

    There are many questions surrounding the elementary particle neutrino, in particular regarding its mass. Physicists are also interested in whether besides the “classic” neutrinos there are variants such as the so-called sterile neutrinos. The KATRIN experiment has now succeeded in strongly narrowing the search for these elusive particles. The publication appeared recently in the journal Physical Review Letters.

    KATRIN experiment aims to measure the mass of the neutrino using a huge device called a spectrometer (interior shown)KIT Karlsruhe Institute of Technology [Karlsruher Institut für Technologie] (DE)

    1
    The spectrometer of the KATRIN experiment, set to measure the neutrino mass. (Photo: M. Zacher/KIT)

    3
    The results of the KATRIN experiment rule out a light sterile neutrino with a mass between 3 and 30 electronvolt. A neutrino within this range would have revealed itself by a bend in the orange line, e.g. as shown here at 10 electronvolt under the final value of 18.6 kiloelectronvolt. (Green line: Spectrum of a virtual light sterile neutrino with a mass of 10 eV; blue line: spectrum of the classical, active neutrino; orange line: combined spectrum. (Plot: KATRIN collaboration)

    5
    The area to the left of the lines shows the search ranges of the various experiments for the light sterile neutrino. The area inside the green lines marks the most likely location for light sterile neutrinos. Evaluations of the KATRIN experiment (blue solid line) significantly reduce this search range. (Plot: KATRIN collaboration)

    Strictly speaking, the neutrino is not a single particle but rather comprises several species: the electron neutrino, the muon neutrino, and the tau neutrino. These particles are constantly transforming into each other in a process referred to as neutrino oscillation. It is assumed that neutrinos have mass; this is to be determined in the KATRIN experiment, which started in 2019 at the KIT Karlsruhe Institute of Technology [Karlsruher Institut für Technologie] (DE). According to the results to date, the neutrino has a mass less than 1 electron volt.

    KATRIN could also be used to track down related species that have so far only been hypothetical: The sterile neutrinos. The heavier branch (mass in kiloelectronvolt range) is considered a candidate for dark matter and will be sought after a new detector is installed in KATRIN. Besides this, there could also a lighter sterile neutrino type.

    See the full article here.

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    The MPG Institute for Physics [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik](DE) (MPP) is a physics institute in Munich, Germany that specializes in high energy physics and astroparticle physics. It is part of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft and is also known as the Werner Heisenberg Institute, after its first director in its current location.

    The founding of the institute traces back to 1914, as an idea from Fritz Haber, Walther Nernst, Max Planck, Emil Warburg, Heinrich Rubens. On October 1, 1917, the institute was officially founded in Berlin as Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Physik (KWIP, Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics) with Albert Einstein as the first head director. In October 1922, Max von Laue succeeded Einstein as managing director. Einstein gave up his position as a director of the institute in April 1933. The Institute took part in the German nuclear weapon project from 1939-1942.

    In June 1942, Werner Heisenberg took over as managing director. A year after the end of fighting in Europe in World War II, the institute was moved to Göttingen and renamed the MPG for Physics, with Heisenberg continuing as managing director. In 1946, Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and Karl Wirtz joined the faculty as the directors for theoretical and experimental physics, respectively.

    In 1955 the institute made the decision to move to Munich, and soon after began construction of its current building, designed by Sep Ruf. The institute moved into its current location on September 1, 1958 and took on the new name the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics, still with Heisenberg as the managing director. In 1991, the institute was split into the Max Planck Institute for Physics, the MPG Institute for Astrophysics [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik] (DE) and the MPG Institute for extraterrestrial Physics[MPG Institut für extraterrestrische Physik] (DE).

     
  • richardmitnick 10:18 am on April 1, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE experiment, Neutrinos   

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US): “Particle detector at Fermilab plays crucial role in Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    March 4, 2021 [Just now in social media 4.1.21]
    Steve Koppes

    A century ago, physicists didn’t know about the existence of neutrinos, the most abundant, elusive and ethereal subatomic particles of matter in the universe.

    Although they are abundant, each individual neutrino is almost massless. Nevertheless, “they shape many aspects of the universe as we know it,” said Hirohisa Tanaka, a professor of particle physics and astrophysics at Stanford University (US) and DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (US).

    That’s why Tanaka and more than 1,000 other researchers from over 30 nations are engaged in the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory DUNE/LBNF experiment (US).

    “Billions of neutrinos can cross through you without you ever realizing it, so they are very hard to get hold of and to study,” said Alfons Weber, a physics professor at the University of Oxford (UK).

    Neutrinos come in three types that morph from one into another: electron, muon and tau, and each has an antimatter cousin. DUNE will use two particle detectors separated by 800 miles (1,300 kilometers) to measure how the neutrinos morph, or oscillate, as they travel through space, matter and time. The DUNE near detector, located at Fermilab outside Chicago, will measure the neutrinos and how they interact before they oscillate. The DUNE far detector, to be located at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota, will observe them after oscillation.

    SURF-Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    Homestake Mining, Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    1
    One of the DUNE near detector’s subdetectors, SAND, will detect neutrinos with an electronic calorimeter, which measures particle energy, and a tracker, which records particle momenta and charge. A second subdetector will use liquid argon to mimic the neutrino interactions in the far detector. The third will use gaseous argon. Working together, they will measure particles with more precision than other neutrino detectors have able been to achieve. Credit: Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory DUNE/LBNF experiment (US) collaboration.

    The project is ambitious in its international scope and scientific goals. It could provide new insight into the unbalanced mixing of matter and antimatter, the phenomenon that made possible the formation of matter in the universe. Such an important discovery will require both detectors working in tandem.

    “Because of oscillation, the methodology is to measure the neutrino beam at the near site and then the far site and compare the two behaviors,” said Luca Stanco of National Institute for Nuclear Physics[Institutio Nzaionale di Fisica Nucleare](IT), often referred to by its Italian acronym, INFN. “It is fundamental to have under control all the characteristics of the neutrino beam in the near detector, where the beam is coming from.”

    Hirohisa Tanaka, Alfons Weber, Luca Stanco, the University of Bern [Universität Bern](CH)’s Michele Weber, and Fermilab’s Alan Bross and Jennifer Raaf play key roles in developing the neutrino-snagging components of the DUNE near detector.

    Three subdetector systems

    Building on lessons learned from previous experiments, the detector designs have become more sophisticated. The DUNE near detector, to be installed about 600 meters from where the neutrinos are produced in Fermilab’s accelerators, will consist of three subdetectors that will sit side by side.

    One of the subdetectors, known as SAND, with its 15,000 kilometers (9,320 miles) of scintillator fibers and its 5,000 photomultipliers, will detect neutrinos with an electronic calorimeter, which measures particle energy, and a tracker, which records particle momenta and charge. A second subdetector, based on the ArgonCube technology developed at the University of Bern in Switzerland, will use liquid argon to mimic the neutrino interactions in the far detector, and the third will use gaseous argon. Working together, they will measure particles with more precision than other neutrino detectors have able to achieve.

    “It’s a very complicated system,” said Stanco, who leads the group working on SAND.

    SAND will sit directly in the path of the neutrino beam to measure its stability and composition. The two argon-based detectors, meanwhile, will be moveable, able to sit either directly in the beam’s path or to be angled to one side. The different viewing angles will allow those detectors to measure how neutrino interactions change as the particles’ energies change.

    The liquid-argon subdetector will function the same way as DUNE’s much larger far detector: When neutrinos interact with the liquid argon, the interaction will create charged particles that will be detected by electronics components that amplify, digitize and then send signals to a computer where the information contained in the signals can be reconstructed.

    Several earlier generations of neutrino experiments have led to an evolution in neutrino detector design. When the detectors for those earlier experiments were designed, “We had no idea how poorly we understood how neutrinos interact and all the different effects that we need to study to make a robust measurement,” said Alfons Weber.

    Liquid-argon detectors need many-kiloton masses to increase their chances of observing neutrino interactions.

    “We always talk about neutrinos being elusive and difficult to detect,” said Tanaka, whose SLAC team will provide key components of the liquid-argon subdetector. “You see only a few of them and only very rarely.”

    The opposite will apply to the near detector. There, “the neutrino beam we’re producing is so intense that in the liquid-argon subdetector we’ll see something like 50 interactions within millionths of a second,” he said.

    The challenge thus created is to identify individual neutrinos, their energies and their types at a rate that matches the flood of neutrinos the near detector will see.

    To capture such data, the liquid-argon subdetector will consist of an array of 35 nearly independently functioning smaller modules. Each module in the array will have a mass of about three tons. When high voltage is applied to the liquid argon volume, the otherwise passive electrons in the argon atoms become liberated and start moving toward an array of detection elements.

    Liquid argon — cooled to that state from its gaseous form — is so dense that neutrinos interact at an enhanced rate. Nevertheless, some particles escape from the liquid argon detector and their properties are measured in the argon-gas subdetector sitting next to its liquid-argon counterpart.

    “You can measure other things in the argon-gas subdetector that you can’t measure in the liquid-argon subdetector,” Weber said. This includes measuring the effects of neutrino interactions on argon nuclei, a process that creates uncertainty in neutrino oscillation measurements.

    Search for new particles

    The three subdetectors working in combination will make it possible for physicists to look for phenomena that go beyond the bounds of known physical laws. As Fermilab’s Main Injector particle accelerator generates neutrinos that pass through the DUNE near detector, “other particles might get produced as well, particles that we don’t know anything about yet,” Weber said.

    Heavy neutrinos and dark photons fall into this category. The existence of heavy neutrinos could explain the perplexing fact that the known neutrinos have a tiny mass, and their discovery could help explain the nature of dark matter. Dark photons would be the invisible cousins of regular photons, which are electromagnetic particles. The detection of dark photons — if they exist — could illuminate the expansive but currently invisible dark sector part of the universe.

    And then there is the unexpected.

    “I think and I hope we will have a surprise in the physics result,” Stanco said.

    The international Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory DUNE/LBNF experiment (US) is supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science.

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, and the Universities Research Association (URA). Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor.

    Fermilab’s Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator; until the startup in 2008 of the Large Hadron Collider(CH) near Geneva, Switzerland, it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating antiprotons to energies of 500 GeV, and producing proton-proton collisions with energies of up to 1.6 TeV, the first accelerator to reach one “tera-electron-volt” energy. At 3.9 miles (6.3 km), it was the world’s fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron’s CDF and DØ detectors. It was shut down in 2011.

    In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment), NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) and SeaQuest. Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment). The MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE sat in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but had fine-grained tracking capabilities. The NOνA experiment uses, and the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, Minnesota, site of the NOνA far detector. In 2017, the ICARUS neutrino experiment was moved from CERN to Fermilab.
    In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia, classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. The site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors who present valid photo identification.

    Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.

    Weston, Illinois, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab.

    The laboratory was founded in 1969 as the National Accelerator Laboratory; it was renamed in honor of Enrico Fermi in 1974. The laboratory’s first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation. He is the namesake of the site’s high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and which is the center of activity on the campus.

    After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job. It was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman stepped down in 1989. The science education center at the site was named in his honor.

    The later directors include:

    John Peoples, 1989 to 1996
    Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005
    Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013
    Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the present

    Fermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); it serves as a Tier 1 site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid.

    FNAL Icon

     
  • richardmitnick 9:06 am on March 30, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Hunting Ghost Particles Beneath the World’s Deepest Lake", A neutrino-spotting telescope beneath Russia’s frozen Lake Baikal in Russia is close to delivering scientific results after four decades of setbacks., , Lake Baikal Neutrino Telescope (RU), Neutrinos, ,   

    From The New York Times : “Hunting Ghost Particles Beneath the World’s Deepest Lake” 

    From The New York Times

    March 30, 2021
    Anton Troianovski
    Photographs by Sergey Ponomarev

    A neutrino-spotting telescope beneath Russia’s frozen Lake Baikal in Russia is close to delivering scientific results after four decades of setbacks.

    1
    Scientists register a light-detecting sphere, one of 36 to be submerged 2,300 feet below the surface of Lake Baikal in Russia, as part of an underwater neutrino detector that is under construction.

    ON LAKE BAIKAL, Russia — A glass orb, the size of a beach ball, plops into a hole in the ice and descends on a metal cable toward the bottom of the world’s deepest lake.

    Then another, and another.

    These light-detecting orbs come to rest suspended in the pitch-dark depths down as far as 4,000 feet below the surface. The cable carrying them holds 36 such orbs, spaced 50 feet apart. There are 64 such cables, held in place by anchors and buoys, two miles off the jagged southern coast of this lake in Siberia with a bottom that is more than a mile down.

    This is a telescope, the largest of its kind in the Northern Hemisphere, built to explore black holes, distant galaxies and the remnants of exploded stars. It does so by searching for neutrinos, cosmic particles so tiny that many trillions pass through each of us every second.

    Cosmic rays produced by high-energy astrophysics sources (ASPERA collaboration AStroParticle ERAnet).

    If only we could learn to read the messages they bear, scientists believe, we could chart the universe, and its history, in ways we cannot yet fully fathom.

    “You should never miss the chance to ask nature any question,” said Grigori V. Domogatski, 80, a Russian physicist who has led the quest to build this underwater telescope for 40 years.

    After a pause, he added: “You never know what answer you will get.”

    It is still under construction, but the telescope that Dr. Domogatski and other scientists have long dreamed of is closer than ever to delivering results. And this hunt for neutrinos from the far reaches of the cosmos, spanning eras in geopolitics and in astrophysics, sheds light on how Russia has managed to preserve some of the scientific prowess that characterized the Soviet Union — as well as the limitations of that legacy.

    The Lake Baikal venture is not the only effort to hunt for neutrinos in the world’s most remote places. Dozens of instruments seek the particles in specialized laboratories all over the planet. But the new Russian project will be an important complement to the work of IceCube, the world’s largest neutrino telescope, an American-led, $279 million project that encompasses about a quarter of a cubic mile of ice in Antarctica.

    U Wisconsin IceCube Neutrino Observatory(US) neutrino detector at the at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica South Pole, elevation of 2,835 metres (9,301 feet).

    2
    Grigori V. Domogatski, a Russian physicist, has led the quest to build the observatory for 40 years.

    3
    The telescope sits two miles off the southern coast of Lake Baikal in Siberia. The bottom of the lake is more than a mile down, making it the deepest lake in the world.

    4
    Yevgeny Pliskovsky, a scientist, monitoring data from a building on Lake Baikal’s shore.

    Using a grid of light detectors similar to the Lake Baikal Neutrino Telescope (RU), IceCube identified a neutrino in 2017 that scientists said almost certainly came from a supermassive black hole. It was the first time that scientists had pinpointed a source of the rain of high-energy particles from space known as cosmic rays — a breakthrough for neutrino astronomy, a branch that remains in its infancy.

    The field’s practitioners believe that as they learn to read the universe using neutrinos, they could make new, unexpected discoveries — much as the lensmakers who first developed the telescope could not have imagined that Galileo would later use it to discover the moons of Jupiter.

    “It’s like looking at the sky at night, and seeing one star,” Francis L. Halzen, an astrophysicist at the University of Wisconsin–Madison(US), and the director of IceCube, said in a telephone interview, describing the current state of the hunt for the ghostly particles.

    Early work by Soviet scientists helped inspire Dr. Halzen in the 1980s to build a neutrino detector in the Antarctic ice. Now, Dr. Halzen says his team believes it may have found two additional sources of neutrinos arriving from deep in space — but it is difficult to be certain, because no one else has detected them. He hopes that will change in the coming years as the Baikal telescope expands.

    “We have to be superconservative because nobody, at the moment, can check what we are doing,” Dr. Halzen said. “It’s exciting for me to have another experiment to interact with and to exchange data with.”

    In the 1970s, despite the Cold War, the Americans and the Soviets were working together to plan a first deep water neutrino detector off the coast of Hawaii. But after the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, the Soviets were kicked out of the project. So, in 1980, the Institute for Nuclear Research[институт ядерных исследований institut yadernykh issledovaniy](RU) in Moscow started its own neutrino-telescope effort, led by Dr. Domogatski. The place to try seemed obvious, although it was about 2,500 miles away: Baikal.

    The project did not get far beyond planning and design before the Soviet Union collapsed, throwing many of the country’s scientists into poverty and their efforts into disarray. But an institute outside Berlin, which soon became part of Germany’s DESY Electron Synchrotron[ Deütsches Elektronen-Synchrotron](DE) particle research center, joined the Baikal effort.

    Christian Spiering, who led the German team, recalls shipping hundreds of pounds of butter, sugar, coffee and sausage to sustain the annual winter expeditions onto the Baikal ice. He also brought to Moscow thousands of dollars’ worth of cash to supplement the Russians’ meager salaries.

    Dr. Domogatski and his team persisted. When a Lithuanian electronics maker refused to accept rubles as payment, one of the physicists negotiated to pay with a train car full of cedar wood, Dr. Spiering recalls.

    In a conversation with Dr. Spiering, Dr. Domogatski once compared his scientists to the frog in a Russian proverb that fell in a vat of milk and had only one way to survive: “It’s got to keep moving, until the milk turns to butter.”

    5
    The rising sun over Lake Baikal. Three feet of ice cover the lake in winter, an ideal platform for installing an underwater photomultiplier array.

    6
    Buoys wait to be paired with the spherical light detectors before being submerged beneath the ice.

    By the mid 1990s, the Russian team had managed to identify “atmospheric” neutrinos — those produced by collisions in Earth’s atmosphere — but not ones arriving from outer space. It would need a bigger detector for that. As Russia started to reinvest in science in the 2000s under President Vladimir V. Putin, Dr. Domogatski managed to secure more than $30 million in funding to build a new Baikal telescope as big as IceCube.

    The lake is as much as a mile deep, with some of the clearest fresh water in the world, and a czarist-era railroad conveniently skirts the southern shore. Most important, it is covered by a three-foot-thick sheet of ice in the winter: nature’s ideal platform for installing an underwater photomultiplier array.

    “It’s as if Baikal is made for this type of research,” said Bair Shaybonov, a researcher on the project.

    Construction began in 2015, and a first phase encompassing 2,304 light-detecting orbs suspended in the depths is scheduled to be completed by the time the ice melts in April. (The orbs remain suspended in the water year-round, watching for neutrinos and sending data to the scientists’ lakeshore base by underwater cable.) The telescope has been collecting data for years, but Russia’s minister of science, Valery N. Falkov, plunged a chain saw into the ice as part of a made-for-television opening ceremony this month.

    The Baikal telescope looks down, through the entire planet, out the other side, toward the center of our galaxy and beyond, essentially using Earth as a giant sieve. For the most part, larger particles hitting the opposite side of the planet eventually collide with atoms. But almost all neutrinos — 100 billion of which pass through your fingertip every second — continue, essentially, on a straight line.

    Yet when a neutrino, exceedingly rarely, hits an atomic nucleus in the water, it produces a cone of blue light called Čerenkov radiation. The effect was discovered by the Soviet physicist Pavel A. Čerenkov, one of Dr. Domogatski’s former colleagues down the hall at his institute in Moscow.

    If you spend years monitoring a billion tons of deep water for unimaginably tiny flashes of Čerenkov light, many physicists believe, you will eventually find neutrinos that can be traced back to cosmic conflagrations that emitted them billions of light-years away.

    The orientation of the blue cones even reveals the precise direction from which the neutrinos that caused them came. By not having an electrical charge, neutrinos are not affected by interstellar and intergalactic magnetic fields and other influences that scramble the paths of other types of cosmic particles, such as protons and electrons. Neutrinos go as straight through the universe as Einsteinian gravity will allow.

    That is what makes neutrinos so valuable to the study of the universe’s earliest, most distant and most violent events. And they could help elucidate other mysteries, such as what happens when stars far more massive than the sun collapse into a superdense ball of neutrons roughly 12 miles across — emitting huge quantities of neutrinos.

    7
    Despite the project’s significance, it operates on a modest budget, with almost all of the roughly 60 scientists spending February and March at their camp in Baikal, installing and repairing its components.

    “It travels the universe, colliding with practically nothing and no one,” Dr. Domogatski said of the neutrino. “For it, the universe is a transparent world.”

    Because it essentially looks through the planet, the Baikal telescope studies the sky of the Southern Hemisphere. That makes it a complement to IceCube in Antarctica, along with a European project in the Mediterranean that is at an earlier phase of construction.

    “We need an equivalent to IceCube in the Northern Hemisphere,” said Dr. Spiering, who remains involved in both the IceCube and Baikal projects.

    Dr. Domogatski says that his team is already exchanging data with neutrino hunters elsewhere, and that it has found evidence backing up IceCube’s conclusions about neutrinos arriving from outer space. Still, he acknowledges that the Baikal project is lagging far behind others in developing the computer software necessary to identify neutrinos in close to real time.

    Despite the project’s significance, it is still operating on a shoestring budget — almost all of the roughly 60 scientists working on the telescope usually spend February and March at their camp in Baikal, installing and repairing its components. IceCube, by contrast, involves some 300 scientists, most of whom have never been to the South Pole.

    These days, Dr. Domogatski no longer joins the annual winter expeditions to Baikal. But he still works out of the same Soviet-era institute where he kept his neutrino dream afloat through Communism, the chaotic 1990s and more than two decades of Mr. Putin’s rule.

    “If you take on a project, you must understand that you have to realize it in any conditions that come up,” Dr. Domogatski said, banging on his desk for emphasis. “Otherwise, there’s no point in even starting.”

    8
    The Search for Neutrinos

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 3:39 pm on March 24, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Measuring the invisible" Particle physicist Lindley Winslow, ABRACADABRA experiment at MIT, , , CUORE Experiment LNGS - Gran Sasso National Laboratory(IT), Kamioka Liquid Scintillator Antineutrino Detector-KamLAND, LBNL Cryogenic Dark Matter Search(US), Lindley Winslow has participated in many experiments herein enumerated., , , Neutrinos, Particle physicist Lindley Winslow seeks the universe’s smallest particles for answers to its biggest questions., , ,   

    From MIT: “Measuring the invisible” Particle physicist Lindley Winslow 

    MIT News


    From MIT

    March 24, 2021
    Jennifer Chu

    Particle physicist Lindley Winslow seeks the universe’s smallest particles for answers to its biggest questions.

    1
    MIT particle physicist Lindley Winslow seeks the universe’s smallest particles for answers to its biggest questions.
    Credit: M. Scott Brauer.

    When she entered the field of particle physics in the early 2000’s, Lindley Winslow was swept into the center of a massive experiment to measure the invisible.

    Scientists were finalizing the Kamioka Liquid Scintillator Antineutrino Detector-KamLAND, a building-sized particle detector built within a cavernous mine deep inside the Japanese Alps.

    KamLAND Neutrino Detector(JP) at the Kamioka Observatory, [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research; (神岡宇宙素粒子研究施設](JP) in located in a mine in Hida, Japan.

    The experiment was designed to detect neutrinos — subatomic particles that pass by the billions through ordinary matter.

    Neutrinos are produced anywhere particles interact and decay, from the Big Bang to the death of stars in supernovae. They rarely interact with matter and are therefore pristine messengers from the environments that create them.

    By 2000, scientists had observed neutrinos from various sources, including the sun, and hypothesized that the particles were morphing into different “flavors” by oscillating. KamLAND was designed to observe the oscillation, as a function of distance and energy, in neutrinos generated by Japan’s nearby nuclear reactors.

    Winslow joined the KamLAND effort the summer before graduate school and spent months in Japan, helping to prepare the detector for operation and then collecting data.

    “I learned to drive a manual transmission on reinforced land cruisers into the mine, past a waterfall, and down a long tunnel, where we then had to hike up a steep hill to the top of the detector,” Winslow says.

    In 2002, the experiment detected neutrino oscillations for the first time.

    “It was one of those moments in science where you know something that no one else in the world does,” recalls Winslow, who was part of the scientific collaboration that received the Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics in 2016 for the discovery.

    The experience was pivotal in shaping Winslow’s career path. In 2020, she received tenure as associate professor of physics at MIT, where she continues to search for neutrinos, with KamLAND and other particle-detecting experiments that she has had a hand in designing.

    “I like the challenge of measuring things that are very, very hard to measure,” Winslow says. “The motivation comes from trying to discover the smallest building blocks and how they affect the universe we live in.”

    Measuring the impossible

    Winslow grew up in Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania, where she explored the nearby forests and streams, and also learned to ride horses, even riding competitively in high school.

    She set her sights west for college, with the intention of studying astronomy, and was accepted to the University of California at Berkeley(US), where she happily spent the next decade, earning first an undergraduate degree in physics and astronomy, then a master’s and PhD in physics.

    Midway through college, Winslow learned of particle physics and the large experiments to detect elusive particles. A search for an undergraduate research project introduced her to the LBNL Cryogenic Dark Matter Search(US), or CDMS, an experiment that was run beneath the Stanford University(US) campus.

    CDMS at Stanford University

    CDMS was designed to detect weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPS — hypothetical particles that are thought to comprise dark matter — in detectors wrapped in ultrapure copper. For her first research project, Winslow helped analyze copper samples for the experiment’s next generation.

    “I liked seeing how all these pieces worked together, from sourcing the copper to figuring out how to build an experiment to basically measure the impossible,” Winslow says.

    Her later work with KamLAND, facilitated by her quantum mechanics professor and eventual thesis advisor, further inspired her to design experiments to search for neutrinos and other fundamental particles.

    “Little particles, big questions”

    After completing her PhD, Winslow took a postdoc position with Janet Conrad, professor of physics at MIT. In Conrad’s group, Winslow had freedom to explore ideas beyond the lab’s primary projects. One day, after watching a video about nanocrystals, Conrad wondered whether the atomic-scale materials might be useful in particle detection.

    “I remember her saying, ‘These nanocrystals are really cool. What can we do with them? Go!’ And I went and thought about it,” Winslow says.

    She soon came back with an idea: What if nanocrystals made from interesting isotopes could be dissolved in liquid scintillator to also realize more sensitive neutrino detection? Conrad thought it was a good idea and helped Winslow seek out grants to get the project going.

    In 2010, Winslow was awarded the L’Oréal for Women in Science Fellowship and a grant that she put toward the nanocrystal experiment, which she named “NuDot”, for the quantum dots (a type of nanocrystal) that she planned to work into a detector. When she finished her postdoc, she accepted a faculty position at the University of California at Los Angeles(US), where she continued laying plans for NuDot.

    A cold bargain

    Winslow spent two years at UCLA, during a time when the search for neutrinos circled around a new target: neutrinoless double-beta decay, a hypothetical process that, if observed, would prove that the neutrino is also its own antiparticle, which would help to explain why the universe has more matter than antimatter.

    At MIT, physics professor and department head Peter Fisher was looking to hire someone to explore double-beta decay. He offered the job to Winslow, who negotiated in return.

    “I told him what I wanted was a dilution refrigerator,” Winslow recalls. “The base price for one these is not small, and it’s asking a lot in particle physics. But he was like, ‘done!’”

    Winslow joined the MIT faculty in 2015, setting her lab up with a new dilution refrigerator that would allow her to cool macroscopic crystals to millikelvin temperatures to look for heat signatures from double-beta decay and other interesting particles. Today she is continuing to work on NuDot and the new generation of KamLAND, and is also a key member of CUORE Experiment LNGS – Gran Sasso National Laboratory(IT), a massive underground experiment in Italy with a much larger dilution refrigerator, designed to observe neutrinoless double-beta decay.

    Winslow has also made her mark on Hollywood. In 2016, while settling in at MIT, a colleague at UCLA recommended her as a consultant to the remake of the film Ghostbusters. The set design department was looking for ideas for how to stage the lab of one of the movie’s characters, a particle physicist. “I had just inherited a lab with a huge amount of junk that needed to be cleared out — gigantic crates filled with old scientific equipment, some of which had started to rust,” Winslow says. “[The producers] came to my lab and said, ‘This is perfect!’ And in the end it was a really fun collaboration.”

    In 2018, her work took a surprising turn when she was approached by theorist Benjamin Safdi, then at MIT, who with MIT physicist Jesse Thaler and former graduate student Yonatan Kahn PhD ’15 had devised a thought experiment named ABRACADABRA, to detect another hypothetical particle, the axion, by simulating a magnetar — a type of neutron star with intense magnetic fields that should make any interacting axions briefly detectable. Safdi heard of Winslow’s refrigerator and wondered whether she could engineer a detector inside it to test the idea.

    3
    4
    ABRACADABRA experiment at MIT.

    “It was an example of the wonderfulness that is MIT,” recalls Winslow, who jumped at the opportunity to design an entirely new experiment. In its first successful run, the ABRACADABRA detector reported no evidence of axions. The team is now designing larger versions, with greater sensitivity, to add to Winslow’s stable of growing detectors.

    “That’s all part of my group’s vision for the next 25 years: building big experiments that might detect little particles, to answer big questions,” Winslow says.

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    MIT Seal
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private land-grant research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The institute has an urban campus that extends more than a mile (1.6 km) alongside the Charles River. The institute also encompasses a number of major off-campus facilities such as the MIT Lincoln Laboratory, the Bates Center, and the Haystack Observatory, as well as affiliated laboratories such as the Broad and Whitehead Institutes.

    MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, Massachusetts, USA, Altitude 131 m (430 ft).

    Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. It has since played a key role in the development of many aspects of modern science, engineering, mathematics, and technology, and is widely known for its innovation and academic strength. It is frequently regarded as one of the most prestigious universities in the world.

    As of December 2020, 97 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, and 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 80 Marshall Scholars, 3 Mitchell Scholars, 22 Schwarzman Scholars, 41 astronauts, and 16 Chief Scientists of the U.S. Air Force have been affiliated with MIT. The university also has a strong entrepreneurial culture and MIT alumni have founded or co-founded many notable companies. MIT is a member of the Association of American Universities (AAU).

    Foundation and vision

    In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a “Conservatory of Art and Science”, but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by John Albion Andrew, the governor of Massachusetts, on April 10, 1861.

    Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances. He did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that:

    The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, and along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.

    The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories.

    Early developments

    Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT’s first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865. The new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions “to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes” and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay.

    MIT was informally called “Boston Tech”. The institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker. Programs in electrical, chemical, marine, and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, and the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand.

    The curriculum drifted to a vocational emphasis, with less focus on theoretical science. The fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these “Boston Tech” years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president (and former MIT faculty) Charles W. Eliot’s repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College’s Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding. Eventually, the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty, students, and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court effectively put an end to the merger scheme.

    In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT’s move to a spacious new campus largely consisting of filled land on a one-mile-long (1.6 km) tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River. The neoclassical “New Technology” campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded largely by anonymous donations from a mysterious “Mr. Smith”, starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, and founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million ($236.6 million in 2015 dollars) in cash and Kodak stock to MIT.
    Curricular reforms

    In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President (effectively Provost) Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios. The Compton reforms “renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering”. Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, and depended more on tuition than on endowments or grants for its funding. The school was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1934.

    Still, as late as 1949, the Lewis Committee lamented in its report on the state of education at MIT that “the Institute is widely conceived as basically a vocational school”, a “partly unjustified” perception the committee sought to change. The report comprehensively reviewed the undergraduate curriculum, recommended offering a broader education, and warned against letting engineering and government-sponsored research detract from the sciences and humanities. The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences and the MIT Sloan School of Management were formed in 1950 to compete with the powerful Schools of Science and Engineering. Previously marginalized faculties in the areas of economics, management, political science, and linguistics emerged into cohesive and assertive departments by attracting respected professors and launching competitive graduate programs. The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences continued to develop under the successive terms of the more humanistically oriented presidents Howard W. Johnson and Jerome Wiesner between 1966 and 1980.

    MIT’s involvement in military science surged during World War II. In 1941, Vannevar Bush was appointed head of the federal Office of Scientific Research and Development and directed funding to only a select group of universities, including MIT. Engineers and scientists from across the country gathered at MIT’s Radiation Laboratory, established in 1940 to assist the British military in developing microwave radar. The work done there significantly affected both the war and subsequent research in the area. Other defense projects included gyroscope-based and other complex control systems for gunsight, bombsight, and inertial navigation under Charles Stark Draper’s Instrumentation Laboratory; the development of a digital computer for flight simulations under Project Whirlwind; and high-speed and high-altitude photography under Harold Edgerton. By the end of the war, MIT became the nation’s largest wartime R&D contractor (attracting some criticism of Bush), employing nearly 4000 in the Radiation Laboratory alone and receiving in excess of $100 million ($1.2 billion in 2015 dollars) before 1946. Work on defense projects continued even after then. Post-war government-sponsored research at MIT included SAGE and guidance systems for ballistic missiles and Project Apollo.

    These activities affected MIT profoundly. A 1949 report noted the lack of “any great slackening in the pace of life at the Institute” to match the return to peacetime, remembering the “academic tranquility of the prewar years”, though acknowledging the significant contributions of military research to the increased emphasis on graduate education and rapid growth of personnel and facilities. The faculty doubled and the graduate student body quintupled during the terms of Karl Taylor Compton, president of MIT between 1930 and 1948; James Rhyne Killian, president from 1948 to 1957; and Julius Adams Stratton, chancellor from 1952 to 1957, whose institution-building strategies shaped the expanding university. By the 1950s, MIT no longer simply benefited the industries with which it had worked for three decades, and it had developed closer working relationships with new patrons, philanthropic foundations and the federal government.

    In late 1960s and early 1970s, student and faculty activists protested against the Vietnam War and MIT’s defense research. In this period MIT’s various departments were researching helicopters, smart bombs and counterinsurgency techniques for the war in Vietnam as well as guidance systems for nuclear missiles. The Union of Concerned Scientists was founded on March 4, 1969 during a meeting of faculty members and students seeking to shift the emphasis on military research toward environmental and social problems. MIT ultimately divested itself from the Instrumentation Laboratory and moved all classified research off-campus to the MIT Lincoln Laboratory facility in 1973 in response to the protests. The student body, faculty, and administration remained comparatively unpolarized during what was a tumultuous time for many other universities. Johnson was seen to be highly successful in leading his institution to “greater strength and unity” after these times of turmoil. However six MIT students were sentenced to prison terms at this time and some former student leaders, such as Michael Albert and George Katsiaficas, are still indignant about MIT’s role in military research and its suppression of these protests. (Richard Leacock’s film, November Actions, records some of these tumultuous events.)

    In the 1980s, there was more controversy at MIT over its involvement in SDI (space weaponry) and CBW (chemical and biological warfare) research. More recently, MIT’s research for the military has included work on robots, drones and ‘battle suits’.

    Recent history

    MIT has kept pace with and helped to advance the digital age. In addition to developing the predecessors to modern computing and networking technologies, students, staff, and faculty members at Project MAC, the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and the Tech Model Railroad Club wrote some of the earliest interactive computer video games like Spacewar! and created much of modern hacker slang and culture. Several major computer-related organizations have originated at MIT since the 1980s: Richard Stallman’s GNU Project and the subsequent Free Software Foundation were founded in the mid-1980s at the AI Lab; the MIT Media Lab was founded in 1985 by Nicholas Negroponte and Jerome Wiesner to promote research into novel uses of computer technology; the World Wide Web Consortium standards organization was founded at the Laboratory for Computer Science in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee; the OpenCourseWare project has made course materials for over 2,000 MIT classes available online free of charge since 2002; and the One Laptop per Child initiative to expand computer education and connectivity to children worldwide was launched in 2005.

    MIT was named a sea-grant college in 1976 to support its programs in oceanography and marine sciences and was named a space-grant college in 1989 to support its aeronautics and astronautics programs. Despite diminishing government financial support over the past quarter century, MIT launched several successful development campaigns to significantly expand the campus: new dormitories and athletics buildings on west campus; the Tang Center for Management Education; several buildings in the northeast corner of campus supporting research into biology, brain and cognitive sciences, genomics, biotechnology, and cancer research; and a number of new “backlot” buildings on Vassar Street including the Stata Center. Construction on campus in the 2000s included expansions of the Media Lab, the Sloan School’s eastern campus, and graduate residences in the northwest. In 2006, President Hockfield launched the MIT Energy Research Council to investigate the interdisciplinary challenges posed by increasing global energy consumption.

    In 2001, inspired by the open source and open access movements, MIT launched OpenCourseWare to make the lecture notes, problem sets, syllabi, exams, and lectures from the great majority of its courses available online for no charge, though without any formal accreditation for coursework completed. While the cost of supporting and hosting the project is high, OCW expanded in 2005 to include other universities as a part of the OpenCourseWare Consortium, which currently includes more than 250 academic institutions with content available in at least six languages. In 2011, MIT announced it would offer formal certification (but not credits or degrees) to online participants completing coursework in its “MITx” program, for a modest fee. The “edX” online platform supporting MITx was initially developed in partnership with Harvard and its analogous “Harvardx” initiative. The courseware platform is open source, and other universities have already joined and added their own course content. In March 2009 the MIT faculty adopted an open-access policy to make its scholarship publicly accessible online.

    MIT has its own police force. Three days after the Boston Marathon bombing of April 2013, MIT Police patrol officer Sean Collier was fatally shot by the suspects Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev, setting off a violent manhunt that shut down the campus and much of the Boston metropolitan area for a day. One week later, Collier’s memorial service was attended by more than 10,000 people, in a ceremony hosted by the MIT community with thousands of police officers from the New England region and Canada. On November 25, 2013, MIT announced the creation of the Collier Medal, to be awarded annually to “an individual or group that embodies the character and qualities that Officer Collier exhibited as a member of the MIT community and in all aspects of his life”. The announcement further stated that “Future recipients of the award will include those whose contributions exceed the boundaries of their profession, those who have contributed to building bridges across the community, and those who consistently and selflessly perform acts of kindness”.

    In September 2017, the school announced the creation of an artificial intelligence research lab called the MIT-IBM Watson AI Lab. IBM will spend $240 million over the next decade, and the lab will be staffed by MIT and IBM scientists. In October 2018 MIT announced that it would open a new Schwarzman College of Computing dedicated to the study of artificial intelligence, named after lead donor and The Blackstone Group CEO Stephen Schwarzman. The focus of the new college is to study not just AI, but interdisciplinary AI education, and how AI can be used in fields as diverse as history and biology. The cost of buildings and new faculty for the new college is expected to be $1 billion upon completion.

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) was designed and constructed by a team of scientists from California Institute of Technology, MIT, and industrial contractors, and funded by the National Science Foundation.

    MIT/Caltech Advanced aLigo .

    It was designed to open the field of gravitational-wave astronomy through the detection of gravitational waves predicted by general relativity. Gravitational waves were detected for the first time by the LIGO detector in 2015. For contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves, two Caltech physicists, Kip Thorne and Barry Barish, and MIT physicist Rainer Weiss won the Nobel Prize in physics in 2017. Weiss, who is also an MIT graduate, designed the laser interferometric technique, which served as the essential blueprint for the LIGO.

    The mission of MIT is to advance knowledge and educate students in science, technology, and other areas of scholarship that will best serve the nation and the world in the twenty-first century. We seek to develop in each member of the MIT community the ability and passion to work wisely, creatively, and effectively for the betterment of humankind.

    USPS “Forever” postage stamps celebrating Innovation at MIT.

    MIT Campus

     
  • richardmitnick 11:09 pm on March 23, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Crews complete major upgrade to Ross Hoists", , DUNE/LBNF Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment(US), Neutrinos, ,   

    From Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF: “Crews complete major upgrade to Ross Hoists” 

    SURF-Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota, USA.


    From Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF

    Homestake Mining, Lead, South Dakota, USA.


    Homestake Mining Company

    March 22, 2021
    Erin Lorraine Broberg
    Photos by Matthew Kapust

    The Ross Hoists, built in the 1930s, receive major upgrades in preparation for DUNE/LBNF Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment(US) construction and operation.

    1
    Contractors completed major mechanical and electrical upgrades to the Ross Hoists at Sanford Underground Research Facility. Newly installed equipment can be identified by its dark blue color, the signature color of Siemag Tecberg, the company contracted by Fermilab for the design, supply and commissioning of the Ross Hoistroom upgrade.

    This week, contractors completed major mechanical and electrical upgrades to the Ross Hoists at Sanford Underground Research Facility (Sanford Lab).

    During upcoming construction of Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) and future operation of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) [see project images below], the Ross Hoists will power the excavation of 800,000 tons of waste rock and serve as the conveyance for people, materials and equipment underground. Originally manufactured in the 1930s, the hoists needed to be upgraded to support this ambitious undertaking.

    “It’s remarkable that the Ross Hoists were still in such good working condition, although several key components needed to be refurbished or replaced,” said Colton Clark, project engineer with the LBNF/DUNE Project at the DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

    Mechanical upgrades were made to both the cage hoist, which conveys people and equipment, and the production hoist, which will skip excavated rock to the surface to be crushed and transported to the Open Cut. The upgrades included new motors, brakes and clutches for both hoists, as well as advanced safety features and auxiliary brakes for the cage hoist.

    2
    New clutches were part of the Ross Hoists upgrades. Newly installed equipment can be identified by its dark blue color, the signature color of Siemag Tecberg, the company contracted by Fermilab for the design, supply and commissioning of the Ross Hoistroom upgrade.

    The Ross Hoists were originally powered by direct current (DC) motors, with two motor-generator sets converting alternating current (AC) from the nearby substation into DC power. The electrical portion of the upgrade replaced the original DC motors and motor-generator sets with AC motors and variable frequency drives. Additionally, a new transformer was installed to maintain a modern industry standard voltage.

    3
    AC motors with variable frequency drives replaced the original DC motors and motor-generator sets in the Ross Hoistroom.

    Perhaps the most visual change to the Ross Hoistroom is an upgrade to the hoist operator platforms. The former open-air platforms with manual controls have been replaced by enclosed booths and electronic operating systems.

    4
    Ross Hoist operators previously controlled the hoists from open-air platforms with large dials that indicated the position of the conveyances in the shafts.

    5
    Ross Hoist operators now control the hoists from enclosed booths with electronic operating systems.

    This is one of the final projects in a series of infrastructure improvements geared toward preparing the Ross Complex as part of the LBNF/DUNE Project. Previous efforts replaced Ross cages, skips and ropes; strengthened the Ross Headframe; and restored the tramway and built the conveyor system. Additionally, the Ross Shaft Rehabilitation project refurbished the entire Ross Shaft.

    “These upgrades are necessary for the construction and operation of LBNF/DUNE,” said Mike Headley, the executive director of Sanford Lab. “And these facility improvements benefit the site overall, providing access and reliability to all science users who do research at Sanford Lab.”

    Siemag Tecberg, Inc. was contracted by Fermilab for the design, supply and commissioning of the Ross Hoistroom upgrade. In 2000, Siemag Tecberg had acquired Nordberg Manufacturers, the original manufacturer of the Ross Hoists.

    “These contractors are subject matter experts on the hoists, and they are still amazed by what Nordberg did in the 1930s,” Clark said. “They’ve never worked in a hoistroom that was built like this. The size of it, the cleanliness, how everything’s been maintained—they are completely impressed.”

    Several components being replaced in this upgrade are of historic significance, including the controls and large dials on the operator platforms. These components will be preserved by Sanford Lab for educational purposes.

    “The facility’s hoists are an amazing engineering feat,” Headley said. “They have served the site well for nearly 90 years, and we’re now upgrading them with modern systems to support Sanford Lab for decades into the future.”

    6
    The Ross Hoistroom in 2010, before the major upgrade.

    7
    A panorama of the Ross Hoistroom in 2021 showcases recent upgrades. Newly installed equipment can be identified by its dark blue color, the signature color of Siemag Tecberg, the company contracted by Fermilab for the design, supply and commissioning of the Ross Hoistroom upgrade.

    See the full article here .

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) is America’s premier national laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research. A U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science laboratory, Fermilab is located near Chicago, Illinois, and operated under contract by the Fermi Research Alliance LLC, a joint partnership between the University of Chicago and the Universities Research Association Inc. Visit Fermilab’s website at http://www.fnal.gov.

    The DOE Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit http://energy.gov/science.


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    About us: The Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF in Lead, South Dakota, advances our understanding of the universe by providing laboratory space deep underground, where sensitive physics experiments can be shielded from cosmic radiation. Researchers at the Sanford Lab explore some of the most challenging questions facing 21st century physics, such as the origin of matter, the nature of dark matter and the properties of neutrinos. The facility also hosts experiments in other disciplines—including geology, biology and engineering.

    The Sanford Lab is located at the former Homestake gold mine, which was a physics landmark long before being converted into a dedicated science facility. Nuclear chemist Ray Davis earned a share of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2002 for a solar neutrino experiment he installed 4,850 feet underground in the mine.

    Homestake closed in 2003, but the company donated the property to South Dakota in 2006 for use as an underground laboratory. That same year, philanthropist T. Denny Sanford donated $70 million to the project. The South Dakota Legislature also created the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to operate the lab. The state Legislature has committed more than $40 million in state funds to the project, and South Dakota also obtained a $10 million Community Development Block Grant to help rehabilitate the facility.

    In 2007, after the National Science Foundation named Homestake as the preferred site for a proposed national Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) began reopening the former gold mine.

    In December 2010, the National Science Board decided not to fund further design of DUSEL. However, in 2011 the Department of Energy, through the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, agreed to support ongoing science operations at Sanford Lab, while investigating how to use the underground research facility for other longer-term experiments. The SDSTA, which owns Sanford Lab, continues to operate the facility under that agreement with Berkeley Lab.

    The first two major physics experiments at the Sanford Lab are 4,850 feet underground in an area called the Davis Campus, named for the late Ray Davis. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is housed in the same cavern excavated for Ray Davis’s experiment in the 1960s.

    LBNL LZ project at SURF, Lead, SD, USA, will replace LUX at SURF

    In October 2013, after an initial run of 80 days, LUX was determined to be the most sensitive detector yet to search for dark matter—a mysterious, yet-to-be-detected substance thought to be the most prevalent matter in the universe. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment, also on the 4850 Level, is searching for a rare phenomenon called “neutrinoless double-beta decay” that could reveal whether subatomic particles called neutrinos can be their own antiparticle. Detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay could help determine why matter prevailed over antimatter. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment is adjacent to the original Davis cavern.

    LUX’s mission was to scour the universe for WIMPs, vetoing all other signatures. It would continue to do just that for another three years before it was decommissioned in 2016.

    In the midst of the excitement over first results, the LUX collaboration was already casting its gaze forward. Planning for a next-generation dark matter experiment at Sanford Lab was already under way. Named LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ), the next-generation experiment would increase the sensitivity of LUX 100 times.

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory(US) physicist Tom Shutt, a previous co-spokesperson for LUX, said one goal of the experiment was to figure out how to build an even larger detector.

    “LZ will be a thousand times more sensitive than the LUX detector,” Shutt said. “It will just begin to see an irreducible background of neutrinos that may ultimately set the limit to our ability to measure dark matter.”

    We celebrate five years of LUX, and look into the steps being taken toward the much larger and far more sensitive experiment.

    Another major experiment, the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE)—a collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and Sanford Lab, is in the preliminary design stages. The project got a major boost last year when Congress approved and the president signed an Omnibus Appropriations bill that will fund LBNE operations through FY 2014. Called the “next frontier of particle physics,” LBNE will follow neutrinos as they travel 800 miles through the earth, from FermiLab in Batavia, Ill., to Sanford Lab.

    FNAL LBNE/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    SURF DUNE LBNF Caverns at Sanford Lab.

    U Washington Majorana Demonstrator Experiment at SURF

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will contain 40 kg of germanium; up to 30 kg will be enriched to 86% in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will be deployed deep underground in an ultra-low-background shielded environment in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. The goal of the DEMONSTRATOR is to determine whether a future 1-tonne experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a 4-keV region of interest around the 76Ge 0νββ Q-value at 2039 keV. MAJORANA plans to collaborate with GERDA for a future tonne-scale 76Ge 0νββ search.

    CASPAR at SURF.

    CASPAR experiment target at SURF.

    CASPAR is a low-energy particle accelerator that allows researchers to study processes that take place inside collapsing stars.

    The scientists are using space in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, to work on a project called the Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR). CASPAR uses a low-energy particle accelerator that will allow researchers to mimic nuclear fusion reactions in stars. If successful, their findings could help complete our picture of how the elements in our universe are built. “Nuclear astrophysics is about what goes on inside the star, not outside of it,” said Dan Robertson, a Notre Dame assistant research professor of astrophysics working on CASPAR. “It is not observational, but experimental. The idea is to reproduce the stellar environment, to reproduce the reactions within a star.”

     
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