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  • richardmitnick 1:04 pm on December 30, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: " The search for error-free qubits", "Collisions create matter… and turbulence", "Enzymes and catalysts for greener chemistry", "Explorations of particle peculiarities", "Nanoscience discoveries with big commercial potential", "Top Areas of Amazing Science at Brookhaven Lab in 2021", , , , , , , , FNAL MicroBooNE experiment, , Neutrinos, , , STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)   

    From DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (US) : “Top Areas of Amazing Science at Brookhaven Lab in 2021” 

    From DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (US)

    Karen McNulty Walsh
    kmcnulty@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-8350

    Peter Genzer
    genzer@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-3174

    Explorations of particle peculiarities

    1
    Explorations of particle anomalies.

    Physicists at Brookhaven are heavily involved in two major experiments that reported results from explorations of particle anomalies this year. First, the new “Muon g-2” experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory confirmed a quirky behavior of muons initially observed in a Brookhaven experiment 20 years ago.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Muon g-2 studio. As muons race around a ring at the Muon g-2 studio, their spin axes twirl, reflecting the influence of unseen particles.

    This persistent discrepancy between the combined experimental results and the theoretical predictions of muons’ behavior suggests that muons may be interacting with yet-to-be-discovered particles.

    Scientists searching for a new particle to explain a different physics anomaly—in the predicted “oscillations” of neutrinos—say the MicroBooNE experiment, also at Fermilab, shows no evidence of a fourth “sterile” neutrino variety to add to the three known types.
    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) MicrobooNE experiment.

    Standard Model of Particle Physics, Quantum Diaries.

    But the neutrino-tracking software/signal processing and detector technologies developed in large part by Brookhaven scientists will be key to future neutrino experiments, notably the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE).

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) DUNE LBNF (US) from FNAL to Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) DUNE LBNF (US) Caverns at Sanford Underground Research Facility.

    Collisions create matter… and turbulence

    2
    STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    Scientists tracking particle collisions using the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) created particles of matter and antimatter from light. It’s an illustration of Einstein’s famous E=mc2 equation. The results confirm a prediction made more than 80 years ago that such collisions of light particles surrounding accelerated ions could generate matter.

    STAR physicists also detected tantalizing signs of “turbulence” in RHIC collision data gathered at different energies. These fluctuations may indicate a change in the way nuclear matter transforms from nucleons (protons and neutrons) to a soup of those particles’ inner building blocks, quarks and gluons.

    Even as collisions continue, assembly of a new RHIC detector named sPHENIX made enormous progress this year. See updated photos and a time-lapse video.


    Timelapse video of crews carefully moving the magnet into place

    Electron-Ion Collider project [below] achieves major milestone

    4

    The plan to transform RHIC into the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) received “Critical Decision 1” approval from DOE. This marks the next phase of translating the plans for the EIC into a state-of-the-art research facility that will open a new frontier in nuclear physics. Brookhaven project staff, physicists, and engineers are working with counterparts at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and collaborators around the world to design the accelerator components while members of the EIC User Group lay out plans for possible detectors.

    Nanoscience discoveries with big commercial potential

    5
    Scientists at the Lab’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN)

    Scientists at the Lab’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) made two discoveries related to making materials with possible commercial applications. One is a method for making extreme ultraviolet-sensitive photoresist “masks” by infusing existing organic materials with inorganic elements. The method could allow for etching smaller-scale features onto computer chips to increase their speed and efficiency.

    Another group of scientists from the CFN and the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) [below] used a range of methods, including x-ray studies, to discover how modifying an inexpensive commercially available porous material could trap noble gases within its nanoscale pores. If successful, the modified material could potentially capture rare noble gases such as krypton and xenon for use in specialized lighting, or to remove dangerous gases like radon from basements.

    The search for error-free qubits

    6
    Searching for materials that can reliably encode and store quantum information—an essential step toward developing quantum computers.

    Brookhaven scientists are among those searching for materials that can reliably encode and store quantum information—an essential step toward developing quantum computers. Superconductors—materials in which pairs of electrons carry electrical current with no resistance—are promising candidates because they’re protected from certain kinds of interference.

    In one study aimed at understanding these challenging materials, Brookhaven scientists mapped the magnetic and electronic properties of an exotic “topological” superconductor containing iron, tellurium, and selenium. Using neutron scattering at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and tools at Brookhaven’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) [below] and within the Lab’s Condensed Matter and Materials Science Department, they zeroed in on how changes in local chemical composition affected the material’s properties.

    Another team including scientists at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) and the CFN explored why a superconducting material made of niobium metal sometimes loses quantum information. They identified atomic-level structural and surface chemistry defects that might explain the loss. Both studies offer clues that could guide the design of reliable superconducting quantum information bits, or qubits.

    Magnetic materials can also exhibit quantum effects that can be used in the design of next-generation electronics. For example, researchers at NSLS-II discovered that the thickness of magnetic materials can act as a “knob” for fine-tuning spin dynamics, a property of electrons that can be harnessed for transmitting information more efficiently. This study offers new insight toward the development of smaller, more energy-efficient electronic devices.

    Also this year, a first-of-its-kind tool for automatically synthesizing quantum materials entered the commissioning phase at CFN. The Quantum Material Press (QPress) can synthesize, process, and characterize materials made of stacked two-dimensional sheets—and should help accelerate the discovery of new materials for applications in quantum information science.

    Enzymes and catalysts for greener chemistry

    7
    Biologists and chemists at Brookhaven have uncovered potential keys to greener chemistry in a string of successful studies this year.

    Plant biochemists in the Biology Department identified a sterol that plays a major role in the accumulation of oil in seeds, the plants’ normal oil-storage reservoir, as well as in stems and leaves. Oil-rich stems and leaves could be more easily harvested for producing biofuels. They also identified an enzyme that drives the production of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, a component of plant cell walls that could be used as a feedstock for making a wide range of industrial chemicals. And they found a way to dismantle a biochemical “roadblock” to producing a specialty fatty acid in plants. These studies suggest strategies for engineering plants to produce products that could replace petrochemicals, or to tailor plant biomass for improved bioenergy production and other applications.

    Chemistry Division scientists discovered the mechanistic details of two catalysts that could help convert potent greenhouse gases into useful products: one that transforms carbon dioxide into ethanol and another that converts methane to methanol. Both ethanol and methanol can be used directly as fuels or as building blocks for making a wide range of industrial chemicals.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the DOE(US) Office of Science, DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (US) conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University(US), the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle(US), a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

    Research at BNL specializes in nuclear and high energy physics, energy science and technology, environmental and bioscience, nanoscience and national security. The 5,300 acre campus contains several large research facilities, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider [below] and National Synchrotron Light Source II [below]. Seven Nobel prizes have been awarded for work conducted at Brookhaven lab.

    BNL is staffed by approximately 2,750 scientists, engineers, technicians, and support personnel, and hosts 4,000 guest investigators every year. The laboratory has its own police station, fire department, and ZIP code (11973). In total, the lab spans a 5,265-acre (21 km^2) area that is mostly coterminous with the hamlet of Upton, New York. BNL is served by a rail spur operated as-needed by the New York and Atlantic Railway. Co-located with the laboratory is the Upton, New York, forecast office of the National Weather Service.

    Major programs

    Although originally conceived as a nuclear research facility, Brookhaven Lab’s mission has greatly expanded. Its foci are now:

    Nuclear and high-energy physics
    Physics and chemistry of materials
    Environmental and climate research
    Nanomaterials
    Energy research
    Nonproliferation
    Structural biology
    Accelerator physics

    Operation

    Brookhaven National Lab was originally owned by the Atomic Energy Commission(US) and is now owned by that agency’s successor, the United States Department of Energy (DOE). DOE subcontracts the research and operation to universities and research organizations. It is currently operated by Brookhaven Science Associates LLC, which is an equal partnership of Stony Brook University(US) and Battelle Memorial Institute(US). From 1947 to 1998, it was operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) (US), but AUI lost its contract in the wake of two incidents: a 1994 fire at the facility’s high-beam flux reactor that exposed several workers to radiation and reports in 1997 of a tritium leak into the groundwater of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens on which the facility sits.

    Foundations

    Following World War II, the US Atomic Energy Commission was created to support government-sponsored peacetime research on atomic energy. The effort to build a nuclear reactor in the American northeast was fostered largely by physicists Isidor Isaac Rabi and Norman Foster Ramsey Jr., who during the war witnessed many of their colleagues at Columbia University leave for new remote research sites following the departure of the Manhattan Project from its campus. Their effort to house this reactor near New York City was rivalled by a similar effort at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) to have a facility near Boston, Massachusettes(US). Involvement was quickly solicited from representatives of northeastern universities to the south and west of New York City such that this city would be at their geographic center. In March 1946 a nonprofit corporation was established that consisted of representatives from nine major research universities — Columbia University(US), Cornell University(US), Harvard University(US), Johns Hopkins University(US), Massachusetts Institute of Technology(US), Princeton University(US), University of Pennsylvania(US), University of Rochester(US), and Yale University(US).

    Out of 17 considered sites in the Boston-Washington corridor, Camp Upton on Long Island was eventually chosen as the most suitable in consideration of space, transportation, and availability. The camp had been a training center from the US Army during both World War I and World War II. After the latter war, Camp Upton was deemed no longer necessary and became available for reuse. A plan was conceived to convert the military camp into a research facility.

    On March 21, 1947, the Camp Upton site was officially transferred from the U.S. War Department to the new U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

    Research and facilities

    Reactor history

    In 1947 construction began on the first nuclear reactor at Brookhaven, the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor. This reactor, which opened in 1950, was the first reactor to be constructed in the United States after World War II. The High Flux Beam Reactor operated from 1965 to 1999. In 1959 Brookhaven built the first US reactor specifically tailored to medical research, the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, which operated until 2000.

    Accelerator history

    In 1952 Brookhaven began using its first particle accelerator, the Cosmotron. At the time the Cosmotron was the world’s highest energy accelerator, being the first to impart more than 1 GeV of energy to a particle.

    BNL Cosmotron 1952-1966

    The Cosmotron was retired in 1966, after it was superseded in 1960 by the new Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS)

    The AGS was used in research that resulted in 3 Nobel prizes, including the discovery of the muon neutrino, the charm quark, and CP violation.

    In 1970 in BNL started the ISABELLE project to develop and build two proton intersecting storage rings.

    The groundbreaking for the project was in October 1978. In 1981, with the tunnel for the accelerator already excavated, problems with the superconducting magnets needed for the ISABELLE accelerator brought the project to a halt, and the project was eventually cancelled in 1983.

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (US) operated from 1982 to 2014 and was involved with two Nobel Prize-winning discoveries. It has since been replaced by the National Synchrotron Light Source II (US) [below].

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (US).

    After ISABELLE’S cancellation, physicist at BNL proposed that the excavated tunnel and parts of the magnet assembly be used in another accelerator. In 1984 the first proposal for the accelerator now known as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)[below] was put forward. The construction got funded in 1991 and RHIC has been operational since 2000. One of the world’s only two operating heavy-ion colliders, RHIC is as of 2010 the second-highest-energy collider after the Large Hadron Collider(CH). RHIC is housed in a tunnel 2.4 miles (3.9 km) long and is visible from space.

    On January 9, 2020, It was announced by Paul Dabbar, undersecretary of the US Department of Energy Office of Science, that the BNL eRHIC design has been selected over the conceptual design put forward by DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility [Jlab] (US) as the future Electron–ion collider (EIC) in the United States.

    Brookhaven Lab Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) (US) to be built inside the tunnel that currently houses the RHIC.

    In addition to the site selection, it was announced that the BNL EIC had acquired CD-0 from the Department of Energy. BNL’s eRHIC design proposes upgrading the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, which collides beams light to heavy ions including polarized protons, with a polarized electron facility, to be housed in the same tunnel.

    Other discoveries

    In 1958, Brookhaven scientists created one of the world’s first video games, Tennis for Two. In 1968 Brookhaven scientists patented Maglev, a transportation technology that utilizes magnetic levitation.

    Major facilities

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which was designed to research quark–gluon plasma and the sources of proton spin. Until 2009 it was the world’s most powerful heavy ion collider. It is the only collider of spin-polarized protons.

    Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), used for the study of nanoscale materials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II(US), Brookhaven’s newest user facility, opened in 2015 to replace the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which had operated for 30 years. NSLS was involved in the work that won the 2003 and 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

    Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, a particle accelerator that was used in three of the lab’s Nobel prizes.
    Accelerator Test Facility, generates, accelerates and monitors particle beams.
    Tandem Van de Graaff, once the world’s largest electrostatic accelerator.

    Computational Science resources, including access to a massively parallel Blue Gene series supercomputer that is among the fastest in the world for scientific research, run jointly by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University-SUNY (US).

    Interdisciplinary Science Building, with unique laboratories for studying high-temperature superconductors and other materials important for addressing energy challenges.
    NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, where scientists use beams of ions to simulate cosmic rays and assess the risks of space radiation to human space travelers and equipment.

    Off-site contributions

    It is a contributing partner to the ATLAS experiment, one of the four detectors located at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

    European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire)(EU) [CERN] map

    Iconic view of the European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire](CH)CERN ATLAS detector.

    It is currently operating at The European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] near Geneva, Switzerland.

    Brookhaven was also responsible for the design of the SNS accumulator ring in partnership with Spallation Neutron Source at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US), Tennessee.

    DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory(US) Spallation Neutron Source annotated.

    Brookhaven plays a role in a range of neutrino research projects around the world, including the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China.

    Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) from FNAL to Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II(US).

    BNL NSLS II (US).

    BNL Relative Heavy Ion Collider (US) Campus.

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector.

    BNL/RHIC Phenix detector.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:19 am on December 28, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , A Majorana particle is one that is indistinguishable from its antimatter partner. This sets it apart from all other particles., , , It is quantum mechanics' uncertancy principle at work that makes this flavor change possible., Neutrino research places detectors in underground caverns; at the South Pole; in the ocean; and even in a van for drive-by neutrino monitoring for nuclear safeguard applications., , Neutrinos, Of all the known fundamental particles that have mass neutrinos are the most abundant—only the massless photon- which we see as light is more abundant., Oscillation: neutrinos co-exist in a mixture of “flavors.” While they must start out as a particular flavor upon formation they can evolve into a mixture of other flavors: tau; electron., , Some experiments are only satisfied if we find no neutrinos- as in the case of neutrinoless double-beta decay searches., The Majorana Demonstrator (Majorana) project, , We look for neutrinos from nuclear reactors; particle accelerators; the earth; our atmosphere; the sun; from supernovae.   

    From The Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF (US): “The neutrino puzzle” 

    SURF-Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    From The Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF (US)

    Homestake Mining, Lead, South Dakota, USA.
    Homestake Mining Company

    August 30, 2021 [Found in a year-end round up.]
    Constance Walter

    1
    Vincent Guiseppe in a clean suit in the Majorana Demonstrator cleanroom on the 4850 Level of SURF. Behind him, the Majorana Demonstrator shielding is opened to reveal the copper core and cryostat module, which houses the inner detector components. Photo by Nick Hubbard.

    Imagine trying to put together a jigsaw puzzle that has no picture for reference, is missing several pieces and, of the pieces you do have, some don’t quite fit together.

    Welcome to the life of a neutrino researcher.

    Vincente Guiseppe began his neutrino journey 15 years ago as a post-doc at DOE’s Los Alamos National Laboratory (US). He worked with germanium detectors and studied radon while a graduate student and followed the scientific community’s progress as the Solar Neutrino Problem was solved. The so-called Solar Neutrino Problem was created when Dr. Ray Davis Jr., who operated a solar neutrino experiment on the 4850 Level of the Homestake Gold Mine, discovered only one-third of the neutrinos that had been theorized. Nearly 30 years after Davis began his search, the problem was solved with the discovery of neutrino oscillation.

    “I began to understand that neutrinos had much more in store for us. That led me to move to neutrino physics and set me up to transition to The Majorana Demonstrator (Majorana) project,” said Guiseppe, who is now a co-spokesperson for Majorana, located nearly a mile underground at SURF, and a senior research staff member at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US).

    Majorana uses germanium crystals in a search for the theorized Majorana particle—a neutrino that is believed to be its own antiparticle. Its discovery could help unravel mysteries about the origins of the universe and would add yet another piece to this baffling neutrino puzzle.

    We caught up with Guiseppe recently to talk about neutrinos—what scientists know (and don’t know), why neutrinos behave so strangely and why scientists keep searching for this ghost-like particle.

    SURF: What are neutrinos?

    Guiseppe: Let’s start with what we know. Of all the known fundamental particles that have mass, neutrinos are the most abundant—only the massless photon, which we see as light, is more abundant. We know their mass is quite small, but not zero—much lighter than their counterparts in the Standard Model of Physics—and we know there are three types and that they can change flavors. They also rarely interact with matter, which makes them difficult to study.

    Standard Model of Particle Physics, Quantum Diaries.

    All of these data points are pieces of that neutrino puzzle. But every piece is important if we want to complete the picture.

    SURF: Why should we care about the neutrino?

    Guiseppe: We care because they are so abundant. It’s almost embarrassing to have something that is so prevalent all around us and to not fully understand it. Think of it this way: You see a forest and the most abundant thing in that forest is a tree. But that’s all you know. You don’t know anything about how a tree operates. You don’t know how it grows, you don’t know why it’s green, you don’t know why it’s alive. It would be embarrassing to not know that. But that’s not the case with trees. Something so abundant as what we see in nature—animal species, trees, plants—we understand them completely, there’s nothing surprising. So, the fact that they are so abundant, and yet we know so little about them, brings a sort of duty to understand them.

    SURF: What intrigues you most about neutrino research?

    Guiseppe: Most? I would say the breadth of research and the big questions that can be answered by a single particle. While similar claims could be made about other particle research, the experimental approach is wide open. We look for neutrinos from nuclear reactors, particle accelerators, the earth, our atmosphere, the sun, from supernovae, and some experiments are only satisfied if we find no neutrinos, as in the case of neutrinoless double-beta decay searches. Neutrino research places detectors in underground caverns; at the South Pole; in the ocean; and even in a van for drive-by neutrino monitoring for nuclear safeguard applications. It’s a diverse field with big and unique questions.

    SURF: What is oscillation?

    Guiseppe: Oscillation is the idea that neutrinos can co-exist in a mixture of types or “flavors.” While they must start out as a particular flavor upon formation, they can evolve into a mixture of other flavors while traveling before falling into one flavor upon interaction with matter or detection. Hence, they are observed to oscillate between flavors from formation to detection.

    SURF: It’s a fundamental idea that a thing can’t become another thing unless acted upon by an outside force or material. How can something spontaneously become something it wasn’t a split second ago? And why are we OK with that?

    Guiseppe: Are people really okay with the idea of neutrinos changing flavors? I think we are, inasmuch as we are really okay with the implications of quantum mechanics? (As an aside, this reminds me of a question I asked my undergraduate quantum mechanics professor. I felt I was doing fine in the class and could work the problems but was worried that I really didn’t understand quantum mechanics. He responded with a slight grin: “Oh, no one really ‘understands’ quantum mechanics.”).

    It is quantum mechanics at work that makes this flavor change possible. Since neutrinos come in three separate flavors and three separate masses (and more importantly, each flavor does not come as a definite mass), they can exist in a quantum mechanical mixture of flavors. The root of your concern stems from the idea of its identify—what does it mean to change this identity?

    The comforting aspect is that neutrinos are not found to change speed, direction, mass, shape, or anything else that would require an outside force or energy in the usual sense. By changing flavor, the neutrino is only changing its personality and the rules by which it should follow at a given time.

    While this bit of personification is probably not comforting, it is only how the neutrino must interact with other particles that changes over time. You could think of the neutrino as being formed as one type, but then realizing it is not forced into that identity. It then remains in an indecisive state while being swayed to one type over another before finally making a decision upon detection or other interaction. In that sense, it is not a spontaneous change, but the result of a well thought-out (or predictable) decision process.

    SURF: What is a Majorana Particle and why is it important?

    Guiseppe: A Majorana particle is one that is indistinguishable from its antimatter partner. This sets it apart from all other particles. With the Majorana Demonstrator, we are looking for this particle in a process called neutrinoless double-beta decay.

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay is a nuclear process whereby two neutrons transform into two protons and electrons (aka, beta particles), but without the emission of two anti-neutrinos. This is in contrast to the two neutrino double-beta decay process where the two anti-neutrinos are emitted; a process that has been observed.

    SURF: Why neutrinoless double-beta decay?

    Guiseppe: Neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments offer the right mix of simplicity, experimental challenges, and the potential for a fascinating discovery. The signature for neutrinoless double-beta decay is simple: a measurement made at a specific energy and at a fixed point in the detector. But it’s a rare occurrence that is easily obscured so reducing all background (interferences) that can partially mimic this signature and foil the measurement is critical. Searching for this decay requires innovative detectors, as well as the ability to control the ubiquitous radiation found in everything around us.

    2
    The Majorana Demonstrator’s cryostat module inside the detector shielding. Photo by Nick Hubbard.

    SURF: After so many years, how do you stay enthusiastic about neutrino research?

    Guiseppe: Its book isn’t finished yet. We have more to learn and more questions to answer—we only need the means to do so. I stay enthused due to the likelihood of some new surprises (or comforting discoveries) that await. Along the way, we can continue to make advances in detector technology and develop new (or cleaner) materials, which inevitably lead to applications outside of physics research. In the end, chasing down neutrino properties and the secrets they may hold remains exciting due to clever ideas that keep the next discovery within reach.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    About us: The Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF (US) in Lead, South Dakota advances our understanding of the universe by providing laboratory space deep underground, where sensitive physics experiments can be shielded from cosmic radiation. Researchers at the Sanford Lab explore some of the most challenging questions facing 21st century physics, such as the origin of matter, the nature of dark matter and the properties of neutrinos. The facility also hosts experiments in other disciplines—including geology, biology and engineering.

    The Sanford Lab is located at the former Homestake gold mine, which was a physics landmark long before being converted into a dedicated science facility. Nuclear chemist Ray Davis earned a share of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2002 for a solar neutrino experiment he installed 4,850 feet underground in the mine.

    Homestake closed in 2003, but the company donated the property to South Dakota in 2006 for use as an underground laboratory. That same year, philanthropist T. Denny Sanford donated $70 million to the project. The South Dakota Legislature also created the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to operate the lab. The state Legislature has committed more than $40 million in state funds to the project, and South Dakota also obtained a $10 million Community Development Block Grant to help rehabilitate the facility.

    In 2007, after the National Science Foundation named Homestake as the preferred site for a proposed national Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) began reopening the former gold mine.

    In December 2010, the National Science Board decided not to fund further design of DUSEL. However, in 2011 the Department of Energy, through the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, agreed to support ongoing science operations at Sanford Lab, while investigating how to use the underground research facility for other longer-term experiments. The SDSTA, which owns Sanford Lab, continues to operate the facility under that agreement with Berkeley Lab.

    The first two major physics experiments at the Sanford Lab are 4,850 feet underground in an area called the Davis Campus, named for the late Ray Davis. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is housed in the same cavern excavated for Ray Davis’s experiment in the 1960s.

    The LBNL LZ Dark Matter Experiment (US) Dark Matter project at SURF, Lead, SD, USA.

    In October 2013, after an initial run of 80 days, LUX was determined to be the most sensitive detector yet to search for dark matter—a mysterious, yet-to-be-detected substance thought to be the most prevalent matter in the universe.

    The U Washington MAJORANA Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay Experiment Demonstrator experiment (US), also on the 4850 Level, is searching for a rare phenomenon called “neutrinoless double-beta decay” that could reveal whether subatomic particles called neutrinos can be their own antiparticle. Detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay could help determine why matter prevailed over antimatter. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment is adjacent to the original Davis cavern.

    The LUX Xenon dark matter detector | Sanford Underground Research Facility mission was to scour the universe for WIMPs, vetoing all other signatures. It would continue to do just that for another three years before it was decommissioned in 2016.

    In the midst of the excitement over first results, the LUX collaboration was already casting its gaze forward. Planning for a next-generation dark matter experiment at Sanford Lab was already under way. Named LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ), the next-generation experiment would increase the sensitivity of LUX 100 times.

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory(US) physicist Tom Shutt, a previous co-spokesperson for LUX, said one goal of the experiment was to figure out how to build an even larger detector.

    “LZ will be a thousand times more sensitive than the LUX detector,” Shutt said. “It will just begin to see an irreducible background of neutrinos that may ultimately set the limit to our ability to measure dark matter.”

    We celebrate five years of LUX, and look into the steps being taken toward the much larger and far more sensitive experiment.

    Another major experiment, the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE)—a collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and Sanford Lab, is in the preliminary design stages. The project got a major boost last year when Congress approved and the president signed an Omnibus Appropriations bill that will fund LBNE operations through FY 2014. Called the “next frontier of particle physics,” LBNE will follow neutrinos as they travel 800 miles through the earth, from FermiLab in Batavia, Ill., to Sanford Lab.

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) from FNAL to SURF >, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) Caverns at Sanford Lab.

    U Washington MAJORANA Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay Experiment (US) at SURF.

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will contain 40 kg of germanium; up to 30 kg will be enriched to 86% in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will be deployed deep underground in an ultra-low-background shielded environment in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. The goal of the DEMONSTRATOR is to determine whether a future 1-tonne experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a 4-keV region of interest around the 76Ge 0νββ Q-value at 2039 keV. MAJORANA plans to collaborate with Germanium Detector Array (or GERDA) experiment is searching for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in Ge-76 at the underground Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) for a future tonne-scale 76Ge 0νββ search.

    Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR). Credit: Nick Hubbard.

    Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR). Credit: Nick Hubbard.
    CASPAR is a low-energy particle accelerator that allows researchers to study processes that take place inside collapsing stars.
    The scientists are using space in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, to work on a project called the Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR). CASPAR uses a low-energy particle accelerator that will allow researchers to mimic nuclear fusion reactions in stars. If successful, their findings could help complete our picture of how the elements in our universe are built. “Nuclear astrophysics is about what goes on inside the star, not outside of it,” said Dan Robertson, a Notre Dame assistant research professor of astrophysics working on CASPAR. “It is not observational, but experimental. The idea is to reproduce the stellar environment, to reproduce the reactions within a star.”

     
  • richardmitnick 10:08 am on December 17, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "To find energetic particles from space a new detector will soar over Antarctic ice", , Neutrinos, The groundbreaking project is called PUEO-short for the Payload for Ultrahigh Energy Observations.,   

    From The University of Chicago (US): “To find energetic particles from space a new detector will soar over Antarctic ice” 

    U Chicago bloc

    From The University of Chicago (US)

    Dec 16, 2021
    Louise Lerner

    The National Aeronautics and Space Agency(US) gives go-ahead for $20M multi-institution balloon experiment led by UChicago scientists.

    1
    A rendering of what PUEO may look like when deployed. Each white dish is a radio antenna; the signals from each antenna are combined in order to pick up signals from high-energy neutrinos passing through Antarctic ice.

    Sometimes a question is so big that it takes a continent to answer it.

    University of Chicago physicist Abby Vieregg is leading an international experiment that essentially uses the ice in Antarctica as a giant detector to find extremely energetic particles from outer space. Recently approved by NASA, the $20 million project will build an instrument to fly above the Antarctic in a balloon, launching in December 2024.

    “We are searching for the very highest-energy neutrinos in the universe,” said Vieregg, an associate professor in the Department of Physics. “They are made in the most energetic and extreme places in the cosmos, and these neutrinos offer a unique glimpse into these places. Finding one or several of them could let us learn completely new things about the universe.”

    The 12-institution international collaboration will build a radio detector attached to a high-altitude balloon, which will be launched by NASA and travel over Antarctica at 120,000 feet, searching for signals from neutrinos. The groundbreaking project is called PUEO-short for the Payload for Ultrahigh Energy Observations. (It shares its name with the only living owl native to Hawaii, where PUEO’s predecessor experiment was born.)

    “A beautiful way to look at the universe”

    Neutrinos are often called “ghost” particles because they very rarely interact with matter. Trillions pass harmlessly through your body every second.

    Because they can travel huge distances without getting distorted or sidetracked, neutrinos can serve as unique clues about what’s happening elsewhere in the universe—including the cosmic collisions, galaxies and black holes where they are created.

    “Neutrinos are a beautiful way to look at the universe, because they travel unimpeded across space,” said Vieregg. “They can come from very far away, and they don’t get scrambled along the way, so they point back to where they came from.”

    Scientists have detected a few such neutrinos from outer space coming into the Earth’s atmosphere. But they think there are even more neutrinos out there which carry extraordinarily high energies—several orders of magnitude higher than even the particles being accelerated at the Large Hadron Collider in Europe—and have never yet been detected. These neutrinos could tell us about the most extreme events in the universe.

    That is, if you can catch them.

    These neutrinos so rarely interact with other forms of matter that Vieregg would have to build an enormous, country-sized detector to catch them. Or she can use one that already exists: the sheet of ice atop Antarctica.

    “The ice cap is perfect—a homogeneous, dense, radiotransparent block that spans millions of square kilometers,” said Vieregg. “It’s almost like we designed it.”

    If one of these highly energetic neutrinos comes through the Earth, there’s a chance it will bump into one of the atoms inside the Antarctic ice sheet. This collision produces radio waves which pass through the ice. This radio signal is what PUEO would detect as it floats above Antarctica.

    To do so, it needs some very, very special equipment.

    The next generation

    PUEO is the next generation of a mission called ANITA, based out of The University of Hawaii (US), which flew over the Antarctic aboard NASA balloons four times between 2006 and 2016 to look for similar neutrinos. PUEO, however, will have a much more powerful detector.

    The new detector taps into the power of an old astronomy trick—a technique called interferometry, which combines signals from multiple telescopes. PUEO is studded all over with radio antennas, and a central data acquisition system will merge and analyze these signals to make a stronger signal.

    3
    PUEO will launch from Antarctica, as did its predecessor experiment ANITA in 2016 (above). From left to right: scientists Cosmin Deaconu, Eric Oberla and Andrew Ludwig, PhD’19.

    A stronger signal would be a significant leap forward, because it would help scientists pick out the important signals from the noise washing in from all directions. “There are terabytes of data coming into the detector every minute, and we expect at most a few events out of billions to be a neutrino,” said Cosmin Deaconu, a UChicago research scientist who is working on the software for PUEO. “You can’t write all of that data to disk, so we have to design a program to decide very quickly which signals to keep and which to discard.”

    Many common signals look like neutrinos, but aren’t. Those can range from satellite transmissions to someone flicking a cigarette lighter. “At least in Antarctica, there are only a few locations where humans would be generating these, so it’s easier to rule those out,” said Deaconu. “But we even need to account for things like static electricity, generated by wind.”

    Vieregg and the team tested the idea of the interferometric phased array on the ground in two experiments: one called ARA at the South Pole in 2018, and another called RNO-G in Greenland in the summer of 2021. Both showed a significant jump in performance over previous designs—which makes PUEO’s aerial detector all the more promising. “PUEO will have a factor of 10 better sensitivity than all previous flights of ANITA combined,” said Vieregg.

    In the next months, the team will build prototypes for PUEO and finalize the design. Once the layout is final, small teams at institutions around the country will build parts of the instrument, which will then be assembled and tested at UChicago. “For example, we want to make sure it can handle the vacuum of near-space,” said Eric Oberla, a UChicago research scientist who is building PUEO’s hardware. “It’s harder to dissipate heat when there’s no air to move it away, which can be a problem for electronics, so we’ll run tests in a vacuum chamber here on campus and later in a large NASA chamber during the instrument integration campaign.”

    From there, PUEO will ship to a NASA facility in Palestine, Texas, for final tests before being sent to the launch station in Antarctica.

    Depending on the weather conditions, the detector could fly for a month or more, collecting data and transmitting it back to the ground, where scientists will comb through it for evidence of the first-ever high-energy neutrino detection.

    “We are delighted to have the PUEO stratospheric balloon mission included in the inaugural group of Pioneers missions, and are looking forward to the great science it will return,” said Michael Garcia, lead at NASA/HQ for the Pioneers in Astrophysics Program, which is funding the experiment.

    The Pioneers program allowed the scientists to “dream big,” Vieregg said. “We could say, ‘If we could build anything we wanted to, what could we make?’”

    “It’s a discovery experiment, meaning nothing’s guaranteed,” she added. “But all the indications say there’s something out there for us to pick up—and even a few neutrinos would be an amazing scientific find.”

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Chicago Campus

    The University of Chicago (US) is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with University of Chicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    University of Chicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics, establishing revolutionary theories of economics, and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations with our national and affiliated laboratories: DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory (US), DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts. The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890, its main campus is located in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood. It enrolled 16,445 students in Fall 2019, including 6,286 undergraduates and 10,159 graduate students. The University of Chicago is ranked among the top universities in the world by major education publications, and it is among the most selective in the United States.

    The university is composed of one undergraduate college and five graduate research divisions, which contain all of the university’s graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees. Chicago has eight professional schools: the Law School, the Booth School of Business, the Pritzker School of Medicine, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy, the Divinity School, the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies, and the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering. The university has additional campuses and centers in London, Paris, Beijing, Delhi, and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago.

    University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including economics, law, literary criticism, mathematics, religion, sociology, and the behavioralism school of political science, establishing the Chicago schools in various fields. Chicago’s Metallurgical Laboratory produced the world’s first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction in Chicago Pile-1 beneath the viewing stands of the university’s Stagg Field. Advances in chemistry led to the “radiocarbon revolution” in the carbon-14 dating of ancient life and objects. The university research efforts include administration of DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) and DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), as well as the U Chicago Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts (MBL)(US). The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. The Barack Obama Presidential Center is expected to be housed at the university and will include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.

    The University of Chicago’s students, faculty, and staff have included 100 Nobel laureates as of 2020, giving it the fourth-most affiliated Nobel laureates of any university in the world. The university’s faculty members and alumni also include 10 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award winners, 52 MacArthur Fellows, 26 Marshall Scholars, 27 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 29 living billionaire graduates, and have won eight Olympic medals.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts.

    Research

    According to the National Science Foundation (US), University of Chicago spent $423.9 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 60th in the nation. It is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity” and is a founding member of the Association of American Universities (US) and was a member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation from 1946 through June 29, 2016, when the group’s name was changed to the Big Ten Academic Alliance. The University of Chicago is not a member of the rebranded consortium, but will continue to be a collaborator.

    The university operates more than 140 research centers and institutes on campus. Among these are the Oriental Institute—a museum and research center for Near Eastern studies owned and operated by the university—and a number of National Resource Centers, including the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Chicago also operates or is affiliated with several research institutions apart from the university proper. The university manages DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), part of the United States Department of Energy’s national laboratory system, and co-manages DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), a nearby particle physics laboratory, as well as a stake in the Apache Point Observatory (US) in Sunspot, New Mexico.
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    SDSS Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, near Sunspot NM, USA, Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).

    Apache Point Observatory (US), near Sunspot, New Mexico Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    Faculty and students at the adjacent Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago collaborate with the university. In 2013, the university formed an affiliation with the formerly independent Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass. Although formally unrelated, the National Opinion Research Center (US) is located on Chicago’s campus.

     
  • richardmitnick 5:30 pm on December 9, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "DUNE collaboration starts production of components for its gigantic neutrino detector", , , Neutrinos, ,   

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) : “DUNE collaboration starts production of components for its gigantic neutrino detector” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    December 8, 2021
    Sarah Charley

    How can you study a particle that’s almost invisible? For the last decade, Justin Evans at The University of Manchester (UK) has been asking this question.

    “The neutrino is clearly a weird particle,” said Evans. “It’s so light we haven’t even measured its absolute mass.”

    Neutrinos are some of the most abundant particles in the universe, yet little is known about them because they evade conventional detection methods. When the United Kingdom joined The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment in 2015, Evans saw an opportunity.

    “We were thinking about what the UK could do for DUNE,” he said. “We wanted to have a big impact and make a key part of the detector.”

    1
    Unpacking a particle detector device known as APA for testing at European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire](CH). APAs are key components for the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, to be assembled in the United States. Photo: Julien Marius Ordan and Maximilien Brice, CERN.

    On Oct. 15, a large wooden box from Daresbury Laboratory in the United Kingdom arrived at the CERN Neutrino Platform.

    STFC Daresbury Laboratory at Sci-Tech Daresbury in the Liverpool City Region.

    Inside was the first anode plane assembly, a key component in the DUNE Far Detector [below], to be mass-produced for DUNE.

    “It is the first of 130 APAs that the UK will deliver, which will ultimately be installed in the first of the DUNE modules at South Dakota,” said DUNE spokesperson Stefan Söldner-Rembold. “As such, it is the first major component of the DUNE Far Detector to be built.”

    More than 1,400 scientists and engineers in over 30 countries contribute to the experiment. Their goal is to paint a clearer picture of the origin of matter and how the universe came to be. DUNE will measure how neutrinos and antineutrinos behave during an 800-mile journey from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory near Chicago to Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota [image of flow below]. Because these particles and their antimatter counterparts rarely interact with matter, they will pass directly through the earth before arriving at massive subterranean particle detectors that have a total volume equivalent to about 22 Olympic-size swimming pools and will be filled with 70,000 tons of liquid argon. These gigantic detectors will allow scientists to study the differences in behavior between neutrinos and antineutrinos. The results will shed light on the role neutrinos played in the evolution of the universe.

    3
    Scientists can reconstruct what happened during a neutrino-argon collision based on when and where the released electrons are detected on an APA wire plane made from 15 miles of hair-thin wire. Photo: Julien Marius Ordan, CERN.

    The APAs build on an idea originally developed by Nobel Laureate Carlo Rubbia in the 1970s. In each APA, 15 miles of hair-thin wire are wrapped in four different directions around a support structure the size of a church door. Electrons released from a neutrino colliding with an argon atom are pulled toward the wires by a strong electric field. Scientists then can reconstruct what happened during the original neutrino-argon collision based on when and where the released electrons intersect with the wires.

    Even though this technique for detecting neutrinos has been around for decades, adapting it for DUNE—which will be built one mile underground to shield the detectors from cosmic rays that hit Earth’s surface—was a challenge.

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) Caverns at Sanford Underground Research Facility.

    “That’s the ship-in-the-bottle aspect of underground physics,” said Evans. “Everything has to go down in chunks smaller than the mine shaft.”

    The final APA design comes after a successful two-year run of a prototype of the DUNE detector, known as ProtoDUNE [below], located at the CERN Neutrino Platform. These final DUNE-production APAs only have slight modifications from the original prototypes.

    “We realized that we needed to make some of the tubes that hold the cables bigger,” Evans said. “There were also some screws that were hard to reach. It was quite boring and mundane things, but that’s good—you want it to be the boring and mundane things.”

    Another consideration was creating an APA blueprint that is suitable for mass production of 150 APAs on both sides of the Atlantic: 130 from the UK and an additional 20 from the U.S.

    “We needed a design that is robust enough that we can make 150 of them,” said Hannah Newton, the project manager coordinating the APA production at Daresbury Laboratory. “There’s no more tinker time.”

    Over the next few months, three more APAs will arrive at the CERN neutrino platform for final testing inside the ProtoDUNE-SP cryostat during early 2022, with plans for mass production to start up in spring. Once produced, all APAs will be shipped to South Dakota for installation.

    “The cold electronics testing inside ProtoDUNE will be the final proof that the all the systems integrate with one another,” Newton said. “It’s the final assurance that we’re good to go and can ramp up production.”

    Fermilab is the host laboratory for DUNE, in partnership with funding agencies and scientists from around the world.

    See the full article here.


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator (US) Laboratory Wilson Hall .

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a Department of Energy (US) national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, and the Universities Research Association (URA). Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor.

    Fermilab’s Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator; until the startup in 2008 of the Large Hadron Collider(CH) near Geneva, Switzerland, it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating antiprotons to energies of 500 GeV, and producing proton-proton collisions with energies of up to 1.6 TeV, the first accelerator to reach one “tera-electron-volt” energy. At 3.9 miles (6.3 km), it was the world’s fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron’s CDF and DØ detectors. It was shut down in 2011.

    In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment), NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) and SeaQuest.

    Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment).

    The MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE sat in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but had fine-grained tracking capabilities. The NOνA experiment uses, and the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, Minnesota, site of the NOνA far detector.

    In 2017, the ICARUS neutrino experiment was moved from CERN to Fermilab.

    In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia, classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. The site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors who present valid photo identification.
    Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.
    Weston, Illinois, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab.

    The laboratory was founded in 1969 as the National Accelerator Laboratory; it was renamed in honor of Enrico Fermi in 1974. The laboratory’s first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation. He is the namesake of the site’s high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and which is the center of activity on the campus.
    After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job. It was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman stepped down in 1989. The science education center at the site was named in his honor.
    The later directors include:

    John Peoples, 1989 to 1996
    Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005
    Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013
    Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the present

    Fermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); it serves as a Tier 1 site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) campus.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)/MINERvA. Photo Reidar Hahn.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)DAMIC | Fermilab Cosmic Physics Center.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Muon g-2 studio. As muons race around a ring at the Muon g-2 studio, their spin axes twirl, reflecting the influence of unseen particles.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Mu2e solenoid.

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US).

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory DUNE/LBNF experiment (US) Argon tank at Sanford Underground Research Facility(US).

    FNAL Dune Far Detector.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)/MicrobooNE.

    FNAL Don Lincoln.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)/MINOS.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Cryomodule Testing Facility.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) MINOS Far Detector.

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) from FNAL to SURF Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] (CH) ProtoDune.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)/NOvA experiment map .

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) NOvA Near Detector at Batavia IL, USA.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)/ICARUS.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Holometer.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)LArIAT.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) ICEBERG particle detector.

    FNAL Icon

     
  • richardmitnick 12:50 pm on December 1, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Neutrinos, ,   

    From DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (US): “Electrons Set the Stage for Neutrino Experiments” 

    From DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (US)

    1

    Early-career nuclear physicists show that a better understanding of how neutrinos interact with matter is needed to make the most of upcoming experiments.

    Neutrinos may be the key to finally solving a mystery of the origins of our matter-dominated universe, and preparations for two major, billion-dollar experiments are underway to reveal the particles’ secrets. Now, a team of nuclear physicists have turned to the humble electron to provide insight for how these experiments can better prepare to capture critical information. Their research, which was carried out at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and recently published in Nature, reveals that major updates to neutrino models are needed for the experiments to achieve high-precision results.

    Neutrinos are ubiquitous, generated in copious numbers by stars throughout our universe. Though prevalent, these shy particles rarely interact with matter, making them very difficult to study.

    “There is this phenomenon of neutrinos changing from one type to another, and this phenomenon is called neutrino oscillation. It’s interesting to study this phenomenon, because it is not well understood,” said Mariana Khachatryan, a co-lead author on the study who was a graduate student at Old Dominion University (US) in Professor and Eminent Scholar Larry Weinstein’s research group when she contributed to the research. She is now a postdoctoral research associate at The Florida International University (US).

    One way to study neutrino oscillation is to build gigantic, ultra-sensitive detectors to measure neutrinos deep underground. The detectors typically contain dense materials with large nuclei, so neutrinos are more likely to interact with them. Such interactions trigger a cascade of other particles that are recorded by the detectors. Physicists can use that data to tease out information about the neutrinos.

    “The way that neutrino physicists are doing that is by measuring all particles coming out of the interaction of neutrinos with nuclei and reconstructing the incoming neutrino energy to learn more about the neutrino, its oscillations, and to measure them very, very precisely,” explained Adi Ashkenazi. Ashkenazi is the study’s contact author who worked on this project as a research scholar in Professor Or Hen’s research group at The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US). She is now a senior lecturer at Tel Aviv University [ אוּנִיבֶרְסִיטַת תֵּל אָבִיב ](IL).

    “The detectors are made of heavy nuclei, and the interactions of neutrinos with these nuclei are actually very complicated interactions,” Ashkenazi said. “Those neutrino energy reconstruction methods are still very challenging, and it is our work to improve the models we use to describe them.”

    These methods include modeling the interactions with a theoretical simulation called GENIE, allowing physicists to infer the energies of the incoming neutrinos. GENIE is an amalgam of many models that each help physicists reproduce certain aspects of interactions between neutrinos and nuclei. Since so little is known about neutrinos, it’s difficult to directly test GENIE to ensure it will produce both accurate and high-precision results from the new data that will be provided by future neutrino experiments, such as the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) or Hyper-Kamiokande.

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) from FNAL to Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) Caverns at Sanford Underground Research Facility.

    Hyper-Kamiokande [(神岡宇宙素粒子研究施設](JP) a neutrino physics laboratory to be located underground in the Mozumi Mine of the Kamioka Mining and Smelting Co. near the Kamioka section of the city of Hida in Gifu Prefecture, Japan.

    To test GENIE, the team turned to a humble particle that nuclear physicists know a lot more about: the electron.

    “This exploits the similarities between electrons and neutrinos. We are using electron studies to validate neutrino-nucleus interaction models,” said Khachatryan.

    Neutrinos and electrons have many things in common. They both belong to the subatomic particle family called leptons, so they are both elementary particles that aren’t affected by the strong force.

    In this study, the team used an electron-scattering version of GENIE, dubbed e-GENIE, to test the same incoming energy reconstruction algorithms that neutrino researchers will use. Instead of using neutrinos, they used recent electron results.

    “Electrons have been studied for years, and the beams of the electrons have very precise energies,” said Ashkenazi. “We know their energies. And when we are trying to reconstruct that incoming energy, we can compare that to what we know. We can test how well our methods work for various energies, which is something you can’t do with neutrinos.”

    The input data for the study came from experiments conducted with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab’s Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility [below], a DOE user facility. CEBAF is the world’s most advanced electron accelerator for probing the nature of matter. The team used data that directly mirrored the simplest case to be studied in neutrino experiments: interactions that produced an electron and a proton (vs. a muon and a proton) from nuclei of helium, carbon and iron. These nuclei are similar to materials used in neutrino experiment detectors.

    Further, the group worked to ensure that the electron version of GENIE was as parallel as possible to the neutrino version.

    “We used the exact same simulation as used by neutrino experiments, and we used the same corrections,” explained Afroditi Papadopoulou, co-lead author on the study and a graduate student at MIT who is also in Hen’s research group. “If the model doesn’t work for electrons, where we are talking about the most simplified case, it will never work for neutrinos.”

    Even in this simplest case, accurate modeling is crucial, because raw data from electron-nucleus interactions typically reconstruct to the correct incoming electron beam energy less than half the time. A good model can account for this effect and correct the data.

    However, when GENIE was used to model these data events, it performed even worse.

    “This can bias the neutrino oscillation results. Our simulations must be able to reproduce our electron data with its known beam energies before we can trust they will be accurate in neutrino experiments,” said Papadopoulou.

    Khachatryan agreed.

    “The result is actually to point out that there are aspects of these energy reconstruction methods and models that need to be improved,” said Khachatryan. “It also shows a pathway to achieve this for future experiments.”

    The next step for this research is to test specific target nuclei of interest to neutrino researchers and at a broader spectrum of incoming electron energies. Having these specific results for direct comparison will assist neutrino researchers in fine-tuning their models.

    According to the study team, the aim is to achieve broad agreement between data and models, which will help ensure DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande can achieve their expected high-precision results.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    JLab campus
    DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (US) is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy. DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, visit science.energy.gov.

    Jefferson Science Associates, LLC, a joint venture of the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc. and PAE Applied Technologies, manages and operates the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science.

    History

    DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility(US) was established in 1984 (first initial funding by DOE, Department of Energy) as the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF); the name was changed to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in 1996. The full funding for construction was appropriated by US Congress in 1986 and on February 13, 1987, the construction of the main component, the CEBAF accelerator begun. First beam was delivered to experimental area on 1 July 1994. The design energy of 4 GeV for the beam was achieved during the year 1995. The laboratory dedication took place 24 May 1996 (at this event the name was also changed). Full initial operations with all three initial experiment areas online at the design energy was achieved on June 19, 1998. On August 6, 2000 the CEBAF reached “enhanced design energy” of 6 GeV. In 2001, plans for an energy upgrade to 12 GeV electron beam and plans to construct a fourth experimental hall area started. The plans progressed through various DOE Critical Decision-stages in the 2000s decade, with the final DOE acceptance in 2008 and the construction on the 12 GeV upgrade beginning in 2009. May 18, 2012 the original 6 GeV CEBAF accelerator shut down for the replacement of the accelerator components for the 12 GeV upgrade. 178 experiments were completed with the original CEBAF.

    In addition to the accelerator, the laboratory has housed and continues to house a free electron laser (FEL) instrument. The construction of the FEL started 11 June 1996. It achieved first light on June 17, 1998. Since then, the FEL has been upgraded numerous times, increasing its power and capabilities substantially.

    Jefferson Lab was also involved in the construction of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US). Jefferson built the SNS superconducting accelerator and helium refrigeration system. The accelerator components were designed and produced 2000–2005.

    Accelerator

    The laboratory’s main research facility is the CEBAF accelerator, which consists of a polarized electron source and injector and a pair of superconducting RF linear accelerators that are 7/8-mile (1400 m) in length and connected to each other by two arc sections that contain steering magnets.

    As the electron beam makes up to five successive orbits, its energy is increased up to a maximum of 6 GeV (the original CEBAF machine worked first in 1995 at the design energy of 4 GeV before reaching “enhanced design energy” of 6 GeV in 2000; since then the facility has been upgraded into 12 GeV energy). This leads to a design that appears similar to a racetrack when compared to the classical ring-shaped accelerators found at sites such as European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire](CH) or DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US). Effectively, CEBAF is a linear accelerator, similar to DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (US) at Stanford University (US), that has been folded up to a tenth of its normal length.

    The design of CEBAF allows the electron beam to be continuous rather than the pulsed beam typical of ring shaped accelerators. (There is some beam structure, but the pulses are very much shorter and closer together.) The electron beam is directed onto three potential targets (see below). One of the distinguishing features of Jefferson Lab is the continuous nature of the electron beam, with a bunch length of less than 1 picosecond. Another is Jefferson Lab’s use of superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) technology, which uses liquid helium to cool niobium to approximately 4 K (−452.5 °F), removing electrical resistance and allowing the most efficient transfer of energy to an electron. To achieve this, Jefferson Lab houses the world’s largest liquid helium refrigerator, and it was one of the first large-scale implementations of SRF technology. The accelerator is built 8 meters below the Earth’s surface, or approximately 25 feet, and the walls of the accelerator tunnels are 2 feet thick.

    The beam ends in four experimental halls, labelled Hall A, Hall B, Hall C, and Hall D. Each hall contains specialized spectrometers to record the products of collisions between the electron beam or with real photons and a stationary target. This allows physicists to study the structure of the atomic nucleus, specifically the interaction of the quarks that make up protons and neutrons of the nucleus.

    With each revolution around the accelerator, the beam passes through each of the two LINAC accelerators, but through a different set of bending magnets in semi-circular arcs at the ends of the linacs. The electrons make up to five passes through the linear accelerators.

    When a nucleus in the target is hit by an electron from the beam, an “interaction”, or “event”, occurs, scattering particles into the hall. Each hall contains an array of particle detectors that track the physical properties of the particles produced by the event. The detectors generate electrical pulses that are converted into digital values by analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), time to digital converters (TDCs) and pulse counters (scalers).

    This digital data is gathered and stored so that the physicist can later analyze the data and reconstruct the physics that occurred. The system of electronics and computers that perform this task is called a data acquisition system.

    12 GeV upgrade

    As of June 2010, construction began on a $338 million upgrade to add an end station, Hall D, on the opposite end of the accelerator from the other three halls, as well as to double beam energy to 12 GeV. Concurrently, an addition to the Test Lab, (where the SRF cavities used in CEBAF and other accelerators used worldwide are manufactured) was constructed.

    As of May 2014, the upgrade achieved a new record for beam energy, at 10.5 GeV, delivering beam to Hall D.

    As of December 2016, the CEBAF accelerator delivered full-energy electrons as part of commissioning activities for the ongoing 12 GeV Upgrade project. Operators of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility delivered the first batch of 12 GeV electrons (12.065 Giga electron Volts) to its newest experimental hall complex, Hall D.

    In September 2017, the official notification from the DOE of the formal approval of the 12 GeV upgrade project completion and start of operations was issued. By spring 2018, all fours research areas were successfully receiving beam and performing experiments. On 2 May 2018 the CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade Dedication Ceremony took place.

    As of December 2018, the CEBAF accelerator delivered electron beams to all four experimental halls simultaneously for physics-quality production running.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:43 am on November 2, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "LBNF/DUNE excavation achieves a gem of a milestone", , Neutrinos,   

    From Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF (US): “LBNF/DUNE excavation achieves a gem of a milestone” 

    SURF-Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    From Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF (US)

    Homestake Mining, Lead, South Dakota, USA.


    Homestake Mining Company

    November 1, 2021
    Tracy Marc

    In preparation for major excavation, Thyssen Mining completes the challenge of the raise-bore drilling stage.

    1
    Fermilab LBNF engineers James Rickard and Syd Devries stand beside the 12-foot reamer at the 4,850-foot level, showing the enormous size of the reamer bit used to drill the ventilation shaft.
    Photo courtesy DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US).

    Thyssen Mining excavation crews in Lead, South Dakota, are preparing the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment known as DUNE, hosted by the Department of Energy (US)’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and supported by the DOE Office of Science (US). In a project that requires the excavation of 800,000 tons of rock, they have carefully navigated the challenge of the raise-bore drilling stage.

    On Oct. 4, crews achieved an important project milestone by completing the raise-bore excavation of the quarter-mile vertical ventilation shaft on schedule, paving the way for lining the circumference of the shaft with sprayed concrete.

    Raise boring is used to create a circular vertical excavation area between an upper and lower level. For this project, the vertical ventilation shaft will first serve as the opening to improve the flow of air needed for excavation. Later, nearly a mile underground at the 4,850-foot level, where the main construction work will take place, it will provide future cooling for the LBNF/DUNE experiment.

    Starting in June, a 1,200-foot-long pilot hole slightly more than a foot (13”) in diameter was drilled from the 3,650-foot level down to the 4,850-foot level to prepare the area for the raise bore. A massive 12-foot reaming bit made of tungsten carbide with a steel frame, attached to steel rods called drill string, was then employed and slowly pulled back to ream to the full size of the raise-bore shaft.

    James Rickard, the Fermilab resident engineer supervising the LBNF excavation, said he has performed raise boring previously for other projects at 300 feet, but alignment of the pilot hole for a 1,200-foot job was considered one of the biggest risks of the LBNF project. Using a high-quality, German-made directional bit for the pilot drilling helped to mitigate the risk.

    3
    Breakthrough of the raise bore at the 3,650-foot level. Photo courtesy Fermilab.

    During the entire four-and-a-half-month process, only one reaming bit was used to chomp away at 1,200 feet of earth from early summer until its completion. Typically, each reamer is good for approximately 700 feet of drilling, and then a complete cutter change to replace it would cost to the tune of a couple hundred thousand dollars.

    The excavation of the ventilation shaft finished safely and on schedule with one reamer.

    Using the same reamer for the entire process without having to replace it once was not only an incredible feat for a 1,200-foot vertical drilling project, but it also revealed a geological treasure.

    Much to the surprise of the crew, the reamer’s sensors detected that it struck an anomaly, which dropped 300 feet to the newly dug ground. It was found to be a large chunk of quartz crystal that measured 1 1/2 feet thick. Encountering a vein of quartz crystal isn’t overly rare during this process, but the quartz samples typically are damaged by it. This unexpected treasure, the largest Rickard has found to-date, was not damaged by the reamer head, nor by the 300-foot fall it sustained, marking it a gem of the milestone.

    4
    A quartz crystal vein was intercepted at the 4,550-foot level. The crews were amazed the quartz crystals were not destroyed by the reamer’s cutting wheels. Photo by James Rickard, Fermilab.

    With the raise-bore process complete, the newly carved out area now needs to be washed and inspected so its surface can take the 4-inch layer of sprayed concrete coating that will line the ventilation shaft walls. Using 800 super sacks of dry shotcrete mix, with each bag weighing two tons, construction crews combine the shotcrete with water. The mixture is then transported down the raise in a pipeline with compressed air to robotically spray the concrete, slowly lining the circumference in layers from bottom to top.

    While the concrete spray is underway, crews have started removing all the underground equipment used in the raise-bore process, disassembling each machine into individual components that will return to the surface.

    Lining the ventilation shaft and transporting equipment components to the surface will take six weeks, and this project should be wrapped up by the end of December, a timeline, Rickard said, “is the best Christmas present!”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    About us: The Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF (US) in Lead, South Dakota, advances our understanding of the universe by providing laboratory space deep underground, where sensitive physics experiments can be shielded from cosmic radiation. Researchers at the Sanford Lab explore some of the most challenging questions facing 21st century physics, such as the origin of matter, the nature of dark matter and the properties of neutrinos. The facility also hosts experiments in other disciplines—including geology, biology and engineering.

    The Sanford Lab is located at the former Homestake gold mine, which was a physics landmark long before being converted into a dedicated science facility. Nuclear chemist Ray Davis earned a share of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2002 for a solar neutrino experiment he installed 4,850 feet underground in the mine.

    Homestake closed in 2003, but the company donated the property to South Dakota in 2006 for use as an underground laboratory. That same year, philanthropist T. Denny Sanford donated $70 million to the project. The South Dakota Legislature also created the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to operate the lab. The state Legislature has committed more than $40 million in state funds to the project, and South Dakota also obtained a $10 million Community Development Block Grant to help rehabilitate the facility.

    In 2007, after the National Science Foundation named Homestake as the preferred site for a proposed national Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) began reopening the former gold mine.

    In December 2010, the National Science Board decided not to fund further design of DUSEL. However, in 2011 the Department of Energy, through the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, agreed to support ongoing science operations at Sanford Lab, while investigating how to use the underground research facility for other longer-term experiments. The SDSTA, which owns Sanford Lab, continues to operate the facility under that agreement with Berkeley Lab.

    The first two major physics experiments at the Sanford Lab are 4,850 feet underground in an area called the Davis Campus, named for the late Ray Davis. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is housed in the same cavern excavated for Ray Davis’s experiment in the 1960s.

    The LBNL LZ Dark Matter Experiment (US) Dark Matter project at SURF. Lead, SD, USA.

    In October 2013, after an initial run of 80 days, LUX was determined to be the most sensitive detector yet to search for dark matter—a mysterious, yet-to-be-detected substance thought to be the most prevalent matter in the universe.

    The U Washington MAJORANA Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay Experiment Demonstrator experiment (US), also on the 4850 Level, is searching for a rare phenomenon called “neutrinoless double-beta decay” that could reveal whether subatomic particles called neutrinos can be their own antiparticle. Detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay could help determine why matter prevailed over antimatter. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment is adjacent to the original Davis cavern.

    The LUX Xenon dark matter detector | Sanford Underground Research Facility mission was to scour the universe for WIMPs, vetoing all other signatures. It would continue to do just that for another three years before it was decommissioned in 2016.

    In the midst of the excitement over first results, the LUX collaboration was already casting its gaze forward. Planning for a next-generation dark matter experiment at Sanford Lab was already under way. Named LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ), the next-generation experiment would increase the sensitivity of LUX 100 times.

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory(US) physicist Tom Shutt, a previous co-spokesperson for LUX, said one goal of the experiment was to figure out how to build an even larger detector.

    “LZ will be a thousand times more sensitive than the LUX detector,” Shutt said. “It will just begin to see an irreducible background of neutrinos that may ultimately set the limit to our ability to measure dark matter.”

    We celebrate five years of LUX, and look into the steps being taken toward the much larger and far more sensitive experiment.

    Another major experiment, The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE)—a collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and Sanford Lab, is in the preliminary design stages.

    The project got a major boost last year when Congress approved and the president signed an Omnibus Appropriations bill that will fund LBNE operations through FY 2014. Called the “next frontier of particle physics,” LBNE will follow neutrinos as they travel 800 miles through the earth, from FermiLab in Batavia, Ill., to Sanford Lab.

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) from FNAL to SURF , Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) Caverns at Sanford Lab .

    U Washington MAJORANA Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay Experiment (US) at SURF.

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will contain 40 kg of germanium; up to 30 kg will be enriched to 86% in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will be deployed deep underground in an ultra-low-background shielded environment in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. The goal of the DEMONSTRATOR is to determine whether a future 1-tonne experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a 4-keV region of interest around the 76Ge 0νββ Q-value at 2039 keV. MAJORANA plans to collaborate with Germanium Detector Array (or GERDA) experiment is searching for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in Ge-76 at the underground Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) for a future tonne-scale 76Ge 0νββ search.

    Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR).Credit: Nick Hubbard.

    Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR). Credit: Nick Hubbard.

    CASPAR is a low-energy particle accelerator that allows researchers to study processes that take place inside collapsing stars.

    The scientists are using space in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, to work on a project called the Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR). CASPAR uses a low-energy particle accelerator that will allow researchers to mimic nuclear fusion reactions in stars. If successful, their findings could help complete our picture of how the elements in our universe are built. “Nuclear astrophysics is about what goes on inside the star, not outside of it,” said Dan Robertson, a Notre Dame assistant research professor of astrophysics working on CASPAR. “It is not observational, but experimental. The idea is to reproduce the stellar environment, to reproduce the reactions within a star.”

     
  • richardmitnick 10:02 am on October 29, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Scientists Spot Rare Neutrino Signal for Big Physics Finding", , , , , LArTPC: liquid-argon time projection chamber, Neutrinos, , , The MicroBooNE experiment at Fermilab, Wire-Cell: a software package that processes neutrino events and automatically reconstructs them in 3D.   

    From DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (US) : “Scientists Spot Rare Neutrino Signal for Big Physics Finding” 

    From DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (US)

    October 27, 2021
    Stephanie Kossman
    skossman@bnl.gov

    Brookhaven Lab scientists developed a software toolkit that reconstructs and isolates neutrino data in 3D, led a key analysis that uncovered a major finding from the MicroBooNE experiment.

    1
    This is a still image of a 3D reconstruction of MicroBooNE data processed by Wire-Cell. Electron-neutrino interaction tracks and other activities (black) paired with the corresponding light signals from photomultiplier tubes (red circles) stand out clearly from tracks produced by cosmic rays (dimmed color tracks). Image courtesy of the MicroBooNE experiment.

    Did you feel the trillions of neutrinos that just flew through your body? Probably not, because these subatomic particles rarely interact with matter. Neutrinos can travel through a lightyear’s worth of lead without ever disturbing a single atom. Understanding these ghost-like particles could unlock mysteries of the universe, but how can scientists study neutrinos if they are seemingly undetectable?

    Ironically, to study tiny neutrinos, scientists need massive experiments, like the MicroBooNE experiment at the DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US). At the heart of MicroBooNE is a 170-ton liquid-argon time projection chamber (LArTPC), a type of detector that captures the signatures of neutrinos as they pass through a vat of frigid liquid argon kept at -303 degrees Fahrenheit.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) MicrobooNE experiment.

    Building an experiment that can operate at such extreme temperatures was no small feat, requiring the expertise of nearly 30 institutions. Scientists, engineers, and technicians from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory played crucial roles in the development of MicroBooNE, from proposing the initial idea of the experiment to designing its mechanical structure and crafting cold microelectronics that live inside the LArTPC. But the effort wasn’t complete once MicroBooNE was operational.

    Just like a personal computer requires software to be accessed, physicists need software to decipher the neutrino events captured by MicroBooNE’s LArTPC. That’s why a team of scientists from Brookhaven developed Wire-Cell: a software package that processes neutrino events and automatically reconstructs them in 3D.

    “Wire-Cell works like the 3D image reconstruction software in a computed tomography (CT) machine,” said Brookhaven physicist Xin Qian, leader of Brookhaven’s MicroBooNE physics group. “The detector provides a bunch of flat pictures and then the software reconstructs a 3D object layer by layer.”

    Wire-Cell starts by processing 2D projective snapshots from the LArTPC into high-resolution images. Then, these images are “sliced” into several layers that correspond to a specific moment in time. By combining all the timestamped layers, Wire-Cell creates an interactive 3D model of the LArTPC data.

    Building out the Wire-Cell components that produce these 3D renderings was a years-long effort. The project required Brookhaven scientists to solve a chain of technical challenges and create software tools entirely from scratch.

    “When the first MicroBooNE image came out six years ago, the quality was not good enough to perform analyses, so we had to develop a whole set of image processing software just to improve the image quality,” said Chao Zhang, a leading member of the Wire-Cell team. “After that, we carried out the original concept of Wire-Cell: to build a 3D object based on 2D pictures. Then, we adjusted the software so it could identify interesting information from the original event, and that was the first time the Wire-Cell group finally saw a very clear neutrino interaction from the MicroBooNE detector.”

    2
    Wire-Cell 3D Pattern Recognition: a) Selected neutrino activity; b) Track/Shower separation; c) Particle-level sub-clustering; d) 3D dQ/dx displayed with PID capability; e) Particle flow starting from neutrino vertex.

    MicroBooNE’s exquisite sensitivity enables the experiment to capture elusive neutrino signals, but it also records many unwanted signals, such as those from cosmic rays. Brookhaven Goldhaber fellow Hanyu Wei led the Wire-Cell team in an effort to filter out these signals, leaving a clear picture of a neutrino event. But still, another challenge remained.

    “Once Wire-Cell was able to isolate neutrino events, our new goal became to select a particular type of neutrino out,” said Xiangpan Ji, a post-doc in the Wire-Cell group. “Only about 0.5 percent of the events captured by the LArTPC are what we care about—the so-called electron-neutrino interaction. That’s the signal we’re after.”

    Extracting this incredibly rare signal from a wealth of data is like searching for a needle in a haystack. To simplify the process, the Wire-Cell team added new tools to the software package, including a type of artificial intelligence called “deep learning.”

    “The new tools are a set of software mostly focused on pattern recognition,” said Brett Viren, lead developer of the Wire-Cell toolkit. “The event we are looking for has a unique feature called an electromagnetic shower, which manifests as a particular topology.” First, the topology needs to look like an electron. Second, the topology needs to connect with the neutrino interaction vertex. Haiwang Yu, a post-doc in the Wire-Cell team, developed the deep learning algorithm to sort through all the possible candidates and locate these patterns.

    The new capabilities added to Wire-Cell enabled MicroBooNE to achieve a remarkable 46% efficiency in selecting the electron-neutrino interaction signal with minimal background left in the image. This efficiency directly enabled the latest scientific finding from MicroBooNE, in which physicists announced the experiment detected no evidence of a “sterile neutrino.”


    Imaging Neutrinos in MicroBooNE with WireCell.

    The latest MicroBooNE result, announced today by Fermilab follows up on an intriguing finding made by an earlier version of the experiment called MiniBooNE.

    FNAL/MiniBooNE

    MiniBooNE researchers detected an anomaly that hinted towards the existence of the sterile neutrino, a yet-to-be-discovered particle that is theorized to only interact with gravity. Discovering a sterile neutrino would lead to a paradigm shift in the Standard Model, the theory that physicists currently use to describe all the universe’s elementary particles and how they interact.

    “Researchers at MiniBooNE observed anomalous events that could not be explained,” Qian said. “The previous detector that was used was unable to differentiate between electrons and photons, so that’s when the MicroBooNE experiment was proposed to dive deeper into this anomaly. Now, the MicroBooNE detector can distinguish between them using the LArTPC’s enhanced detection capabilities. As such, through four complementary analyses, the MicroBooNE collaboration determined that the data is consistent with the Standard Model.” The Wire-Cell team at Brookhaven Lab led one of the four analyses—the most sensitive analysis of the electron-neutrino interaction. Some components of the Wire-Cell toolkit were also used in the other three analyses.

    In addition to following up on the results from MiniBooNE, MicroBooNE is serving as a steppingstone for a much larger neutrino experiment, the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE).

    SURF-Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) from FNAL to Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) Caverns at Sanford Underground Research Facility.

    Currently under construction, DUNE will consist of two detectors separated by 800 miles—one at Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois and a second, much larger detector at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Sanford Underground Research Laboratory in Lead, South Dakota.

    FNAL DUNE Near Detector

    FNAL Dune Far Detector

    As an intense beam of neutrinos travels underground between these two detectors, researchers will study the particles’ behavior. Brookhaven Lab is also a leading collaborator on DUNE and the Wire-Cell team has kept this in mind from the start.

    “We have always been aiming for DUNE as the final goal of our activities,” said Mary Bishai, a senior scientist at Brookhaven Lab. “Our work in MicroBooNE is currently state-of-the-art in the field of neutrino research and has moved us much closer towards the performance required to achieve the physics goals of DUNE.” Brookhaven post-docs Wenqiang Gu and Nitish Nayak are leading efforts to deploy and further develop Wire-Cell in DUNE.

    In the meantime, MicroBooNE research is ongoing. Brookhaven continues to make key contributions to the experiment, including physics analyses on new findings.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the DOE(US) Office of Science, DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (US) conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University(US), the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle(US), a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

    Research at BNL specializes in nuclear and high energy physics, energy science and technology, environmental and bioscience, nanoscience and national security. The 5,300 acre campus contains several large research facilities, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider [below] and National Synchrotron Light Source II [below]. Seven Nobel prizes have been awarded for work conducted at Brookhaven lab.

    BNL is staffed by approximately 2,750 scientists, engineers, technicians, and support personnel, and hosts 4,000 guest investigators every year. The laboratory has its own police station, fire department, and ZIP code (11973). In total, the lab spans a 5,265-acre (21 km^2) area that is mostly coterminous with the hamlet of Upton, New York. BNL is served by a rail spur operated as-needed by the New York and Atlantic Railway. Co-located with the laboratory is the Upton, New York, forecast office of the National Weather Service.

    Major programs

    Although originally conceived as a nuclear research facility, Brookhaven Lab’s mission has greatly expanded. Its foci are now:

    Nuclear and high-energy physics
    Physics and chemistry of materials
    Environmental and climate research
    Nanomaterials
    Energy research
    Nonproliferation
    Structural biology
    Accelerator physics

    Operation

    Brookhaven National Lab was originally owned by the Atomic Energy Commission(US) and is now owned by that agency’s successor, the United States Department of Energy (DOE). DOE subcontracts the research and operation to universities and research organizations. It is currently operated by Brookhaven Science Associates LLC, which is an equal partnership of Stony Brook University(US) and Battelle Memorial Institute(US). From 1947 to 1998, it was operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) (US), but AUI lost its contract in the wake of two incidents: a 1994 fire at the facility’s high-beam flux reactor that exposed several workers to radiation and reports in 1997 of a tritium leak into the groundwater of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens on which the facility sits.

    Foundations

    Following World War II, the US Atomic Energy Commission was created to support government-sponsored peacetime research on atomic energy. The effort to build a nuclear reactor in the American northeast was fostered largely by physicists Isidor Isaac Rabi and Norman Foster Ramsey Jr., who during the war witnessed many of their colleagues at Columbia University leave for new remote research sites following the departure of the Manhattan Project from its campus. Their effort to house this reactor near New York City was rivalled by a similar effort at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) to have a facility near Boston, Massachusettes(US). Involvement was quickly solicited from representatives of northeastern universities to the south and west of New York City such that this city would be at their geographic center. In March 1946 a nonprofit corporation was established that consisted of representatives from nine major research universities — Columbia University(US), Cornell University(US), Harvard University(US), Johns Hopkins University(US), Massachusetts Institute of Technology(US), Princeton University(US), University of Pennsylvania(US), University of Rochester(US), and Yale University(US).

    Out of 17 considered sites in the Boston-Washington corridor, Camp Upton on Long Island was eventually chosen as the most suitable in consideration of space, transportation, and availability. The camp had been a training center from the US Army during both World War I and World War II. After the latter war, Camp Upton was deemed no longer necessary and became available for reuse. A plan was conceived to convert the military camp into a research facility.

    On March 21, 1947, the Camp Upton site was officially transferred from the U.S. War Department to the new U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

    Research and facilities

    Reactor history

    In 1947 construction began on the first nuclear reactor at Brookhaven, the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor. This reactor, which opened in 1950, was the first reactor to be constructed in the United States after World War II. The High Flux Beam Reactor operated from 1965 to 1999. In 1959 Brookhaven built the first US reactor specifically tailored to medical research, the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, which operated until 2000.

    Accelerator history

    In 1952 Brookhaven began using its first particle accelerator, the Cosmotron. At the time the Cosmotron was the world’s highest energy accelerator, being the first to impart more than 1 GeV of energy to a particle.

    BNL Cosmotron 1952-1966

    The Cosmotron was retired in 1966, after it was superseded in 1960 by the new Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS)

    The AGS was used in research that resulted in 3 Nobel prizes, including the discovery of the muon neutrino, the charm quark, and CP violation.

    In 1970 in BNL started the ISABELLE project to develop and build two proton intersecting storage rings.

    The groundbreaking for the project was in October 1978. In 1981, with the tunnel for the accelerator already excavated, problems with the superconducting magnets needed for the ISABELLE accelerator brought the project to a halt, and the project was eventually cancelled in 1983.

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (US) operated from 1982 to 2014 and was involved with two Nobel Prize-winning discoveries. It has since been replaced by the National Synchrotron Light Source II (US) [below].

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (US).

    After ISABELLE’S cancellation, physicist at BNL proposed that the excavated tunnel and parts of the magnet assembly be used in another accelerator. In 1984 the first proposal for the accelerator now known as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)[below] was put forward. The construction got funded in 1991 and RHIC has been operational since 2000. One of the world’s only two operating heavy-ion colliders, RHIC is as of 2010 the second-highest-energy collider after the Large Hadron Collider(CH). RHIC is housed in a tunnel 2.4 miles (3.9 km) long and is visible from space.

    On January 9, 2020, It was announced by Paul Dabbar, undersecretary of the US Department of Energy Office of Science, that the BNL eRHIC design has been selected over the conceptual design put forward by DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility [Jlab] (US) as the future Electron–ion collider (EIC) in the United States.

    Brookhaven Lab Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) (US) to be built inside the tunnel that currently houses the RHIC.

    In addition to the site selection, it was announced that the BNL EIC had acquired CD-0 from the Department of Energy. BNL’s eRHIC design proposes upgrading the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, which collides beams light to heavy ions including polarized protons, with a polarized electron facility, to be housed in the same tunnel.

    Other discoveries

    In 1958, Brookhaven scientists created one of the world’s first video games, Tennis for Two. In 1968 Brookhaven scientists patented Maglev, a transportation technology that utilizes magnetic levitation.

    Major facilities

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which was designed to research quark–gluon plasma and the sources of proton spin. Until 2009 it was the world’s most powerful heavy ion collider. It is the only collider of spin-polarized protons.

    Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), used for the study of nanoscale materials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II(US), Brookhaven’s newest user facility, opened in 2015 to replace the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which had operated for 30 years. NSLS was involved in the work that won the 2003 and 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

    Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, a particle accelerator that was used in three of the lab’s Nobel prizes.
    Accelerator Test Facility, generates, accelerates and monitors particle beams.
    Tandem Van de Graaff, once the world’s largest electrostatic accelerator.

    Computational Science resources, including access to a massively parallel Blue Gene series supercomputer that is among the fastest in the world for scientific research, run jointly by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University-SUNY (US).

    Interdisciplinary Science Building, with unique laboratories for studying high-temperature superconductors and other materials important for addressing energy challenges.
    NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, where scientists use beams of ions to simulate cosmic rays and assess the risks of space radiation to human space travelers and equipment.

    Off-site contributions

    It is a contributing partner to the ATLAS experiment, one of the four detectors located at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

    European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire)(EU) [CERN] map

    Iconic view of the European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire](CH)CERN ATLAS detector.

    It is currently operating at The European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] near Geneva, Switzerland.

    Brookhaven was also responsible for the design of the SNS accumulator ring in partnership with Spallation Neutron Source at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US), Tennessee.

    DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory(US) Spallation Neutron Source annotated.

    Brookhaven plays a role in a range of neutrino research projects around the world, including the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China.

    Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) from FNAL to Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II(US).

    BNL NSLS II (US).

    BNL Relative Heavy Ion Collider (US) Campus.

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector.

    BNL/RHIC Phenix detector.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:54 pm on October 14, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "To Find Sterile Neutrinos Think Small", , , BeEST experimental program, Neutrinos,   

    From American Physical Society (US) : “To Find Sterile Neutrinos Think Small” 

    AmericanPhysicalSociety

    From American Physical Society (US)

    10.14.21

    Two small-scale experiments may beat the massive machines pursuing evidence of new physics—and could improve cancer treatment.

    Experiments have spotted anomalies hinting at a new type of neutrino, one that would go beyond the standard model of particle physics and perhaps open a portal to the dark sector. But no one has ever directly observed this hypothetical particle.

    1
    The BeEST experimental program, short for “Beryllium Electron-capture with Superconducting Tunnel junctions,” is utilizing complete momentum reconstruction of nuclear electron-capture decay in radioactive beryllium-7 atoms to search for these elusive new “ghost particles.” Credit: Spencer Fretwell, The Colorado School of Mines(US).

    Now a quantum dark matter detector and a proposed particle accelerator dreamt up by machine learning are poised to prove whether the sterile neutrino exists.

    The IsoDAR cyclotron would deliver ten times more beam current than any existing machine, according to the team at The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) that designed it.

    2
    A picture of the ion source used by the IsoDAR cyclotron team, which shows the ion beam glowing inside their device. Credit: IsoDAR collaboration.

    Taking up only a small underground footprint, the cyclotron may give definitive signs of sterile neutrinos within five years.

    At the same time, that intense beam could solve a major problem in cancer treatment: producing enough radioactive isotopes for killing cancerous cells and scanning tumors. The beam could produce high quantities of medical isotopes and even let hospitals and smaller laboratories make their own.

    “There is a direct connection between the technology that can be used to understand our universe, and the technology which can be used to save people’s lives,” said Loyd Waites, an MIT PhD candidate who will discuss the plans at the 2021 Fall Meeting of the APS Division of Nuclear Physics.

    Of the existing sterile neutrino hunters, one of the most powerful in the world possesses a single detector. The BeEST (pronounced “beast”) may sound like a behemoth, but the experiment uses one quantum sensor to measure nuclear recoils from the “kick” of a neutrino.

    This clean method searches for the mysterious particle without the added hurdle of looking for its interactions with normal matter. Just one month of testing yielded a new benchmark that covers a wide mass range—applicable to much bigger sterile neutrino experiments like “There is a direct connection between the technology that can be used to understand our universe, and the technology which can be used to save people’s lives,” said Loyd Waites, an MIT PhD candidate who will discuss the plans at the 2021 Fall Meeting of the APS Division of Nuclear Physics.

    Of the existing sterile neutrino hunters, one of the most powerful in the world possesses a single detector. The BeEST (pronounced “beast”) may sound like a behemoth, but the experiment uses one quantum sensor to measure nuclear recoils from the “kick” of a neutrino.

    This clean method searches for the mysterious particle without the added hurdle of looking for its interactions with normal matter. Just one month of testing yielded a new benchmark that covers a wide mass range—applicable to much bigger sterile neutrino experiments like KATRIN.

    KATRIN experiment aims to measure the mass of the neutrino using a huge device called a spectrometer (interior shown)KIT Karlsruhe Institute of Technology [Karlsruher Institut für Technologie] (DE)

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino KATRIN experiment which is presently being performed at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe at the KIT Karlsruhe Institute of Technology [Karlsruher Institut für Technologie] (DE) Campus North site will investigate the most important open issue in neutrino physics.

    “This initial work already excludes the existence of this type of sterile neutrino up to 10 times better than all previous decay experiments,” said Kyle Leach, an associate professor at the Colorado School of Mines, who presents the first round of results (recently reported in Physical Review Letters) at the meeting.

    The BeEST, a collaboration of 30 scientists from 10 institutions in North America and Europe, is also the first project to successfully use beryllium-7, regarded as the ideal atomic nucleus for the sterile neutrino hunt. Next up: scaling the BeEST setup to many more sensors, using new superconducting materials.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition
    American Physical Society US)
    Physicists are drowning in a flood of research papers in their own fields and coping with an even larger deluge in other areas of physics. How can an active researcher stay informed about the most important developments in physics? Physics highlights a selection of papers from the Physical Review journals. In consultation with expert scientists, the editors choose these papers for their importance and/or intrinsic interest. To highlight these papers, Physics features three kinds of articles: Viewpoints are commentaries written by active researchers, who are asked to explain the results to physicists in other subfields. Focus stories are written by professional science writers in a journalistic style and are intended to be accessible to students and non-experts. Synopses are brief editor-written summaries.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:26 am on October 14, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "3 things learned from IceCube's first 10 years", , Neutrinos, ,   

    From The National Science Foundation (US) : “3 things learned from IceCube’s first 10 years” 

    From The National Science Foundation (US)

    October 14, 2021
    Lauren Lipuma

    Neutrinos are tiny, nearly massless elementary particles that rarely interact with normal matter. They were first made during the Big Bang and are continuously produced today by stars, black holes and other cosmic structures. Neutrinos are everywhere – billions pass through a square centimeter of Earth every second – but are difficult to detect and study.

    The largest neutrino observatory in the world, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, consists of thousands of sensors draped through a cubic kilometer of ice at the geographic South Pole. It was built to study cosmic neutrinos – those that come from outside the solar system and are made in powerful cosmic objects like black holes and pulsars.

    Studying neutrinos is important for understanding the makeup of the universe, but IceCube, operated by The University of Wisconsin–Madison (US) and supported by The National Science Foundation (US), was designed to use neutrinos as an astronomical messenger: to tell researchers about the violent, chaotic environments in which they were created.

    In its first decade of operations, the ice-encased detector has given researchers new ways of looking at the cosmos. “Whenever we look at the universe with a new messenger, a particle we hadn’t had the capability to exploit before, we always learn new things,” said Dawn Williams, a physicist at the University of Alabama and member of the IceCube collaboration. The IceCube Observatory was “built to exploit this messenger – to use neutrinos to explore the universe, and we have succeeded … beyond our wildest dreams.”

    Here are three things scientists have learned from IceCube’s first decade of science and a peek at what physicists hope to learn in the future.

    1. High-energy neutrinos are being made outside the solar system.

    One of the first things physicists learned from IceCube is that there is indeed a flux of high-energy cosmic neutrinos detectable on Earth. Before IceCube was built, physicists had observed cosmic neutrinos directly only once before, when light and particles from a supernova reached Earth in 1987. Observatories around the world picked up 25 neutrinos from the explosion of a star in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a small companion galaxy of the Milky Way. But those neutrinos were low in energy. High-energy neutrinos from cosmic accelerators like black holes are much rarer and harder to detect.

    3
    Graphic: Lauren Lipuma

    In 2013, IceCube scientists announced they had detected 28 high-energy neutrinos, which was the first solid evidence for neutrinos coming from cosmic accelerators outside the solar system. These neutrinos were a million times more energetic than those from the 1987 supernova.

    2. Neutrino astronomy is a real thing.

    A few years after discovering a flux of cosmic neutrinos, IceCube accomplished its second major goal: identifying a candidate source of high-energy neutrinos. Physicists knew neutrinos are made in chaotic environments like black holes, but they had never pinpointed a specific object as being a high-energy neutrino “factory.”

    3
    Graphic: Lauren Lipuma.

    In 2017, IceCube scientists picked up a high-energy neutrino they traced to a flaring blazar, a giant elliptical galaxy with a supermassive black hole at its center. Black holes at the center of blazars have twin jets that spew light and elementary particles from their poles.

    That high-energy neutrino triggered IceCube’s automated alert system, which directed telescopes around the world to home in on the area of sky from which the neutrino originated. Several telescopes noticed a flare of gamma rays coming from a blazar about 4 billion light-years away. Astrophysicists concluded that this was the source of both the gamma rays and the high-energy neutrino they observed.

    Physicists then looked at past IceCube observations and found a bigger flux of neutrinos from three years earlier that originated from the same area of the sky – and presumably from the same blazar.

    This discovery was significant not only because it was the first time a high-energy neutrino source had been confirmed, but also because it ushered in the new era of neutrino astronomy: the idea of using neutrinos, rather than light, to study the universe.

    4
    Graphic: Lauren Lipuma.

    “Ten years ago, if I were giving a neutrino astronomy talk, I would have put neutrino astronomy in air quotes,” said Naoko Kurahashi Neilson, a physicist at Drexel University and member of the IceCube collaboration. “Ten years ago, we hadn’t even seen a neutrino from outside our solar system. Now I don’t put air quotes because everybody agrees you can do astronomy with neutrinos.”

    Since then, the IceCube team has identified one more potential cosmic neutrino
    source – the galaxy Messier 77, a starburst galaxy with a supermassive black hole at its center.

    3. IceCube can do fundamental physics.

    Two recent discoveries showed IceCube can help physicists understand the intrinsic properties and behaviors of neutrinos, even though it was not designed to do so. Neutrinos come in three “flavors,” a particle physics term for the species of elementary particles: electron, muon and tau neutrinos. Researchers have so far identified two candidate tau neutrinos.

    Physicists know neutrinos can change their flavor but not fully how or why this happens. IceCube’s observation of the two tau neutrinos means cosmic neutrinos are changing flavor somewhere on their journey across the universe, a process predicted by physics but difficult to observe.

    4
    A simulation of the photon burst detected during the Glashow resonance event. Each photon travels in a straight line until it is deflected by dust or other impurities in the ice surrounding IceCube’s sensors. Photo Credit: Lu Lu, IceCube Collaboration.

    Additionally, researchers detected an electron antineutrino indicative of a Glashow resonance event. This is an extremely rare type of interaction between an electron antineutrino and an atomic electron – a type of particle interaction never observed before. Physicist Sheldon Glashow first theorized the interaction in 1960, but only IceCube’s detection of an electron antineutrino in 2016 proved it happens in reality.

    “It’s incredible that we could actually achieve this,” said Francis Halzen, a physicist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and principal investigator of the IceCube collaboration said. “I’m a particle physicist, and this to me is just mind-blowing.

    What’s next for IceCube?

    There are still many unanswered questions about cosmic neutrinos, but scientists suspect some will be answered in the next 10 years.

    5
    The server room at the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. Photo Credit: Benjamin Eberhardt; ICECUBE/National Science Foundation.

    Halzen hopes IceCube can help physicists understand where cosmic rays – high-energy charged particles that transfer their energy to neutrinos – come from. Unlike neutrinos, cosmic rays are charged, so their paths through the universe are warped by magnetic fields, making it nearly impossible for physicists to know where they came from without other information.

    Kurahashi Neilson hopes researchers can learn more about cosmic particle accelerators and when and how often they spew out neutrinos. “We’re at the tip of an iceberg, right? And we don’t know how big or deep or what shape the iceberg is. We know there are neutrino sources. We’ve maybe seen one or two, so what are the rest? When do they come out? How often? How are they distributed? What does the universe look like in neutrinos?” she said.

    ___________________________________________________________
    U Wisconsin IceCube neutrino observatory


    IceCube employs more than 5000 detectors lowered on 86 strings into almost 100 holes in the Antarctic ice NSF B. Gudbjartsson, IceCube Collaboration.

    Lunar Icecube

    IceCube Gen-2 DeepCore PINGU annotated

    IceCube neutrino detector interior.

    IceCube DeepCore annotated.

    IceCube Gen-2 DeepCore PINGU annotated

    DM-Ice II at IceCube annotated.
    ___________________________________________________________

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) (US) is an independent federal agency created by Congress in 1950 “to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense…we are the funding source for approximately 24 percent of all federally supported basic research conducted by America’s colleges and universities. In many fields such as mathematics, computer science and the social sciences, NSF is the major source of federal backing.

    We fulfill our mission chiefly by issuing limited-term grants — currently about 12,000 new awards per year, with an average duration of three years — to fund specific research proposals that have been judged the most promising by a rigorous and objective merit-review system. Most of these awards go to individuals or small groups of investigators. Others provide funding for research centers, instruments and facilities that allow scientists, engineers and students to work at the outermost frontiers of knowledge.

    NSF’s goals — discovery, learning, research infrastructure and stewardship — provide an integrated strategy to advance the frontiers of knowledge, cultivate a world-class, broadly inclusive science and engineering workforce and expand the scientific literacy of all citizens, build the nation’s research capability through investments in advanced instrumentation and facilities, and support excellence in science and engineering research and education through a capable and responsive organization. We like to say that NSF is “where discoveries begin.”

    Many of the discoveries and technological advances have been truly revolutionary. In the past few decades, NSF-funded researchers have won some 236 Nobel Prizes as well as other honors too numerous to list. These pioneers have included the scientists or teams that discovered many of the fundamental particles of matter, analyzed the cosmic microwaves left over from the earliest epoch of the universe, developed carbon-14 dating of ancient artifacts, decoded the genetics of viruses, and created an entirely new state of matter called a Bose-Einstein condensate.

    NSF also funds equipment that is needed by scientists and engineers but is often too expensive for any one group or researcher to afford. Examples of such major research equipment include giant optical and radio telescopes, Antarctic research sites, high-end computer facilities and ultra-high-speed connections, ships for ocean research, sensitive detectors of very subtle physical phenomena and gravitational wave observatories.

    Another essential element in NSF’s mission is support for science and engineering education, from pre-K through graduate school and beyond. The research we fund is thoroughly integrated with education to help ensure that there will always be plenty of skilled people available to work in new and emerging scientific, engineering and technological fields, and plenty of capable teachers to educate the next generation.

    No single factor is more important to the intellectual and economic progress of society, and to the enhanced well-being of its citizens, than the continuous acquisition of new knowledge. NSF is proud to be a major part of that process.

    Specifically, the Foundation’s organic legislation authorizes us to engage in the following activities:

    Initiate and support, through grants and contracts, scientific and engineering research and programs to strengthen scientific and engineering research potential, and education programs at all levels, and appraise the impact of research upon industrial development and the general welfare.
    Award graduate fellowships in the sciences and in engineering.
    Foster the interchange of scientific information among scientists and engineers in the United States and foreign countries.
    Foster and support the development and use of computers and other scientific methods and technologies, primarily for research and education in the sciences.
    Evaluate the status and needs of the various sciences and engineering and take into consideration the results of this evaluation in correlating our research and educational programs with other federal and non-federal programs.
    Provide a central clearinghouse for the collection, interpretation and analysis of data on scientific and technical resources in the United States, and provide a source of information for policy formulation by other federal agencies.
    Determine the total amount of federal money received by universities and appropriate organizations for the conduct of scientific and engineering research, including both basic and applied, and construction of facilities where such research is conducted, but excluding development, and report annually thereon to the President and the Congress.
    Initiate and support specific scientific and engineering activities in connection with matters relating to international cooperation, national security and the effects of scientific and technological applications upon society.
    Initiate and support scientific and engineering research, including applied research, at academic and other nonprofit institutions and, at the direction of the President, support applied research at other organizations.
    Recommend and encourage the pursuit of national policies for the promotion of basic research and education in the sciences and engineering. Strengthen research and education innovation in the sciences and engineering, including independent research by individuals, throughout the United States.
    Support activities designed to increase the participation of women and minorities and others underrepresented in science and technology.

    At present, NSF has a total workforce of about 2,100 at its Alexandria, VA, headquarters, including approximately 1,400 career employees, 200 scientists from research institutions on temporary duty, 450 contract workers and the staff of the NSB office and the Office of the Inspector General.

    NSF is divided into the following seven directorates that support science and engineering research and education: Biological Sciences, Computer and Information Science and Engineering, Engineering, Geosciences, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, and Education and Human Resources. Each is headed by an assistant director and each is further subdivided into divisions like materials research, ocean sciences and behavioral and cognitive sciences.

    Within NSF’s Office of the Director, the Office of Integrative Activities also supports research and researchers. Other sections of NSF are devoted to financial management, award processing and monitoring, legal affairs, outreach and other functions. The Office of the Inspector General examines the foundation’s work and reports to the NSB and Congress.

    Each year, NSF supports an average of about 200,000 scientists, engineers, educators and students at universities, laboratories and field sites all over the United States and throughout the world, from Alaska to Alabama to Africa to Antarctica. You could say that NSF support goes “to the ends of the earth” to learn more about the planet and its inhabitants, and to produce fundamental discoveries that further the progress of research and lead to products and services that boost the economy and improve general health and well-being.

    As described in our strategic plan, NSF is the only federal agency whose mission includes support for all fields of fundamental science and engineering, except for medical sciences. NSF is tasked with keeping the United States at the leading edge of discovery in a wide range of scientific areas, from astronomy to geology to zoology. So, in addition to funding research in the traditional academic areas, the agency also supports “high risk, high pay off” ideas, novel collaborations and numerous projects that may seem like science fiction today, but which the public will take for granted tomorrow. And in every case, we ensure that research is fully integrated with education so that today’s revolutionary work will also be training tomorrow’s top scientists and engineers.

    Unlike many other federal agencies, NSF does not hire researchers or directly operate our own laboratories or similar facilities. Instead, we support scientists, engineers and educators directly through their own home institutions (typically universities and colleges). Similarly, we fund facilities and equipment such as telescopes, through cooperative agreements with research consortia that have competed successfully for limited-term management contracts.

    NSF’s job is to determine where the frontiers are, identify the leading U.S. pioneers in these fields and provide money and equipment to help them continue. The results can be transformative. For example, years before most people had heard of “nanotechnology,” NSF was supporting scientists and engineers who were learning how to detect, record and manipulate activity at the scale of individual atoms — the nanoscale. Today, scientists are adept at moving atoms around to create devices and materials with properties that are often more useful than those found in nature.

    Dozens of companies are gearing up to produce nanoscale products. NSF is funding the research projects, state-of-the-art facilities and educational opportunities that will teach new skills to the science and engineering students who will make up the nanotechnology workforce of tomorrow.

    At the same time, we are looking for the next frontier.

    NSF’s task of identifying and funding work at the frontiers of science and engineering is not a “top-down” process. NSF operates from the “bottom up,” keeping close track of research around the United States and the world, maintaining constant contact with the research community to identify ever-moving horizons of inquiry, monitoring which areas are most likely to result in spectacular progress and choosing the most promising people to conduct the research.

    NSF funds research and education in most fields of science and engineering. We do this through grants and cooperative agreements to more than 2,000 colleges, universities, K-12 school systems, businesses, informal science organizations and other research organizations throughout the U.S. The Foundation considers proposals submitted by organizations on behalf of individuals or groups for support in most fields of research. Interdisciplinary proposals also are eligible for consideration. Awardees are chosen from those who send us proposals asking for a specific amount of support for a specific project.

    Proposals may be submitted in response to the various funding opportunities that are announced on the NSF website. These funding opportunities fall into three categories — program descriptions, program announcements and program solicitations — and are the mechanisms NSF uses to generate funding requests. At any time, scientists and engineers are also welcome to send in unsolicited proposals for research and education projects, in any existing or emerging field. The Proposal and Award Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG) provides guidance on proposal preparation and submission and award management. At present, NSF receives more than 42,000 proposals per year.

    To ensure that proposals are evaluated in a fair, competitive, transparent and in-depth manner, we use a rigorous system of merit review. Nearly every proposal is evaluated by a minimum of three independent reviewers consisting of scientists, engineers and educators who do not work at NSF or for the institution that employs the proposing researchers. NSF selects the reviewers from among the national pool of experts in each field and their evaluations are confidential. On average, approximately 40,000 experts, knowledgeable about the current state of their field, give their time to serve as reviewers each year.

    The reviewer’s job is to decide which projects are of the very highest caliber. NSF’s merit review process, considered by some to be the “gold standard” of scientific review, ensures that many voices are heard and that only the best projects make it to the funding stage. An enormous amount of research, deliberation, thought and discussion goes into award decisions.

    The NSF program officer reviews the proposal and analyzes the input received from the external reviewers. After scientific, technical and programmatic review and consideration of appropriate factors, the program officer makes an “award” or “decline” recommendation to the division director. Final programmatic approval for a proposal is generally completed at NSF’s division level. A principal investigator (PI) whose proposal for NSF support has been declined will receive information and an explanation of the reason(s) for declination, along with copies of the reviews considered in making the decision. If that explanation does not satisfy the PI, he/she may request additional information from the cognizant NSF program officer or division director.

    If the program officer makes an award recommendation and the division director concurs, the recommendation is submitted to NSF’s Division of Grants and Agreements (DGA) for award processing. A DGA officer reviews the recommendation from the program division/office for business, financial and policy implications, and the processing and issuance of a grant or cooperative agreement. DGA generally makes awards to academic institutions within 30 days after the program division/office makes its recommendation.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:22 pm on September 30, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Scientists assemble final detector of Fermilab’s Short-Baseline Neutrino Program", , , Neutrinos   

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US) : “Scientists assemble final detector of Fermilab’s Short-Baseline Neutrino Program” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US) , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research worldwide.

    September 30, 2021
    Mary Magnuson

    1
    In September, Anne Schukraft looks up to the electrically isolating support hangers that suspend the weight of the cathode and connecting components from above on the Short-Baseline Near Detector. Photo: Ryan Postel, Fermilab.

    With a directive to look for physics beyond the standard model and study the behavior of the universe’s most elusive particles, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory’s Short-Baseline Neutrino Program has a full plate.

    Consisting of three detectors — the Short-Baseline Near Detector, MicroBooNE [below] and ICARUS [below] — the program will expand on Fermilab’s internationally acclaimed neutrino research activities. By studying neutrino properties with these detectors, scientists will learn more about the role these tiny particles play in the universe.

    On the Fermilab campus, the three detectors will sit staggered along a straight line, each probing an intense neutrino beam. SBND, under construction, will be closest to the neutrino beam source, just 110 meters away from the area where protons smash into a target and create a beam of muon neutrinos. MicroBooNE, which began taking data in 2015, sits 360 meters from SBND, and ICARUS, which will begin its physics run this fall, sits 130 meters beyond MicroBooNE.

    Together, these detectors will study neutrino oscillations in unprecedented detail. In this process, a single neutrino can shift between the three known neutrino types as it travels through space. If there is a fourth type of neutrino or if neutrinos behave differently than current theory predicts, scientists expect to find evidence for this new physics in the neutrino oscillation patterns observed by the three detectors.

    When completed, the SBND’s detector will be suspended in a chamber full of liquid argon. When a neutrino enters the chamber and collides with an argon atom, it will send out a spray of charged particles and light, which the detector will record. These signals will provide scientists with the information to reconstruct a precise 3D image of the trajectories of all the particles that emerged from a neutrino-argon collision.

    “You’ll see an image that shows you so much detail, and at such a small scale,” said scientist Anne Schukraft, technical coordinator for the project. “If you compare it to previous generation experiments, it really opens a new world of what you can learn.”

    Getting charged up

    2
    In September, the SBND cathode plane with bottom field cage modules installed in the assembly transport frame. The cathode frame tube structure holds 16 double-sided wavelength-shifting reflective panels, here covered with black plastic to protect from light exposure. Photo: Ryan Postel, Fermilab.

    In battery-powered circuits, electrons flow between the negative and the positive terminals. In SBND, the electrons produced following neutrino collisions will follow the electric field created inside the detector: two anode planes and one negatively charged cathode plane. This is no tiny circuit, however. Each plane measures 5 by 4 meters, and the electric field between the cathode and each anode will be 500 volts per centimeter, with the cathode conducting a whopping 100,000 volts.

    The two anode planes, each made of delicate wires spaced 3 millimeters apart, will cover two opposite-side walls of the cube-shaped detector. They will collect the electrons created by particles emerging from collisions inside the detector, while light sensors behind them will record the photons, or particles of light.

    In the middle of the detector, an upright plane covered with reflective foil will act as the cathode. The assembly team lowered the heavy cathode plane into place in the detector’s steel frame in late July and expects to install the first anode plane in early October. Until installation, each of the light-sensitive layers are kept in a special controlled clean area.

    When fully assembled, the detector will weigh more than 100 tons and be filled with argon kept at minus 190 degrees Celsius. The entire apparatus will sit in a cryostat, made of thick steel and insulation panels that keep everything cold. A complicated piping system will circulate and filter the liquid argon to keep it clean.

    Neutrino scientists, assemble

    Different groups around the world — primarily based in the United States, the U.K., Brazil and Switzerland — built the detector parts and shipped them to Fermilab. But the warehouse-like building where the detector frame is being assembled isn’t the detector’s forever home.

    Once the components are situated in the steel frame, the team will transport the detector several miles across the Fermilab site to the SBND building, where crews are constructing the cryostat and where the detector will actually collect its data. Schukraft estimates SBND will make its data debut in early 2023.

    “The good thing about SBND is that we are building it from scratch,” said Mônica Nunes, a postdoctoral researcher at Syracuse University (US). “So everything that we are learning about this process is going to be really useful for the next generation of neutrino experiments.”

    3
    In September, Will Foreman (IIT) and Vishvas Pandey (U Florida) discuss the installation of light diffusers for the calibration of the photon detection system. Photo: Ryan Postel, Fermilab.

    SBND will complement MicroBooNE and ICARUS as the trio probes for physics beyond the Standard Model. In particular, researchers are searching for the sterile neutrino, a type of neutrino that doesn’t interact with the weak force. Two prior experiments, the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector at Los Alamos National Lab and MiniBooNE at Fermilab, discovered anomalies that hint at the existence of these elusive particles. By measuring how neutrinos oscillate and shift types, the SBN Program aims to confirm or dispute these anomalies and add more evidence for or against the existence of sterile neutrinos.

    “The idea is to rig a detector really close to the source of neutrinos in hopes of catching this kind of neutrino,” said Roberto Acciarri, co-manager of the detector assembly. “Then, we have one far detector and one in the middle, to see if we can see sterile neutrinos when they’re produced and when they’re oscillating away.”

    SBND researchers will also examine with high precision how neutrinos interact with the argon atoms that fill the detector. Because SBND sits so close to the origin of the neutrino beam, it will record more than a million neutrino-argon interactions per year. The physics of these interactions is an important element of future neutrino experiments that will employ liquid-argon detectors, such as the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment.

    “It’s great to see progress on almost a daily basis,” said Schukraft. “We’re all eagerly waiting to see this experiment start to take data.”

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, and the Universities Research Association (URA). Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor.

    Fermilab’s Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator; until the startup in 2008 of the Large Hadron Collider(CH) near Geneva, Switzerland, it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating antiprotons to energies of 500 GeV, and producing proton-proton collisions with energies of up to 1.6 TeV, the first accelerator to reach one “tera-electron-volt” energy. At 3.9 miles (6.3 km), it was the world’s fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron’s CDF and DØ detectors. It was shut down in 2011.

    In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment), NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) and SeaQuest. Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment). The MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE sat in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but had fine-grained tracking capabilities. The NOνA experiment uses, and the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, Minnesota, site of the NOνA far detector. In 2017, the ICARUS neutrino experiment was moved from CERN to Fermilab.
    In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia, classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. The site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors who present valid photo identification.
    Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.
    Weston, Illinois, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab.

    The laboratory was founded in 1969 as the National Accelerator Laboratory; it was renamed in honor of Enrico Fermi in 1974. The laboratory’s first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation. He is the namesake of the site’s high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and which is the center of activity on the campus.
    After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job. It was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman stepped down in 1989. The science education center at the site was named in his honor.
    The later directors include:

    John Peoples, 1989 to 1996
    Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005
    Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013
    Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the present

    Fermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); it serves as a Tier 1 site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)/MINERvA Reidar Hahn.

    FNAL Don Lincoln.[/caption]

    FNAL Icon

     
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