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  • richardmitnick 3:39 pm on June 23, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "A star’s demise is connected to a neutrino outburst", , Ground based Neutrino Observation, , , Neutrinos, On 1 October 2019 the IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica detected a 0.2 PeV neutrino., , , , Recently the Zwicky Transient Facility observed another TDE that was coincident with a high-energy neutrino detected by IceCube., Seven hours later the Zwicky Transient Facility observed optical an emission in the direction of the incoming neutrino., , The optical emission was caused by a bright transient phenomenon known as a tidal disruption event (TDE)., The prospect of high-energy neutrinos being formed by tidal forces ripping apart a star near a supermassive black hole has garnered new support.   

    From “Physics Today” : “A star’s demise is connected to a neutrino outburst” 

    Physics Today bloc

    From “Physics Today”

    23 Jun 2022
    Alex Lopatka

    The prospect of high-energy neutrinos being formed by tidal forces ripping apart a star near a supermassive black hole has garnered new support.

    (S. Reusch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 128, 221101, 2022.)

    1
    Technicians install a camera at the Zwicky Transient Facility. Credit: Caltech/Palomar.

    On 1 October 2019 the IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica detected a 0.2 PeV neutrino.

    Seven hours later the Zwicky Transient Facility in California followed up with a wide-field survey of the sky at optical and IR wavelengths. The facility observed optical emission in the direction of the incoming neutrino.

    Researchers concluded [Nature Astronomy] that the two observations could be connected after studying the exceptional energy flux of the emission, its location within the reported uncertainty region of the high-energy neutrino, and some modeling results. The optical emission was caused by a bright transient phenomenon known as a tidal disruption event (TDE), and that particular one had first been observed one year before the neutrino. Such events occur when stars get close enough to supermassive black holes to experience spaghettification—the stretching and compression of an object into a long, thin shape due to the black hole’s extreme tidal forces. (See the article by Suvi Gezari, Physics Today, May 2014, page 37.)

    A theory paper [Nature Astronomy] proposed that neutrinos with energies above 100 TeV, like the 2019 sighting, could be produced in relativistic jets of plasma, which are composed of stellar debris that’s flung outward after such an event. TDEs and many other sources for high-energy neutrinos have been debated in the literature. But with only one reported TDE–neutrino association researchers haven’t been able to conclusively establish TDEs as high-energy neutrino sources.

    3
    Credit: S. Reusch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 128, 221101 (2022)

    Recently the Zwicky Transient Facility observed another TDE that was coincident with a high-energy neutrino detected by IceCube. Simeon Reusch, Marek Kowalski, and their colleagues estimated that the probability of a second such pairing happening by chance is 0.034%, lending more credence to TDEs as a source for high-energy neutrinos.

    The second TDE caused a long-duration optical flare which reached its peak luminosity in August 2019. The neutrino was detected by IceCube in May 2020, by which point the flare’s flux had decreased by about 30% from its peak. Such flares often last several months, though this one was still detectable as of June 2022.

    To better understand how the unusually long-lasting TDE may have produced high-energy neutrinos, the research team simulated three mechanisms. The figure shows the predicted neutrino flux as a function of energy, and the vertical dotted line indicates the energy of the neutrino observed by IceCube. Any of the three mechanisms could reasonably explain the neutrino. Besides relativistic jets, a TDE could also generate an accretion disk, and emission from its corona or a subrelativistic wind of ejected material may generate neutrinos too.

    Other uncertainties remain. The radio-emission measurements of the flare, for example, mean that it could have originated from an active galactic nucleus instead of a TDE. In addition, IceCube’s statistical analysis cannot rule out that the neutrino may have formed from atmospheric processes on Earth.

    Although it’ll take more observations to lower those uncertainties, the latest detection of a TDE–neutrino pairing reinforces the significance of TDEs as neutrino sources. And if the association is true, TDEs would have to be surprisingly efficient particle accelerators, a possibility that could only be further studied with more comprehensive multimessenger data.

    See the full article here .

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    “Our mission

    The mission of ”Physics Today” is to be a unifying influence for the diverse areas of physics and the physics-related sciences.

    It does that in three ways:

    • by providing authoritative, engaging coverage of physical science research and its applications without regard to disciplinary boundaries;
    • by providing authoritative, engaging coverage of the often complex interactions of the physical sciences with each other and with other spheres of human endeavor; and
    • by providing a forum for the exchange of ideas within the scientific community.”

     
  • richardmitnick 12:24 pm on June 8, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Hey neutrino. What’s the antimatter?", Antimatter is far less abundant in the universe than “regular” matter., Antiparticles can be thought of as “opposites” or partners to the fundamental particles that make regular everyday matter., , Matter and antimatter can also annihilate each other if they come in contact., , Neutrinoless double beta decay has never been observed., Neutrinos, New theoretical research from FRIB could help answer looming questions about the ghost-like neutrino particle including its mass and whether it is its own antiparticle., , The detection experiment itself will likely require a large international project that’s buried deep underground to shield it from unwanted background effects., The team refined calculations for a theoretical way that certain atoms can decay.   

    From Michigan State University: “Hey neutrino. What’s the antimatter?” 

    Michigan State Bloc

    From Michigan State University

    June 2, 2022

    New theoretical research from FRIB [below] could help answer looming questions about the ghost-like neutrino particle, including its mass and whether it is its own antiparticle.

    1
    New theoretical research from FRIB could help answer looming questions about the ghost-like neutrino particle, including its mass and whether it is its own antiparticle. (Credit: Facility for Rare Isotope Beams)

    Heiko Hergert grew up on a dairy farm in Germany discussing history with his father while they worked. Back then, he never guessed he’d be one day helping solve mysteries of the universe at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, or FRIB, at Michigan State University.

    “I had good grades in high school and people told me, ‘Maybe you should go to college,’” said Hergert, who is an associate professor of physics at FRIB and in MSU’s Department of Physics and Astronomy.

    Enrolling in college would be his first step toward becoming the first member of his family to pursue a career in academia — which the FRIB and MSU faculty member said he couldn’t have done without support from relatives, friends and teachers. But he didn’t know it would launch his career trajectory at the time. And there was still the small matter of picking which subject to study.

    Hergert shared his father’s love of history, but he also liked math and science and thought he’d find better career options if he pursued that path. Along the way, he was drawn to using math to answer some of the most fundamental questions in physics.

    “I recognized that I was good at math and theoretical physics. And I was enjoying it,” said Hergert, who became the first in his family to earn a doctorate. “It becomes self-reinforcing. You realize, ‘I can actually make a contribution.’ Then you want to keep making them.”

    Hergert published his latest contribution on Dec. 10, 2021, in the journal Physical Review Letters, working with Roland Wirth and Jiangming Yao, who were postdoctoral researchers at FRIB.

    The team refined calculations for a theoretical way that certain atoms can decay, or fall apart, and the results suggest that scientists have a better likelihood of observing this decay than previously thought.

    “To compute specific parameters for this supposed rare decay, we need to have consistent ingredients in our theory,” Hergert said. “Our work is a more consistent calculation, and this added consistency leads to an increased probability in detecting the decay.”

    That is, if this process does actually happen in nature.

    This so-called neutrinoless double beta decay has never been observed. But scientists are already designing experiments to detect it because, if it does occur, it could reveal intimate information about one of the most ubiquitous and mysterious particles known to science: the neutrino.

    Neutrinos are the second most common particle in the universe, behind only photons, which are particles of light. But, unlike light, neutrinos don’t glow, reflect from mirrors or interact very much with anything at all, which is why some people refer to them as ghost particles.

    In fact, about 100 trillion neutrinos zip through our bodies undetected every second. And if our bodies could actually detect neutrinos, it would take 100 years to sense one.

    Despite this wispy existence, neutrinos are an integral part of the Standard Model of particle physics.

    This can be thought of as humanity’s best effort to explain some of the most fundamental physics in the universe.

    Yet, even with the Standard Model, large questions linger about the nature of neutrinos, like how massive they are. There’s also a possibility that neutrinos are their own antiparticles, which is the name given to the fundamental particles that make up antimatter.

    Antimatter is far less abundant in the universe than “regular” matter — the stuff that makes up the things we see and touch every day. Matter and antimatter can also annihilate each other if they come in contact (why, yes, that is the technical term).

    Antiparticles can be thought of as “opposites” or partners to the fundamental particles that make regular everyday matter. For example, the negatively charged electrons found in regular matter have positively charged antiparticles called positrons. Neutrinos are uncharged, but they have other properties that would be inverted in an antineutrino. Or not, if the Standard Model is missing something and a neutrino is its own antiparticle.

    Detecting neutrinoless double beta decay would provide scientists with a new approach to solve mysteries about the neutrino’s mass, its antiparticle’s identity and more.

    “The actual detection wouldn’t happen at FRIB, but scientists at FRIB are strongly involved in the effort to measure and accurately model the nuclear structure of the likely detection materials,” Hergert said.

    The detection experiment itself will likely require a large, likely international project that’s buried deep underground to shield it from unwanted background effects. That may sound a little farfetched to those outside the fields of nuclear or particle physics, but precedents do exist. Take, for instance, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, a collaboration of more than 40 institutions from 12 countries, including MSU, from 12 countries that’s using a cubic kilometer of Antarctica’s ice to help detect and study neutrinos.

    Researchers have also already built demonstration-scale versions of the detector needed to sniff out the neutrinoless double beta decay, Hergert said, but it may take a decade or two to build the full-size detector and collect the necessary data.

    In the meantime, there are still contributions for Hergert and his colleagues to make, further reinforcing his choice to take on some of the biggest questions in physics.

    “Nuclei are ripe with opportunities to test our fundamental understanding of nature, and now that FRIB is launching, we will have a powerful tool at our disposal that can help us find answers to these questions,” he said. “It’s an extremely exciting time.”

    Michigan State University (MSU) operates the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) as a user facility for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC), supporting the mission of the DOE-SC Office of Nuclear Physics. The establishment of FRIB was funded by DOE-SC, MSU, and the state of Michigan, and user facility operation is supported by the DOE-SC Office of Nuclear Physics.

    See the full article here .


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    Michigan State Campus

    Michigan State University is a public research university located in East Lansing, Michigan, United States. Michigan State University was founded in 1855 and became the nation’s first land-grant institution under the Morrill Act of 1862, serving as a model for future land-grant universities.

    The university was founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, one of the country’s first institutions of higher education to teach scientific agriculture. After the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, Michigan State University is one of the largest universities in the United States (in terms of enrollment) and has approximately 634,300 living alumni worldwide.

    U.S. News & World Report ranks its graduate programs the best in the U.S. in elementary teacher’s education, secondary teacher’s education, industrial and organizational psychology, rehabilitation counseling, African history (tied), supply chain logistics and nuclear physics in 2019. Michigan State University pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and communication sciences. Michigan State University is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. The university’s campus houses the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, the Abrams Planetarium, the Wharton Center for Performing Arts, the Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, the the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, and the country’s largest residence hall system.

    Research

    The university has a long history of academic research and innovation. In 1877, botany professor William J. Beal performed the first documented genetic crosses to produce hybrid corn, which led to increased yields. Michigan State University dairy professor G. Malcolm Trout improved the process for the homogenization of milk in the 1930s, making it more commercially viable. In the 1960s, Michigan State University scientists developed cisplatin, a leading cancer fighting drug, and followed that work with the derivative, carboplatin. Albert Fert, an Adjunct professor at Michigan State University, was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Peter Grünberg.

    Today Michigan State University continues its research with facilities such as the Department of Energy -sponsored Plant Research Laboratory and a particle accelerator called the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory [below]. The Department of Energy Office of Science named Michigan State University as the site for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The $730 million facility will attract top researchers from around the world to conduct experiments in basic nuclear science, astrophysics, and applications of isotopes to other fields.

    Michigan State University FRIB [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams] .

    In 2004, scientists at the Cyclotron produced and observed a new isotope of the element germanium, called Ge-60 In that same year, Michigan State University, in consortium with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the government of Brazil, broke ground on the 4.1-meter Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) in the Andes Mountains of Chile.


    The consortium telescope will allow the Physics & Astronomy department to study galaxy formation and origins. Since 1999, MSU has been part of a consortium called the Michigan Life Sciences Corridor, which aims to develop biotechnology research in the State of Michigan. Finally, the College of Communication Arts and Sciences’ Quello Center researches issues of information and communication management.


    The Michigan State University Spartans compete in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference. Michigan State Spartans football won the Rose Bowl Game in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014, and the university claims a total of six national football championships. Spartans men’s basketball won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and has attained the Final Four eight times since the 1998–1999 season. Spartans ice hockey won NCAA national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007. The women’s cross country team was named Big Ten champions in 2019. In the fall of 2019, MSU student-athletes posted all-time highs for graduation success rates and federal graduation rates, according to NCAA statistics.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:03 am on June 7, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Neutrinos from a Black Hole Snack", An event named AT2019fdr from November 2019., , , , , , Neutrinos,   

    From “Physics News” : “Neutrinos from a Black Hole Snack” 

    About Physics

    From “Physics News”

    June 3, 2022
    Mark Buchanan

    Researchers have found new evidence that high-energy neutrinos are emitted when a black hole gobbles up a hapless star.

    1

    Doomed star. When a star is torn apart by a black hole—as shown in this artist’s representation—high-energy neutrinos can be produced. An observatory at the South Pole has detected a neutrino that appears to have come from one of these events.
    Credit: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss.

    Neutrinos of extremely high energy routinely strike Earth. Physicists suspect these particles are created in cosmic processes involving black holes, but exactly which process dominates this production remains uncertain. Now astronomers report the detection of a high-energy neutrino linked directly to a tidal disruption event (TDE)—the violent shredding of a star by the intense gravity of a nearby black hole [1]. This observation is the second strong association of a high-energy neutrino with such a star-devouring event, allowing researchers to make a crude initial estimate of how many neutrinos are produced through this mechanism.

    High-energy neutrinos—roughly those in the TeV energy range and above—give physicists information on some of the most violent astrophysical events in the Universe, many occurring well outside our Galaxy. Because neutrinos interact with matter so weakly, they travel unaltered over immense distances from their original production sites. Theoretical models—backed by observations—have linked them to a wide variety of potential sources, including active galactic nuclei, which are supermassive black holes that produce beams of energetic particles as they devour surrounding gas. TDEs offer another possibility, as copious neutrinos should be generated if a black hole tears apart a nearby orbiting star (see Research News: “Revolution” for Alternative Black Hole Probe). Most generation scenarios involve large black holes.

    Currently, however, researchers remain unable to estimate the relative importance of these distinct processes. For example, active galactic nuclei are far more common than TDEs, but the latter could emit a very high percentage of their energy as neutrinos. As a result, “We don’t really know where the majority of high-energy cosmic neutrinos come from,” says physicist Marek Kowalski of Humboldt University in Germany. Knowing the neutrino origins would help researchers understand the extreme astrophysical events that generate some of the most energetic cosmic rays in the Universe.

    Last year, Kowalski and his colleagues reported the first coincidence detection of a neutrino and a TDE [2]. The neutrino was spotted by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory—an array of detectors buried deep within the ice near the South Pole.

    _____________________________________________________
    U Wisconsin IceCube neutrino observatory

    U Wisconsin IceCube Neutrino Observatory neutrino detector at the at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica South Pole, elevation of 2,835 metres (9,301 feet).
    IceCube employs more than 5000 detectors lowered on 86 strings into almost 100 holes in the Antarctic ice NSF B. Gudbjartsson, IceCube Collaboration.

    Lunar Icecube

    IceCube Gen-2 DeepCore PINGU annotated

    IceCube neutrino detector interior.

    IceCube DeepCore annotated.

    IceCube Gen-2 DeepCore PINGU annotated

    DM-Ice II at IceCube annotated.


    _____________________________________________________

    The researchers found that the neutrino’s location in the sky corresponded to a long-lived burst of radiation that exhibited TDE signatures in archived astronomical data.


    DESY, Science Communication Lab.
    The animation depicts a tidal disruption event of the kind believed to have produced a recently detected high-energy neutrino. The event begins when a star orbits too close to a supermassive black hole, causing it to stretch out into long noodle-like strands, in a process called “spaghettification.” The star’s torn-up remnants spiral into the black hole, driving reactions that create high-energy neutrinos and other particles.

    Adding to this earlier finding, Kowalski and colleagues now report finding a second TDE closely linked to a different neutrino, which was detected on 30 May 2020 by IceCube. The researchers discovered the association by using computers to sort through a database of astronomical observations collected by the Zwicky Transient Facility, California, which uses a wide-view, optical camera to scan the entire Northern Sky every two days.

    In their search, the team discovered an event named AT2019fdr from November 2019, which was closely associated with the most likely direction of the high-energy neutrino. Exploiting data from other telescopes, they also identified specific radiative signatures expected for a TDE.

    This association is strong evidence, the researchers argue, that this neutrino was created during a years-long radiative flare released by the black-hole–star interaction. Based on a preliminary statistical analysis, they estimate that there is only a 0.034% probability that the neutrino’s direction just happened by chance to match that of the TDE. But they say that further work on localizing the neutrino direction could change this estimate.

    “This is certainly a major result,” says astrophysicist Nicholas Stone of the Racah Institute of Physics in Israel. He says that the first observed association gave credence to TDEs being sources for high-energy neutrinos, but it was hard to be confident with just one event. “With a second neutrino-TDE association, we are now on much firmer footing.”

    This second detection does more than just bolster confidence in the earlier detection, says team member Simeon Reusch, a Ph.D. student of Kowalski’s. It also makes possible a crude estimate of the TDE contribution to high-energy neutrino production. Comparing these two observations with the full catalog of cosmic neutrinos detected by the IceCube observatory, the researchers conclude that at least 7.8% of high-energy neutrinos must be coming from TDEs. “Because tidal disruption events are so rare, our findings indicate that they are probably extremely efficient neutrino factories,” Kowalski says.

    References

    S. Reusch et al., “Candidate tidal disruption event AT2019fdr coincident with a high-energy neutrino,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 128, 221101 (2022).
    R. Stein et al., “A tidal disruption event coincident with a high-energy neutrino,” Nat. Astron. 5, 510 (2021).

    See the full article here .

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    Physicists are drowning in a flood of research papers in their own fields and coping with an even larger deluge in other areas of physics. How can an active researcher stay informed about the most important developments in physics? Physics News highlights a selection of papers from the Physical Review journals. In consultation with expert scientists, the editors choose these papers for their importance and/or intrinsic interest. To highlight these papers, Physics News features three kinds of articles: Viewpoints are commentaries written by active researchers, who are asked to explain the results to physicists in other subfields. Focus stories are written by professional science writers in a journalistic style and are intended to be accessible to students and non-experts. Synopses are brief editor-written summaries. Physics News provides a much-needed guide to the best in physics, and we welcome your comments.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:45 pm on May 31, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Physicists Announce First Results from Daya Bay’s Final Dataset", , , Data collection ended in December 2020., Daya Bay physicists made the world’s first conclusive measurement of theta13 in 2012 and subsequently improved upon the measurement's precision as the experiment continued taking data., , Neutrinos, Only one of the three mixing angles remained unknown at the time Daya Bay was designed in 2007: theta13., Physicists calculated how many antineutrinos changed flavors and consequently the value of theta13., Physicists expect there might be some difference between neutrinos and antineutrinos., Physicists have now measured the value of theta13 with a precision two and a half times greater than the experiment’s design goal., Physicists may gain insight into the imbalance of matter and antimatter in the universe., , , The eight detectors at Daya Bay pick up light signals generated by antineutrinos streaming from nearby nuclear power plants., theta13 measurement, To determine the value of theta13 Daya Bay scientists detected neutrinos of a specific flavor—in this case electron antineutrinos.   

    From The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory: “Physicists Announce First Results from Daya Bay’s Final Dataset” 

    From The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory

    May 31, 2022
    Stephanie Kossman
    skossman@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-8671

    Peter Genzer
    genzer@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-3174

    1
    Bird’s-eye view of the underground Daya Bay far detector hall during installation. The four antineutrino detectors are immersed in a large pool filled with ultra-pure water. (Credit: Roy Kaltschmidt, Berkeley Lab)

    Over nearly nine years, the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment captured an unprecedented five and a half million interactions from subatomic particles called neutrinos. Now, the international team of physicists of the Daya Bay collaboration has reported the first result from the experiment’s full dataset—the most precise measurement yet of theta13, a key parameter for understanding how neutrinos change their “flavor.”

    The result, announced today at the Neutrino 2022 conference in Seoul, South Korea, will help physicists explore some of the biggest mysteries surrounding the nature of matter and the universe.

    Neutrinos are subatomic particles that are both famously elusive and tremendously abundant. They endlessly bombard every inch of Earth’s surface at nearly the speed of light, but rarely interact with matter. They can travel through a lightyear’s worth of lead without ever disturbing a single atom.

    One of the defining characteristics of these ghost-like particles is their ability to oscillate between three distinct “flavors”: muon neutrino, tau neutrino, and electron neutrino. The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment was designed to investigate the properties that dictate the probability of those oscillations, or what are known as mixing angles and mass splittings.

    Only one of the three mixing angles remained unknown at the time Daya Bay was designed in 2007: theta13. So, Daya Bay was built to measure theta13* with higher sensitivity than any other experiment.

    Operating in Guangdong, China, the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment [above] consists of large, cylindrical particle detectors immersed in pools of water in three underground caverns. The eight detectors pick up light signals generated by antineutrinos streaming from nearby nuclear power plants. Antineutrinos are the antiparticles of neutrinos, and they are produced in abundance by nuclear reactors. Daya Bay was built through an international effort and a first-of-its-kind partnership for a major physics project between China and the United States. The Beijing-based Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences leads China’s role in the collaboration, while the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory co-lead U.S. participation.

    2
    Sensitive photomultiplier tubes lining the Daya Bay detector walls are designed to amplify and record the faint flashes that signify an antineutrino interaction. (Credit: Roy Kaltschmidt, Berkeley Lab)

    To determine the value of theta13 Daya Bay scientists detected neutrinos of a specific flavor—in this case electron antineutrinos—in each of the underground caverns. Two caverns are near the nuclear reactors and the third cavern is farther away, providing ample distance for the antineutrinos to oscillate. By comparing the number of electron antineutrinos picked up by the near and far detectors, physicists calculated how many changed flavors and, consequently, the value of theta13.

    Daya Bay physicists made the world’s first conclusive measurement of theta13 in 2012 and subsequently improved upon the measurement’s precision as the experiment continued taking data. Now, after nine years of operation and the end of data collection in December 2020, excellent detector performance, and dedicated data analysis, Daya Bay has far exceeded expectations. Working with the complete dataset, physicists have now measured the value of theta13 with a precision two and a half times greater than the experiment’s design goal. No other existing or planned experiment is expected to reach such an exquisite level of precision.

    “We had multiple analysis teams that painstakingly scrutinized the entire dataset, carefully taking into account the evolution of detector performance over the nine years of operation,” said Daya Bay co-spokesperson Jun Cao of IHEP. “The teams took advantage of the large dataset not only to refine the selection of antineutrino events but also to improve the determination of backgrounds. This dedicated effort allowed us to reach an unrivaled level of precision.”

    The precision measurement of theta13 will enable physicists to more easily measure other parameters in neutrino physics, as well as develop more accurate models of subatomic particles and how they interact.

    By investigating the properties and interactions of antineutrinos, physicists may gain insight into the imbalance of matter and antimatter in the universe. Physicists believe that matter and antimatter were created in equal amounts at the time of the Big Bang. But if that were the case, these two opposites should have annihilated, leaving behind only light. Some difference between the two must have tipped the balance to explain the preponderance of matter (and lack of antimatter) in the universe today.

    “We expect there might be some difference between neutrinos and antineutrinos,” said Berkeley physicist and Daya Bay co-spokesperson Kam-Biu Luk. “We’ve never detected differences between particles and antiparticles for leptons, the type of particles that includes neutrinos. We’ve only detected differences between particles and antiparticles for quarks. But the differences we see with the quarks aren’t enough to explain why there’s more matter than antimatter in the universe. It’s possible that neutrinos might be the smoking gun.”

    3
    The Daya Bay experiment measures the antineutrinos produced by the reactors of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant and the Ling Ao Nuclear Power Plant in mainland China. The photo shows a panoramic view of the Daya Bay reactor complex. (Credit: Roy Kaltschmidt, Berkeley Lab)

    The latest analysis of Daya Bay’s final dataset also provided physicists with a precise measurement of the mass splitting. This property dictates the frequency of neutrino oscillations.

    “The measurement of mass splitting was not one of Daya Bay’s original design goals, but it became accessible thanks to the relatively large value of theta13,” Luk said. “We measured the mass splitting to 2.3% with the final Daya Bay dataset, an improvement over the 2.8% precision of the previous Daya Bay measurement.”

    Moving forward, the international Daya Bay collaboration expects to report additional findings from the final dataset, including updates to previous measurements.

    Next-generation neutrino experiments, such as the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), will leverage the Daya Bay results to precisely measure and compare properties of neutrinos and antineutrinos.

    Currently under construction, DUNE will provide physicists with the world’s most intense neutrino beam, underground detectors separated by 800 miles, and the opportunity to study the behavior of neutrinos like never before.

    “As one of many physics goals, DUNE expects to eventually measure theta13 almost as precisely as Daya Bay,” said Brookhaven experimental physicist and Daya Bay collaborator Elizabeth Worcester. “This is exciting because we will then have precise theta13 measurements from different oscillation channels, which will rigorously test the three-neutrino model. Until DUNE reaches that high precision, we can use Daya Bay’s precise theta13 measurement as a constraint to enable the search for differences between neutrino and antineutrino properties.”

    Scientists will also leverage the large theta13 value and reactor neutrinos to determine which of the three neutrinos is the lightest. “The precise theta13 measurement of Daya Bay improves the mass-ordering sensitivity of the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), which will complete construction in China next year,” said Yifang Wang, JUNO spokesperson and IHEP director. “Furthermore, JUNO will achieve sub-percent level precision on the mass splitting measured by Daya Bay in several years.”

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino experiment is supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China, the DOE Office of Science High Energy Physics program, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and other funding agencies. The Daya Bay collaboration has 237 participants at 42 institutions in Asia, Europe, and North America.

    *Physicists measure theta13 in terms of its oscillation amplitude, or what is mathematically written as sin22q13.

    See the full article here .


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    Brookhaven Campus

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the The DOE Office of Science, The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

    Research at BNL specializes in nuclear and high energy physics, energy science and technology, environmental and bioscience, nanoscience and national security. The 5,300 acre campus contains several large research facilities, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider [below] and National Synchrotron Light Source II [below]. Seven Nobel prizes have been awarded for work conducted at Brookhaven lab.

    BNL is staffed by approximately 2,750 scientists, engineers, technicians, and support personnel, and hosts 4,000 guest investigators every year. The laboratory has its own police station, fire department, and ZIP code (11973). In total, the lab spans a 5,265-acre (21 km^2) area that is mostly coterminous with the hamlet of Upton, New York. BNL is served by a rail spur operated as-needed by the New York and Atlantic Railway. Co-located with the laboratory is the Upton, New York, forecast office of the National Weather Service.

    Major programs

    Although originally conceived as a nuclear research facility, Brookhaven Lab’s mission has greatly expanded. Its foci are now:

    Nuclear and high-energy physics
    Physics and chemistry of materials
    Environmental and climate research
    Nanomaterials
    Energy research
    Nonproliferation
    Structural biology
    Accelerator physics

    Operation

    Brookhaven National Lab was originally owned by the Atomic Energy Commission(US) and is now owned by that agency’s successor, the United States Department of Energy (DOE). DOE subcontracts the research and operation to universities and research organizations. It is currently operated by Brookhaven Science Associates LLC, which is an equal partnership of Stony Brook University and Battelle Memorial Institute. From 1947 to 1998, it was operated by Associated Universities, Inc.(AUI), but AUI lost its contract in the wake of two incidents: a 1994 fire at the facility’s high-beam flux reactor that exposed several workers to radiation and reports in 1997 of a tritium leak into the groundwater of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens on which the facility sits.

    Foundations

    Following World War II, the US Atomic Energy Commission was created to support government-sponsored peacetime research on atomic energy. The effort to build a nuclear reactor in the American northeast was fostered largely by physicists Isidor Isaac Rabi and Norman Foster Ramsey Jr., who during the war witnessed many of their colleagues at Columbia University leave for new remote research sites following the departure of the Manhattan Project from its campus. Their effort to house this reactor near New York City was rivalled by a similar effort at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to have a facility near Boston, Massachusetts. Involvement was quickly solicited from representatives of northeastern universities to the south and west of New York City such that this city would be at their geographic center. In March 1946 a nonprofit corporation was established that consisted of representatives from nine major research universities — Columbia University, Cornell University, Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University, University of Pennsylvania, University of Rochester, and Yale University.

    Out of 17 considered sites in the Boston-Washington corridor, Camp Upton on Long Island was eventually chosen as the most suitable in consideration of space, transportation, and availability. The camp had been a training center from the US Army during both World War I and World War II. After the latter war, Camp Upton was deemed no longer necessary and became available for reuse. A plan was conceived to convert the military camp into a research facility.

    On March 21, 1947, the Camp Upton site was officially transferred from the U.S. War Department to the new U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

    Research and facilities

    Reactor history

    In 1947 construction began on the first nuclear reactor at Brookhaven, the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor. This reactor, which opened in 1950, was the first reactor to be constructed in the United States after World War II. The High Flux Beam Reactor operated from 1965 to 1999. In 1959 Brookhaven built the first US reactor specifically tailored to medical research, the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, which operated until 2000.

    Accelerator history

    In 1952 Brookhaven began using its first particle accelerator, the Cosmotron. At the time the Cosmotron was the world’s highest energy accelerator, being the first to impart more than 1 GeV of energy to a particle.

    BNL Cosmotron 1952-1966.

    The Cosmotron was retired in 1966, after it was superseded in 1960 by the new Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    The AGS was used in research that resulted in 3 Nobel prizes, including the discovery of the muon neutrino, the charm quark, and CP violation.

    In 1970 in BNL started the ISABELLE project to develop and build two proton intersecting storage rings.

    The groundbreaking for the project was in October 1978. In 1981, with the tunnel for the accelerator already excavated, problems with the superconducting magnets needed for the ISABELLE accelerator brought the project to a halt, and the project was eventually cancelled in 1983.

    The National Synchrotron Light Source operated from 1982 to 2014 and was involved with two Nobel Prize-winning discoveries. It has since been replaced by the National Synchrotron Light Source II. [below].

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source.

    After ISABELLE’S cancellation, physicist at BNL proposed that the excavated tunnel and parts of the magnet assembly be used in another accelerator. In 1984 the first proposal for the accelerator now known as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)[below] was put forward. The construction got funded in 1991 and RHIC has been operational since 2000. One of the world’s only two operating heavy-ion colliders, RHIC is as of 2010 the second-highest-energy collider after the Large Hadron Collider(CH). RHIC is housed in a tunnel 2.4 miles (3.9 km) long and is visible from space.

    On January 9, 2020, It was announced by Paul Dabbar, undersecretary of the US Department of Energy Office of Science, that the BNL eRHIC design has been selected over the conceptual design put forward by DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility [Jlab] (US) as the future Electron–ion collider (EIC) in the United States.

    Brookhaven Lab Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) to be built inside the tunnel that currently houses the RHIC.

    In addition to the site selection, it was announced that the BNL EIC had acquired CD-0 from the Department of Energy. BNL’s eRHIC design proposes upgrading the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, which collides beams light to heavy ions including polarized protons, with a polarized electron facility, to be housed in the same tunnel.

    Other discoveries

    In 1958, Brookhaven scientists created one of the world’s first video games, Tennis for Two. In 1968 Brookhaven scientists patented Maglev, a transportation technology that utilizes magnetic levitation.

    Major facilities

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which was designed to research quark–gluon plasma and the sources of proton spin. Until 2009 it was the world’s most powerful heavy ion collider. It is the only collider of spin-polarized protons.

    Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), used for the study of nanoscale materials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven’s newest user facility, opened in 2015 to replace the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which had operated for 30 years. NSLS was involved in the work that won the 2003 and 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

    Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, a particle accelerator that was used in three of the lab’s Nobel prizes.
    Accelerator Test Facility, generates, accelerates and monitors particle beams.
    Tandem Van de Graaff, once the world’s largest electrostatic accelerator.

    Computational Science resources, including access to a massively parallel Blue Gene series supercomputer that is among the fastest in the world for scientific research, run jointly by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University-SUNY.

    Interdisciplinary Science Building, with unique laboratories for studying high-temperature superconductors and other materials important for addressing energy challenges.
    NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, where scientists use beams of ions to simulate cosmic rays and assess the risks of space radiation to human space travelers and equipment.

    Off-site contributions

    It is a contributing partner to the ATLAS experiment, one of the four detectors located at the The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] Large Hadron Collider(LHC).

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] map.

    Iconic view of the European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear] [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] ATLAS detector.

    It is currently operating at The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] near Geneva, Switzerland.

    Brookhaven was also responsible for the design of the Spallation Neutron Source at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee.

    DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source annotated.

    Brookhaven plays a role in a range of neutrino research projects around the world, including the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China.

    Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China .


    BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II.

    BNL NSLS II.

    BNL Relative Heavy Ion Collider Campus.

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector.

    BNL/RHIC Phenix detector.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:45 am on April 12, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Breakthrough MicroBooNE Measurement Elucidates Neutrino Interactions", , DUNE/LBNF Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, Neutrinos, , ,   

    From The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory: “Breakthrough MicroBooNE Measurement Elucidates Neutrino Interactions” 

    From The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory

    April 12, 2022
    Stephanie Kossman
    skossman@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-8671

    Peter Genzer
    genzer@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-3174

    For the first time, physicists extracted the detailed “energy-dependent neutrino-argon interaction cross section,” a key value for studying how neutrinos change their flavor.

    1
    A close-up view of a muon neutrino argon interaction within an event display at MicroBooNE, one out of 11,528 events used to extract energy-dependent muon neutrino argon interaction cross sections.

    Physicists studying ghost-like particles called neutrinos from the international MicroBooNE collaboration have reported a first-of-its-kind measurement: a comprehensive set of the energy-dependent neutrino-argon interaction cross sections. This measurement marks an important step towards achieving the scientific goals of next-generation of neutrino experiments—namely, the DUNE/LBNF Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment.

    Neutrinos are tiny subatomic particles that are both famously elusive and tremendously abundant. While they endlessly bombard every inch of Earth’s surface at nearly the speed of light, neutrinos can travel through a lightyear’s worth of lead without ever disturbing a single atom. Understanding these mysterious particles could unlock some of the biggest secrets of the universe.

    The MicroBooNE experiment, located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, has been collecting data on neutrinos since 2015, partially as a testbed for DUNE, which is currently under construction. To identify elusive neutrinos, both experiments use a low-noise liquid-argon time projection chamber (LArTPC)—a sophisticated detector that captures neutrino signals as the particles pass through frigid liquid argon kept at -303 degrees Fahrenheit. MicroBooNE physicists have been refining LArTPC techniques for large-scale detectors at DUNE.

    Now, a team effort led by scientists at DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory, in collaboration with researchers from Yale University and The Louisiana State University, has further refined those techniques by measuring the neutrino-argon cross section. Their work published today in Physical Review Letters.

    “The neutrino-argon cross section represents how argon nuclei respond to an incident neutrino, such as those in the neutrino beam produced by MicroBooNE or DUNE,” said Brookhaven Lab physicist Xin Qian, leader of Brookhaven’s MicroBooNE physics group. “Our ultimate goal is to study the properties of neutrinos, but first we need to better understand how neutrinos interact with the material in a detector, such as argon atoms.”

    One of the most important neutrino properties that DUNE will investigate is how the particles oscillate between three distinct “flavors”: muon neutrino, tau neutrino, and electron neutrino.

    Scientists know that these oscillations depend on neutrinos’ energy, among other parameters, but that energy is very challenging to estimate. Not only are neutrino interactions extremely complex in nature, but there is also a large energy spread within every neutrino beam. Determining the detailed energy-dependent cross sections provides physicists with an essential piece of information to study neutrino oscillations.

    “Once we know the cross section, we can reverse the calculation to determine the average neutrino energy, flavor, and oscillation properties from a large number of interactions,” said Brookhaven Lab postdoc Wenqiang Gu, who led the physics analysis.

    To accomplish this, the team developed a new technique to extract the detailed energy-dependent cross section.

    “Previous techniques measured the cross section as a function of variables that are easily reconstructed,” said London Cooper-Troendle, a graduate student from Yale University who is stationed at Brookhaven Lab through DOE’s Graduate Student Research Program. “For example, if you are studying a muon neutrino, you generally see a charged muon coming out of the particle interaction, and this charged muon has well-defined properties like its angle and energy. So, one can measure the cross section as a function of the muon angle or energy. But without a model that can accurately account for “missing energy,” a term we use to describe additional energy in the neutrino interactions that can’t be attributed to the reconstructed variables, this technique would require experiments to act conservatively.”

    The research team led by Brookhaven sought to validate the neutrino energy reconstruction process with unprecedented precision, improving theoretical modeling of neutrino interactions as needed for DUNE. To do so, the team applied their expertise and lessons learned from previous work on the MicroBooNE experiment, such as their efforts in reconstructing interactions with different neutrino flavors.

    “We added a new constraint to significantly improve the mathematical modeling of neutrino energy reconstruction,” said Louisiana State University assistant professor Hanyu Wei, previously a Goldhaber fellow at Brookhaven.

    The team validated this newly constrained model against experimental data to produce the first detailed energy-dependent neutrino-argon cross section measurement.

    “The neutrino-argon cross section results from this analysis are able to distinguish between different theoretical models for the first time,” Gu said.

    While physicists expect DUNE to produce enhanced measurements of the cross section, the methods developed by the MicroBooNE collaboration provide a foundation for future analyses. The current cross section measurement is already set to guide additional developments on theoretical models.

    In the meantime, the MicroBooNE team will focus on further enhancing its measurement of the cross section. The current measurement was done in one dimension, but future research will tackle the value in multiple dimensions—that is, as a function of multiple variables —and explore more avenues of underlying physics.

    This work was supported by the DOE Office of Science.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Brookhaven Campus

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the The DOE Office of Science, The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

    Research at BNL specializes in nuclear and high energy physics, energy science and technology, environmental and bioscience, nanoscience and national security. The 5,300 acre campus contains several large research facilities, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider [below] and National Synchrotron Light Source II [below]. Seven Nobel prizes have been awarded for work conducted at Brookhaven lab.

    BNL is staffed by approximately 2,750 scientists, engineers, technicians, and support personnel, and hosts 4,000 guest investigators every year. The laboratory has its own police station, fire department, and ZIP code (11973). In total, the lab spans a 5,265-acre (21 km^2) area that is mostly coterminous with the hamlet of Upton, New York. BNL is served by a rail spur operated as-needed by the New York and Atlantic Railway. Co-located with the laboratory is the Upton, New York, forecast office of the National Weather Service.

    Major programs

    Although originally conceived as a nuclear research facility, Brookhaven Lab’s mission has greatly expanded. Its foci are now:

    Nuclear and high-energy physics
    Physics and chemistry of materials
    Environmental and climate research
    Nanomaterials
    Energy research
    Nonproliferation
    Structural biology
    Accelerator physics

    Operation

    Brookhaven National Lab was originally owned by the Atomic Energy Commission(US) and is now owned by that agency’s successor, the United States Department of Energy (DOE). DOE subcontracts the research and operation to universities and research organizations. It is currently operated by Brookhaven Science Associates LLC, which is an equal partnership of Stony Brook University and Battelle Memorial Institute. From 1947 to 1998, it was operated by Associated Universities, Inc.(AUI), but AUI lost its contract in the wake of two incidents: a 1994 fire at the facility’s high-beam flux reactor that exposed several workers to radiation and reports in 1997 of a tritium leak into the groundwater of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens on which the facility sits.

    Foundations

    Following World War II, the US Atomic Energy Commission was created to support government-sponsored peacetime research on atomic energy. The effort to build a nuclear reactor in the American northeast was fostered largely by physicists Isidor Isaac Rabi and Norman Foster Ramsey Jr., who during the war witnessed many of their colleagues at Columbia University leave for new remote research sites following the departure of the Manhattan Project from its campus. Their effort to house this reactor near New York City was rivalled by a similar effort at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to have a facility near Boston, Massachusetts. Involvement was quickly solicited from representatives of northeastern universities to the south and west of New York City such that this city would be at their geographic center. In March 1946 a nonprofit corporation was established that consisted of representatives from nine major research universities — Columbia University, Cornell University, Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University, University of Pennsylvania, University of Rochester, and Yale University.

    Out of 17 considered sites in the Boston-Washington corridor, Camp Upton on Long Island was eventually chosen as the most suitable in consideration of space, transportation, and availability. The camp had been a training center from the US Army during both World War I and World War II. After the latter war, Camp Upton was deemed no longer necessary and became available for reuse. A plan was conceived to convert the military camp into a research facility.

    On March 21, 1947, the Camp Upton site was officially transferred from the U.S. War Department to the new U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

    Research and facilities

    Reactor history

    In 1947 construction began on the first nuclear reactor at Brookhaven, the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor. This reactor, which opened in 1950, was the first reactor to be constructed in the United States after World War II. The High Flux Beam Reactor operated from 1965 to 1999. In 1959 Brookhaven built the first US reactor specifically tailored to medical research, the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, which operated until 2000.

    Accelerator history

    In 1952 Brookhaven began using its first particle accelerator, the Cosmotron. At the time the Cosmotron was the world’s highest energy accelerator, being the first to impart more than 1 GeV of energy to a particle.

    BNL Cosmotron 1952-1966.

    The Cosmotron was retired in 1966, after it was superseded in 1960 by the new Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    The AGS was used in research that resulted in 3 Nobel prizes, including the discovery of the muon neutrino, the charm quark, and CP violation.

    In 1970 in BNL started the ISABELLE project to develop and build two proton intersecting storage rings.

    The groundbreaking for the project was in October 1978. In 1981, with the tunnel for the accelerator already excavated, problems with the superconducting magnets needed for the ISABELLE accelerator brought the project to a halt, and the project was eventually cancelled in 1983.

    The National Synchrotron Light Source operated from 1982 to 2014 and was involved with two Nobel Prize-winning discoveries. It has since been replaced by the National Synchrotron Light Source II. [below].

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source.

    After ISABELLE’S cancellation, physicist at BNL proposed that the excavated tunnel and parts of the magnet assembly be used in another accelerator. In 1984 the first proposal for the accelerator now known as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)[below] was put forward. The construction got funded in 1991 and RHIC has been operational since 2000. One of the world’s only two operating heavy-ion colliders, RHIC is as of 2010 the second-highest-energy collider after the Large Hadron Collider(CH). RHIC is housed in a tunnel 2.4 miles (3.9 km) long and is visible from space.

    On January 9, 2020, It was announced by Paul Dabbar, undersecretary of the US Department of Energy Office of Science, that the BNL eRHIC design has been selected over the conceptual design put forward by DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility [Jlab] (US) as the future Electron–ion collider (EIC) in the United States.

    Brookhaven Lab Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) to be built inside the tunnel that currently houses the RHIC.

    In addition to the site selection, it was announced that the BNL EIC had acquired CD-0 from the Department of Energy. BNL’s eRHIC design proposes upgrading the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, which collides beams light to heavy ions including polarized protons, with a polarized electron facility, to be housed in the same tunnel.

    Other discoveries

    In 1958, Brookhaven scientists created one of the world’s first video games, Tennis for Two. In 1968 Brookhaven scientists patented Maglev, a transportation technology that utilizes magnetic levitation.

    Major facilities

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which was designed to research quark–gluon plasma and the sources of proton spin. Until 2009 it was the world’s most powerful heavy ion collider. It is the only collider of spin-polarized protons.

    Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), used for the study of nanoscale materials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven’s newest user facility, opened in 2015 to replace the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which had operated for 30 years. NSLS was involved in the work that won the 2003 and 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

    Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, a particle accelerator that was used in three of the lab’s Nobel prizes.
    Accelerator Test Facility, generates, accelerates and monitors particle beams.
    Tandem Van de Graaff, once the world’s largest electrostatic accelerator.

    Computational Science resources, including access to a massively parallel Blue Gene series supercomputer that is among the fastest in the world for scientific research, run jointly by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University-SUNY.

    Interdisciplinary Science Building, with unique laboratories for studying high-temperature superconductors and other materials important for addressing energy challenges.
    NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, where scientists use beams of ions to simulate cosmic rays and assess the risks of space radiation to human space travelers and equipment.

    Off-site contributions

    It is a contributing partner to the ATLAS experiment, one of the four detectors located at the The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] Large Hadron Collider(LHC).

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] map.

    Iconic view of the European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear] [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] ATLAS detector.

    It is currently operating at The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] near Geneva, Switzerland.

    Brookhaven was also responsible for the design of the Spallation Neutron Source at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee.

    DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source annotated.

    Brookhaven plays a role in a range of neutrino research projects around the world, including the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China.

    Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China .


    BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II.

    BNL NSLS II.

    BNL Relative Heavy Ion Collider Campus.

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector.

    BNL/RHIC Phenix detector.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:19 am on April 6, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "CUORE team places new limits on the bizarre behavior of neutrinos", , , , , Neutrinos, ,   

    From DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: “CUORE team places new limits on the bizarre behavior of neutrinos” 

    From DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    April 6, 2022
    Adam Becker
    ambecker@lbl.gov
    (510) 424-2436

    Physicists are closing in on the true nature of the neutrino — and might be closer to answering a fundamental question about our own existence.

    In a Laboratory under a mountain, physicists are using crystals far colder than frozen air to study ghostly particles, hoping to learn secrets from the beginning of the universe. Researchers at the Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) announced this week that they had placed some of the most stringent limits yet on the strange possibility that the neutrino is its own antiparticle. Neutrinos are deeply unusual particles, so ethereal and so ubiquitous that they regularly pass through our bodies without us noticing. CUORE has spent the last three years patiently waiting to see evidence of a distinctive nuclear decay process, only possible if neutrinos and antineutrinos are the same particle. CUORE’s new data shows that this decay doesn’t happen for trillions of trillions of years, if it happens at all. CUORE’s limits on the behavior of these tiny phantoms are a crucial part of the search for the next breakthrough in particle and nuclear physics – and the search for our own origins.

    “Ultimately, we are trying to understand matter creation,” said Carlo Bucci, researcher at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy and the spokesperson for CUORE. “We’re looking for a process that violates a fundamental symmetry of nature,” added Roger Huang, a postdoctoral researcher at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and one of the lead authors of the new study.

    CUORE – Italian for “heart” – is among the most sensitive neutrino experiments in the world. The new results from CUORE are based on a data set ten times larger than any other high-resolution search, collected over the last three years. CUORE is operated by an international research collaboration, led by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Italy and Berkeley Lab in the US. The CUORE detector itself is located under nearly a mile of solid rock at LNGS, a facility of the INFN. U.S. Department of Energy-supported nuclear physicists play a leading scientific and technical role in this experiment. CUORE’s new results were published today in Nature.

    Peculiar Particles

    Neutrinos are everywhere — there are trillions of neutrinos passing through your thumbnail alone as you read this sentence. They are invisible to the two strongest forces in the universe, electromagnetism and the strong nuclear force, which allows them to pass right through you, the Earth, and nearly anything else without interacting.

    Despite their vast numbers, their enigmatic nature makes them very difficult to study, and has left physicists scratching their heads ever since they were first postulated over 90 years ago. It wasn’t even known whether neutrinos had any mass at all until the late 1990s — as it turns out, they do, albeit not very much.

    One of the many remaining open questions about neutrinos is whether they are their own antiparticles. All particles have antiparticles, their own antimatter counterpart: electrons have antielectrons (positrons), quarks have antiquarks, and neutrons and protons (which make up the nuclei of atoms) have antineutrons and antiprotons. But unlike all of those particles, it’s theoretically possible for neutrinos to be their own antiparticles. Such particles that are their own antiparticles were first postulated by the Italian physicist Ettore Majorana in 1937, and are known as Majorana fermions.

    If neutrinos are Majorana fermions, that could explain a deep question at the root of our own existence: why there’s so much more matter than antimatter in the universe. Neutrinos and electrons are both leptons, a kind of fundamental particle. One of the fundamental laws of nature appears to be that the number of leptons is always conserved — if a process creates a lepton, it must also create an anti-lepton to balance it out. Similarly, particles like protons and neutrons are known as baryons, and baryon number also appears to be conserved. Yet if baryon and lepton numbers were always conserved, then there would be exactly as much matter in the universe as antimatter — and in the early universe, the matter and antimatter would have met and annihilated, and we wouldn’t exist. Something must violate the exact conservation of baryons and leptons. Enter the neutrino: if neutrinos are their own antiparticles, then lepton number wouldn’t have to be conserved, and our existence becomes much less mysterious.

    “The matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe is still unexplained,” said Huang. “If neutrinos are their own antiparticles, that could help explain it.”neutrinoless double beta decay

    Nor is this the only question that could be answered by a Majorana neutrino. The extreme lightness of neutrinos, about a million times lighter than the electron, has long been puzzling to particle physicists. But if neutrinos are their own antiparticles, then an existing solution known as the “seesaw mechanism” could explain the lightness of neutrinos in an elegant and natural way.

    1
    CUORE detector being installed into the cryostat. Credit: Yury Suvorov and the CUORE Collaboration.

    A Rare Device for Rare Decays

    But determining whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles is difficult, precisely because they don’t interact very often at all. Physicists’ best tool for looking for Majorana neutrinos is a hypothetical kind of radioactive decay called neutrinoless double beta decay. Beta decay is a fairly common form of decay in some atoms, turning a neutron in the atom’s nucleus into a proton, changing the chemical element of the atom and emitting an electron and an anti-neutrino in the process. Double beta decay is more rare: instead of one neutron turning into a proton, two of them do, emitting two electrons and two anti-neutrinos in the process. But if the neutrino is a Majorana fermion, then theoretically, that would allow a single “virtual” neutrino, acting as its own antiparticle, to take the place of both anti-neutrinos in double beta decay. Only the two electrons would make it out of the atomic nucleus. Neutrinoless double-beta decay has been theorized for decades, but it’s never been seen.

    The CUORE experiment has gone to great lengths to catch tellurium atoms in the act of this decay. The experiment uses nearly a thousand highly pure crystals of tellurium oxide, collectively weighing over 700 kg. This much tellurium is necessary because on average, it takes billions of times longer than the current age of the universe for a single unstable atom of tellurium to undergo ordinary double beta decay. But there are trillions of trillions of atoms of tellurium in each one of the crystals CUORE uses, meaning that ordinary double beta decay happens fairly regularly in the detector, around a few times a day in each crystal. Neutrinoless double beta decay, if it happens at all, is even more rare, and thus the CUORE team must work hard to remove as many sources of background radiation as possible. To shield the detector from cosmic rays, the entire system is located underneath the mountain of Gran Sasso, the largest mountain on the Italian peninsula. Further shielding is provided by several tons of lead. But freshly mined lead is slightly radioactive due to contamination by uranium and other elements, with that radioactivity decreasing over time — so the lead used to surround the most sensitive part of CUORE is mostly lead recovered from a sunken ancient Roman ship, nearly 2000 years old.

    Perhaps the most impressive piece of machinery used at CUORE is the cryostat, which keeps the detector cold. To detect neutrinoless double beta decay, the temperature of each crystal in the CUORE detector is carefully monitored with sensors capable of detecting a change in temperature as small as one ten-thousandth of a Celsius degree. Neutrinoless double beta decay has a specific energy signature and would raise the temperature of a single crystal by a well-defined and recognizable amount. But in order to maintain that sensitivity, the detector must be kept very cold — specifically, it’s kept around 10 mK, a hundredth of a degree above absolute zero. “This is the coldest cubic meter in the known universe,” said Laura Marini, a research fellow at Gran Sasso Science Institute and CUORE’s Run Coordinator. The resulting sensitivity of the detector is truly phenomenal. “When there were large earthquakes in Chile and New Zealand, we actually saw glimpses of it in our detector,” said Marini. “We can also see waves crashing on the seashore on the Adriatic Sea, 60 kilometers away. That signal gets bigger in the winter, when there are storms.”
    ===
    A Neutrino Through The Heart

    Despite that phenomenal sensitivity, CUORE hasn’t yet seen evidence of neutrinoless double beta decay. Instead, CUORE has established that, on average, this decay happens in a single tellurium atom no more often than once every 22 trillion trillion years. “Neutrinoless double beta decay, if observed, will be the rarest process ever observed in nature, with a half-life more than a million billion times longer than the age of the universe,” said Danielle Speller, Assistant Professor at Johns Hopkins University and a member of the CUORE Physics Board. “CUORE may not be sensitive enough to detect this decay even if it does occur, but it’s important to check. Sometimes physics yields surprising results, and that’s when we learn the most.” Even if CUORE doesn’t find evidence of neutrinoless double-beta decay, it is paving the way for the next generation of experiments. CUORE’s successor, the CUORE Upgrade with Particle Identification (CUPID) is already in the works. CUPID will be over 10 times more sensitive than CUORE, potentially allowing it to glimpse evidence of a Majorana neutrino.

    But regardless of anything else, CUORE is a scientific and technological triumph — not only for its new bounds on the rate of neutrinoless double beta decay, but also for its demonstration of its cryostat technology. “It’s the largest refrigerator of its kind in the world,” said Paolo Gorla, a staff scientist at LNGS and CUORE’s Technical Coordinator. “And it’s been kept at 10 mK continuously for about three years now.” Such technology has applications well beyond fundamental particle physics. Specifically, it may find use in quantum computing, where keeping large amounts of machinery cold enough and shielded from environmental radiation to manipulate on a quantum level is one of the major engineering challenges in the field.

    Meanwhile, CUORE isn’t done yet. “We’ll be operating until 2024,” said Bucci. “I’m excited to see what we find.”

    CUORE is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Italy’s National Institute of Nuclear Physics (Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, or INFN), and the National Science Foundation (NSF). CUORE collaboration members include: INFN, University of Bologna, University of Genoa, University of Milano-Bicocca, and Sapienza University in Italy; California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo; Berkeley Lab; Johns Hopkins University; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; University of California, Berkeley; University of California, Los Angeles; University of South Carolina; Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; and Yale University in the US; Saclay Nuclear Research Center (CEA) and the Irène Joliot-Curie Laboratory (CNRS/IN2P3, Paris Saclay University) in France; and Fudan University and Shanghai Jiao Tong University in China.

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    LBNL campus

    LBNL Molecular Foundry

    Bringing Science Solutions to the World

    In the world of science, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) is synonymous with “excellence.” Thirteen Nobel prizes are associated with Berkeley Lab. Seventy Lab scientists are members of the The National Academy of Sciences, one of the highest honors for a scientist in the United States. Thirteen of our scientists have won the National Medal of Science, our nation’s highest award for lifetime achievement in fields of scientific research. Eighteen of our engineers have been elected to the The National Academy of Engineering, and three of our scientists have been elected into the Institute of Medicine. In addition, Berkeley Lab has trained thousands of university science and engineering students who are advancing technological innovations across the nation and around the world.

    Berkeley Lab is a member of the national laboratory system supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through its Office of Science. It is managed by the University of California and is charged with conducting unclassified research across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Located on a 202-acre site in the hills above the University of California- Berkeley campus that offers spectacular views of the San Francisco Bay, Berkeley Lab employs approximately 3,232 scientists, engineers and support staff. The Lab’s total costs for FY 2014 were $785 million. A recent study estimates the Laboratory’s overall economic impact through direct, indirect and induced spending on the nine counties that make up the San Francisco Bay Area to be nearly $700 million annually. The Lab was also responsible for creating 5,600 jobs locally and 12,000 nationally. The overall economic impact on the national economy is estimated at $1.6 billion a year. Technologies developed at Berkeley Lab have generated billions of dollars in revenues, and thousands of jobs. Savings as a result of Berkeley Lab developments in lighting and windows, and other energy-efficient technologies, have also been in the billions of dollars.

    Berkeley Lab was founded in 1931 by Ernest Orlando Lawrence, a University of California-Berkeley physicist who won the 1939 Nobel Prize in physics for his invention of the cyclotron, a circular particle accelerator that opened the door to high-energy physics. It was Lawrence’s belief that scientific research is best done through teams of individuals with different fields of expertise, working together. His teamwork concept is a Berkeley Lab legacy that continues today.

    History

    1931–1941

    The laboratory was founded on August 26, 1931, by Ernest Lawrence, as the Radiation Laboratory of the University of California, Berkeley, associated with the Physics Department. It centered physics research around his new instrument, the cyclotron, a type of particle accelerator for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1939.

    LBNL 88 inch cyclotron.

    LBNL 88 inch cyclotron.

    Throughout the 1930s, Lawrence pushed to create larger and larger machines for physics research, courting private philanthropists for funding. He was the first to develop a large team to build big projects to make discoveries in basic research. Eventually these machines grew too large to be held on the university grounds, and in 1940 the lab moved to its current site atop the hill above campus. Part of the team put together during this period includes two other young scientists who went on to establish large laboratories; J. Robert Oppenheimer founded DOE’s Los Alamos Laboratory, and Robert Wilson founded Fermi National Accelerator Laborator.

    1942–1950

    Leslie Groves visited Lawrence’s Radiation Laboratory in late 1942 as he was organizing the Manhattan Project, meeting J. Robert Oppenheimer for the first time. Oppenheimer was tasked with organizing the nuclear bomb development effort and founded today’s Los Alamos National Laboratory to help keep the work secret. At the RadLab, Lawrence and his colleagues developed the technique of electromagnetic enrichment of uranium using their experience with cyclotrons. The “calutrons” (named after the University) became the basic unit of the massive Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Lawrence’s lab helped contribute to what have been judged to be the three most valuable technology developments of the war (the atomic bomb, proximity fuse, and radar). The cyclotron, whose construction was stalled during the war, was finished in November 1946. The Manhattan Project shut down two months later.

    1951–2018

    After the war, the Radiation Laboratory became one of the first laboratories to be incorporated into the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) (now Department of Energy . The most highly classified work remained at Los Alamos, but the RadLab remained involved. Edward Teller suggested setting up a second lab similar to Los Alamos to compete with their designs. This led to the creation of an offshoot of the RadLab (now the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) in 1952. Some of the RadLab’s work was transferred to the new lab, but some classified research continued at Berkeley Lab until the 1970s, when it became a laboratory dedicated only to unclassified scientific research.

    Shortly after the death of Lawrence in August 1958, the UC Radiation Laboratory (both branches) was renamed the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory. The Berkeley location became the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in 1971, although many continued to call it the RadLab. Gradually, another shortened form came into common usage, LBNL. Its formal name was amended to Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1995, when “National” was added to the names of all DOE labs. “Ernest Orlando” was later dropped to shorten the name. Today, the lab is commonly referred to as “Berkeley Lab”.

    The Alvarez Physics Memos are a set of informal working papers of the large group of physicists, engineers, computer programmers, and technicians led by Luis W. Alvarez from the early 1950s until his death in 1988. Over 1700 memos are available on-line, hosted by the Laboratory.

    The lab remains owned by the Department of Energy , with management from the University of California. Companies such as Intel were funding the lab’s research into computing chips.

    Science mission

    From the 1950s through the present, Berkeley Lab has maintained its status as a major international center for physics research, and has also diversified its research program into almost every realm of scientific investigation. Its mission is to solve the most pressing and profound scientific problems facing humanity, conduct basic research for a secure energy future, understand living systems to improve the environment, health, and energy supply, understand matter and energy in the universe, build and safely operate leading scientific facilities for the nation, and train the next generation of scientists and engineers.

    The Laboratory’s 20 scientific divisions are organized within six areas of research: Computing Sciences; Physical Sciences; Earth and Environmental Sciences; Biosciences; Energy Sciences; and Energy Technologies. Berkeley Lab has six main science thrusts: advancing integrated fundamental energy science; integrative biological and environmental system science; advanced computing for science impact; discovering the fundamental properties of matter and energy; accelerators for the future; and developing energy technology innovations for a sustainable future. It was Lawrence’s belief that scientific research is best done through teams of individuals with different fields of expertise, working together. His teamwork concept is a Berkeley Lab tradition that continues today.

    Berkeley Lab operates five major National User Facilities for the DOE Office of Science:

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a synchrotron light source with 41 beam lines providing ultraviolet, soft x-ray, and hard x-ray light to scientific experiments.

    LBNL/ALS

    DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source.
    The ALS is one of the world’s brightest sources of soft x-rays, which are used to characterize the electronic structure of matter and to reveal microscopic structures with elemental and chemical specificity. About 2,500 scientist-users carry out research at ALS every year. Berkeley Lab is proposing an upgrade of ALS which would increase the coherent flux of soft x-rays by two-three orders of magnitude.

    The DOE Joint Genome Institute supports genomic research in support of the DOE missions in alternative energy, global carbon cycling, and environmental management. The JGI’s partner laboratories are Berkeley Lab, DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), DOE’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology . The JGI’s central role is the development of a diversity of large-scale experimental and computational capabilities to link sequence to biological insights relevant to energy and environmental research. Approximately 1,200 scientist-users take advantage of JGI’s capabilities for their research every year.

    The LBNL Molecular Foundry [above] is a multidisciplinary nanoscience research facility. Its seven research facilities focus on Imaging and Manipulation of Nanostructures; Nanofabrication; Theory of Nanostructured Materials; Inorganic Nanostructures; Biological Nanostructures; Organic and Macromolecular Synthesis; and Electron Microscopy. Approximately 700 scientist-users make use of these facilities in their research every year.

    The DOE’s NERSC National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is the scientific computing facility that provides large-scale computing for the DOE’s unclassified research programs. Its current systems provide over 3 billion computational hours annually. NERSC supports 6,000 scientific users from universities, national laboratories, and industry.

    DOE’s NERSC National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

    Cray Cori II supercomputer at National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center at DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, named after Gerty Cori, the first American woman to win a Nobel Prize in science.

    NERSC Hopper Cray XE6 supercomputer.

    NERSC Cray XC30 Edison supercomputer.

    NERSC GPFS for Life Sciences.

    The Genepool system is a cluster dedicated to the DOE Joint Genome Institute’s computing needs. Denovo is a smaller test system for Genepool that is primarily used by NERSC staff to test new system configurations and software.

    NERSC PDSF computer cluster in 2003.

    PDSF is a networked distributed computing cluster designed primarily to meet the detector simulation and data analysis requirements of physics, astrophysics and nuclear science collaborations.

    Cray Shasta Perlmutter SC18 AMD Epyc Nvidia pre-exascale supercomputer.

    NERSC is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

    The DOE’s Energy Science Network is a high-speed network infrastructure optimized for very large scientific data flows. ESNet provides connectivity for all major DOE sites and facilities, and the network transports roughly 35 petabytes of traffic each month.

    Berkeley Lab is the lead partner in the DOE’s Joint Bioenergy Institute (JBEI), located in Emeryville, California. Other partners are the DOE’s Sandia National Laboratory, the University of California campuses of Berkeley and Davis, the Carnegie Institution for Science , and DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). JBEI’s primary scientific mission is to advance the development of the next generation of biofuels – liquid fuels derived from the solar energy stored in plant biomass. JBEI is one of three new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Research Centers (BRCs).

    Berkeley Lab has a major role in two DOE Energy Innovation Hubs. The mission of the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) is to find a cost-effective method to produce fuels using only sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. The lead institution for JCAP is the California Institute of Technology and Berkeley Lab is the second institutional center. The mission of the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) is to create next-generation battery technologies that will transform transportation and the electricity grid. DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory leads JCESR and Berkeley Lab is a major partner.

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States’ policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material. Its responsibilities include the nation’s nuclear weapons program; nuclear reactor production for the United States Navy; energy conservation; energy-related research; radioactive waste disposal; and domestic energy production. It also directs research in genomics. the Human Genome Project originated in a DOE initiative. DOE sponsors more research in the physical sciences than any other U.S. federal agency, the majority of which is conducted through its system of National Laboratories. The agency is led by the United States Secretary of Energy, and its headquarters are located in Southwest Washington, D.C., on Independence Avenue in the James V. Forrestal Building, named for James Forrestal, as well as in Germantown, Maryland.

    Formation and consolidation

    In 1942, during World War II, the United States started the Manhattan Project, a project to develop the atomic bomb, under the eye of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. After the war in 1946, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was created to control the future of the project. The Atomic Energy Act of 1946 also created the framework for the first National Laboratories. Among other nuclear projects, the AEC produced fabricated uranium fuel cores at locations such as Fernald Feed Materials Production Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1974, the AEC gave way to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which was tasked with regulating the nuclear power industry and the Energy Research and Development Administration, which was tasked to manage the nuclear weapon; naval reactor; and energy development programs.

    The 1973 oil crisis called attention to the need to consolidate energy policy. On August 4, 1977, President Jimmy Carter signed into law The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Pub.L. 95–91, 91 Stat. 565, enacted August 4, 1977), which created the Department of Energy. The new agency, which began operations on October 1, 1977, consolidated the Federal Energy Administration; the Energy Research and Development Administration; the Federal Power Commission; and programs of various other agencies. Former Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger, who served under Presidents Nixon and Ford during the Vietnam War, was appointed as the first secretary.

    President Carter created the Department of Energy with the goal of promoting energy conservation and developing alternative sources of energy. He wanted to not be dependent on foreign oil and reduce the use of fossil fuels. With international energy’s future uncertain for America, Carter acted quickly to have the department come into action the first year of his presidency. This was an extremely important issue of the time as the oil crisis was causing shortages and inflation. With the Three-Mile Island disaster, Carter was able to intervene with the help of the department. Carter made switches within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in this case to fix the management and procedures. This was possible as nuclear energy and weapons are responsibility of the Department of Energy.

    Recent

    On March 28, 2017, a supervisor in the Office of International Climate and Clean Energy asked staff to avoid the phrases “climate change,” “emissions reduction,” or “Paris Agreement” in written memos, briefings or other written communication. A DOE spokesperson denied that phrases had been banned.

    In a May 2019 press release concerning natural gas exports from a Texas facility, the DOE used the term ‘freedom gas’ to refer to natural gas. The phrase originated from a speech made by Secretary Rick Perry in Brussels earlier that month. Washington Governor Jay Inslee decried the term “a joke”.

    Facilities

    The Department of Energy operates a system of national laboratories and technical facilities for research and development, as follows:

    Ames Laboratory
    Argonne National Laboratory
    Brookhaven National Laboratory
    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
    Idaho National Laboratory
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
    Los Alamos National Laboratory
    National Energy Technology Laboratory
    National Renewable Energy Laboratory
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
    Sandia National Laboratories
    Savannah River National Laboratory
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    Other major DOE facilities include
    Albany Research Center
    Bannister Federal Complex
    Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory – focuses on the design and development of nuclear power for the U.S. Navy
    Kansas City Plant
    Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory – operates for Naval Reactors Program Research under the DOE (not a National Laboratory)
    National Petroleum Technology Office
    Nevada Test Site
    New Brunswick Laboratory

    The University of California-Berkeley is a public land-grant research university in Berkeley, California. Established in 1868 as the state’s first land-grant university, it was the first campus of the University of California system and a founding member of the Association of American Universities (US). Its 14 colleges and schools offer over 350 degree programs and enroll some 31,000 undergraduate and 12,000 graduate students. Berkeley is ranked among the world’s top universities by major educational publications.

    Berkeley hosts many leading research institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. It founded and maintains close relationships with three national laboratories at DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laborator, DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and DOE’s Los Alamos National Lab, and has played a prominent role in many scientific advances, from the Manhattan Project and the discovery of 16 chemical elements to breakthroughs in computer science and genomics. Berkeley is also known for student activism and the Free Speech Movement of the 1960s.

    Berkeley alumni and faculty count among their ranks 110 Nobel laureates (34 alumni), 25 Turing Award winners (11 alumni), 14 Fields Medalists, 28 Wolf Prize winners, 103 MacArthur “Genius Grant” recipients, 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, and 19 Academy Award winners. The university has produced seven heads of state or government; five chief justices, including Chief Justice of the United States Earl Warren; 21 cabinet-level officials; 11 governors; and 25 living billionaires. It is also a leading producer of Fulbright Scholars, MacArthur Fellows, and Marshall Scholars. Berkeley alumni, widely recognized for their entrepreneurship, have founded many notable companies.

    Berkeley’s athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA, primarily in the Pac-12 Conference, and are collectively known as the California Golden Bears. The university’s teams have won 107 national championships, and its students and alumni have won 207 Olympic medals.

    Made possible by President Lincoln’s signing of the Morrill Act in 1862, the University of California was founded in 1868 as the state’s first land-grant university by inheriting certain assets and objectives of the private College of California and the public Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College. Although this process is often incorrectly mistaken for a merger, the Organic Act created a “completely new institution” and did not actually merge the two precursor entities into the new university. The Organic Act states that the “University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science, literature and art, industrial and professional pursuits, and general education, and also special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions”.

    Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the fledgling university when it opened in Oakland in 1869. Frederick H. Billings, a trustee of the College of California, suggested that a new campus site north of Oakland be named in honor of Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. The university began admitting women the following year. In 1870, Henry Durant, founder of the College of California, became its first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students.

    Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, Belgium, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan.

    20th century

    In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California-Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which ultimately became the University of California-Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown substantially and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.

    In 1917, one of the nation’s first ROTC programs was established at Berkeley and its School of Military Aeronautics began training pilots, including Gen. Jimmy Doolittle. Berkeley ROTC alumni include former Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and Army Chief of Staff Frederick C. Weyand as well as 16 other generals. In 1926, future fleet admiral Chester W. Nimitz established the first Naval ROTC unit at Berkeley.

    In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory (now DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Using the cyclotron, Berkeley professors and Berkeley Lab researchers went on to discover 16 chemical elements—more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg’s then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence’s Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U.S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. Physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley founded and was then a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory (1943) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (1952).

    By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard University in the number of distinguished departments.

    In 1952, the University of California reorganized itself into a system of semi-autonomous campuses, with each campus given its own chancellor, and Clark Kerr became Berkeley’s first Chancellor, while Sproul remained in place as the President of the University of California.

    Berkeley gained a worldwide reputation for political activism in the 1960s. In 1964, the Free Speech Movement organized student resistance to the university’s restrictions on political activities on campus—most conspicuously, student activities related to the Civil Rights Movement. The arrest in Sproul Plaza of Jack Weinberg, a recent Berkeley alumnus and chair of Campus CORE, in October 1964, prompted a series of student-led acts of formal remonstrance and civil disobedience that ultimately gave rise to the Free Speech Movement, which movement would prevail and serve as precedent for student opposition to America’s involvement in the Vietnam War.

    In 1982, the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) was established on campus with support from the National Science Foundation and at the request of three Berkeley mathematicians — Shiing-Shen Chern, Calvin Moore and Isadore M. Singer. The institute is now widely regarded as a leading center for collaborative mathematical research, drawing thousands of visiting researchers from around the world each year.

    21st century

    In the current century, Berkeley has become less politically active and more focused on entrepreneurship and fundraising, especially for STEM disciplines.

    Modern Berkeley students are less politically radical, with a greater percentage of moderates and conservatives than in the 1960s and 70s. Democrats outnumber Republicans on the faculty by a ratio of 9:1. On the whole, Democrats outnumber Republicans on American university campuses by a ratio of 10:1.

    In 2007, the Energy Biosciences Institute was established with funding from BP and Stanley Hall, a research facility and headquarters for the California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, opened. The next few years saw the dedication of the Center for Biomedical and Health Sciences, funded by a lead gift from billionaire Li Ka-shing; the opening of Sutardja Dai Hall, home of the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society; and the unveiling of Blum Hall, housing the Blum Center for Developing Economies. Supported by a grant from alumnus James Simons, the Simons Institute for the Theory of Computing was established in 2012. In 2014, Berkeley and its sister campus, University of California-San Francisco, established the Innovative Genomics Institute, and, in 2020, an anonymous donor pledged $252 million to help fund a new center for computing and data science.

    Since 2000, Berkeley alumni and faculty have received 40 Nobel Prizes, behind only Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology among US universities; five Turing Awards, behind only MIT and Stanford; and five Fields Medals, second only to Princeton University. According to PitchBook, Berkeley ranks second, just behind Stanford University, in producing VC-backed entrepreneurs.

    UC Berkeley Seal

    The University of California

    The University of California is a public land-grant research university system in the U.S. state of California. The system is composed of the campuses at Berkeley, Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, Merced, Riverside, San Diego, San Francisco, Santa Barbara, and Santa Cruz, along with numerous research centers and academic abroad centers. The system is the state’s land-grant university.

    The University of California was founded on March 23, 1868, and operated in Oakland before moving to Berkeley in 1873. Over time, several branch locations and satellite programs were established. In March 1951, the University of California began to reorganize itself into something distinct from its campus in Berkeley, with University of California President Robert Gordon Sproul staying in place as chief executive of the University of California system, while Clark Kerr became the first chancellor of The University of California-Berkeley and Raymond B. Allen became the first chancellor of The University of California-Los Angeles. However, the 1951 reorganization was stalled by resistance from Sproul and his allies, and it was not until Kerr succeeded Sproul as University of California President that University of California was able to evolve into a university system from 1957 to 1960. At that time, chancellors were appointed for additional campuses and each was granted some degree of greater autonomy.

    The University of California currently has 10 campuses, a combined student body of 285,862 students, 24,400 faculty members, 143,200 staff members and over 2.0 million living alumni. Its newest campus in Merced opened in fall 2005. Nine campuses enroll both undergraduate and graduate students; one campus, The University of California-San Francisco, enrolls only graduate and professional students in the medical and health sciences. In addition, the University of California Hastings College of the Law, located in San Francisco, is legally affiliated with University of California, but other than sharing its name is entirely autonomous from the rest of the system. Under the California Master Plan for Higher Education, the University of California is a part of the state’s three-system public higher education plan, which also includes the California State University system and the California Community Colleges system. University of California is governed by a Board of Regents whose autonomy from the rest of the state government is protected by the state constitution. The University of California also manages or co-manages three national laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy: The DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory , The DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory , and The Doe’s Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    Collectively, the colleges, institutions, and alumni of the University of California make it the most comprehensive and advanced post-secondary educational system in the world, responsible for nearly $50 billion per year of economic impact. Major publications generally rank most University of California campuses as being among the best universities in the world. Eight of the campuses, Berkeley, Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, San Diego, Santa Cruz, and Riverside, are considered Public Ivies, making California the state with the most universities in the nation to hold the title. University of California campuses have large numbers of distinguished faculty in almost every academic discipline, with University of California faculty and researchers having won 71 Nobel Prizes as of 2021.

    In 1849, the state of California ratified its first constitution, which contained the express objective of creating a complete educational system including a state university. Taking advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts, the California State Legislature established an Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College in 1866. However, it existed only on paper, as a placeholder to secure federal land-grant funds.

    Meanwhile, Congregational minister Henry Durant, an alumnus of Yale University, had established the private Contra Costa Academy, on June 20, 1853, in Oakland, California. The initial site was bounded by Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets and Harrison and Franklin Streets in downtown Oakland (and is marked today by State Historical Plaque No. 45 at the northeast corner of Thirteenth and Franklin). In turn, the academy’s trustees were granted a charter in 1855 for a College of California, though the college continued to operate as a college preparatory school until it added college-level courses in 1860. The college’s trustees, educators, and supporters believed in the importance of a liberal arts education (especially the study of the Greek and Roman classics), but ran into a lack of interest in liberal arts colleges on the American frontier (as a true college, the college was graduating only three or four students per year).

    In November 1857, the college’s trustees began to acquire various parcels of land facing the Golden Gate in what is now Berkeley for a future planned campus outside of Oakland. But first, they needed to secure the college’s water rights by buying a large farm to the east. In 1864, they organized the College Homestead Association, which borrowed $35,000 to purchase the land, plus another $33,000 to purchase 160 acres (650,000 m^2) of land to the south of the future campus. The Association subdivided the latter parcel and started selling lots with the hope it could raise enough money to repay its lenders and also create a new college town. But sales of new homesteads fell short.

    Governor Frederick Low favored the establishment of a state university based upon The University of Michigan plan, and thus in one sense may be regarded as the founder of the University of California. At the College of California’s 1867 commencement exercises, where Low was present, Benjamin Silliman Jr. criticized Californians for creating a state polytechnic school instead of a real university. That same day, Low reportedly first suggested a merger of the already-functional College of California (which had land, buildings, faculty, and students, but not enough money) with the nonfunctional state college (which had money and nothing else), and went on to participate in the ensuing negotiations. On October 9, 1867, the college’s trustees reluctantly agreed to join forces with the state college to their mutual advantage, but under one condition—that there not be simply an “Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College”, but a complete university, within which the assets of the College of California would be used to create a College of Letters (now known as the College of Letters and Science). Accordingly, the Organic Act, establishing the University of California, was introduced as a bill by Assemblyman John W. Dwinelle on March 5, 1868, and after it was duly passed by both houses of the state legislature, it was signed into state law by Governor Henry H. Haight (Low’s successor) on March 23, 1868. However, as legally constituted, the new university was not an actual merger of the two colleges, but was an entirely new institution which merely inherited certain objectives and assets from each of them. The University of California’s second president, Daniel Coit Gilman, opened its new campus in Berkeley in September 1873.

    Section 8 of the Organic Act authorized the Board of Regents to affiliate the University of California with independent self-sustaining professional colleges. “Affiliation” meant University of California and its affiliates would “share the risk in launching new endeavors in education.” The affiliates shared the prestige of the state university’s brand, and University of California agreed to award degrees in its own name to their graduates on the recommendation of their respective faculties, but the affiliates were otherwise managed independently by their own boards of trustees, charged their own tuition and fees, and maintained their own budgets separate from the University of California budget. It was through the process of affiliation that University of California was able to claim it had medical and law schools in San Francisco within a decade of its founding.

    In 1879, California adopted its second and current constitution, which included unusually strong language to ensure University of California’s independence from the rest of the state government. This had lasting consequences for the Hastings College of the Law, which had been separately chartered and affiliated in 1878 by an act of the state legislature at the behest of founder Serranus Clinton Hastings. After a falling out with his own handpicked board of directors, the founder persuaded the state legislature in 1883 and 1885 to pass new laws to place his law school under the direct control of the Board of Regents. In 1886, the Supreme Court of California declared those newer acts to be unconstitutional because the clause protecting University of California’s independence in the 1879 state constitution had stripped the state legislature of the ability to amend the 1878 act. To this day, the Hastings College of the Law remains an affiliate of University of California, maintains its own board of directors, and is not governed by the Regents.

    In contrast, Toland Medical College (founded in 1864 and affiliated in 1873) and later, the dental, pharmacy, and nursing schools in SF were affiliated with University of California through written agreements, and not statutes invested with constitutional importance by court decisions. In the early 20th century, the Affiliated Colleges (as they came to be called) began to agree to submit to the Regents’ governance during the term of President Benjamin Ide Wheeler, as the Board of Regents had come to recognize the problems inherent in the existence of independent entities that shared the University of California brand but over which University of California had no real control. While Hastings remained independent, the Affiliated Colleges were able to increasingly coordinate their operations with one another under the supervision of the University of California President and Regents, and evolved into the health sciences campus known today as the University of California-San Francisco.

    In August 1882, the California State Normal School (whose original normal school in San Jose is now San Jose State University) opened a second school in Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California. In 1887, the Los Angeles school was granted its own board of trustees independent of the San Jose school, and in 1919, the state legislature transferred it to University of California control and renamed it the Southern Branch of the University of California. In 1927, it became The University of California-Los Angeles; the “at” would be replaced with a comma in 1958.

    Los Angeles surpassed San Francisco in the 1920 census to become the most populous metropolis in California. Because Los Angeles had become the state government’s single largest source of both tax revenue and votes, its residents felt entitled to demand more prestige and autonomy for their campus. Their efforts bore fruit in March 1951, when UCLA became the first University of California site outside of Berkeley to achieve de jure coequal status with the Berkeley campus. That month, the Regents approved a reorganization plan under which both the Berkeley and Los Angeles campuses would be supervised by chancellors reporting to the University of California President. However, the 1951 plan was severely flawed; it was overly vague about how the chancellors were to become the “executive heads” of their campuses. Due to stubborn resistance from President Sproul and several vice presidents and deans—who simply carried on as before—the chancellors ended up as glorified provosts with limited control over academic affairs and long-range planning while the President and the Regents retained de facto control over everything else.

    Upon becoming president in October 1957, Clark Kerr supervised University of California’s rapid transformation into a true public university system through a series of proposals adopted unanimously by the Regents from 1957 to 1960. Kerr’s reforms included expressly granting all campus chancellors the full range of executive powers, privileges, and responsibilities which Sproul had denied to Kerr himself, as well as the radical decentralization of a tightly knit bureaucracy in which all lines of authority had always run directly to the President at Berkeley or to the Regents themselves. In 1965, UCLA Chancellor Franklin D. Murphy tried to push this to what he saw as its logical conclusion: he advocated for authorizing all chancellors to report directly to the Board of Regents, thereby rendering the University of California President redundant. Murphy wanted to transform University of California from one federated university into a confederation of independent universities, similar to the situation in Kansas (from where he was recruited). Murphy was unable to develop any support for his proposal, Kerr quickly put down what he thought of as “Murphy’s rebellion”, and therefore Kerr’s vision of University of California as a university system prevailed: “one university with pluralistic decision-making”.

    During the 20th century, University of California acquired additional satellite locations which, like Los Angeles, were all subordinate to administrators at the Berkeley campus. California farmers lobbied for University of California to perform applied research responsive to their immediate needs; in 1905, the Legislature established a “University Farm School” at Davis and in 1907 a “Citrus Experiment Station” at Riverside as adjuncts to the College of Agriculture at Berkeley. In 1912, University of California acquired a private oceanography laboratory in San Diego, which had been founded nine years earlier by local business promoters working with a Berkeley professor. In 1944, University of California acquired Santa Barbara State College from the California State Colleges, the descendants of the State Normal Schools. In 1958, the Regents began promoting these locations to general campuses, thereby creating The University of California-Santa Barbara (1958), The University of California-Davis (1959), The University of California-Riverside (1959), The University of California-San Diego (1960), and The University of California-San Francisco (1964). Each campus was also granted the right to have its own chancellor upon promotion. In response to California’s continued population growth, University of California opened two additional general campuses in 1965, with The University of California-Irvine opening in Irvine and The University of California-Santa Cruz opening in Santa Cruz. The youngest campus, The University of California-Merced opened in fall 2005 to serve the San Joaquin Valley.

    After losing campuses in Los Angeles and Santa Barbara to the University of California system, supporters of the California State College system arranged for the state constitution to be amended in 1946 to prevent similar losses from happening again in the future.

    The California Master Plan for Higher Education of 1960 established that University of California must admit undergraduates from the top 12.5% (one-eighth) of graduating high school seniors in California. Prior to the promulgation of the Master Plan, University of California was to admit undergraduates from the top 15%. University of California does not currently adhere to all tenets of the original Master Plan, such as the directives that no campus was to exceed total enrollment of 27,500 students (in order to ensure quality) and that public higher education should be tuition-free for California residents. Five campuses, Berkeley, Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, and San Diego each have current total enrollment at over 30,000.

    After the state electorate severely limited long-term property tax revenue by enacting Proposition 13 in 1978, University of California was forced to make up for the resulting collapse in state financial support by imposing a variety of fees which were tuition in all but name. On November 18, 2010, the Regents finally gave up on the longstanding legal fiction that University of California does not charge tuition by renaming the Educational Fee to “Tuition.” As part of its search for funds during the 2000s and 2010s, University of California quietly began to admit higher percentages of highly accomplished (and more lucrative) students from other states and countries, but was forced to reverse course in 2015 in response to the inevitable public outcry and start admitting more California residents.

    As of 2019, University of California controls over 12,658 active patents. University of California researchers and faculty were responsible for 1,825 new inventions that same year. On average, University of California researchers create five new inventions per day.

    Seven of University of California’s ten campuses (UC Berkeley, UC Davis, UC Irvine, UCLA, UC San Diego, UC Santa Barbara, and UC Santa Cruz) are members of the Association of American Universities, an alliance of elite American research universities founded in 1900 at University of California’s suggestion. Collectively, the system counts among its faculty (as of 2002):

    389 members of the Academy of Arts and Sciences
    5 Fields Medal recipients
    19 Fulbright Scholars
    25 MacArthur Fellows
    254 members of the National Academy of Sciences
    91 members of the National Academy of Engineering
    13 National Medal of Science Laureates
    61 Nobel laureates.
    106 members of the Institute of Medicine

    Davis, Los Angeles, Riverside, and Santa Barbara all followed Berkeley’s example by aggregating the majority of arts, humanities, and science departments into a relatively large College of Letters and Science. Therefore, at Berkeley, Davis, Los Angeles, and Santa Barbara, their respective College of Letters and Science is by far the single largest academic unit on each campus. The College of Letters and Science at Los Angeles is the largest academic unit in the entire University of California system.

    Finally, Irvine is organized into 13 schools and San Francisco is organized into four schools, all of which are relatively narrow in scope.

    In 2006 the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition awarded the University of California the SPARC Innovator Award for its “extraordinarily effective institution-wide vision and efforts to move scholarly communication forward”, including the 1997 founding (under then University of California President Richard C. Atkinson) of the California Digital Library (CDL) and its 2002 launching of CDL’s eScholarship, an institutional repository. The award also specifically cited the widely influential 2005 academic journal publishing reform efforts of University of California faculty and librarians in “altering the marketplace” by publicly negotiating contracts with publishers, as well as their 2006 proposal to amend University of California’s copyright policy to allow open access to University of California faculty research. On July 24, 2013, the University of California Academic Senate adopted an Open Access Policy, mandating that all University of California faculty produced research with a publication agreement signed after that date be first deposited in University of California’s eScholarship open access repository.

    University of California system-wide research on the SAT exam found that, after controlling for familial income and parental education, so-called achievement tests known as the SAT II had 10 times more predictive ability of college aptitude than the SAT I.

    All University of California campuses except Hastings College of the Law are governed by the Regents of the University of California as required by the Constitution of the State of California. Eighteen regents are appointed by the governor for 12-year terms. One member is a student appointed for a one-year term. There are also seven ex officio members—the governor, lieutenant governor, speaker of the State Assembly, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, president and vice president of the alumni associations of University of California, and the University of California president. The Academic Senate, made up of faculty members, is empowered by the regents to set academic policies. In addition, the system-wide faculty chair and vice-chair sit on the Board of Regents as non-voting members.

    Originally, the president was the chief executive of the first campus, Berkeley. In turn, other University of California locations (with the exception of Hastings College of the Law) were treated as off-site departments of the Berkeley campus, and were headed by provosts who were subordinate to the president. In March 1951, the regents reorganized the university’s governing structure. Starting with the 1952–53 academic year, day-to-day “chief executive officer” functions for the Berkeley and Los Angeles campuses were transferred to chancellors who were vested with a high degree of autonomy, and reported as equals to University of California’s president. As noted above, the regents promoted five additional University of California locations to campuses and allowed them to have chancellors of their own in a series of decisions from 1958 to 1964, and the three campuses added since then have also been run by chancellors. In turn, all chancellors (again, with the exception of Hastings) report as equals to the University of California President. Today, the University of California Office of the President (UCOP) and the Office of the Secretary and Chief of Staff to the Regents of the University of California share an office building in downtown Oakland that serves as the University of California system’s headquarters.

    Kerr’s vision for University of California governance was “one university with pluralistic decision-making.” In other words, the internal delegation of operational authority to chancellors at the campus level and allowing nine other campuses to become separate centers of academic life independent of Berkeley did not change the fact that all campuses remain part of one legal entity. As a 1968 University of California centennial coffee table book explained: “Yet for all its campuses, colleges, schools, institutes, and research stations, it remains one University, under one Board of Regents and one president—the University of California.” University of California continues to take a “united approach” as one university in matters in which it inures to University of California’s advantage to do so, such as when negotiating with the legislature and governor in Sacramento. University of California continues to manage certain matters at the system wide level in order to maintain common standards across all campuses, such as student admissions, appointment and promotion of faculty, and approval of academic programs.

    The State of California currently (2021–2022) spends $3.467 billion on the University of California system, out of total University of California operating revenues of $41.6 billion. The “University of California Budget for Current Operations” lists the medical centers as the largest revenue source, contributing 39% of the budget, the federal government 11%, Core Funds (State General Funds, University of California General Funds, student tuition) 21%, private support (gifts, grants, endowments) 7% ,and Sales and Services at 21%. In 1980, the state funded 86.8% of the University of California budget. While state funding has somewhat recovered, as of 2019 state support still lags behind even recent historic levels (e.g. 2001) when adjusted for inflation.

    According to the California Public Policy Institute, California spends 12% of its General Fund on higher education, but that percentage is divided between the University of California, California State University and California Community Colleges. Over the past forty years, state funding of higher education has dropped from 18% to 12%, resulting in a drop in University of California’s per student funding from $23,000 in 2016 to a current $8,000 per year per student.

    In May 2004, University of California President Robert C. Dynes and CSU Chancellor Charles B. Reed struck a private deal, called the “Higher Education Compact”, with Governor Schwarzenegger. They agreed to slash spending by about a billion dollars (about a third of the university’s core budget for academic operations) in exchange for a funding formula lasting until 2011. The agreement calls for modest annual increases in state funds (but not enough to replace the loss in state funds Dynes and Schwarzenegger agreed to), private fundraising to help pay for basic programs, and large student fee hikes, especially for graduate and professional students. A detailed analysis of the Compact by the Academic Senate “Futures Report” indicated, despite the large fee increases, the university core budget did not recover to 2000 levels. Undergraduate student fees have risen 90% from 2003 to 2007. In 2011, for the first time in Univerchity of California’s history, student fees exceeded contributions from the State of California.

    The First District Court of Appeal in San Francisco ruled in 2007 that the University of California owed nearly $40 million in refunds to about 40,000 students who were promised that their tuition fees would remain steady, but were hit with increases when the state ran short of money in 2003.

    In September 2019, the University of California announced it will divest its $83 billion in endowment and pension funds from the fossil fuel industry, citing ‘financial risk’.

    At present, the University of California system officially describes itself as a “ten campus” system consisting of the campuses listed below.

    Berkeley
    Davis
    Irvine
    Los Angeles
    Merced
    Riverside
    San Diego
    San Francisco
    Santa Barbara
    Santa Cruz

    These campuses are under the direct control of the Regents and President. Only these ten campuses are listed on the official University of California letterhead.

    Although it shares the name and public status of the University of California system, the Hastings College of the Law is not controlled by the Regents or President; it has a separate board of directors and must seek funding directly from the Legislature. However, under the California Education Code, Hastings degrees are awarded in the name of the Regents and bear the signature of the University of California president. Furthermore, Education Code section 92201 states that Hastings “is affiliated with the University of California, and is the law department thereof”.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:43 pm on March 31, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Borexino gathers the first directional measurement of sub-MeV solar neutrinos using a monolithic scintillation detector", , , Borexino detector - the world's most radio-pure liquid scintillator calorimeter, Neutrinos, , , sub-MeV solar neutrinos, The Borexino Collaboration [Borexino collaborazione](IT), Water Čerenkov detectors - super-Kamiokande,   

    From The Borexino Collaboration [Borexino collaborazione](IT) via phys.org: “Borexino gathers the first directional measurement of sub-MeV solar neutrinos using a monolithic scintillation detector” 

    1
    Borexino from the North side of LNGS’s underground Hall C in September 2015. It is shown close to being completely covered in thermal insulation (seen as a silvery wrapping) as an effort to further improve its unprecedented radiopurity levels.

    From The Borexino Collaboration [Borexino collaborazione](IT)

    at

    INFN -National Laboratory of Frascati [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati] (IT)

    via

    phys.org

    Borexino is a large-scale particle physics experiment that collected data until October 2021. Its key mission was to study low energy (sub-MeV) solar neutrinos using the Borexino detector, the world’s most radio-pure liquid scintillator calorimeter, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso near Aquila, in Italy [below].

    The Borexino Collaboration, the research team conducting the experiment, recently gathered the first experimental measurement of sub-MeV solar neutrinos using a scintillation detector. This measurement, presented in a paper published in Physical Review Letters, could open new possibilities for the hybrid reconstruction of particle physics events using Čerenkov and scintillation signatures simultaneously.

    “The main idea behind this work was to gather experimental proof that it is possible to use the information given by the Čerenkov photons even in a monolithic scintillation detector,” Johann Martyn, one of the researchers who carried out the study, told Phys.org.

    Currently, there are two main types of detectors for studying neutrinos, namely water Čerenkov detectors, such as the Super-Kamiokande (SNO) detector and liquid scintillator detectors, such as the Borexino detector.

    In water Čerenkov detectors, neutrinos scatter off electrons in the medium. If these electrons are moving faster than the speed of light in the water, they produce Čerenkov radiation.

    “This Čerenkov radiation is emitted in a cone around the electron direction, which makes it possible to differentiate between solar neutrinos (coming from the sun) and radioactive background (coming from everywhere in the detector),” Martyn explained. “However, as the absolute number of Čerenkov photons is small (~30 photons at 3.5 MeV deposited energy in super-Kamiokande), the low energy threshold is relatively high compared to scintillation detectors.”

    In contrast with water Čerenkov detectors, liquid scintillators produce far more photons, through a process known as “scintillation.” During scintillation, a neutrino-induced electron excites the scintillator molecules, which in turn produce photons. In Borexino, this results in the production of approximately 500 photons at 1 MeV deposited energy.

    “This makes it possible to investigate solar neutrinos with much lower energies and as such investigate the fusion production channels of these low energy solar neutrinos,” Martyn said. “At the same time, however, the scintillation photons are emitted isotropically, which means that there is no directional information left.”

    While liquid scintillators can still produce photons at low energies, the relative ratio of these photons is so small that it cannot be used to carry out standard event-by-event analyses. For instance, at low energies the Borexino detector produces approximately ~1 Čerenkov photon per neutrino event. In their recent paper, Martyn and his colleagues used a statistical method to sum up the Čerenkov photons produced in all the neutrino events recorded by the detector.

    “Using our method, even if we have only 1 Čerenkov photon per neutrino event, we have about 10000 neutrino event in total, giving us then also about 10000 Čerenkov photons which can be used in analyses,” Martyn said. “This allows us to combine the strength of both detector types: looking at low energy neutrinos (triggered by the scintillation light) but using the directional information of solar neutrinos to differentiate event-related signals from background radiation.”

    In itself, the recent measurement collected by the Borexino Collaboration is not particularly impressive, especially when compared to conventional Borexino analyses based only on scintillation light. Nonetheless, this recent study could have important implications, as it experimentally demonstrates that performing a hybrid neutrino analysis is in fact possible.

    2
    The Correlated and Integrated Directionality (CID) method: Scintillation light (blue) is isotropic and independent on the direction of the solar neutrino. Čerenkov light (yellow) is correlated to the direction of the solar neutrino and produces a cone with an opening of ~43° Counting the PMT hits as a function of cos(alpha), which is the detected photon direction relative to the position of the Sun will produce a flat distribution for scintillation and background and a peak distribution for Čerenkov photons at cos(alpha) ~ 0.7. Credit: Borexino Collaboration.

    “Borexino is a liquid scintillator (LS) detector with ~280t of LS in a spherical volume of 6.5m radius and ~2000 photo multiplier tubes (PMTs),” Martyn explained. “If a solar neutrino interacts in the scintillator, it scatters off an electron, which in turn excites the scintillator molecules. These molecules then emit photons which are detected by the PMTs.”

    The amount of scintillation photons produced by Borexino depends on the energy of the electron scattered by solar neutrinos. As a result, the researchers can mathematically translate the number of proton hits on the PMTs into an electron energy.

    “The problem is that radioactive background also produces electrons, which excite the scintillator molecules all the same,” Martyn explained. “The normal Borexino analysis is thus performed by looking at the detected energy spectrum of many events. The hydrogen fusion inside the sun produced neutrinos with different energies and this produces a certain energy spectrum which looks different for solar neutrinos and for background. Comparing the measured spectrum with the known spectrum of all possible solar neutrinos and radioactive background spectra makes it possible to infer the number of neutrinos.”

    The new statistical approach implemented by Martyn and his colleagues was at the core of the successful hybrid measurement they detected. Instead of directly looking at the energy spectrum, the team examined the distribution of PMT hits for many neutrino events, relative to the position of the sun.

    2
    The Correlated and Integrated Directionality (CID) method: Scintillation light (blue) is isotropic and independent on the direction of the solar neutrino. Čerenkov light (yellow) is correlated to the direction of the solar neutrino and produces a cone with an opening of ~43° Counting the PMT hits as a function of cos(alpha), which is the detected photon direction relative to the position of the Sun will produce a flat distribution for scintillation and background and a peak distribution for Čerenkov photons at cos(alpha) ~ 0.7. Credit: Borexino Collaboration.

    “As the neutrinos come from the sun and the electrons are scattered mostly in the same direction that the neutrinos came from, we can see the contribution of Čerenkov photons as a small peak, while the scintillation photons as well as the radioactive backgrounds are isotropic and produce a flat distribution.”

    The analysis outlined in the team’s recent paper includes events at an energy range between 0.5–0.7 MeV. This is the energy range at which Martyn and his colleagues expected to observe the highest number of neutrinos in proportion to the background radiation.

    The events they analyzed were all recorded during the first phase of the Borexino experiment, spanning from 2007 to 2011. The main reason for this is that during that time the collaboration had access to calibration data, which they needed to correctly estimate the number of neutrinos interacting with the scintillator.

    3
    The Correlated and Integrated Directionality (CID) method: Scintillation light (blue) is isotropic and independent on the direction of the solar neutrino. Čerenkov light (yellow) is correlated to the direction of the solar neutrino and produces a cone with an opening of ~43° Counting the PMT hits as a function of cos(alpha), which is the detected photon direction relative to the position of the Sun will produce a flat distribution for scintillation and background and a peak distribution for Čerenkov photons at cos(alpha) ~ 0.7. Credit: Borexino Collaboration.

    In fact, while the team effectively measures Čerenkov photons, they then need to be able to translate this measurement into the number of neutrino events. To do this, they need to know the number of Čerenkov photons that would be produced for each neutrino event, which is related to the calibration data.

    “Borexino is a very adverse environment to count Čerenkov photons, as it was never built or expected to perform such a task,” Martyn said. “So, the most notable achievement is that we showed that the directional information is accessible even in this monolithic scintillation detector.”

    In the future, the measurement collected by the Borexino Collaboration could pave the way for new hybrid particle physics experiments that combine the strengths of scintillation and Čerenkov detectors. As their result is experimental and not based solely on simulations, it clearly demonstrates the feasibility these hybrid experiments.

    In their next studies, Martyn and his colleagues plan to focus on a type of neutrinos called CNO-cycle neutrinos. These are neutrinos produced during the CNO-cycle, a process where hydrogen is fused into Helium, via a catalytic reaction between carbon, nitrogen and oxygen.

    5
    Credit: Borexino Collaboration.

    The CNO-cycle is predicted to contribute to approximately 1% of all hydrogen fusion in the sun. The neutrinos produced during this process, therefore, have low statistics.

    “In Borexino, we also have the problem of the radioactive background from 210Bi which spectrum looks very similar to the spectrum of the CNO-cycle neutrinos,” Martyn added. “Even though Borexino is ultra radio-pure, the combination of the low neutrino statistics and the similarity of the energy spectra between the signal and the 210Bi background make a CNO neutrino analysis challenging. In one of our previous works [Nature], we found experimental evidence of neutrinos produced in the CNO fusion cycle. As a next step in our research, we want to try to include the directional information as a supplement to the standard analysis in this CNO energy region (~0.9 to 1.4 MeV).”

    See the full article here .

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    The Borexino Collaboration [Borexino collaborazione](IT) is a particle physics experiment to study low energy (sub-MeV) solar neutrinos. The detector is the world’s most radio-pure liquid scintillator calorimeter. It is placed within a stainless steel sphere which holds the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) used as signal detectors and is shielded by a water tank to protect it against external radiation and tag incoming cosmic muons that manage to penetrate the overburden of the mountain above.

    The primary aim of the experiment is to make a precise measurement of the individual neutrino fluxes from the Sun and compare them to the Standard solar model predictions. This will allow scientists to test and to further understand the functioning of the Sun (e.g., nuclear fusion processes taking place at the core of the Sun, solar composition, opacity, matter distribution, etc.) and will also help determine properties of neutrino oscillations, including the MSW effect. Specific goals of the experiment are to detect beryllium-7, boron-8, pp, pep and CNO solar neutrinos as well as anti-neutrinos from the Earth and nuclear power plants. The project may also be able to detect neutrinos from supernovae within our galaxy with a special potential to detect the elastic scattering of neutrinos onto protons, due to neutral current interactions. Borexino is a member of the Supernova Early Warning System. Searches for rare processes and potential unknown particles are also underway.

    The name Borexino is the Italian diminutive of BOREX (Boron solar neutrino Experiment), after the original 1 kT-fiducial experimental proposal with a different scintillator (TMB), was discontinued because of a shift in focus in physics goals as well as financial constraints. The experiment is located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso [below] near the town of L’Aquila, Italy, and is supported by an international collaboration with researchers from Italy, the United States, Germany, France, Poland, Russia and Ukraine. The experiment is funded by multiple national agencies; the principal ones are INFN and The National Science Foundation. In May 2017, Borexino reached 10 years of continuous operation since the start of its data-taking period in 2007.

    INFN Gran Sasso (IT) is the largest underground laboratory in the world devoted to neutrino and astroparticle physics, a worldwide research facility for scientists working in this field of research, where particle physics, cosmology and astrophysics meet. It is unequalled anywhere else, as it offers the most advanced underground infrastructures in terms of dimensions, complexity and completeness.

    LNGS is funded by the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), the Italian Institution in charge to coordinate and support research in elementary particles physics, nuclear and sub nuclear physics

    Located between L’Aquila and Teramo, at about 120 kilometres from Rome, the underground structures are on one side of the 10-kilometre long highway tunnel which crosses the Gran Sasso massif (towards Rome); the underground complex consists of three huge experimental halls (each 100-metre long, 20-metre large and 18-metre high) and bypass tunnels, for a total volume of about 180.000 m^3.

    Access to experimental halls is horizontal and it is made easier by the highway tunnel. Halls are equipped with all technical and safety equipment and plants necessary for the experimental activities and to ensure proper working conditions for people involved.

    The 1400 metre-rock thickness above the Laboratory represents a natural coverage that provides a cosmic ray flux reduction by one million times; moreover, the flux of neutrons in the underground halls is about thousand times less than on the surface due to the very small amount of uranium and thorium of the Dolomite calcareous rock of the mountain.

    The permeability of cosmic radiation provided by the rock coverage together with the huge dimensions and the impressive basic infrastructure, make the Laboratory unmatched in the detection of weak or rare signals, which are relevant for astroparticle, sub nuclear and nuclear physics.

    Outside, immersed in a National Park of exceptional environmental and naturalistic interest on the slopes of the Gran Sasso mountain chain, an area of more than 23 acres hosts laboratories and workshops, the Computing Centre, the Directorate and several other Offices.

    Currently 1100 scientists from 29 different Countries are taking part in the experimental activities of LNGS.
    LNGS research activities range from neutrino physics to dark matter search, to nuclear astrophysics, and also to earth physics, biology and fundamental physics.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:13 am on March 28, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , "Team at Borexino shows it is possible to have directional and energy sensitivity when studying solar neutrinos", , , Neutrinos, Super-Kamiokande experiment Japan, Čerenkov photons   

    From phys.org: “Team at Borexino shows it is possible to have directional and energy sensitivity when studying solar neutrinos” 

    From phys.org

    March 28, 2022
    Bob Yirka

    1
    Credit: CC0 Public Domain

    A group of researchers working with data from the Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy, has shown that it is possible to measure solar neutrinos with both directional and energy sensitivity. Two teams within the group have written papers describing the work by the group—one of them has published their work in Physical Review D, the other in Physical Review Letters.

    The Borexino detector was first proposed back in 1986 and its structure was completed in 2004. In May of 2007, it began providing researchers with data. Its purpose has been to measure neutrino fluxes in proton-proton chains. The detector, which is currently being dismantled, was made using 280 metric tons of radio-pure liquid scintillator which was shielded by a layer of water. Detections were made as solar neutrinos scattered off electrons in the scintillator—the light that was emitted was picked up by sensors lining the tank.

    For most of its existence, data from the Borexino detector was an excellent source of high-resolution sensitivity data down to low energy thresholds, but it offered little in the way of directional trajectories. In this new effort, the researchers found a way to use the data from the detector with data from another detector to provide trajectory information.

    The other detector was the Super Kamiokande detector in Japan—it was able to measure the Čerenkov radiation that was given off when electrons were traveling in its giant tank of water, providing their trajectory.

    The Borexino researchers re-analyzed earlier data at their facility by correlating it with the Čerenkov photons with known positions of the sun; in so doing, they were able to find peaks in the data they represented. They then used those peaks to create computer simulations that allowed them to separate solar-neutrino events from background noise and found they were able to identify real events, which very strongly suggested they had detected Čerenkov photons, which gave them directional information about the neutrinos. They suggest their work should provide new ways for studying the sun’s carbon-nitrogen-oxygen-cycle and also improve the results of searches for rare nuclear processes.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    About Science X in 100 words
    Science X is a leading web-based science, research and technology news service which covers a full range of topics. These include physics, earth science, medicine, nanotechnology, electronics, space, biology, chemistry, computer sciences, engineering, mathematics and other sciences and technologies. Launched in 2004 (Physorg.com), Science X’s readership has grown steadily to include 5 million scientists, researchers, and engineers every month. Science X publishes approximately 200 quality articles every day, offering some of the most comprehensive coverage of sci-tech developments world-wide. Science X community members enjoy access to many personalized features such as social networking, a personal home page set-up, article comments and ranking, the ability to save favorite articles, a daily newsletter, and other options.

    Mission: 12 reasons for reading daily news on Science X Organization Key editors and writers include 1.75 million scientists, researchers, and engineers every month. Phys.org publishes approximately 100 quality articles every day, offering some of the most comprehensive coverage of sci-tech developments world-wide. Quancast 2009 includes Phys.org in its list of the Global Top 2,000 Websites. Phys.org community members enjoy access to many personalized features such as social networking, a personal home page set-up, RSS/XML feeds, article comments and ranking, the ability to save favorite articles, a daily newsletter, and other options.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:21 pm on March 26, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Neutrinos, , "The proton's innate charm may trouble astronomers", Henryk Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN) at Polish Academy of Sciences., University of Wisconsin Ice-Cube Neutrino Observatory   

    From Henryk Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN) at Polish Academy of Sciences.: “The proton’s innate charm may trouble astronomers” 

    1

    From Henryk Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN) at Polish Academy of Sciences.

    24 March 2022

    Dr. Rafał Maciuła
    The Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences
    tel.: +48 12 662 8240
    email: rafal.maciula@ifj.edu.pl

    Prof. Antoni Szczurek
    The Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences
    tel.: +48 12 662 8212
    email: antoni.szczurek@ifj.edu.pl

    1
    Charm quarks and antiquarks in protons of atomic nuclei of the Earth’s atmospheric gases may produce some of neutrinos recorded by modern neutrino detectors. (Sources: The University of Wisconsin Ice-Cube Neutrino Observatory/The National Science Foundation)

    Can the neutrino eyes of humanity, observatories such as the IceCube in Antarctica, really see neutrinos coming from deep space? The answer is beginning to come from experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) where, amongst others, the internal structure of protons is being studied.

    According to the latest model by physicists from the IFJ PAS, this structure seems to be richer in charm particles to a degree that makes it difficult for terrestrial neutrino observers to interpret what they see.

    Contrary to popular notions, the proton may consist of not three, but even five quarks. An additional pair is then formed by a quark and antiquark created in the interactions of gluons inside the proton. It has long been supposed that these ‘extra’ pairs can sometimes even be made of such massive quarks and antiquarks as charm. It now turns out that taking into account the intrinsic charm of protons allows us to more accurately describe the course of phenomena recently recorded in one of the low-energy experiments at the LHCb detector at the LHC.

    The relevant theoretical model is presented by physicists from the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN) in Cracow in Physical Review D.

    School textbooks paint a picture of the proton as a particle being a simple conglomeration of three quarks: two up quarks and one down quark, glued together by strong interactions carried by gluons. In physics, such a simplified model has not had a long career. Already at the end of the 1980s, it turned out that in order to explain the observed phenomena one has to take into account light quarks coming from the meson cloud in the nucleon (these are so-called higher Flock states). Surprisingly, the effect is not at all marginal and may represent even a 30% correction with respect to the simple three-quark model. Unfortunately, so far it has not been possible to determine how large a similar contribution from charm quarks is.

    “”Our earlier models of charm formation have repeatedly shown agreement with experiments. At high energies of proton collisions, when two opposing beams of protons underwent mutual interactions at the LHC, we were able to describe quite well the production of pairs involving charm quarks and antiquarks. The thing is, however, that although they were formed during proton collisions, they did not come from the interior of protons. They were created as a result of the fusion of gluons that had been emitted by protons a bit earlier,”” says Prof. Antoni Szczurek (IFJ PAN).

    Hope for progress in tracing the charm inside the protons themselves was brought by recent measurements performed in the LHCb detector with a single proton beam aimed at a stationary helium or argon gas target.

    “”When collisions occur at the highest energies at the LHC, a large proportion of particles that are products of proton collisions move in the ‘forward’ direction, along the proton beams. As a result, they end up in an area where, for technical reasons, there are no detectors. However, the collisions of protons with helium nuclei, which we have just analysed, took place at energies up to several tens of times lower than the maximum energies reached by the LHC. The products of collisions bounced around at greater angles, more sideways, and as a result were registered in detectors and we could look at them,”” explains Dr. Rafał Maciuła (IFJ PAN).

    To describe the data from the experiment at the LHCb detector, the Cracow-based physicists used a model extended by the possibility of a charm quark or antiquark breaking out from inside the proton. Calculating the probability of such a process from first principles was not possible. The researchers therefore decided to check at what probability values the agreement between the model predictions and the recorded data would be the highest. The result obtained suggested that the contribution of charm pairs inside the proton is no greater than about 1%.

    After breaking out of the proton’s interior, the charm quark-antiquark pair quickly changes into short-lived D0 mesons and antimesons, which in turn produce more particles, including neutrinos. This fact inspired physicists from the IFJ PAN to confront the new model with data recorded by the IceCube neutrino observatory in Antarctica.

    Nowadays, thanks to the techniques used, the IceCube scientists are sure that if they register a neutrino with a huge energy (of the order of hundreds of teraelectronvolts), it means that the particle came from deep space. It is further assumed that neutrinos with slightly lower, but still rare high energies, are also cosmogenic in nature. However, if a charm quark-antiquark pair can be knocked out of the proton interior, decaying in a cascade containing high-energy neutrinos, this interpretation can be challenged. Indeed, neutrinos in a certain energy range, currently being recorded, may originate not from space, but precisely from cascades initiated by collisions between particles of primary cosmic radiation and atmospheric gas nuclei. An article exploring this possi¬bility has gone to press in the European Physical Journal C.

    “”In analysing the IceCube observatory data, we adopted the following tactic. Let’s assume that virtually all currently recorded neutrinos in the energy range we are studying originate from the atmosphere. What would the contribution of charm quark-antiquark pairs inside the proton have to be in order for us to get agreement with the measurements to date using our model? Imagine that we obtained a value of the order of one percent, virtually identical to the value from the model describing proton-helium collisions in the LHCb detector!”” says Dr Maciuła.

    The convergence of estimates for both the cases discussed above requires great caution in deter-mining the sources of neutrinos recorded by modern observatories. However, the Cracow researchers stress that their results impose only an upper limit on the contribution of charm quarks and antiquarks to the structure of the proton. If it turns out to be smaller, at least some of the currently detected high-energy neutrinos will retain their cosmic nature. However, if the upper limit is the correct estimate, our interpretation of their sources of origin will have to change significantly, and IceCube will turn out to be not only an astronomical observatory, but also… atmospheric.

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Henryk Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN) is currently one of the largest research institute of the The Polish Academy of Sciences [Polska Akademia Nauk](PL).

    The broad range of studies and activities of IFJ PAN includes basic and applied research, ranging from particle physics and astrophysics, through hadron physics, high-, medium-, and low-energy nuclear physics, condensed matter physics (including materials engineering), to various applications of methods of nuclear physics in interdisciplinary research, covering medical physics, dosimetry, radiation and environmental biology, environmental protection, and other related disciplines.

    The average yearly yield of the IFJ PAN in recent years encompasses over 600 scientific papers in the Journal Citation Reports published by the Clarivate Analytics.

    The part of the Institute is the Cyclotron Centre Bronowice (CCB) which is an infrastructure, unique in Central Europe, to serve as a clinical and research centre in the area of medical and nuclear physics.

    IFJ PAN is a member of the Marian Smoluchowski Kraków Research Consortium: “Matter-Energy-Future” which possesses the status of a Leading National Research Centre (KNOW) in physics for the years 2012-2017.

    In 2017 the European Commission granted to the Institute the HR Excellence in Research award.

    The Institute is of A+ Category (leading level in Polish) in the field of sciences and engineering.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:32 am on March 15, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Building for Science and Society", , , Elaine McCluskey-project manager extraordinaire-retires., Neutrinos, , ,   

    From Symmetry: “Building for Science and Society” Elaine McCluskey, project manager extraordinaire, retires. 

    Symmetry Mag

    From Symmetry

    03/15/22
    Nikita Amir

    The career of Elaine McCluskey, who most recently served as project manager constructing the future facility for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, has had a lasting impact.

    1
    Elaine McCluskey, project manager extraordinaire, retires.
    “Elaine has put her heart and soul into moving this project forward, overcoming countless challenges,” said Chris Mossey, project director of LBNF/DUNE-US. “LBNF/DUNE simply would not be where it is today without Elaine’s extraordinary dedication and leadership.” Photo: Sanford Underground Research Facility.

    As a child, Elaine McCluskey liked to make things. Growing up in the 1950s and ’60s, this translated into hobbies considered appropriate for girls: making crafts, sewing clothes and cooking.

    “I even made my own prom dress pattern,” she says.

    At school, her interest translated into a passion for math and science. As she neared graduation, her father, an electrical engineer, encouraged her to enroll in a joint undergraduate degree in physics and civil engineering.

    She spent three years at Carleton College in Minnesota before transferring to Washington University in St. Louis.

    “I was very much encouraged by my parents to never feel like I couldn’t go do something,” she says. “It was very, very important that I felt empowered to go and do whatever I want, wherever I wanted to do it.”

    That encouragement helped her weather the challenges of finding her way in a male-dominated field. The career she built touched the lives of many, ranging from students and educators to medical professionals and patients to physicists and engineers.

    From small cohort to smaller cohort

    At Carleton, McCluskey studied physics in a class about a third of which was made up of women. This was unusual; when she graduated in 1976, women were awarded just 11% of bachelor’s degrees in physics in the United States, according to the American Institute of Physics.

    The ratio was different when she studied civil engineering in St. Louis. In 1978, the year she earned her second degree, women earned just 8.9% of bachelor’s degrees in engineering in the United States, according to the National Science Foundation.

    There were barely any other women in civil engineering, McCluskey says. At the meetings for the American Society for Civil Engineers, there were only five women in her cohort. They were unable to wear the name tags the society provided, as the tags were designed to be slipped into a suit jacket pocket.

    “‘I don’t have a suit jacket, and I don’t have a pocket to put that in, what can we do about that?’” she asked the organizers. After she brought it up, they switched to pin-on name tags instead. “I felt that was quite a victory for myself,” she says.

    Later in her career, McCluskey became an engineering consultant. She says that the number of women around her dropped even further; she was often the only one in the room. McCluskey made do with the support she could find.

    “I’ve often had men who are my confidants or my professional role models, just because there aren’t women there to do that. And so oftentimes, I would rely on just personal friends to talk through things.”

    Building for society

    It was in college that McCluskey figured out exactly what she wanted to do.

    She remembers watching through her dorm window as workers poured the foundation for a new building. She says that at the time, she wondered: How do they know it’s going to stand up? Who decided that that amount of concrete in that shape is the right thing to do?

    McCluskey says she was taken by “the whole business of eventually creating this beautiful building.”

    For McCluskey, civil engineering is all about helping people. It’s about building structures and systems so that a society can function. “Civil engineering is very much in the fabric of what a society needs in order to be in a good place.”

    Over her career, she has built schools, hospitals, and even a reinforced support for the statue of the goddess Ceres atop the Chicago Board of Trade.

    “To me, designing a school and a hospital, those are fundamental things that everybody needs,” McCluskey says. “And if I can make a school that’s going to last a long time and be really useful for our community, then I feel a lot of reward driving by that school, knowing that I’ve done something that can help a lot of people.”

    As she gained experience, McCluskey became interested in taking on new challenges as well. That’s when she heard about a job at the DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. After initially working part-time, she was hired full-time by the Facilities Engineering Services Section in 1995.

    Civil engineering requirements for different projects are often pretty similar. Not at Fermilab, though. “The scientists want to do an experiment and maybe change the matrix and change our thinking about the world,” she says. “It’s the passion that comes with the work that really drives us to want to continue to do what is sometimes very hard or something that’s not been done before.”

    One of her first projects was one of her most challenging: the remodeling of the laboratory’s main building, Wilson Hall [above]. Inspired by a cathedral, it consists of two concrete sides that slope gently together as they reach more than 200 feet in the air. The hall is visible from most of the lab’s flat 6,800-acre site.

    The problem was that the iconic building had begun dropping small pieces of concrete. McCluskey and her team set to work rebuilding parts of the hall floor by floor, replacing windows, skylights, water piping and the entire front entrance. To make things more complex, the project needed to be completed while the building remained occupied, so much of the work happened at night.

    McCluskey says that for years afterward, she took pride in checking every time she walked by to make sure everything was in perfect condition.

    McCluskey made sure that everyone on a project could take that same pride in their work, says fellow project manager Jolie Macier, who started working with McCluskey in those early days. The key was giving her team the guidance they needed to work independently.

    But she also found ways to help team members work well together, Macier says. During Women’s History Month a few years ago, McCluskey brought in a puzzle celebrating women in science and engineering. “It provided this meeting point over the course of a couple of days for people to stop and talk with each other,” Macier says. “It obviously wasn’t only about the puzzle. It was more about this moment and creating this interaction.”

    During the winter, McCluskey would bring amaryllis to the office. She would nurture them at home before sharing them in the winter, the only time of year when their flowers bloom.

    “Everything isn’t just about working on the to-do list, but really looking at ways that help people feel like they’re part of something,” Macier says.

    For the last 12 years, McCluskey has worked as project manager on one final, adventurous build for Fermilab: the beamline and cavernous homes for the huge particle detectors of the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, the lab’s flagship LBNF/DUNE project.

    More than 1,400 scientists and engineers from over 35 countries are collaborating on DUNE. The experiment needs a facility that produces a neutrino beam and sends it straight through the earth to the DUNE detectors, first at the Fermilab site, and then 800 miles away to a former-mine-turned-underground-laboratory in Lead, South Dakota. There, shielded underground to better study subatomic particles, scientists aim to discover what role neutrinos play in the universe.

    “Elaine is the rock that held the LBNF/DUNE project together for a decade and advanced it to where we are today,” says Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer. “Her even-keel approach to problem solving was masterful and highly appreciated in a difficult project.”

    Chris Mossey, project director of LBNF/DUNE-US, agrees. “Elaine has put her heart and soul into moving this project forward, overcoming countless challenges. LBNF/DUNE simply would not be where it is today without Elaine’s extraordinary dedication and leadership.”

    About 800,000 tons of rock need to be moved to create the underground space for the DUNE detectors at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. Excavation is underway. When complete, the new Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility at SURF will have a total floor space of about the area of two soccer fields. The facilities will include large cryostats, underground nitrogen refrigeration and argon recirculation systems.

    That work will need to be completed without McCluskey, though; in February, she announced her retirement.

    But she isn’t turning her back on her passions. She still serves as a volunteer in the Frank Lloyd Wright Trust, an architectural nonprofit in Chicago. And in June, McCluskey plans to meet up with fellow Carleton physics alumni for a reunion they hold every five years.

    “It’s always a special time for the physics majors to get together,” she says, “and those women from that physics year are always there.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
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