Tagged: Neutrinos Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • richardmitnick 8:36 am on October 4, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Clash of the Titans", , , , Neutrinos, , ,   

    From “Science Magazine” : “Clash of the Titans” 

    From “Science Magazine”

    9.29.22
    Adrian Cho

    The United States and Japan are embarking on ambitious efforts to wring a key secret of the universe from the subatomic phantoms known as neutrinos.

    Among physicists, those studying elusive particles called neutrinos may set the standard for dogged determination—or obdurate stubbornness. For 12 years, scientists in Japan have fired trillions of neutrinos hundreds of kilometers through Earth to a gigantic subterranean detector called Super-Kamiokande (Super-K) to study their shifting properties.

    Yet the nearly massless particles interact with other matter so feebly that the experiment, known as T2K, has captured fewer than 600 of them.

    Nevertheless, so alluring are neutrinos that physicists are not just persisting, they are planning to vastly scale up efforts to make and trap them. At stake may be insight into one of the most profound questions in physics: how the newborn universe generated more matter than antimatter, so that it is filled with something instead of nothing.

    That prospect, among others, has sparked a race to build two massive subterranean detectors, at costs ranging from hundreds of millions to billions of dollars. In an old zinc mine near the former town of Kamioka in Japan, physicists are gearing up to build Hyper-Kamiokande (Hyper-K), a gargantuan successor to Super-K, which will scrutinize neutrinos fired from a particle accelerator at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) in Tokai 295 kilometers away.

    Hyper-Kamiokande [(神岡宇宙素粒子研究施設](JP) a neutrino physics laboratory to be located underground in the Mozumi Mine of the Kamioka Mining and Smelting Co. near the Kamioka section of the city of Hida in Gifu Prefecture, Japan.

    In the United States, scientists are developing the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) in a former gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, which will snare neutrinos from The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) 1300 kilometers away in Batavia, Illinois.

    Researchers with both experiments acknowledge they’re in competition—and that Hyper-K may have an advantage because it will likely start to take data a year or two before DUNE. Yet aside from their goals, “Hyper-K and DUNE are vastly different,” says Chang Kee Jung, a neutrino physicist at Stony Brook University and a T2K member who now also works on DUNE.

    Hyper-K, which will be bigger but cheaper than DUNE, represents the next in a series of ever larger neutrino detectors of the same basic design developed over 40 years by Japanese physicists. It is all but certain to work as expected, says Masato Shiozawa, a particle physicist at the University of Tokyo and co-spokesperson for the 500-member Hyper-K collaboration. “Hyper-K is a more established technology than DUNE,” he says. “That is why I proposed it.”

    DUNE will employ a relatively new technology that promises to reveal neutrino interactions in stunning detail and allow physicists to test their understanding of the particles with unprecedented rigor. “Without bragging too much, we are best in class,” says Sergio Bertolucci, a particle physicist at the University of Bologna and Italy’s National Institute for Nuclear Physics and co-spokesperson for the 1300-member DUNE collaboration. However, that technological edge comes with a hefty price tag and, Bertolucci acknowledges, more risk.

    How the rivalry plays out will depend on factors as mundane as the cost of underground excavation and as exciting as the possibility that neutrinos, always quirky, hold some surprise that will transform physicists’ understanding of nature.

    The most common particles in the universe besides photons, neutrinos exert no effect on the everyday objects around us. Yet they could carry clues to deep mysteries. Neutrinos and their antimatter counterparts both come in three types or flavors—electron, muon, and tau—depending on how they’re generated. For example, electron neutrinos emerge from the radioactive decay of some atomic nuclei. Muon neutrinos fly from the decays of fleeting particles called pi-plus mesons, which can be produced by smashing a beam of protons into a target. These identities aren’t fixed: A neutrino of one type can change into another, chameleonlike, as it zips along at near–light-speed.

    Weirdly, a neutrino of a definite flavor has no definite mass. Rather, it is a quantum mechanical combination of three different “mass states.” For example, a decaying pi-plus spits out the combination of mass states that makes a muon neutrino. However, like gears turning at different speeds, the mass states evolve at different rates, changing that combination. So, a particle that began as an electron neutrino might later appear as a tau neutrino—a phenomenon known as neutrino oscillation.

    Theorists can explain all of this with a mathematical clockwork known as the three-flavor model. It has just a handful of parameters: roughly speaking, the probabilities with which one flavor will oscillate into another and the differences among the three mass states. The picture has gaps. Experiments show two mass states are close, but not whether the two similar states are lighter or heavier than the third—a puzzle known as the hierarchy problem.

    Moreover, neutrinos and antineutrinos might oscillate by different amounts, an asymmetry called charge-parity (CP) violation. Measuring that asymmetry is the prize physicists seek, as it could help explain how the soup of fundamental particles in the early universe generated more matter than antimatter.

    1

    2

    The wispy neutrinos themselves did not tilt the matter-antimatter balance. Rather, according to some theories, the familiar neutrinos are mirrored by vastly heavier “sterile” neutrinos that would interact with nothing except neutrinos. If sterile neutrinos and antineutrinos also behave asymmetrically, then in the early universe their decays could have generated more electrons than antielectrons (also called positrons), seeding the dominance of matter.

    Seeing CP violation in ordinary neutrinos wouldn’t prove this scenario played out, notes Patrick Huber, a theorist at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. But not seeing CP violation among ordinary neutrinos would render it much less likely that the hypothetical heavyweights possess the key asymmetry, Huber says. “It’s not impossible, but it’s implausible,” he says.

    But, first, scientists must determine whether neutrinos really exhibit this asymmetry. The teams in Japan and the United States will both employ a well-established technique to probe neutrino behavior. By smashing energetic protons from a particle accelerator into a target to produce pipluses, they will generate a beam of muon neutrinos and shoot it toward a distant underground detector. There, researchers will count the surviving muon neutrinos and the electron neutrinos that have emerged along the way. Then they will switch to producing a beam of muon antineutrinos, by collecting pi-minuses instead of pi-pluses from the target. They’ll repeat the measurements, looking for any differences.

    The experiment is much harder than it sounds, as several other factors could create a spurious asymmetry. For example, the neutrino and antineutrino beams will inevitably differ slightly, both in intensity and in their energy spectrum. To account for such differences, the researchers must sample the particles as they start their journey by placing a small detector, preferably with a design as similar as possible to the distant detector, in front of the beam source.

    The physics of neutrinos themselves could also skew the results. For example, either neutrinos or antineutrinos will be absorbed more strongly by the matter they traverse on their flight to the detector. The direction of that effect depends on the solution to the hierarchy problem. So, to spot CP violation, physicists will most likely have to solve the hierarchy problem, too.

    The biggest barrier to sorting all of this out, however, has been the measly harvest of neutrinos from even the biggest experiments. Like their counterparts in Japan, U.S. physicists already have a neutrino-oscillation experiment, NOνA, which shoots neutrinos from Fermilab to a detector 810 kilometers north in Minnesota. Like T2K, it has netted just several hundred neutrinos.

    Hyper-K will tackle the scarcity primarily by providing a much bigger target for the neutrinos to hit. Proposed a decade ago, it’s a scaled-up version of the storied Super-K detector and will consist of a cylindrical stainless steel tank 78 meters tall and 74 meters wide, holding 260,000 tons of ultrapure water—five times as much as Super-K.

    To spot neutrinos, the detector will rely on the optical equivalent of a sonic boom. Rarely, a muon neutrino zipping through the water will knock a neutron out of an oxygen atom and change it into a proton, while the neutrino itself morphs into a high-energy muon. The fleeing muon will actually exceed the speed of light in water, which is 25% slower than in a vacuum, and generate a shock wave of so-called Cherenkov light, just as a supersonic jet creates a shock wave of sound. That conelike shock wave will cast a ring of light on the tank’s side, which is lined with photodetectors.

    Similarly, an electron neutrino can strike a neutron to produce a high-speed electron, which is lighter than a muon and will be buffeted more by the water molecules. The result will be a fuzzier light ring. Muon and electron antineutrinos can spawn detectable antimuons and antielectrons by striking protons, although with about half the efficiency of the neutrino interactions.

    4
    5
    In Super-K, a muon neutrino turns into a muon, which radiates a tidy light ring (upper image). An electron neutrino spawns an electron and a fuzzier ring (lower image). Kamioka Observatory/Institute for Cosmic Ray Research/University of Tokyo.

    Hyper-K will be Japan’s third great detector, all in the same mining area. From 1983 to 1995, the Kamioka Nucleon Decay Experiment (Kamiokande), a 3000-ton detector, tried to spot the ultrarare decays of protons that some theories predict. Instead, in 1987, it glimpsed neutrinos from a supernova—an advance that won a share of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2002. In 1996, Super-K came online. It proved neutrinos oscillate by studying muon neutrinos generated when cosmic rays strike the atmosphere. Fewer come up from the ground than down from the sky, showing that those traversing Earth change flavor along the way. The discovery shared the Nobel in 2015. “It’s spectacular what [Japanese physicists] have done,” says Erin O’Sullivan, a neutrino astrophysicist at Uppsala University and a Hyper-K member who was drawn by “the dynasty of Super-K.”

    Hyper-K will reuse J-PARC’s neutrino beam, which is now being upgraded to increase its power by a factor of 2.5. Overall, it should collect data at 20 times the rate of T2K, says Stephen Playfer, a particle physicist at the University of Edinburgh and the University of Tokyo and the project’s lead technical coordinator. Before joining Hyper-K in 2014, he and his Edinburgh colleagues also considered joining DUNE. “When it came to comparing who was going to be first to see something, we thought Hyper-K was in a good position, just because it would have the statistics and it had a well-known technology,” he says.

    Hyper-K will have limitations. In particular, it won’t measure the neutrinos’ energies precisely. That matters because the rate at which a neutrino oscillates depends on its energy, and a beam contains neutrinos with a range or spectrum of energies. Without a way to pinpoint each neutrino’s energy, the experiment would be unable to make sense of the oscillation rates.

    To avoid this problem, Hyper-K, like current experiments, will rely on a trick. A neutrino beam naturally diverges, with lower energy neutrinos spreading more than higher energy ones. Thus, if a detector sits slightly to the side of the beam’s path, it will see neutrinos with a narrower range of energies that should oscillate at roughly the same rate. So, like Super-K, Hyper-K will sit off the beam axis by an angle of 2.5°.

    Physicists can then tune the energy of the beam so the neutrinos reach the detector when the oscillation is at its maximum. With the neutrinos’ energy constrained, physicists basically count the number of arriving muon neutrinos, electron neutrinos, and their antimatter counterparts. Hyper-K’s CP measurement comes down to comparing two ratios: electron neutrinos with muon neutrinos and electron antineutrinos with muon antineutrinos.

    Workers have already begun the excavation for Hyper-K, which should take 2 years, Shiozawa says. The whole project will cost Japan about $600 million, with international partners chipping in an additional $100 million to $200 million, he says. The detector will be complete in 2027, Shiozawa says, and will start taking data a year later. So confident are Hyper-K researchers in their technology that they say the trickiest part of the project is the digging. “We need to construct probably the largest underground cavern” in the world, Shiozawa says. “In terms of technology and also cost, this is the biggest challenge.”

    If, technologically, Hyper-K amounts to much more of the same, DUNE aims to be something almost completely different. It will employ a technology that, until recently, was used in only one other large experiment but that should enable physicists to see neutrino interactions as never before. “To me, the draw of DUNE is its precision,” says Chris Marshall, a particle physicist at the University of Rochester and DUNE’s physics coordinator. “This is an experiment that will be world leading in just about everything that it measures.”

    6
    Since 2015, DUNE researchers have built prototypes at the European particle physics laboratory, CERN, which have performed even better than expected. Brice Maximillien/CERN

    Hunkering 1480 meters deep in a repurposed gold mine, DUNE will consist of two rectangular tanks 66 meters long, 19 meters wide, and 18 meters tall. Each will contain 17,000 tons of frigid liquid argon cooled to below –186°C. Just as in a water-filled detector, a neutrino can blast a neutron—in this case in an argon nucleus—to create a muon or an electron. But the neutrinos reaching DUNE from Fermilab will pack up to 10 times more energy than those flowing to Hyper-K. So, in addition to the muon or electron, a collision will typically produce a spurt of other particles such as pions, kaons, protons, and neutrons.

    DUNE aims to track all those particles—or at least the charged ones—with a technology called a liquid argon time projection chamber. As a charged particle streaks through the argon, it will ionize some of the atoms, freeing their electrons. A strong electric field will push the electrons sideways until they hit three closely spaced planes of parallel wires, each plane oriented in a different direction. By noting when the electrons strike the wires, physicists can reconstruct with millimeter precision the original particle’s 3D trajectory. And from the amount of ionization it produces, they can determine its type and energy.

    The details are mind-boggling. The electrons will have to drift as far as 3.5 meters, driven by a voltage of 180 kilovolts. And unlike Hyper-K, DUNE will sit directly in the beam from Fermilab. So, it will capture a bigger but messier harvest of neutrinos, with energies ranging from less than 1 giga-electron volt to more than 5 GeV.

    DUNE’s ability to precisely track all the particles should enable it to do something unprecedented in neutrino physics: Measure the energy of each incoming neutrino to construct energy spectra for each flavor of neutrino and antineutrino. Because of the flavor changing, a plot of each spectrum should itself exhibit a distinct wiggle or oscillation. By analyzing all of the spectra, physicists should be able to nail down the entire three-flavor model, including the amount of CP violation and the hierarchy, in one fell swoop, Bertolucci says. “It can measure all the parameters in the same experiment,” he says.

    Until now, the technology has never been fully developed. Italian Nobel laureate Carlo Rubbia dreamed up the liquid argon detector in 1977. But it wasn’t until 2010 that one called ICARUS in Italy’s subterranean Gran Sasso National Laboratory snared a few neutrinos shot from the European particle physics laboratory, CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland.

    Researchers at Fermilab and CERN have embarked on a crash program to build prototypes, which have worked even better than expected, says Kate Scholberg, a neutrino physicist and a DUNE team member at Duke University. “It’s kind of an entrancing thing to look at the event displays” coming in, she says. “It’s just incredible detail.”

    That precision comes at a price. For accounting purposes, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) splits the project in two. One piece, the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), includes the new neutrino beam at Fermilab and all the infrastructure. The second, DUNE, is an international collaboration that will build just the guts of the detectors. In 2015, DOE estimated LBNF/DUNE would cost $1.5 billion and come online in 2027. Last year, however, DOE reported that unexpected construction costs had raised the bill to $3.1 billion. The detector should be completed in 2028, says Christopher Mossey, project director for LBNF/DUNE-U.S. But the beam will lag until early 2031, potentially giving Hyper-K a head start of more than 2 years.

    With contracts in hand and construction underway, DUNE developers are confident that the new cost and timeline will hold. Excavation has passed 40% and should be completed in May 2023, Mossey says. “We really are accomplishing big, tangible things.” Still, DUNE physicists acknowledge that the project is riskier than Hyper-K. “It’s a leap into the unknown, and that’s the trade-off you make,” Scholberg says. “Something that is more transformative is going to certainly entail more scariness.”

    Both experiments have other scientific goals, such as searching for proton decay. There, Hyper-K has an advantage, Huber says, as it is simply bigger and contains lots of lone protons in the hearts of the hydrogen atoms in water molecules. Another tantalizing payoff could come if a giant star collapses and explodes as a supernova near our Galaxy, as one did in 1987. The experiments would provide complementary observations, Scholberg says, as DUNE would see the electron neutrinos produced just as the core implodes and Hyper-K would see mainly electron antineutrinos released later in the explosion.

    Nevertheless, the raison d’être for both experiments remains deciphering neutrino oscillations and searching for CP violation. So, how would a gambler handicap this race?

    Given their head start, Hyper-K physicists could score major discoveries before DUNE even finds its feet. If CP violation is as big as it can possibly be, “then we may discover it in 3 years,” Shiozawa says. “And also, we may discover proton decay in 3 years.” But, he says, “It really depends on nature.”

    Hyper-K is optimized to measure CP violation assuming it’s big and the three-flavor model is the final word on neutrino oscillations, Huber notes. Neither assumption may hold. And with its simpler counting technique and shorter baseline, the experiment may struggle to distinguish CP violation from the matter effect unless some other experiment independently solves the hierarchy problem. “Hyper-K certainly requires more external inputs,” Huber says.

    8
    Hyper-Kamiokande will deploy new and improved phototubes, which must withstand pressures up to six atmospheres at the bottom of the tank.Kamioka Observatory/Institute for Cosmic Ray Research/University of Tokyo.

    DUNE, in contrast, should be able to disentangle the whole mess on its own. Shiozawa, for one, is not counting out his rival. The Japanese project has experienced growing pains of its own, he notes, including being scaled back from an initial 1-million-ton design. And the Japanese government won’t countenance any cost increase, putting project leaders in constant tension with contractors, he says. “The situation is not so different between the two projects.”

    Ultimately, the rivalry between Hyper-K and DUNE may be less a dash for glory than a decadeslong slog through uncertainty. If so, the two teams could end up collaborating as much as they compete, at least informally. “We’ll have a long time where the most accurate results will come from a combination of the two [experiments],” Huber predicts.

    Most tantalizing, instead of completing the current theory, the results could upend it. They might reveal deviations from the three-flavor model that could hint at new particles and phenomena lurking in the vacuum. After all, neutrinos have repeatedly surprised physicists, who once assumed that the particles came in only one type and were completely massless and inert. “Previously, neutrino experiments have taught us that we very rarely take data in a neutrino beam and get exactly what we expect,” Marshall says.

    The unexpected may be a long shot worth betting on.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

     
  • richardmitnick 11:35 am on August 16, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Excavation of huge caverns for DUNE particle detector is underway", , , , Neutrinos, ,   

    From The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory And The Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF: “Excavation of huge caverns for DUNE particle detector is underway” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research worldwide.

    And

    The Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF

    8.15.22
    Diana Kwon

    1
    About 800,000 tons of rock need to be removed to create the seven-story-tall caverns and the connecting drifts for the LBNF far site location in South Dakota. Photo by Adam Gomez.

    Around a mile below the surface in South Dakota, construction crews are hard at work excavating around 1,000 tons of rock per day. Their goal is to make room for a large underground facility that will house an international effort aimed at studying neutrinos—highly elusive subatomic particles that may hold the key to many of the universe’s secrets.

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility will one day be home to the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. LBNF/DUNE involves more than 1,000 scientists and engineers from over 30 countries.

    DUNE has three main scientific aims: determine whether neutrinos might hold the key to the matter-antimatter asymmetry that gave rise to our matter-filled universe; look for neutrinos that indicate the birth of a neutron star or black hole, two of the most mysterious objects in space; and search for subatomic signals that could help scientists develop a theory that unifies the four forces of nature.

    “DUNE is a unique experiment,” said DUNE co-spokesperson Sergio Bertolucci. “It is the only experiment where you can measure all the parameters of neutrino oscillations in the same place.

    This will enable us to perform precision measurements of the mass ordering, of the matter-antimatter symmetry violation and of the mixing angles.”

    LBNF provides the space, infrastructure and particle beam for the experiment: the caverns that will house DUNE’s detectors—a near detector at the Fermilab site, and a far detector 800 miles away at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota; the space for cryogenic equipment to keep these instruments cold; the hall where neutrinos are produced; and the beamline that will deliver the protons that make the neutrinos.

    PIP-II, the Proton Improvement Plan II at Fermilab, will power the particle beam for the experiment. At the heart of PIP-II is the construction of a 700-foot-long particle accelerator that will boost a stream of protons to 84% of the speed of light. The construction of the first of two large buildings for PIP-II is almost complete. When operational, PIP-II will feed its protons into a chain of accelerators to create the world’s most intense neutrino beam.

    Excavation is in full swing

    On-site prep work for the excavation of the LBNF far site facility in South Dakota began in 2019. In 2021, construction crews started the excavation of the large caverns for DUNE. The three LBNF caverns [below] will house the far detector modules and the infrastructure needed to operate the detectors. Project managers expect the construction of the caverns to be complete in 2024.

    To date, approximately 274,000 tons of rock have been removed—more than a third of the whopping 800,000 tons that needs to be extracted from a mile underground. About 200 people in South Dakota directly work on LBNF during this phase of the project.

    Once complete, the underground facility with its three caverns will cover the area of about the size of eight soccer fields. Two of the caverns are about 500 feet long, 65 feet wide and 90 feet high—about the height of a seven-story building. These caverns will house the far detector modules, each of which will be more than 200 feet in length and contain 17,000 tons of ultrapure argon cooled to minus 184 degrees Celsius. The third cavern, which is about 625 feet long and 65 feet wide but is only 36 feet tall, will contain the cryogenic support systems, detector electronics and data acquisition equipment.

    Drill and blast

    The excavation of each cavern proceeds from the top to the bottom. The process is carried out by contractor Thyssen Mining Inc. and uses the so-called drill-and-blast technique. First, construction workers drill a series of holes, then load those holes with explosives that will blast away the rock. The workers then remove the blasted rock and transport it to large buckets called skips, which travel up a mile-long shaft to bring the rock to the surface. Once the rock is above ground, it is crushed, put on a conveyor, and then deposited into a former open mining pit called the Open Cut.

    Next, workers move into the excavated space to conduct ground support, which involves operating gigantic drills that insert 20-foot-long bolts into rock walls as anchors. Miners will install a total of about 16,000 rock bolts to secure all walls and ceilings of the excavated space.


    A mile underground: the large caverns and detectors of DUNE.

    “These secure the rock because sometimes, in the process of blasting, you create fractures in the surrounding rock, or there’s existing fractures,” said Syd De Vries, a mining engineer at Fermilab. “That creates zones of weakness, so you install these rock bolts, along with a wire mesh that secures the rock so that it’s safe to go in and repeat that cycle.”

    Once the ground support is complete, the drill-and-blast cycle begins anew. Some of the underground work can be carried out in parallel, with approximately 30 miners per shift working at different locations.

    The drill-and-blast phase will be complete in the fall of 2023. “That’s the last time we’ll use explosives,” said Josh Willhite, a mechanical engineer who grew up in South Dakota and started working on the early plans for this project in 2010.

    To complete the construction of the caverns, the floors and walls will be covered with concrete—and that work is expected to continue until May 2024.

    Advances at all levels

    While the excavation work proceeds, another set of contractors is preparing for the building and site infrastructure phase. During this phase, the LBNF space will be outfitted with the infrastructure needed to run the DUNE detectors. This includes setting up the lighting, electrical equipment, ventilation and piping that will direct argon delivered at the surface to the detectors deep underground.

    Work on the DUNE particle detectors is advancing as well. For example, scientists in the UK have begun the mass production of large detector components for the first detector module in South Dakota. At the European laboratory CERN, the DUNE collaboration is about to start tests for vertical-drift detector components, which will be used in the second detector module to be built in South Dakota. At Fermilab, scientists are getting ready to test near-detector components built in Switzerland.

    Prep work is paying off

    Before the drill-and-blast process could begin in South Dakota, the project team completed the pre-excavation phase, during which the LBNF far site was prepared for the excavation. It involved, among other things, renovating the Ross Shaft, updating the rock crushing system and building the 3/4-mile-long conveyor system that moves the rock from the shaft to the Open Cut. “That was a pretty major scope of work,” Willhite said. “Seeing all that functioning and working properly once we got into excavation was pretty exciting.”

    2
    A construction miner stands near a bolter, a huge machine that installs 20-foot-long rock bolts in the caverns that will house the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. About 16,000 bolts will need to be installed to provide ground support in the gigantic, seven-story-tall caverns a mile underground. Photo by Jason Hogan, Thyssen Mining Inc.

    During that phase, engineers also drilled a series of core samples to determine the geological characteristics of the rock, such as its strength and the presence of fractures, as well as the stresses that were present. Stresses on the rock exist both in the vertical and horizontal planes. The deeper you go, the greater the weight of the rock becomes, creating stress in the vertical plane. Horizonal stresses are caused by things like the tectonic activity of the Earth.

    This diligent pre-excavation work has paid off. Project managers think that any big issues would have come up during the first year of excavation, but so far, the miners have successfully excavated the tops of all three caverns and have opened one of the caverns to its full width without any major setbacks. “The sensors that have been installed and are monitoring the rock movement are all following the predicted paths,” said De Vries. “That gives everybody a higher sense of security.” The monitoring, of course, continues, and the safety of all workers remains the project’s top priority.

    Breaking the 625-foot-long utility cavern to its full length, then being able to walk along it, was an amazing feat, Willhite said: “It doesn’t matter how many times you see it—these caverns are gigantic. It’s very impressive to see.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    About us: The Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF in Lead, South Dakota, advances our understanding of the universe by providing laboratory space deep underground, where sensitive physics experiments can be shielded from cosmic radiation. Researchers at the Sanford Lab explore some of the most challenging questions facing 21st century physics, such as the origin of matter, the nature of dark matter and the properties of neutrinos. The facility also hosts experiments in other disciplines—including geology, biology and engineering.

    The Sanford Lab is located at the former Homestake gold mine, which was a physics landmark long before being converted into a dedicated science facility. Nuclear chemist Ray Davis earned a share of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2002 for a solar neutrino experiment he installed 4,850 feet underground in the mine.

    Homestake closed in 2003, but the company donated the property to South Dakota in 2006 for use as an underground laboratory. That same year, philanthropist T. Denny Sanford donated $70 million to the project. The South Dakota Legislature also created the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to operate the lab. The state Legislature has committed more than $40 million in state funds to the project, and South Dakota also obtained a $10 million Community Development Block Grant to help rehabilitate the facility.

    In 2007, after the National Science Foundation named Homestake as the preferred site for a proposed national Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) began reopening the former gold mine.

    In December 2010, the National Science Board decided not to fund further design of DUSEL. However, in 2011 the Department of Energy, through the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, agreed to support ongoing science operations at Sanford Lab, while investigating how to use the underground research facility for other longer-term experiments. The SDSTA, which owns Sanford Lab, continues to operate the facility under that agreement with Berkeley Lab.

    The first two major physics experiments at the Sanford Lab are 4,850 feet underground in an area called the Davis Campus, named for the late Ray Davis. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is housed in the same cavern excavated for Ray Davis’s experiment in the 1960s.

    In October 2013, after an initial run of 80 days, LUX was determined to be the most sensitive detector yet to search for dark matter—a mysterious, yet-to-be-detected substance thought to be the most prevalent matter in the universe. The University of Washington MAJORANA Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay Experiment Demonstrator experiment, also on the 4850 Level, is searching for a rare phenomenon called “neutrinoless double-beta decay” that could reveal whether subatomic particles called neutrinos can be their own antiparticle. Detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay could help determine why matter prevailed over antimatter. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment is adjacent to the original Davis cavern.

    The LUX Xenon dark matter detector | Sanford Underground Research Facility mission was to scour the universe for WIMPs, vetoing all other signatures. It would continue to do just that for another three years before it was decommissioned in 2016.

    In the midst of the excitement over first results, the LUX collaboration was already casting its gaze forward. Planning for a next-generation dark matter experiment at Sanford Lab was already under way. Named LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ), the next-generation experiment would increase the sensitivity of LUX 100 times.

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory physicist Tom Shutt, a previous co-spokesperson for LUX, said one goal of the experiment was to figure out how to build an even larger detector.

    “LZ will be a thousand times more sensitive than the LUX detector,” Shutt said. “It will just begin to see an irreducible background of neutrinos that may ultimately set the limit to our ability to measure dark matter.”

    We celebrate five years of LUX, and look into the steps being taken toward the much larger and far more sensitive experiment.

    Another major experiment, the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE)—a collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and Sanford Lab, is in the preliminary design stages. The project got a major boost last year when Congress approved and the president signed an Omnibus Appropriations bill that will fund LBNE operations through FY 2014. Called the “next frontier of particle physics,” LBNE will follow neutrinos as they travel 800 miles through the earth, from FermiLab in Batavia, Ill., to Sanford Lab.

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will contain 40 kg of germanium; up to 30 kg will be enriched to 86% in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will be deployed deep underground in an ultra-low-background shielded environment in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. The goal of the DEMONSTRATOR is to determine whether a future 1-tonne experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a 4-keV region of interest around the 76Ge 0νββ Q-value at 2039 keV. MAJORANA plans to collaborate with Germanium Detector Array (or GERDA) experiment is searching for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in Ge-76 at the underground Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) for a future tonne-scale 76Ge 0νββ search.

    Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR). Credit: Nick Hubbard.

    Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR). Credit: Nick Hubbard.

    CASPAR is a low-energy particle accelerator that allows researchers to study processes that take place inside collapsing stars.
    The scientists are using space in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, to work on a project called the Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR). CASPAR uses a low-energy particle accelerator that will allow researchers to mimic nuclear fusion reactions in stars. If successful, their findings could help complete our picture of how the elements in our universe are built. “Nuclear astrophysics is about what goes on inside the star, not outside of it,” said Dan Robertson, a Notre Dame assistant research professor of astrophysics working on CASPAR. “It is not observational, but experimental. The idea is to reproduce the stellar environment, to reproduce the reactions within a star.”

    SURF- the 3D DAS experiment is studying digital acoustic sensing techniques with a novel, three-dimensional seismic array. The University of Wisconsin-Madison. The Air Force Research Laboratory. Photo by Adam Gomez. The 3D DAS is led by Stanford University and includes industry partners and seven universities.

    The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, and the Universities Research Association (URA). Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor.

    Fermilab’s Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator; until the startup in 2008 of the Large Hadron Collider(CH) near Geneva, Switzerland, it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating antiprotons to energies of 500 GeV, and producing proton-proton collisions with energies of up to 1.6 TeV, the first accelerator to reach one “tera-electron-volt” energy. At 3.9 miles (6.3 km), it was the world’s fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron’s CDF and DØ detectors. It was shut down in 2011.

    __________________________________________________________
    [Earlier than the LHC at CERN, The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory had sought the Higgs with the Tevatron Accelerator.

    But the Tevatron could barely muster 2 TeV [Terraelectron volts], not enough energy to find the Higgs. CERN’s LHC is capable of 13 TeV.

    Another possible attempt in the U.S. would have been the Super Conducting Supercollider.

    Fermilab has gone on to become a world powerhouse in neutrino research with the LBNF/DUNE project which will send neutrinos 800 miles to SURF-The Sanford Underground Research Facility in in Lead, South Dakota.
    __________________________________________________

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota


    __________________________________________________

    In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment), NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) and SeaQuest. Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment). The MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE sat in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but had fine-grained tracking capabilities. The NOνA experiment uses, and the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, Minnesota, site of the NOνA far detector. In 2017, the ICARUS neutrino experiment was moved from CERN to Fermilab.
    In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia, classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. The site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors who present valid photo identification.

    Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.

    Weston, Illinois, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab.

    The laboratory was founded in 1969 as the National Accelerator Laboratory; it was renamed in honor of Enrico Fermi in 1974. The laboratory’s first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation. He is the namesake of the site’s high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and which is the center of activity on the campus.

    After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job. It was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman stepped down in 1989. The science education center at the site was named in his honor.

    The later directors include:

    John Peoples, 1989 to 1996
    Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005
    Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013
    Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the present

    Fermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); it serves as a Tier 1 site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid.

    FNAL Icon

     
  • richardmitnick 2:09 pm on August 4, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Why aren’t neutrinos adding up?", , Neutrinos, , Physicists take on the mystery of the missing (and extra) neutrinos., ,   

    From “Symmetry”: “Why aren’t neutrinos adding up?” 

    Symmetry Mag

    From “Symmetry”

    8.4.22
    Mara Johnson-Groh

    Physicists take on the mystery of the missing (and extra) neutrinos.

    Of all the known elementary particles, neutrinos probably give physicists the most headaches.

    These tiny fundamental bits of matter are the second most common particle in the universe yet are anything but ordinary. Since their discovery, they have taunted scientists with bizarre behaviors, some of which physicists have yet to comprehend.

    One source of confusion has showed up in the results from short-distance neutrino experiments, in which neutrinos are measured after traveling somewhere between a few meters and a kilometer. When scientists measure neutrinos in these experiments, the results don’t always match their predictions. Sometimes there are too many of certain types of neutrinos, while in others there are too few.

    This mismatch between experiments and predictions has opened a whole subfield in the study of neutrinos since it was first identified in the early 2000s.

    While the answer to the mystery could provide physicists with a better understanding of neutrinos, it might also reveal new insights into the fundamental workings of the universe.

    Short-baseline anomalies

    At the heart of the short-distance miscounts are so-called short-baseline neutrino experiments.

    Such experiments typically have a well-understood source or a beam of neutrinos in one location and, some distance away, a detector that can identify one or more of the three different known types of neutrinos—electron neutrino, muon neutrino, and tau neutrino. These experiments look to see if what interacts with the detector is what scientists expect, based on what they know about the neutrinos coming from the source.

    This should be straightforward, but unlike most other particles, neutrinos are shape-shifters. Instead of being one thing their whole lives, neutrinos change their type—or “flavour,” as physicists say—as they travel. Similar to how photons travel as waves but interact as particles, each neutrino travels as a probabilistic mix of the three different flavours. Only when it interacts does it settle on a single one. Physicists call this “neutrino oscillation”.

    “A neutrino particle doesn’t just have one flavour, and the chance you’ll see it as a certain flavour comes down to probability,” says Zara Bagdasarian, an assistant project scientist at the University of California-Berzerkeley. “It is essentially a quantum phenomenon.”

    Of the three different neutrinos, each has a different probability of interacting as each of the three flavours. Additionally, each has a unique mass, so it travels at its own speed. In the end, this means each flavour has a greater likelihood of showing up at some distances than others. The theoretical framework that describes neutrino oscillations tells physicists how many neutrinos of each flavour should show up at different distances.

    Over long distances, neutrinos have sufficient time to change flavours—and this is well supported by experiments that study neutrinos traveling to Earth from the sun and experiments that analyze neutrino beams sent halfway across a continent. Over short distances, neutrinos don’t have as much time to oscillate and shift to a different flavour.

    But time after time in these short-baseline experiments, including experiments at beam lines and at nuclear reactors, predictions seem to be wrong. In some experiments, too many electron neutrinos appear, while in others, too few show up. These counting mismatches are called short-baseline anomalies.

    In the two decades since the anomalies were first discovered, scientists have come up with several guesses about what might cause discrepancies. To test the merits of these ideas, they are working on several ongoing and upcoming experiments.

    “At this point there’s a plethora of guesses,” says Georgia Karagiorgi, associate professor of physics at Columbia University. “However, there’s not a clear best guess because no single model can explain all anomalies simultaneously.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 10:27 am on July 31, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Neutrino Factories in Deep Outer Space:: Elementary Particles From the Depths of Our Universe", , , , , For the first time researchers reveal the origin of neutrinos-elementary particles that reach our planet from the depths of the Universe., Neutrinos, Neutrinos are thought to be born in blazars-galactic nuclei fed by supermassive black holes., , ,   

    From The University of Geneva [Université de Genève] (CH) And The Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg [Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg (DE) via “SciTechDaily” : “Neutrino Factories in Deep Outer Space:: Elementary Particles From the Depths of Our Universe” 

    From The University of Geneva [Université de Genève] (CH)

    And

    The Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg [Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg (DE)

    Via

    “SciTechDaily”

    July 31, 2022

    1
    Beginning a Journey Across the Universe: The Discovery of Extragalactic Neutrino Factories. Credit: © Benjamin Amend.

    For the first time researchers reveal the origin of neutrinos-elementary particles that reach our planet from the depths of the Universe.

    Highly energetic and difficult to detect, neutrinos travel billions of light years before reaching Earth. Although it is known that these elementary particles come from the depths of our Universe, their precise origin is still a mystery. An international research team, led by the University of Würzburg and the University of Geneva (UNIGE), is shedding light on one aspect of this enigma: neutrinos are thought to be born in blazars-galactic nuclei fed by supermassive black holes. These results were published on July 14 in The Astrophysical Journal Letters [below].

    Our planet’s atmosphere is continuously bombarded by cosmic rays. These consist of electrically charged particles of extremely high energies — up to 10^20 electron volts. For reference, that is a million times more than the energy achieved in the world’s most powerful particle accelerator, CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva. The incredibly energetic particles come from deep outer space and have traveled billions of light years. Where do they originate, what shoots them through the Universe with such tremendous force? These questions have remained among the greatest challenges of astrophysics for over a century.

    Cosmic rays’ birthplaces produce neutrinos. These neutral particles are very difficult to detect. They have almost no mass and barely interact with matter. They race through the Universe and can travel right through galaxies, planets, and the human body almost without a trace. “Astrophysical neutrinos are produced exclusively in processes involving cosmic ray acceleration,” explains astrophysics Professor Sara Buson from Julius-Maximilians-Universität (JMU) Würzburg in Bavaria, Germany. This is precisely what makes these neutrinos unique messengers paving the way to pinpoint cosmic ray sources.

    A step forward in a controversial debate

    Despite the vast amount of data that astrophysicists have collected, the association of high-energy neutrinos with the astrophysical sources that originate them has remained an unsolved problem for years. Sara Buson has always considered it a major challenge. It was in 2017 that the researcher and collaborators first brought a blazar (TXS 0506+056) into the discussion as a potential neutrino source in the journal Science [below]. Blazars are active galactic nuclei powered by supermassive black holes that emit much more radiation than their entire galaxy. A scientific debate was sparked by the publication about whether there truly is a connection between blazars and high-energy neutrinos.

    Following this first encouraging step, in June 2021 Prof. Buson’s group began an ambitious multi-messenger research project with the support of the European Research Council. This involves analyzing various signals (“messengers,” e.g. neutrinos) from the Universe. The main goal is to shed light on the origin of astrophysical neutrinos and possibly establish blazars as the first source of extragalactic high-energy neutrinos with high certainty.

    The project is now showing its first success: In The Astrophysical Journal Letters [below], Sara Buson, along with her group, the former postdoctoral researcher Raniere de Menezes (JMU) and Andrea Tramacere from the University of Geneva, reports that blazars can be confidently associated with astrophysical neutrinos at an unprecedented degree of certainty.

    Revealing the role of blazars

    Andrea Tramacere is one of the experts in numerical modeling of acceleration processes and radiation mechanisms acting in relativistic jets — outflows of accelerated matter, approaching the speed of light — in particular blazar jets. “The accretion process and the rotation of the black hole lead to the formation of relativistic jets, where particles are accelerated and emit radiation up to energies of a thousand billion of that of visible light! The discovery of the connection between these objects and the cosmic rays may be the ‘Rosetta stone’ of high-energy astrophysics!”

    To arrive at these results, the research team utilized neutrino data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica — the most sensitive neutrino detector currently in operation — and BZCat, one of the most accurate catalogues of blazars.

    “With this data, we had to prove that the blazars whose directional positions coincided with those of the neutrinos were not there by chance.” To do this, the UNIGE researcher developed software capable of estimating how much the distributions of these objects in the sky look the same. “After rolling the dice several times, we discovered that the random association can only exceed that of the real data once in a million trials! This is strong evidence that our associations are correct.”

    Despite this success, the research team believes that this first sample of objects is only the ‘tip of the iceberg’. This work has enabled them to gather “new observational evidence”, which is the most important ingredient for building more realistic models of astrophysical accelerators. “What we need to do now is to understand what the main difference is between objects that emit neutrinos and those that do not. This will help us to understand the extent to which the environment and the accelerator ‘talk’ to each other. We will then be able to rule out some models, improve the predictive power of others and, finally, add more pieces to the eternal puzzle of cosmic ray acceleration!”

    Science papers:

    Science 2018

    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 2022

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The The University of Geneva [Université de Genève] (CH) is a public research university located in Geneva, Switzerland.

    It was founded in 1559 by John Calvin as a theological seminary and law school. It remained focused on theology until the 17th century, when it became a center for Enlightenment scholarship. In 1873, it dropped its religious affiliations and became officially secular. Today, the university is the third largest university in Switzerland by number of students. In 2009, the University of Geneva celebrated the 450th anniversary of its founding. Almost 40% of the students come from foreign countries.

    The university holds and actively pursues teaching, research, and community service as its primary objectives. In 2016, it was ranked 53rd worldwide by the Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities, 89th by the QS World University Rankings, and 131st in the TIMES Higher Education World University Ranking.

    UNIGE is a member of the League of European Research Universities (EU) (including academic institutions such as University of Amsterdam [Universiteit van Amsterdam] (NL), University of Cambridge (UK), Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg, [Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg] (DE), University of Helsinki [ Helsingin yliopisto; Helsingfors universitet] (FI) and University of Milan [Università degli Studi di Milano Statale] (IT)) the Coimbra Group (EU) and the European University Association (EU).

     
  • richardmitnick 11:53 am on July 30, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "See the Strange Underground Detector Probing Neutrino Mysteries", , , Neutrinos, , , , The LEGEND-200 detector could help explain why matter dominates the known universe.   

    From “Scientific American” : “See the Strange Underground Detector Probing Neutrino Mysteries” 

    From “Scientific American”

    July 1, 2022
    Joanna Thompson

    The LEGEND-200 detector could help explain why matter dominates the known universe.

    Sheltered underneath nearly a mile of rock in Abruzzo, Italy, scientists are hard at work unraveling the secrets of the universe’s smallest bits of matter. When a radioactive process called beta decay occurs, it typically emits two particles: a negatively charged electron and a version of a tiny, neutrally charged neutrino. The Large Enriched Germanium Experiment for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (LEGEND-200) at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory is designed to figure out whether this process can occur without resulting in a neutrino at the end. The answer could shape our understanding of how matter came to be.

    The process of “neutrinoless double beta decay,” if it does occur, happens very rarely. Noticing when decay results in electrons but not neutrinos can be difficult, especially because neutrinos are plentiful everywhere—billions pass through your body every second—and are often produced when background radiation reacts with machine components.

    That’s why scientists focus on “choosing really low-radioactivity materials to start with and then also coming up with lots of clever ways to reject background [particles],” says Drexel University particle physicist Michelle Dolinski, who is not involved in the project.

    LEGEND-200 is equipped with slightly radioactive germanium crystals, which act as both a source of beta decay and a neutrino detector. To screen out ambient particles, the entire setup is immersed in a cryogenic tank shielded by water and liquid argon. That core is surrounded with green optical fibers and a reflective film that bounces away stray particles.

    If LEGEND-200 observes neutrinoless double beta decay, it will mean that unlike protons, electrons and other elementary particles—which each have an “antiparticle” that destroys them on contact—neutrinos are their own antiparticles and can destroy one another. If this is the case, then when double beta decay occurs, two neutrinos would be produced and immediately annihilated, leaving none behind. “This is an important ingredient in trying to understand why matter dominated over antimatter in the early universe and why the universe exists as it does today,” Dolinski says.

    3
    Inside the LEGEND-200 water tank, mirror film surrounds the liquid-argon cryostat. Inside the water tank, mirror film surrounds the liquid-argon cryostat. Credit: Enrico Sacchetti.

    LEGEND collaborator Laura Baudis, who is an experimental physicist at the University of Zurich, is excited to see what this experiment uncovers when it begins collecting data later this year. “There are so many things we don’t know about neutrinos,” she says. “They’re really still full of surprises.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Scientific American, the oldest continuously published magazine in the U.S., has been bringing its readers unique insights about developments in science and technology for more than 160 years.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:39 pm on June 23, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "A star’s demise is connected to a neutrino outburst", , Ground based Neutrino Observation, , , Neutrinos, On 1 October 2019 the IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica detected a 0.2 PeV neutrino., , , , Recently the Zwicky Transient Facility observed another TDE that was coincident with a high-energy neutrino detected by IceCube., Seven hours later the Zwicky Transient Facility observed optical an emission in the direction of the incoming neutrino., , The optical emission was caused by a bright transient phenomenon known as a tidal disruption event (TDE)., The prospect of high-energy neutrinos being formed by tidal forces ripping apart a star near a supermassive black hole has garnered new support.   

    From “Physics Today” : “A star’s demise is connected to a neutrino outburst” 

    Physics Today bloc

    From “Physics Today”

    23 Jun 2022
    Alex Lopatka

    The prospect of high-energy neutrinos being formed by tidal forces ripping apart a star near a supermassive black hole has garnered new support.

    (S. Reusch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 128, 221101, 2022.)

    1
    Technicians install a camera at the Zwicky Transient Facility. Credit: Caltech/Palomar.

    On 1 October 2019 the IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica detected a 0.2 PeV neutrino.

    Seven hours later the Zwicky Transient Facility in California followed up with a wide-field survey of the sky at optical and IR wavelengths. The facility observed optical emission in the direction of the incoming neutrino.

    Researchers concluded [Nature Astronomy] that the two observations could be connected after studying the exceptional energy flux of the emission, its location within the reported uncertainty region of the high-energy neutrino, and some modeling results. The optical emission was caused by a bright transient phenomenon known as a tidal disruption event (TDE), and that particular one had first been observed one year before the neutrino. Such events occur when stars get close enough to supermassive black holes to experience spaghettification—the stretching and compression of an object into a long, thin shape due to the black hole’s extreme tidal forces. (See the article by Suvi Gezari, Physics Today, May 2014, page 37.)

    A theory paper [Nature Astronomy] proposed that neutrinos with energies above 100 TeV, like the 2019 sighting, could be produced in relativistic jets of plasma, which are composed of stellar debris that’s flung outward after such an event. TDEs and many other sources for high-energy neutrinos have been debated in the literature. But with only one reported TDE–neutrino association researchers haven’t been able to conclusively establish TDEs as high-energy neutrino sources.

    3
    Credit: S. Reusch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 128, 221101 (2022)

    Recently the Zwicky Transient Facility observed another TDE that was coincident with a high-energy neutrino detected by IceCube. Simeon Reusch, Marek Kowalski, and their colleagues estimated that the probability of a second such pairing happening by chance is 0.034%, lending more credence to TDEs as a source for high-energy neutrinos.

    The second TDE caused a long-duration optical flare which reached its peak luminosity in August 2019. The neutrino was detected by IceCube in May 2020, by which point the flare’s flux had decreased by about 30% from its peak. Such flares often last several months, though this one was still detectable as of June 2022.

    To better understand how the unusually long-lasting TDE may have produced high-energy neutrinos, the research team simulated three mechanisms. The figure shows the predicted neutrino flux as a function of energy, and the vertical dotted line indicates the energy of the neutrino observed by IceCube. Any of the three mechanisms could reasonably explain the neutrino. Besides relativistic jets, a TDE could also generate an accretion disk, and emission from its corona or a subrelativistic wind of ejected material may generate neutrinos too.

    Other uncertainties remain. The radio-emission measurements of the flare, for example, mean that it could have originated from an active galactic nucleus instead of a TDE. In addition, IceCube’s statistical analysis cannot rule out that the neutrino may have formed from atmospheric processes on Earth.

    Although it’ll take more observations to lower those uncertainties, the latest detection of a TDE–neutrino pairing reinforces the significance of TDEs as neutrino sources. And if the association is true, TDEs would have to be surprisingly efficient particle accelerators, a possibility that could only be further studied with more comprehensive multimessenger data.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    “Our mission

    The mission of ”Physics Today” is to be a unifying influence for the diverse areas of physics and the physics-related sciences.

    It does that in three ways:

    • by providing authoritative, engaging coverage of physical science research and its applications without regard to disciplinary boundaries;
    • by providing authoritative, engaging coverage of the often complex interactions of the physical sciences with each other and with other spheres of human endeavor; and
    • by providing a forum for the exchange of ideas within the scientific community.”

     
  • richardmitnick 12:24 pm on June 8, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Hey neutrino. What’s the antimatter?", Antimatter is far less abundant in the universe than “regular” matter., Antiparticles can be thought of as “opposites” or partners to the fundamental particles that make regular everyday matter., , Matter and antimatter can also annihilate each other if they come in contact., , Neutrinoless double beta decay has never been observed., Neutrinos, New theoretical research from FRIB could help answer looming questions about the ghost-like neutrino particle including its mass and whether it is its own antiparticle., , The detection experiment itself will likely require a large international project that’s buried deep underground to shield it from unwanted background effects., The team refined calculations for a theoretical way that certain atoms can decay.   

    From Michigan State University: “Hey neutrino. What’s the antimatter?” 

    Michigan State Bloc

    From Michigan State University

    June 2, 2022

    New theoretical research from FRIB [below] could help answer looming questions about the ghost-like neutrino particle, including its mass and whether it is its own antiparticle.

    1
    New theoretical research from FRIB could help answer looming questions about the ghost-like neutrino particle, including its mass and whether it is its own antiparticle. (Credit: Facility for Rare Isotope Beams)

    Heiko Hergert grew up on a dairy farm in Germany discussing history with his father while they worked. Back then, he never guessed he’d be one day helping solve mysteries of the universe at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, or FRIB, at Michigan State University.

    “I had good grades in high school and people told me, ‘Maybe you should go to college,’” said Hergert, who is an associate professor of physics at FRIB and in MSU’s Department of Physics and Astronomy.

    Enrolling in college would be his first step toward becoming the first member of his family to pursue a career in academia — which the FRIB and MSU faculty member said he couldn’t have done without support from relatives, friends and teachers. But he didn’t know it would launch his career trajectory at the time. And there was still the small matter of picking which subject to study.

    Hergert shared his father’s love of history, but he also liked math and science and thought he’d find better career options if he pursued that path. Along the way, he was drawn to using math to answer some of the most fundamental questions in physics.

    “I recognized that I was good at math and theoretical physics. And I was enjoying it,” said Hergert, who became the first in his family to earn a doctorate. “It becomes self-reinforcing. You realize, ‘I can actually make a contribution.’ Then you want to keep making them.”

    Hergert published his latest contribution on Dec. 10, 2021, in the journal Physical Review Letters, working with Roland Wirth and Jiangming Yao, who were postdoctoral researchers at FRIB.

    The team refined calculations for a theoretical way that certain atoms can decay, or fall apart, and the results suggest that scientists have a better likelihood of observing this decay than previously thought.

    “To compute specific parameters for this supposed rare decay, we need to have consistent ingredients in our theory,” Hergert said. “Our work is a more consistent calculation, and this added consistency leads to an increased probability in detecting the decay.”

    That is, if this process does actually happen in nature.

    This so-called neutrinoless double beta decay has never been observed. But scientists are already designing experiments to detect it because, if it does occur, it could reveal intimate information about one of the most ubiquitous and mysterious particles known to science: the neutrino.

    Neutrinos are the second most common particle in the universe, behind only photons, which are particles of light. But, unlike light, neutrinos don’t glow, reflect from mirrors or interact very much with anything at all, which is why some people refer to them as ghost particles.

    In fact, about 100 trillion neutrinos zip through our bodies undetected every second. And if our bodies could actually detect neutrinos, it would take 100 years to sense one.

    Despite this wispy existence, neutrinos are an integral part of the Standard Model of particle physics.

    This can be thought of as humanity’s best effort to explain some of the most fundamental physics in the universe.

    Yet, even with the Standard Model, large questions linger about the nature of neutrinos, like how massive they are. There’s also a possibility that neutrinos are their own antiparticles, which is the name given to the fundamental particles that make up antimatter.

    Antimatter is far less abundant in the universe than “regular” matter — the stuff that makes up the things we see and touch every day. Matter and antimatter can also annihilate each other if they come in contact (why, yes, that is the technical term).

    Antiparticles can be thought of as “opposites” or partners to the fundamental particles that make regular everyday matter. For example, the negatively charged electrons found in regular matter have positively charged antiparticles called positrons. Neutrinos are uncharged, but they have other properties that would be inverted in an antineutrino. Or not, if the Standard Model is missing something and a neutrino is its own antiparticle.

    Detecting neutrinoless double beta decay would provide scientists with a new approach to solve mysteries about the neutrino’s mass, its antiparticle’s identity and more.

    “The actual detection wouldn’t happen at FRIB, but scientists at FRIB are strongly involved in the effort to measure and accurately model the nuclear structure of the likely detection materials,” Hergert said.

    The detection experiment itself will likely require a large, likely international project that’s buried deep underground to shield it from unwanted background effects. That may sound a little farfetched to those outside the fields of nuclear or particle physics, but precedents do exist. Take, for instance, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, a collaboration of more than 40 institutions from 12 countries, including MSU, from 12 countries that’s using a cubic kilometer of Antarctica’s ice to help detect and study neutrinos.

    Researchers have also already built demonstration-scale versions of the detector needed to sniff out the neutrinoless double beta decay, Hergert said, but it may take a decade or two to build the full-size detector and collect the necessary data.

    In the meantime, there are still contributions for Hergert and his colleagues to make, further reinforcing his choice to take on some of the biggest questions in physics.

    “Nuclei are ripe with opportunities to test our fundamental understanding of nature, and now that FRIB is launching, we will have a powerful tool at our disposal that can help us find answers to these questions,” he said. “It’s an extremely exciting time.”

    Michigan State University (MSU) operates the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) as a user facility for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC), supporting the mission of the DOE-SC Office of Nuclear Physics. The establishment of FRIB was funded by DOE-SC, MSU, and the state of Michigan, and user facility operation is supported by the DOE-SC Office of Nuclear Physics.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Michigan State Campus

    Michigan State University is a public research university located in East Lansing, Michigan, United States. Michigan State University was founded in 1855 and became the nation’s first land-grant institution under the Morrill Act of 1862, serving as a model for future land-grant universities.

    The university was founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, one of the country’s first institutions of higher education to teach scientific agriculture. After the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, Michigan State University is one of the largest universities in the United States (in terms of enrollment) and has approximately 634,300 living alumni worldwide.

    U.S. News & World Report ranks its graduate programs the best in the U.S. in elementary teacher’s education, secondary teacher’s education, industrial and organizational psychology, rehabilitation counseling, African history (tied), supply chain logistics and nuclear physics in 2019. Michigan State University pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and communication sciences. Michigan State University is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. The university’s campus houses the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, the Abrams Planetarium, the Wharton Center for Performing Arts, the Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, the the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, and the country’s largest residence hall system.

    Research

    The university has a long history of academic research and innovation. In 1877, botany professor William J. Beal performed the first documented genetic crosses to produce hybrid corn, which led to increased yields. Michigan State University dairy professor G. Malcolm Trout improved the process for the homogenization of milk in the 1930s, making it more commercially viable. In the 1960s, Michigan State University scientists developed cisplatin, a leading cancer fighting drug, and followed that work with the derivative, carboplatin. Albert Fert, an Adjunct professor at Michigan State University, was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Peter Grünberg.

    Today Michigan State University continues its research with facilities such as the Department of Energy -sponsored Plant Research Laboratory and a particle accelerator called the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory [below]. The Department of Energy Office of Science named Michigan State University as the site for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The $730 million facility will attract top researchers from around the world to conduct experiments in basic nuclear science, astrophysics, and applications of isotopes to other fields.

    Michigan State University FRIB [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams] .

    In 2004, scientists at the Cyclotron produced and observed a new isotope of the element germanium, called Ge-60 In that same year, Michigan State University, in consortium with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the government of Brazil, broke ground on the 4.1-meter Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) in the Andes Mountains of Chile.


    The consortium telescope will allow the Physics & Astronomy department to study galaxy formation and origins. Since 1999, MSU has been part of a consortium called the Michigan Life Sciences Corridor, which aims to develop biotechnology research in the State of Michigan. Finally, the College of Communication Arts and Sciences’ Quello Center researches issues of information and communication management.


    The Michigan State University Spartans compete in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference. Michigan State Spartans football won the Rose Bowl Game in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014, and the university claims a total of six national football championships. Spartans men’s basketball won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and has attained the Final Four eight times since the 1998–1999 season. Spartans ice hockey won NCAA national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007. The women’s cross country team was named Big Ten champions in 2019. In the fall of 2019, MSU student-athletes posted all-time highs for graduation success rates and federal graduation rates, according to NCAA statistics.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:03 am on June 7, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Neutrinos from a Black Hole Snack", An event named AT2019fdr from November 2019., , , , , , Neutrinos,   

    From “Physics News” : “Neutrinos from a Black Hole Snack” 

    About Physics

    From “Physics News”

    June 3, 2022
    Mark Buchanan

    Researchers have found new evidence that high-energy neutrinos are emitted when a black hole gobbles up a hapless star.

    1

    Doomed star. When a star is torn apart by a black hole—as shown in this artist’s representation—high-energy neutrinos can be produced. An observatory at the South Pole has detected a neutrino that appears to have come from one of these events.
    Credit: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss.

    Neutrinos of extremely high energy routinely strike Earth. Physicists suspect these particles are created in cosmic processes involving black holes, but exactly which process dominates this production remains uncertain. Now astronomers report the detection of a high-energy neutrino linked directly to a tidal disruption event (TDE)—the violent shredding of a star by the intense gravity of a nearby black hole [1]. This observation is the second strong association of a high-energy neutrino with such a star-devouring event, allowing researchers to make a crude initial estimate of how many neutrinos are produced through this mechanism.

    High-energy neutrinos—roughly those in the TeV energy range and above—give physicists information on some of the most violent astrophysical events in the Universe, many occurring well outside our Galaxy. Because neutrinos interact with matter so weakly, they travel unaltered over immense distances from their original production sites. Theoretical models—backed by observations—have linked them to a wide variety of potential sources, including active galactic nuclei, which are supermassive black holes that produce beams of energetic particles as they devour surrounding gas. TDEs offer another possibility, as copious neutrinos should be generated if a black hole tears apart a nearby orbiting star (see Research News: “Revolution” for Alternative Black Hole Probe). Most generation scenarios involve large black holes.

    Currently, however, researchers remain unable to estimate the relative importance of these distinct processes. For example, active galactic nuclei are far more common than TDEs, but the latter could emit a very high percentage of their energy as neutrinos. As a result, “We don’t really know where the majority of high-energy cosmic neutrinos come from,” says physicist Marek Kowalski of Humboldt University in Germany. Knowing the neutrino origins would help researchers understand the extreme astrophysical events that generate some of the most energetic cosmic rays in the Universe.

    Last year, Kowalski and his colleagues reported the first coincidence detection of a neutrino and a TDE [2]. The neutrino was spotted by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory—an array of detectors buried deep within the ice near the South Pole.

    _____________________________________________________
    U Wisconsin IceCube neutrino observatory

    U Wisconsin IceCube Neutrino Observatory neutrino detector at the at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica South Pole, elevation of 2,835 metres (9,301 feet).
    IceCube employs more than 5000 detectors lowered on 86 strings into almost 100 holes in the Antarctic ice NSF B. Gudbjartsson, IceCube Collaboration.

    Lunar Icecube

    IceCube Gen-2 DeepCore PINGU annotated

    IceCube neutrino detector interior.

    IceCube DeepCore annotated.

    IceCube Gen-2 DeepCore PINGU annotated

    DM-Ice II at IceCube annotated.


    _____________________________________________________

    The researchers found that the neutrino’s location in the sky corresponded to a long-lived burst of radiation that exhibited TDE signatures in archived astronomical data.


    DESY, Science Communication Lab.
    The animation depicts a tidal disruption event of the kind believed to have produced a recently detected high-energy neutrino. The event begins when a star orbits too close to a supermassive black hole, causing it to stretch out into long noodle-like strands, in a process called “spaghettification.” The star’s torn-up remnants spiral into the black hole, driving reactions that create high-energy neutrinos and other particles.

    Adding to this earlier finding, Kowalski and colleagues now report finding a second TDE closely linked to a different neutrino, which was detected on 30 May 2020 by IceCube. The researchers discovered the association by using computers to sort through a database of astronomical observations collected by the Zwicky Transient Facility, California, which uses a wide-view, optical camera to scan the entire Northern Sky every two days.

    In their search, the team discovered an event named AT2019fdr from November 2019, which was closely associated with the most likely direction of the high-energy neutrino. Exploiting data from other telescopes, they also identified specific radiative signatures expected for a TDE.

    This association is strong evidence, the researchers argue, that this neutrino was created during a years-long radiative flare released by the black-hole–star interaction. Based on a preliminary statistical analysis, they estimate that there is only a 0.034% probability that the neutrino’s direction just happened by chance to match that of the TDE. But they say that further work on localizing the neutrino direction could change this estimate.

    “This is certainly a major result,” says astrophysicist Nicholas Stone of the Racah Institute of Physics in Israel. He says that the first observed association gave credence to TDEs being sources for high-energy neutrinos, but it was hard to be confident with just one event. “With a second neutrino-TDE association, we are now on much firmer footing.”

    This second detection does more than just bolster confidence in the earlier detection, says team member Simeon Reusch, a Ph.D. student of Kowalski’s. It also makes possible a crude estimate of the TDE contribution to high-energy neutrino production. Comparing these two observations with the full catalog of cosmic neutrinos detected by the IceCube observatory, the researchers conclude that at least 7.8% of high-energy neutrinos must be coming from TDEs. “Because tidal disruption events are so rare, our findings indicate that they are probably extremely efficient neutrino factories,” Kowalski says.

    References

    S. Reusch et al., “Candidate tidal disruption event AT2019fdr coincident with a high-energy neutrino,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 128, 221101 (2022).
    R. Stein et al., “A tidal disruption event coincident with a high-energy neutrino,” Nat. Astron. 5, 510 (2021).

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Physicists are drowning in a flood of research papers in their own fields and coping with an even larger deluge in other areas of physics. How can an active researcher stay informed about the most important developments in physics? Physics News highlights a selection of papers from the Physical Review journals. In consultation with expert scientists, the editors choose these papers for their importance and/or intrinsic interest. To highlight these papers, Physics News features three kinds of articles: Viewpoints are commentaries written by active researchers, who are asked to explain the results to physicists in other subfields. Focus stories are written by professional science writers in a journalistic style and are intended to be accessible to students and non-experts. Synopses are brief editor-written summaries. Physics News provides a much-needed guide to the best in physics, and we welcome your comments.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:45 pm on May 31, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Physicists Announce First Results from Daya Bay’s Final Dataset", , , Data collection ended in December 2020., Daya Bay physicists made the world’s first conclusive measurement of theta13 in 2012 and subsequently improved upon the measurement's precision as the experiment continued taking data., , Neutrinos, Only one of the three mixing angles remained unknown at the time Daya Bay was designed in 2007: theta13., Physicists calculated how many antineutrinos changed flavors and consequently the value of theta13., Physicists expect there might be some difference between neutrinos and antineutrinos., Physicists have now measured the value of theta13 with a precision two and a half times greater than the experiment’s design goal., Physicists may gain insight into the imbalance of matter and antimatter in the universe., , , The eight detectors at Daya Bay pick up light signals generated by antineutrinos streaming from nearby nuclear power plants., theta13 measurement, To determine the value of theta13 Daya Bay scientists detected neutrinos of a specific flavor—in this case electron antineutrinos.   

    From The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory: “Physicists Announce First Results from Daya Bay’s Final Dataset” 

    From The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory

    May 31, 2022
    Stephanie Kossman
    skossman@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-8671

    Peter Genzer
    genzer@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-3174

    1
    Bird’s-eye view of the underground Daya Bay far detector hall during installation. The four antineutrino detectors are immersed in a large pool filled with ultra-pure water. (Credit: Roy Kaltschmidt, Berkeley Lab)

    Over nearly nine years, the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment captured an unprecedented five and a half million interactions from subatomic particles called neutrinos. Now, the international team of physicists of the Daya Bay collaboration has reported the first result from the experiment’s full dataset—the most precise measurement yet of theta13, a key parameter for understanding how neutrinos change their “flavor.”

    The result, announced today at the Neutrino 2022 conference in Seoul, South Korea, will help physicists explore some of the biggest mysteries surrounding the nature of matter and the universe.

    Neutrinos are subatomic particles that are both famously elusive and tremendously abundant. They endlessly bombard every inch of Earth’s surface at nearly the speed of light, but rarely interact with matter. They can travel through a lightyear’s worth of lead without ever disturbing a single atom.

    One of the defining characteristics of these ghost-like particles is their ability to oscillate between three distinct “flavors”: muon neutrino, tau neutrino, and electron neutrino. The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment was designed to investigate the properties that dictate the probability of those oscillations, or what are known as mixing angles and mass splittings.

    Only one of the three mixing angles remained unknown at the time Daya Bay was designed in 2007: theta13. So, Daya Bay was built to measure theta13* with higher sensitivity than any other experiment.

    Operating in Guangdong, China, the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment [above] consists of large, cylindrical particle detectors immersed in pools of water in three underground caverns. The eight detectors pick up light signals generated by antineutrinos streaming from nearby nuclear power plants. Antineutrinos are the antiparticles of neutrinos, and they are produced in abundance by nuclear reactors. Daya Bay was built through an international effort and a first-of-its-kind partnership for a major physics project between China and the United States. The Beijing-based Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences leads China’s role in the collaboration, while the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory co-lead U.S. participation.

    2
    Sensitive photomultiplier tubes lining the Daya Bay detector walls are designed to amplify and record the faint flashes that signify an antineutrino interaction. (Credit: Roy Kaltschmidt, Berkeley Lab)

    To determine the value of theta13 Daya Bay scientists detected neutrinos of a specific flavor—in this case electron antineutrinos—in each of the underground caverns. Two caverns are near the nuclear reactors and the third cavern is farther away, providing ample distance for the antineutrinos to oscillate. By comparing the number of electron antineutrinos picked up by the near and far detectors, physicists calculated how many changed flavors and, consequently, the value of theta13.

    Daya Bay physicists made the world’s first conclusive measurement of theta13 in 2012 and subsequently improved upon the measurement’s precision as the experiment continued taking data. Now, after nine years of operation and the end of data collection in December 2020, excellent detector performance, and dedicated data analysis, Daya Bay has far exceeded expectations. Working with the complete dataset, physicists have now measured the value of theta13 with a precision two and a half times greater than the experiment’s design goal. No other existing or planned experiment is expected to reach such an exquisite level of precision.

    “We had multiple analysis teams that painstakingly scrutinized the entire dataset, carefully taking into account the evolution of detector performance over the nine years of operation,” said Daya Bay co-spokesperson Jun Cao of IHEP. “The teams took advantage of the large dataset not only to refine the selection of antineutrino events but also to improve the determination of backgrounds. This dedicated effort allowed us to reach an unrivaled level of precision.”

    The precision measurement of theta13 will enable physicists to more easily measure other parameters in neutrino physics, as well as develop more accurate models of subatomic particles and how they interact.

    By investigating the properties and interactions of antineutrinos, physicists may gain insight into the imbalance of matter and antimatter in the universe. Physicists believe that matter and antimatter were created in equal amounts at the time of the Big Bang. But if that were the case, these two opposites should have annihilated, leaving behind only light. Some difference between the two must have tipped the balance to explain the preponderance of matter (and lack of antimatter) in the universe today.

    “We expect there might be some difference between neutrinos and antineutrinos,” said Berkeley physicist and Daya Bay co-spokesperson Kam-Biu Luk. “We’ve never detected differences between particles and antiparticles for leptons, the type of particles that includes neutrinos. We’ve only detected differences between particles and antiparticles for quarks. But the differences we see with the quarks aren’t enough to explain why there’s more matter than antimatter in the universe. It’s possible that neutrinos might be the smoking gun.”

    3
    The Daya Bay experiment measures the antineutrinos produced by the reactors of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant and the Ling Ao Nuclear Power Plant in mainland China. The photo shows a panoramic view of the Daya Bay reactor complex. (Credit: Roy Kaltschmidt, Berkeley Lab)

    The latest analysis of Daya Bay’s final dataset also provided physicists with a precise measurement of the mass splitting. This property dictates the frequency of neutrino oscillations.

    “The measurement of mass splitting was not one of Daya Bay’s original design goals, but it became accessible thanks to the relatively large value of theta13,” Luk said. “We measured the mass splitting to 2.3% with the final Daya Bay dataset, an improvement over the 2.8% precision of the previous Daya Bay measurement.”

    Moving forward, the international Daya Bay collaboration expects to report additional findings from the final dataset, including updates to previous measurements.

    Next-generation neutrino experiments, such as the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), will leverage the Daya Bay results to precisely measure and compare properties of neutrinos and antineutrinos.

    Currently under construction, DUNE will provide physicists with the world’s most intense neutrino beam, underground detectors separated by 800 miles, and the opportunity to study the behavior of neutrinos like never before.

    “As one of many physics goals, DUNE expects to eventually measure theta13 almost as precisely as Daya Bay,” said Brookhaven experimental physicist and Daya Bay collaborator Elizabeth Worcester. “This is exciting because we will then have precise theta13 measurements from different oscillation channels, which will rigorously test the three-neutrino model. Until DUNE reaches that high precision, we can use Daya Bay’s precise theta13 measurement as a constraint to enable the search for differences between neutrino and antineutrino properties.”

    Scientists will also leverage the large theta13 value and reactor neutrinos to determine which of the three neutrinos is the lightest. “The precise theta13 measurement of Daya Bay improves the mass-ordering sensitivity of the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), which will complete construction in China next year,” said Yifang Wang, JUNO spokesperson and IHEP director. “Furthermore, JUNO will achieve sub-percent level precision on the mass splitting measured by Daya Bay in several years.”

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino experiment is supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China, the DOE Office of Science High Energy Physics program, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and other funding agencies. The Daya Bay collaboration has 237 participants at 42 institutions in Asia, Europe, and North America.

    *Physicists measure theta13 in terms of its oscillation amplitude, or what is mathematically written as sin22q13.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Brookhaven Campus

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the The DOE Office of Science, The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

    Research at BNL specializes in nuclear and high energy physics, energy science and technology, environmental and bioscience, nanoscience and national security. The 5,300 acre campus contains several large research facilities, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider [below] and National Synchrotron Light Source II [below]. Seven Nobel prizes have been awarded for work conducted at Brookhaven lab.

    BNL is staffed by approximately 2,750 scientists, engineers, technicians, and support personnel, and hosts 4,000 guest investigators every year. The laboratory has its own police station, fire department, and ZIP code (11973). In total, the lab spans a 5,265-acre (21 km^2) area that is mostly coterminous with the hamlet of Upton, New York. BNL is served by a rail spur operated as-needed by the New York and Atlantic Railway. Co-located with the laboratory is the Upton, New York, forecast office of the National Weather Service.

    Major programs

    Although originally conceived as a nuclear research facility, Brookhaven Lab’s mission has greatly expanded. Its foci are now:

    Nuclear and high-energy physics
    Physics and chemistry of materials
    Environmental and climate research
    Nanomaterials
    Energy research
    Nonproliferation
    Structural biology
    Accelerator physics

    Operation

    Brookhaven National Lab was originally owned by the Atomic Energy Commission(US) and is now owned by that agency’s successor, the United States Department of Energy (DOE). DOE subcontracts the research and operation to universities and research organizations. It is currently operated by Brookhaven Science Associates LLC, which is an equal partnership of Stony Brook University and Battelle Memorial Institute. From 1947 to 1998, it was operated by Associated Universities, Inc.(AUI), but AUI lost its contract in the wake of two incidents: a 1994 fire at the facility’s high-beam flux reactor that exposed several workers to radiation and reports in 1997 of a tritium leak into the groundwater of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens on which the facility sits.

    Foundations

    Following World War II, the US Atomic Energy Commission was created to support government-sponsored peacetime research on atomic energy. The effort to build a nuclear reactor in the American northeast was fostered largely by physicists Isidor Isaac Rabi and Norman Foster Ramsey Jr., who during the war witnessed many of their colleagues at Columbia University leave for new remote research sites following the departure of the Manhattan Project from its campus. Their effort to house this reactor near New York City was rivalled by a similar effort at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to have a facility near Boston, Massachusetts. Involvement was quickly solicited from representatives of northeastern universities to the south and west of New York City such that this city would be at their geographic center. In March 1946 a nonprofit corporation was established that consisted of representatives from nine major research universities — Columbia University, Cornell University, Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University, University of Pennsylvania, University of Rochester, and Yale University.

    Out of 17 considered sites in the Boston-Washington corridor, Camp Upton on Long Island was eventually chosen as the most suitable in consideration of space, transportation, and availability. The camp had been a training center from the US Army during both World War I and World War II. After the latter war, Camp Upton was deemed no longer necessary and became available for reuse. A plan was conceived to convert the military camp into a research facility.

    On March 21, 1947, the Camp Upton site was officially transferred from the U.S. War Department to the new U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

    Research and facilities

    Reactor history

    In 1947 construction began on the first nuclear reactor at Brookhaven, the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor. This reactor, which opened in 1950, was the first reactor to be constructed in the United States after World War II. The High Flux Beam Reactor operated from 1965 to 1999. In 1959 Brookhaven built the first US reactor specifically tailored to medical research, the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, which operated until 2000.

    Accelerator history

    In 1952 Brookhaven began using its first particle accelerator, the Cosmotron. At the time the Cosmotron was the world’s highest energy accelerator, being the first to impart more than 1 GeV of energy to a particle.

    BNL Cosmotron 1952-1966.

    The Cosmotron was retired in 1966, after it was superseded in 1960 by the new Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    The AGS was used in research that resulted in 3 Nobel prizes, including the discovery of the muon neutrino, the charm quark, and CP violation.

    In 1970 in BNL started the ISABELLE project to develop and build two proton intersecting storage rings.

    The groundbreaking for the project was in October 1978. In 1981, with the tunnel for the accelerator already excavated, problems with the superconducting magnets needed for the ISABELLE accelerator brought the project to a halt, and the project was eventually cancelled in 1983.

    The National Synchrotron Light Source operated from 1982 to 2014 and was involved with two Nobel Prize-winning discoveries. It has since been replaced by the National Synchrotron Light Source II. [below].

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source.

    After ISABELLE’S cancellation, physicist at BNL proposed that the excavated tunnel and parts of the magnet assembly be used in another accelerator. In 1984 the first proposal for the accelerator now known as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)[below] was put forward. The construction got funded in 1991 and RHIC has been operational since 2000. One of the world’s only two operating heavy-ion colliders, RHIC is as of 2010 the second-highest-energy collider after the Large Hadron Collider(CH). RHIC is housed in a tunnel 2.4 miles (3.9 km) long and is visible from space.

    On January 9, 2020, It was announced by Paul Dabbar, undersecretary of the US Department of Energy Office of Science, that the BNL eRHIC design has been selected over the conceptual design put forward by DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility [Jlab] (US) as the future Electron–ion collider (EIC) in the United States.

    Brookhaven Lab Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) to be built inside the tunnel that currently houses the RHIC.

    In addition to the site selection, it was announced that the BNL EIC had acquired CD-0 from the Department of Energy. BNL’s eRHIC design proposes upgrading the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, which collides beams light to heavy ions including polarized protons, with a polarized electron facility, to be housed in the same tunnel.

    Other discoveries

    In 1958, Brookhaven scientists created one of the world’s first video games, Tennis for Two. In 1968 Brookhaven scientists patented Maglev, a transportation technology that utilizes magnetic levitation.

    Major facilities

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which was designed to research quark–gluon plasma and the sources of proton spin. Until 2009 it was the world’s most powerful heavy ion collider. It is the only collider of spin-polarized protons.

    Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), used for the study of nanoscale materials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven’s newest user facility, opened in 2015 to replace the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which had operated for 30 years. NSLS was involved in the work that won the 2003 and 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

    Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, a particle accelerator that was used in three of the lab’s Nobel prizes.
    Accelerator Test Facility, generates, accelerates and monitors particle beams.
    Tandem Van de Graaff, once the world’s largest electrostatic accelerator.

    Computational Science resources, including access to a massively parallel Blue Gene series supercomputer that is among the fastest in the world for scientific research, run jointly by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University-SUNY.

    Interdisciplinary Science Building, with unique laboratories for studying high-temperature superconductors and other materials important for addressing energy challenges.
    NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, where scientists use beams of ions to simulate cosmic rays and assess the risks of space radiation to human space travelers and equipment.

    Off-site contributions

    It is a contributing partner to the ATLAS experiment, one of the four detectors located at the The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] Large Hadron Collider(LHC).

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] map.

    Iconic view of the European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear] [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] ATLAS detector.

    It is currently operating at The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] near Geneva, Switzerland.

    Brookhaven was also responsible for the design of the Spallation Neutron Source at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee.

    DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source annotated.

    Brookhaven plays a role in a range of neutrino research projects around the world, including the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China.

    Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China .


    BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II.

    BNL NSLS II.

    BNL Relative Heavy Ion Collider Campus.

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector.

    BNL/RHIC Phenix detector.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:45 am on April 12, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Breakthrough MicroBooNE Measurement Elucidates Neutrino Interactions", , DUNE/LBNF Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, Neutrinos, , ,   

    From The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory: “Breakthrough MicroBooNE Measurement Elucidates Neutrino Interactions” 

    From The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory

    April 12, 2022
    Stephanie Kossman
    skossman@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-8671

    Peter Genzer
    genzer@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-3174

    For the first time, physicists extracted the detailed “energy-dependent neutrino-argon interaction cross section,” a key value for studying how neutrinos change their flavor.

    1
    A close-up view of a muon neutrino argon interaction within an event display at MicroBooNE, one out of 11,528 events used to extract energy-dependent muon neutrino argon interaction cross sections.

    Physicists studying ghost-like particles called neutrinos from the international MicroBooNE collaboration have reported a first-of-its-kind measurement: a comprehensive set of the energy-dependent neutrino-argon interaction cross sections. This measurement marks an important step towards achieving the scientific goals of next-generation of neutrino experiments—namely, the DUNE/LBNF Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment.

    Neutrinos are tiny subatomic particles that are both famously elusive and tremendously abundant. While they endlessly bombard every inch of Earth’s surface at nearly the speed of light, neutrinos can travel through a lightyear’s worth of lead without ever disturbing a single atom. Understanding these mysterious particles could unlock some of the biggest secrets of the universe.

    The MicroBooNE experiment, located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, has been collecting data on neutrinos since 2015, partially as a testbed for DUNE, which is currently under construction. To identify elusive neutrinos, both experiments use a low-noise liquid-argon time projection chamber (LArTPC)—a sophisticated detector that captures neutrino signals as the particles pass through frigid liquid argon kept at -303 degrees Fahrenheit. MicroBooNE physicists have been refining LArTPC techniques for large-scale detectors at DUNE.

    Now, a team effort led by scientists at DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory, in collaboration with researchers from Yale University and The Louisiana State University, has further refined those techniques by measuring the neutrino-argon cross section. Their work published today in Physical Review Letters.

    “The neutrino-argon cross section represents how argon nuclei respond to an incident neutrino, such as those in the neutrino beam produced by MicroBooNE or DUNE,” said Brookhaven Lab physicist Xin Qian, leader of Brookhaven’s MicroBooNE physics group. “Our ultimate goal is to study the properties of neutrinos, but first we need to better understand how neutrinos interact with the material in a detector, such as argon atoms.”

    One of the most important neutrino properties that DUNE will investigate is how the particles oscillate between three distinct “flavors”: muon neutrino, tau neutrino, and electron neutrino.

    Scientists know that these oscillations depend on neutrinos’ energy, among other parameters, but that energy is very challenging to estimate. Not only are neutrino interactions extremely complex in nature, but there is also a large energy spread within every neutrino beam. Determining the detailed energy-dependent cross sections provides physicists with an essential piece of information to study neutrino oscillations.

    “Once we know the cross section, we can reverse the calculation to determine the average neutrino energy, flavor, and oscillation properties from a large number of interactions,” said Brookhaven Lab postdoc Wenqiang Gu, who led the physics analysis.

    To accomplish this, the team developed a new technique to extract the detailed energy-dependent cross section.

    “Previous techniques measured the cross section as a function of variables that are easily reconstructed,” said London Cooper-Troendle, a graduate student from Yale University who is stationed at Brookhaven Lab through DOE’s Graduate Student Research Program. “For example, if you are studying a muon neutrino, you generally see a charged muon coming out of the particle interaction, and this charged muon has well-defined properties like its angle and energy. So, one can measure the cross section as a function of the muon angle or energy. But without a model that can accurately account for “missing energy,” a term we use to describe additional energy in the neutrino interactions that can’t be attributed to the reconstructed variables, this technique would require experiments to act conservatively.”

    The research team led by Brookhaven sought to validate the neutrino energy reconstruction process with unprecedented precision, improving theoretical modeling of neutrino interactions as needed for DUNE. To do so, the team applied their expertise and lessons learned from previous work on the MicroBooNE experiment, such as their efforts in reconstructing interactions with different neutrino flavors.

    “We added a new constraint to significantly improve the mathematical modeling of neutrino energy reconstruction,” said Louisiana State University assistant professor Hanyu Wei, previously a Goldhaber fellow at Brookhaven.

    The team validated this newly constrained model against experimental data to produce the first detailed energy-dependent neutrino-argon cross section measurement.

    “The neutrino-argon cross section results from this analysis are able to distinguish between different theoretical models for the first time,” Gu said.

    While physicists expect DUNE to produce enhanced measurements of the cross section, the methods developed by the MicroBooNE collaboration provide a foundation for future analyses. The current cross section measurement is already set to guide additional developments on theoretical models.

    In the meantime, the MicroBooNE team will focus on further enhancing its measurement of the cross section. The current measurement was done in one dimension, but future research will tackle the value in multiple dimensions—that is, as a function of multiple variables —and explore more avenues of underlying physics.

    This work was supported by the DOE Office of Science.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Brookhaven Campus

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the The DOE Office of Science, The DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

    Research at BNL specializes in nuclear and high energy physics, energy science and technology, environmental and bioscience, nanoscience and national security. The 5,300 acre campus contains several large research facilities, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider [below] and National Synchrotron Light Source II [below]. Seven Nobel prizes have been awarded for work conducted at Brookhaven lab.

    BNL is staffed by approximately 2,750 scientists, engineers, technicians, and support personnel, and hosts 4,000 guest investigators every year. The laboratory has its own police station, fire department, and ZIP code (11973). In total, the lab spans a 5,265-acre (21 km^2) area that is mostly coterminous with the hamlet of Upton, New York. BNL is served by a rail spur operated as-needed by the New York and Atlantic Railway. Co-located with the laboratory is the Upton, New York, forecast office of the National Weather Service.

    Major programs

    Although originally conceived as a nuclear research facility, Brookhaven Lab’s mission has greatly expanded. Its foci are now:

    Nuclear and high-energy physics
    Physics and chemistry of materials
    Environmental and climate research
    Nanomaterials
    Energy research
    Nonproliferation
    Structural biology
    Accelerator physics

    Operation

    Brookhaven National Lab was originally owned by the Atomic Energy Commission(US) and is now owned by that agency’s successor, the United States Department of Energy (DOE). DOE subcontracts the research and operation to universities and research organizations. It is currently operated by Brookhaven Science Associates LLC, which is an equal partnership of Stony Brook University and Battelle Memorial Institute. From 1947 to 1998, it was operated by Associated Universities, Inc.(AUI), but AUI lost its contract in the wake of two incidents: a 1994 fire at the facility’s high-beam flux reactor that exposed several workers to radiation and reports in 1997 of a tritium leak into the groundwater of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens on which the facility sits.

    Foundations

    Following World War II, the US Atomic Energy Commission was created to support government-sponsored peacetime research on atomic energy. The effort to build a nuclear reactor in the American northeast was fostered largely by physicists Isidor Isaac Rabi and Norman Foster Ramsey Jr., who during the war witnessed many of their colleagues at Columbia University leave for new remote research sites following the departure of the Manhattan Project from its campus. Their effort to house this reactor near New York City was rivalled by a similar effort at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to have a facility near Boston, Massachusetts. Involvement was quickly solicited from representatives of northeastern universities to the south and west of New York City such that this city would be at their geographic center. In March 1946 a nonprofit corporation was established that consisted of representatives from nine major research universities — Columbia University, Cornell University, Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University, University of Pennsylvania, University of Rochester, and Yale University.

    Out of 17 considered sites in the Boston-Washington corridor, Camp Upton on Long Island was eventually chosen as the most suitable in consideration of space, transportation, and availability. The camp had been a training center from the US Army during both World War I and World War II. After the latter war, Camp Upton was deemed no longer necessary and became available for reuse. A plan was conceived to convert the military camp into a research facility.

    On March 21, 1947, the Camp Upton site was officially transferred from the U.S. War Department to the new U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

    Research and facilities

    Reactor history

    In 1947 construction began on the first nuclear reactor at Brookhaven, the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor. This reactor, which opened in 1950, was the first reactor to be constructed in the United States after World War II. The High Flux Beam Reactor operated from 1965 to 1999. In 1959 Brookhaven built the first US reactor specifically tailored to medical research, the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, which operated until 2000.

    Accelerator history

    In 1952 Brookhaven began using its first particle accelerator, the Cosmotron. At the time the Cosmotron was the world’s highest energy accelerator, being the first to impart more than 1 GeV of energy to a particle.

    BNL Cosmotron 1952-1966.

    The Cosmotron was retired in 1966, after it was superseded in 1960 by the new Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    The AGS was used in research that resulted in 3 Nobel prizes, including the discovery of the muon neutrino, the charm quark, and CP violation.

    In 1970 in BNL started the ISABELLE project to develop and build two proton intersecting storage rings.

    The groundbreaking for the project was in October 1978. In 1981, with the tunnel for the accelerator already excavated, problems with the superconducting magnets needed for the ISABELLE accelerator brought the project to a halt, and the project was eventually cancelled in 1983.

    The National Synchrotron Light Source operated from 1982 to 2014 and was involved with two Nobel Prize-winning discoveries. It has since been replaced by the National Synchrotron Light Source II. [below].

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source.

    After ISABELLE’S cancellation, physicist at BNL proposed that the excavated tunnel and parts of the magnet assembly be used in another accelerator. In 1984 the first proposal for the accelerator now known as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)[below] was put forward. The construction got funded in 1991 and RHIC has been operational since 2000. One of the world’s only two operating heavy-ion colliders, RHIC is as of 2010 the second-highest-energy collider after the Large Hadron Collider(CH). RHIC is housed in a tunnel 2.4 miles (3.9 km) long and is visible from space.

    On January 9, 2020, It was announced by Paul Dabbar, undersecretary of the US Department of Energy Office of Science, that the BNL eRHIC design has been selected over the conceptual design put forward by DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility [Jlab] (US) as the future Electron–ion collider (EIC) in the United States.

    Brookhaven Lab Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) to be built inside the tunnel that currently houses the RHIC.

    In addition to the site selection, it was announced that the BNL EIC had acquired CD-0 from the Department of Energy. BNL’s eRHIC design proposes upgrading the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, which collides beams light to heavy ions including polarized protons, with a polarized electron facility, to be housed in the same tunnel.

    Other discoveries

    In 1958, Brookhaven scientists created one of the world’s first video games, Tennis for Two. In 1968 Brookhaven scientists patented Maglev, a transportation technology that utilizes magnetic levitation.

    Major facilities

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which was designed to research quark–gluon plasma and the sources of proton spin. Until 2009 it was the world’s most powerful heavy ion collider. It is the only collider of spin-polarized protons.

    Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), used for the study of nanoscale materials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven’s newest user facility, opened in 2015 to replace the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which had operated for 30 years. NSLS was involved in the work that won the 2003 and 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

    Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, a particle accelerator that was used in three of the lab’s Nobel prizes.
    Accelerator Test Facility, generates, accelerates and monitors particle beams.
    Tandem Van de Graaff, once the world’s largest electrostatic accelerator.

    Computational Science resources, including access to a massively parallel Blue Gene series supercomputer that is among the fastest in the world for scientific research, run jointly by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University-SUNY.

    Interdisciplinary Science Building, with unique laboratories for studying high-temperature superconductors and other materials important for addressing energy challenges.
    NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, where scientists use beams of ions to simulate cosmic rays and assess the risks of space radiation to human space travelers and equipment.

    Off-site contributions

    It is a contributing partner to the ATLAS experiment, one of the four detectors located at the The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] Large Hadron Collider(LHC).

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH)[CERN] map.

    Iconic view of the European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear] [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] ATLAS detector.

    It is currently operating at The European Organization for Nuclear Research [La Organización Europea para la Investigación Nuclear][Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] near Geneva, Switzerland.

    Brookhaven was also responsible for the design of the Spallation Neutron Source at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee.

    DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source annotated.

    Brookhaven plays a role in a range of neutrino research projects around the world, including the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China.

    Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China .


    BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials.

    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II.

    BNL NSLS II.

    BNL Relative Heavy Ion Collider Campus.

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector.

    BNL/RHIC Phenix detector.

     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel
%d bloggers like this: