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  • richardmitnick 9:45 am on September 9, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Invisible Colors-Why Astronomers Use Different Radio Bands", , , , National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US), , , VLA Sky Survey (VLASS)   

    From National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US) : “Invisible Colors-Why Astronomers Use Different Radio Bands” 

    From National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US)

    NRAO Banner

    August 19, 2021

    Brian Koberlein

    Radio light comes in a rainbow of colors. We see these colors with radio bands, and each band has a story to tell about the universe.

    1
    A 21-cm view of the Pinwheel Galaxy (Messier 33). The rainbow of colors is due to the rotation of the galaxy, which Doppler-shifts the radio light. Credit: NRAO/Associated Universities Inc (US)/The National Science Foundation (US).

    Radio astronomers view the universe in several ranges of wavelengths we call bands. The Very Large Array (VLA) [below] uses wavelengths ranging from 4 meters to less than a centimeter. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)[below] uses radio bands ranging from a couple of centimeters to a third of a millimeter. But why do radio telescopes use such a wide range of wavelengths? The answer lies in the many ways that objects emit radio light, and how this light interacts with the gas and dust of interstellar space.

    Long radio wavelengths, such as those seen by the VLA’s Band 4, are typically produced by ionized gas. It lets us see where hot plasma is located in our galaxy. These long wavelengths are also useful because most neutral gas is transparent at these wavelengths. This means very little of this light is absorbed as it travels through space. Shorter wavelengths of light are often emitted by particular atoms or molecules. One of the most important of these is the 21-centimeter line, which is emitted by neutral hydrogen. This wavelength is one of the best ways to observe the distribution of matter in a galaxy since hydrogen is by far the most abundant element in the universe.

    Wavelengths in the 10-cm to 20-cm range are particularly good for radio sky surveys, such as the VLA Sky Survey (VLASS). Radio galaxies are particularly bright in this range as are the jets emitted by supermassive black holes. By scanning the sky at these wavelengths, VLASS has captured images of nearly 10 million radio sources.

    Light with wavelengths of a centimeter or two is often emitted through a process known as synchrotron radiation. When electrons speed through a strong magnetic field, the magnetic field forces them to move in tight spirals along the magnetic field lines. Because of this, they emit radio light. Synchrotron radiation is particularly useful at mapping the magnetic fields near black holes. Another process that emits light in this range is known as a maser or microwave laser. We’re most familiar with simple laser pointers that emit coherent red light, but in interstellar space pockets of water can emit coherent light with a wavelength of 1.3 centimeters. Since these water masers emit a very specific wavelength of light, they can be used to measure the rate at which the universe expands.

    2
    Black hole-powered radio galaxies discovered by VLASS. Credit: NRAO/AUI/NSF.

    Radio wavelengths on the order of a millimeter are particularly useful for studying cold gas and dust. Dust grains in interstellar space emit light with wavelengths on the order of their size, and since much of this dust is about a millimeter in size, that’s the wavelength where they emit the most light. These short wavelengths can be difficult to observe, in part because our atmosphere absorbs much of the light at these wavelengths. But they are also vitally important for the study of young planetary systems. ALMA has been able to capture disks of gas and dust around young stars and has even seen how gaps form within these disks as young planets begin to form. It is revolutionizing our understanding of how exoplanets form.

    3
    ALMA Observatory image of the young star HL Tau and its protoplanetary disk. One of the best images ever of planet formation, this image reveals multiple rings and gaps that herald the presence of emerging planets as they sweep their orbits clear of dust and gas. Credit: ALMA(European Southern Observatory [Observatoire européen austral][Europäische Südsternwarte](EU)(CL)/National Astronomy Observatory of Japan (JP)/NRAO); C. Brogan, B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF).

    But perhaps one of the more interesting radio bands is ALMA’s Band 6, which captures light with wavelengths from 1.1 – 1.4 mm. It has been used to study how red giant stars generate heat, and the distribution of molecules in planetary nebulae. But it was also used to create one of the most powerful radio images of recent years, that of the supermassive black hole in the heart of galaxy Messier 87. Band 6 receivers were used on radio telescopes across the world as part of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), and the data they gathered was combined to create the first direct image of a black hole.

    Radio light is invisible to our eyes, so it’s easy to think of all radio light as the same. But radio is filled with colors, just as the colors of visible light we can see, and radio astronomy is at its most powerful when we use all the colors of its rainbow.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition
    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)(US) is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center of the United States National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc for the purpose of radio astronomy. NRAO designs, builds, and operates its own high sensitivity radio telescopes for use by scientists around the world.

    Charlottesville, Virginia(US)

    The NRAO headquarters is located on the campus of the University of Virginia (US). The North American ALMA Science Center (US) and the NRAO Technology Center and Central Development Laboratory are also in Charlottesville, Virginia.

    Green Bank, West Virginia (US)

    NRAO was, until October 2016, the operator of the world’s largest fully steerable radio telescope, the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, which stands near Green Bank, West Virginia.

    The observatory contains several other telescopes, among them the 140-foot (43 m) telescope that utilizes an equatorial mount uncommon for radio telescopes, three 85-foot (26 m) telescopes forming the Green Bank Interferometer, a 40-foot (12 m) telescope used by school groups and organizations for small scale research, a fixed radio “horn” built to observe the radio source Cassiopeia A, as well as a reproduction of the original antenna built by Karl Jansky while he worked for Bell Labs to detect the interference that was discovered to be previously unknown natural radio waves emitted by the universe.

    Green Bank is in the National Radio Quiet Zone, which is coordinated by NRAO for protection of the Green Bank site as well as the Sugar Grove, West Virginia monitoring site operated by the NSA. The zone consists of a 13,000-square-mile (34,000 km2) piece of land where fixed transmitters must coordinate their emissions before a license is granted. The land was set aside by the Federal Communications Commission in 1958. No fixed radio transmitters are allowed within the area closest to the telescope. All other fixed radio transmitters including TV and radio towers inside the zone are required to transmit such that interference at the antennas is minimized by methods including limited power and using highly directional antennas. With the advent of wireless technology and microprocessors in everything from cameras to cars, it is difficult to keep the sites free of radio interference. To aid in limiting outside interference, the area surrounding the Green Bank Observatory was at one time planted with pines characterized by needles of a certain length to block electromagnetic interference at the wavelengths used by the observatory. At one point, the observatory faced the problem of North American flying squirrels tagged with United States Fish and Wildlife Service telemetry transmitters. Electric fences, electric blankets, faulty automobile electronics, and other radio wave emitters have caused great trouble for the astronomers in Green Bank. All vehicles on the premises are powered by diesel motors to minimize interference by ignition systems.

    Socorro, New Mexico

    The NRAO’s facility in Socorro is the Pete Domenici Array Operations Center (AOC). Located on the New Mexico Technical University campus, the AOC serves as the headquarters for the NRAO Jansky Very Large Array(VLA), which was the setting for the 1997 movie Contact, and is also the control center for the NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA)(US). The ten VLBA telescopes are in Hawaii, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and eight other sites across the continental United States.

    The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It’s the world’s largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye this sharp, you could be in Los Angeles and clearly read a street sign in New York City!

    Astronomers use the continent-sized VLBA to zoom in on objects that shine brightly in radio waves, long-wavelength light that’s well below infrared on the spectrum. They observe blazars, quasars, black holes, and stars in every stage of the stellar life cycle. They plot pulsars, exoplanets, and masers, and track asteroids and planets.

    San Pedro de Atacama, Chile

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) site in Chile is at ~5000 m (~16,500 ft) altitude near Cerro Chajnantor in northern Chile.[10] This is about 40 km (about 25 miles) east of the historic village of San Pedro de Atacama, 130 km (about 80 miles) southeast of the mining town of Calama, and about 275 km (about 170 miles) east-northeast of the coastal port of Antofagasta.

    Access to ALMA observing time by the North American astronomical community will be through the North American ALMA Science Center (NAASC).

     
  • richardmitnick 9:15 am on September 9, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Neutron Star Jets", , , , National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US),   

    From National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US) : “Neutron Star Jets” 

    From National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US)

    NRAO Banner

    9 September 2021

    Jakob van den Eijnden (The University of Oxford (UK))
    Nathalie Degenaar (The University of Amsterdam [Universiteit van Amsterdam](NL))

    1
    Relation between X-ray luminosity, probing the inflow of matter, and radio luminosity, tracking the relativistic jet. Colored points are the newly-observed accreting neutron stars, more than doubling the number of such targets observed at current radio sensitivity (Van den Eijnden et al. 2021).

    The accretion of matter is a ubiquitous process in the Universe, taking place across a wide variety of astronomical sources: from forming stars and planets, to stellar binaries, and active galactic nuclei. This accretion process typically leads to the formation of outflows, for instance in the form of relativistic, collimated jets, launched from the inner accretion flow.

    To study matter inflow and outflow, and especially their connection, we often turn to X-ray binaries, where either a neutron star or a black hole accretes matter from a stellar donor in a tight orbit. X-ray binaries can change their accretion rate by orders of magnitude on time scales of weeks to months, making them particularly convenient targets to study changing radio jets (Fender et al. 2004). Our team is especially interested in accreting neutron stars and the effect that their magnetic fields and spin may have on jet formation.

    Studying neutron star jets comes with a challenge, however: their radio luminosities are, on average, more than 20X fainter than their stellar-mass black hole counterparts (Gallo et al. 2018). Thus, a relatively small fraction of neutron star X-ray binaries has been detected at radio wavelengths (Migliari & Fender 2006), and this number is even more limited at low accretion rates. In our recent work (Van den Eijnden et al. 2021) [above], we set out to extend this sample with VLA [below] and Australia Telescope Compact Array observations taken between 2013 and 2020.

    Observing thirty-six neutron stars, we more than double the number of targets observed at current-day sensitivity. For the first time, we also report radio counterparts to neutron stars accreting persistently from high-mass donor stars, although we cannot unambiguously associate this emission with jets; instead, emission from the massive donor star’s wind (Wright et al. 1975), or shocks in this wind induced by the neutron star, may also play a role.

    The figure shows a fundamental tool in the radio study of X-ray binaries: the X-ray–radio luminosity diagram. The black hole, as well as weakly-magnetized (B 1012 G, which predominantly orbit massive donor stars), on the other hand, do not yet reveal such a correlation, although this conclusion is strongly affected by their radio faintness: those with radio detections currently span only roughly an order of magnitude in radio luminosity.

    The radio faintness of accreting neutron stars, especially with strong magnetic fields, is where the ngVLA [below] can bring significant improvement: its sensitivity, compared to current arrays, will allow us to detect counterparts to a greater number of accreting neutron stars, in particular at low accretion rates. Hence, the ngVLA can reveal whether strongly-magnetized neutron stars also show coupled X-ray and radio behavior, currently undetectable due to sensitivity constraints. In addition, it would bring systems in close-by galaxies within sensitivity limits. Finally, combining the ngVLA sensitivity with sub-milli-arcsecond resolution, we can constrain brightness temperatures of high-mass X-ray binaries to distinguish between jet and stellar wind scenarios, as well as attempt to resolve jet ejections for close-by sources.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition
    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)(US) is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center of the United States National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc for the purpose of radio astronomy. NRAO designs, builds, and operates its own high sensitivity radio telescopes for use by scientists around the world.

    Charlottesville, Virginia(US)

    The NRAO headquarters is located on the campus of the University of Virginia (US). The North American ALMA Science Center (US) and the NRAO Technology Center and Central Development Laboratory are also in Charlottesville, Virginia.

    Green Bank, West Virginia (US)

    NRAO was, until October 2016, the operator of the world’s largest fully steerable radio telescope, the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, which stands near Green Bank, West Virginia.

    The observatory contains several other telescopes, among them the 140-foot (43 m) telescope that utilizes an equatorial mount uncommon for radio telescopes, three 85-foot (26 m) telescopes forming the Green Bank Interferometer, a 40-foot (12 m) telescope used by school groups and organizations for small scale research, a fixed radio “horn” built to observe the radio source Cassiopeia A, as well as a reproduction of the original antenna built by Karl Jansky while he worked for Bell Labs to detect the interference that was discovered to be previously unknown natural radio waves emitted by the universe.

    Green Bank is in the National Radio Quiet Zone, which is coordinated by NRAO for protection of the Green Bank site as well as the Sugar Grove, West Virginia monitoring site operated by the NSA. The zone consists of a 13,000-square-mile (34,000 km2) piece of land where fixed transmitters must coordinate their emissions before a license is granted. The land was set aside by the Federal Communications Commission in 1958. No fixed radio transmitters are allowed within the area closest to the telescope. All other fixed radio transmitters including TV and radio towers inside the zone are required to transmit such that interference at the antennas is minimized by methods including limited power and using highly directional antennas. With the advent of wireless technology and microprocessors in everything from cameras to cars, it is difficult to keep the sites free of radio interference. To aid in limiting outside interference, the area surrounding the Green Bank Observatory was at one time planted with pines characterized by needles of a certain length to block electromagnetic interference at the wavelengths used by the observatory. At one point, the observatory faced the problem of North American flying squirrels tagged with United States Fish and Wildlife Service telemetry transmitters. Electric fences, electric blankets, faulty automobile electronics, and other radio wave emitters have caused great trouble for the astronomers in Green Bank. All vehicles on the premises are powered by diesel motors to minimize interference by ignition systems.

    Socorro, New Mexico

    The NRAO’s facility in Socorro is the Pete Domenici Array Operations Center (AOC). Located on the New Mexico Technical University campus, the AOC serves as the headquarters for the NRAO Jansky Very Large Array(VLA), which was the setting for the 1997 movie Contact, and is also the control center for the NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA)(US). The ten VLBA telescopes are in Hawaii, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and eight other sites across the continental United States.

    The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It’s the world’s largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye this sharp, you could be in Los Angeles and clearly read a street sign in New York City!

    Astronomers use the continent-sized VLBA to zoom in on objects that shine brightly in radio waves, long-wavelength light that’s well below infrared on the spectrum. They observe blazars, quasars, black holes, and stars in every stage of the stellar life cycle. They plot pulsars, exoplanets, and masers, and track asteroids and planets.

    San Pedro de Atacama, Chile

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) site in Chile is at ~5000 m (~16,500 ft) altitude near Cerro Chajnantor in northern Chile.[10] This is about 40 km (about 25 miles) east of the historic village of San Pedro de Atacama, 130 km (about 80 miles) southeast of the mining town of Calama, and about 275 km (about 170 miles) east-northeast of the coastal port of Antofagasta.

    Access to ALMA observing time by the North American astronomical community will be through the North American ALMA Science Center (NAASC).

     
  • richardmitnick 8:30 pm on September 2, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Stellar Collision Triggers Supernova Explosion", Astronomers have found dramatic evidence that a black hole or neutron star spiraled its way into the core of a companion star and caused that companion to explode as a supernova., , , , National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US), , The object designated VT 1210+4956.   

    From National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US) : “Stellar Collision Triggers Supernova Explosion” 

    From National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US)

    NRAO Banner

    September 2, 2021

    Media Contact:
    Dave Finley, Public Information Officer
    (505) 241-9210
    dfinley@nrao.edu

    1
    Credit: Bill Saxton, NRAO/Associated Universities Inc(US)/The National Science Foundation (US).

    Astronomers have found dramatic evidence that a black hole or neutron star spiraled its way into the core of a companion star and caused that companion to explode as a supernova. The astronomers were tipped off by data from the Very Large Array Sky Survey (VLASS), a multi-year project using the National Science Foundation’s Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) [below].

    “Theorists had predicted that this could happen, but this is the first time we’ve actually seen such an event,” said Dillon Dong, a graduate student at The California Institute of Technology (US) and lead author on a paper reporting the discovery in the journal Science.

    The first clue came when the scientists examined images from VLASS, which began observations in 2017, and found an object brightly emitting radio waves but which had not appeared in an earlier VLA sky survey, called Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters (FIRST). They made subsequent observations of the object, designated VT 1210+4956, using the VLA and the Keck telescope in Hawaii.

    They determined that the bright radio emission was coming from the outskirts of a dwarf, star-forming galaxy some 480 million light-years from Earth. They later found that an instrument aboard the International Space Station had detected a burst of X-rays coming from the object in 2014.

    The data from all these observations allowed the astronomers to piece together the fascinating history of a centuries-long death dance between two massive stars. Like most stars that are much more massive than our Sun, these two were born as a binary pair, closely orbiting each other. One of them was more massive than the other and evolved through its normal, nuclear fusion-powered lifetime more quickly and exploded as a supernova, leaving behind either a black hole or a super dense neutron star.

    The black hole or neutron star’s orbit grew steadily closer to its companion, and about 300 years ago it entered the companion’s atmosphere, starting the death dance. At this point, the interaction began spraying gas away from the companion into space. The ejected gas, spiraling outward, formed an expanding, donut-shaped ring, called a torus, around the pair.

    Eventually, the black hole or neutron star made its way inward to the companion star’s core, disrupting the nuclear fusion producing the energy that kept the core from collapsing of its own gravity. As the core collapsed, it briefly formed a disk of material closely orbiting the intruder and propelled a jet of material outward from the disk at speeds approaching that of light, drilling its way through the star.

    “That jet is what produced the X-rays seen by the MAXI instrument aboard the International Space Station, and this confirms the date of this event in 2014,” Dong said.

    The collapse of the star’s core caused it to explode as a supernova, following its sibling’s earlier explosion.

    “The companion star was going to explode eventually, but this merger accelerated the process,” Dong said.

    The material ejected by the 2014 supernova explosion moved much faster than the material thrown off earlier from the companion star, and by the time VLASS observed the object, the supernova blast was colliding with that material, causing powerful shocks that produced the bright radio emission seen by the VLA.

    “All the pieces of this puzzle fit together to tell this amazing story,” said Gregg Hallinan of Caltech. “The remnant of a star that exploded a long time ago plunged into its companion, causing it, too, to explode,” he added.

    The key to the discovery, Hallinan said, was VLASS, which is imaging the entire sky visible at the VLA’s latitude — about 80 percent of the sky — three times over seven years. One of the objectives of doing VLASS that way is to discover transient objects, such as supernova explosions, that emit brightly at radio wavelengths. This supernova, caused by a stellar merger, however, was a surprise.

    “Of all the things we thought we would discover with VLASS, this was not one of them,” Hallinan said.

    See the full article here .
    See also the full article from Caltech here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition
    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)(US) is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center of the United States National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc for the purpose of radio astronomy. NRAO designs, builds, and operates its own high sensitivity radio telescopes for use by scientists around the world.

    Charlottesville, Virginia(US)

    The NRAO headquarters is located on the campus of the University of Virginia (US). The North American ALMA Science Center (US) and the NRAO Technology Center and Central Development Laboratory are also in Charlottesville, Virginia.

    Green Bank, West Virginia(US)

    NRAO was, until October 2016, the operator of the world’s largest fully steerable radio telescope, the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, which stands near Green Bank, West Virginia.

    The observatory contains several other telescopes, among them the 140-foot (43 m) telescope that utilizes an equatorial mount uncommon for radio telescopes, three 85-foot (26 m) telescopes forming the Green Bank Interferometer, a 40-foot (12 m) telescope used by school groups and organizations for small scale research, a fixed radio “horn” built to observe the radio source Cassiopeia A, as well as a reproduction of the original antenna built by Karl Jansky while he worked for Bell Labs to detect the interference that was discovered to be previously unknown natural radio waves emitted by the universe.

    Green Bank is in the National Radio Quiet Zone, which is coordinated by NRAO for protection of the Green Bank site as well as the Sugar Grove, West Virginia monitoring site operated by the NSA. The zone consists of a 13,000-square-mile (34,000 km2) piece of land where fixed transmitters must coordinate their emissions before a license is granted. The land was set aside by the Federal Communications Commission in 1958. No fixed radio transmitters are allowed within the area closest to the telescope. All other fixed radio transmitters including TV and radio towers inside the zone are required to transmit such that interference at the antennas is minimized by methods including limited power and using highly directional antennas. With the advent of wireless technology and microprocessors in everything from cameras to cars, it is difficult to keep the sites free of radio interference. To aid in limiting outside interference, the area surrounding the Green Bank Observatory was at one time planted with pines characterized by needles of a certain length to block electromagnetic interference at the wavelengths used by the observatory. At one point, the observatory faced the problem of North American flying squirrels tagged with United States Fish and Wildlife Service telemetry transmitters. Electric fences, electric blankets, faulty automobile electronics, and other radio wave emitters have caused great trouble for the astronomers in Green Bank. All vehicles on the premises are powered by diesel motors to minimize interference by ignition systems.

    Socorro, New Mexico

    The NRAO’s facility in Socorro is the Pete Domenici Array Operations Center (AOC). Located on the New Mexico Technical University campus, the AOC serves as the headquarters for the NRAO Jansky Very Large Array(VLA), which was the setting for the 1997 movie Contact, and is also the control center for the NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA)(US). The ten VLBA telescopes are in Hawaii, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and eight other sites across the continental United States.

    The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It’s the world’s largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye this sharp, you could be in Los Angeles and clearly read a street sign in New York City!

    Astronomers use the continent-sized VLBA to zoom in on objects that shine brightly in radio waves, long-wavelength light that’s well below infrared on the spectrum. They observe blazars, quasars, black holes, and stars in every stage of the stellar life cycle. They plot pulsars, exoplanets, and masers, and track asteroids and planets.

    San Pedro de Atacama, Chile

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) site in Chile is at ~5000 m (~16,500 ft) altitude near Cerro Chajnantor in northern Chile.[10] This is about 40 km (about 25 miles) east of the historic village of San Pedro de Atacama, 130 km (about 80 miles) southeast of the mining town of Calama, and about 275 km (about 170 miles) east-northeast of the coastal port of Antofagasta.

    Access to ALMA observing time by the North American astronomical community will be through the North American ALMA Science Center (NAASC).

     
  • richardmitnick 9:48 am on August 10, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "NSF Awards Funding for Next-Generation VLA Antenna Development", , , Construction could begin by 2026 with early scientific observations starting in 2029 and full scientific operations by 2035., , More far-flung antennas will be located in clusters in Hawaii; Washington; California; Iowa; West Virginia; New Hampshire; Puerto Rico (at Arecibo Observatory); the U.S. Virgin Islands; and Canada., National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US), On May 27 NRAO officials signed an agreement with the firm mtex antenna technology Gmbh of Germany to develop a production-ready design and produce the prototype 18-meter antenna., Once built the 18-meter prototype will be installed at the site of NSF’s Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in west-central New Mexico., , The ngVLA will be a key tool for answering the important scientific questions facing astronomers in the coming decades., The ngVLA will have a dense core of antennas and a signal processing center at the current site of the VLA on the Plains of San Agustin in New Mexico., The ngVLA will have sensitivity to detect faint objects and resolving power — ability to see fine detail — more than 10 times greater than the current VLA., The ngVLA will include 244 antennas that are 18 meters (59 feet) in diameter with an additional 19 6-meter (20-foot) dishes at the center of the system., The ngVLA’s design is the result of extensive collaboration with researchers across the landscape of astrophysics., The system will include other antennas located throughout New Mexico and in west Texas; eastern Arizona; and northern Mexico.   

    From National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US) : “NSF Awards Funding for Next-Generation VLA Antenna Development” 

    NRAO Banner

    From National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US)

    August 9, 2021

    Dave Finley, Public Information Officer
    (505) 241-9210
    dfinley@nrao.edu

    1
    Credit: Sophia Dagnello, NRAO/Associated Universities Inc (US)/National Science Foundation (US).

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) has awarded the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) $23 million for design and development work on the Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA), including producing a prototype antenna. The ngVLA, a powerful radio telescope with 263 dish antennas distributed across North America, is proposed as one of the next generation of cutting-edge astronomical observatories.

    “The ngVLA will be a key tool for answering the important scientific questions facing astronomers in the coming decades. We welcome this vital support for the next step — building the first antenna — toward making this exciting research facility a reality,” said NRAO Director Tony Beasley.

    The ngVLA will include 244 antennas that are 18 meters (59 feet) in diameter with an additional 19 6-meter (20-foot) dishes at the center of the system.

    The ngVLA project currently is under review by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey (Astro2020) of the National Academy of Sciences (US). That report is expected soon. Following that report, the project will need approval by the National Science Foundation’s National Science Board and funding by Congress. Construction could begin by 2026 with early scientific observations starting in 2029 and full scientific operations by 2035.

    “This exciting project marks the beginning of a new era, and major milestone, in antenna technology,” said Joseph Pesce, NRAO Program Officer at the NSF. “While we look forward to the results from the Astro2020 Decadal Survey in regard to ngVLA, we expect this is the antenna of the future and will be used well beyond any one project,” he added.

    On May 27 NRAO officials signed an agreement with the firm mtex antenna technology Gmbh of Germany to develop a production-ready design and produce the prototype 18-meter antenna. Once built the 18-meter prototype will be installed at the site of NSF’s Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in west-central New Mexico, where it will undergo extensive testing.

    Building on the scientific and technical legacies of the VLA and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the ngVLA will have sensitivity to detect faint objects and resolving power — ability to see fine detail — more than 10 times greater than the current VLA. It is being designed to address fundamental questions in all major areas of astrophysics and provide a major leap forward in our understanding of phenomena such as planets, galaxies, black holes, and the dynamic sky. The ngVLA’s capabilities will complement those of ALMA and other planned instruments such as the lower-frequency Square Kilometer Array.

    “The ngVLA will fit neatly into a suite of current and planned observatories that will operate over the next decades, offering the entire astronomical community vital capabilities unmatched by any other telescope system,” said Mark McKinnon, ngVLA Project Director.

    “Strengthening New Mexico’s leadership in radio astronomy is going to take an ambitious vision. I am so pleased to see this funding positioned to help jumpstart the Next Generation Very Large Array project so that the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, with offices present at New Mexico Tech, can begin their work to enhance America’s world-renowned scientific research infrastructure across the U.S. – and right here in New Mexico. I will continue fighting for similar funding that creates career opportunities within New Mexico’s science community and keeps our state at the cutting edge of space research and technology,” said U.S. Senator Martin Heinrich (D-NM)

    “New Mexico is a national leader in innovation and scientific discovery, and I’m pleased to see the National Science Foundation supporting the design and development of NRAO’s Next Generation Very Large Array, a project that will foster further discoveries. As a new member of the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, I’ll continue working to secure strong investments that shore up our state’s science and technology economy,” said U.S Senator Ben Ray Luján (D-NM)

    “I am excited to see the National Science Foundation has awarded funding to develop the Next Generation Very Large Array,” said Congresswoman Yvette Herrell (R-NM). “This new radio telescope, parts of which will be located right here in New Mexico, will be instrumental in gaining a better understanding of our universe. I am proud New Mexico will be at the forefront of this innovative advancement in the field of astronomy.”

    The ngVLA will have a dense core of antennas and a signal processing center at the current site of the VLA on the Plains of San Agustin in New Mexico. The system will include other antennas located throughout New Mexico and in west Texas; eastern Arizona; and northern Mexico. More far-flung antennas will be located in clusters in Hawaii; Washington; California; Iowa; West Virginia; New Hampshire; Puerto Rico (at Arecibo Observatory); the U.S. Virgin Islands; and Canada. Operations will be conducted at the VLA site and in nearby Socorro, New Mexico, with additional science operations in a metropolitan area to be determined.

    The ngVLA’s design is the result of extensive collaboration with researchers across the landscape of astrophysics. Through a series of workshops and science meetings beginning in 2015, NRAO worked with numerous scientists and engineers to develop a design that will support a wide breadth of scientific investigations over the lifetime of the facility. Participants from around the world contributed suggestions and expertise that helped guide the design.

    “We heard from many of our scientific colleagues about how they want to use such a next-generation radio telescope, and worked hard to build a consensus on its capabilities to support their needs. We continue to get valuable advice and support from those who serve on our ngVLA science and technical councils,” said Eric Murphy, NRAO’s Project Scientist for ngVLA.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

    Access to ALMA observing time by the North American astronomical community will be through the North American ALMA Science Center (NAASC).

    *The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It’s the world’s largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye this sharp, you could be in Los Angeles and clearly read a street sign in New York City!

    Astronomers use the continent-sized VLBA to zoom in on objects that shine brightly in radio waves, long-wavelength light that’s well below infrared on the spectrum. They observe blazars, quasars, black holes, and stars in every stage of the stellar life cycle. They plot pulsars, exoplanets, and masers, and track asteroids and planets.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:29 pm on August 5, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "H2O Megamaser Cosmology & Black Hole Masses with the ngVLA", , , , H2O megamasers MBH enable precise measurements of supermassive black hole masses-MBH via sub-milliarcsecond imaging of H2O maser emission from disk maser systems., H2O megamasers provide a direct determination of the Hubble Constant-H0-independent of standard candles., In such a system the masing gas resides in a subparsec-scale thin disk viewed almost edge-on and following near Keplerian rotation., Megamaser Cosmology, National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US), Nevertheless the inclusion of the next generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) in future Very Long Baseline Interferometer observations is promising., Our analysis for IRAS 08452–0011 suggests that determining a galaxy distance to better than 10% accuracy using a single maser galaxy becomes difficult beyond 200 Mpc., Our disk modeling yielded MBH = (3.3 ± 0.2)×107 Msun., , The disk maser geometrical and kinematic information can be modeled to provide a precise H0 ., These disk properties support MBH measurements to percent level accuracy., We infer that MBH measurements are feasible to d ∼ 400 Mpc (z ∼ 0.1) with 40 hours observing with the Very Long Baseline Array augmented with the Green Bank Telescope.   

    From National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US) : “H2O Megamaser Cosmology & Black Hole Masses with the ngVLA” 

    From National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US)

    NRAO Banner

    Cheng-Yu Kuo (National Sun Yat-sen University[國立中山大學 ] (TW)) & Jim Braatz (NRAO).

    H2O megamasers MBH provide a direct determination of the Hubble Constant-H0-independent of standard candles (Reid et al. 2013), and enable precise measurements of supermassive black hole masses-MBH (Gao et al. 2017), via sub-milliarcsecond imaging of H2O maser emission from disk maser systems, such as NGC 4258 (Herrnstein et al. 1999).

    In such a system, the masing gas resides in a subparsec-scale thin disk viewed almost edge-on and following near Keplerian rotation. These disk properties support MBH measurements to percent level accuracy, and the disk maser geometrical and kinematic information can be modeled to provide a precise H0 (Pesce et al. 2020). From distance measurements of six maser galaxies within 150 Mpc the Megamaser Cosmology Project team obtained H0 = 73.9 ± 3.0 km/s/Mpc (~4% accuracy) independent of distance ladders and the cosmic microwave background (see Figure). Precise distances for maser galaxies beyond 200 Mpc are needed to further improve the accuracy of the maser-based H0 determination.

    Kuo et al. (2020) studied a maser system, IRAS 08452–0011 (d ~ 213 Mpc), and for the first time applied the H2O megamaser technique to a galaxy beyond 200 Mpc, measuring H0 and MBH. Our disk modeling yielded MBH = (3.3 ± 0.2)×107 Msun. The analysis demonstrated that the H2O megamaser technique can be applied with existing facilities to galaxies beyond 200 Mpc for MBH measurement with an accuracy of better than 10%, sufficient for constraining the MBH-σ relation. Based on our investigation of IRAS 08452–0011, which has high-velocity maser flux densities of ∼40 mJy, we infer that MBH measurements are feasible to d ∼ 400 Mpc (z ∼ 0.1) with 40 hours observing with the Very Long Baseline Array augmented with the Green Bank Telescope.

    While MBH measurements are feasible to z~0.1 with available sensitivity and resolution, our analysis for IRAS 08452–0011 suggests that determining a galaxy distance to better than 10% accuracy using a single maser galaxy becomes difficult beyond 200 Mpc, requiring at least a few hundred hours observing time to achieve sufficient maser position accuracy. Nevertheless the inclusion of the next generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) in future Very Long Baseline Interferometer observations is promising. To yield an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity, enabling a 1% H0 measurement would require measuring ∼10% (∼7%) distances to 100 (50) maser galaxies (Braatz et al. 2019). Including the ngVLA would extend the megamaser technique to galaxies beyond 400 Mpc for MBH measurements since the necessity for extremely high maser luminosity (L(H2O) > 10,000 Lsun) will be significantly relaxed.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition
    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)(US) is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center of the United States National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc for the purpose of radio astronomy. NRAO designs, builds, and operates its own high sensitivity radio telescopes for use by scientists around the world.

    Charlottesville, Virginia(US)

    The NRAO headquarters is located on the campus of the University of Virginia (US). The North American ALMA Science Center (US) and the NRAO Technology Center and Central Development Laboratory are also in Charlottesville, Virginia.

    Green Bank, West Virginia(US)

    NRAO was, until October 2016, the operator of the world’s largest fully steerable radio telescope, the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, which stands near Green Bank, West Virginia.

    The observatory contains several other telescopes, among them the 140-foot (43 m) telescope that utilizes an equatorial mount uncommon for radio telescopes, three 85-foot (26 m) telescopes forming the Green Bank Interferometer, a 40-foot (12 m) telescope used by school groups and organizations for small scale research, a fixed radio “horn” built to observe the radio source Cassiopeia A, as well as a reproduction of the original antenna built by Karl Jansky while he worked for Bell Labs to detect the interference that was discovered to be previously unknown natural radio waves emitted by the universe.

    Green Bank is in the National Radio Quiet Zone, which is coordinated by NRAO for protection of the Green Bank site as well as the Sugar Grove, West Virginia monitoring site operated by the NSA. The zone consists of a 13,000-square-mile (34,000 km2) piece of land where fixed transmitters must coordinate their emissions before a license is granted. The land was set aside by the Federal Communications Commission in 1958. No fixed radio transmitters are allowed within the area closest to the telescope. All other fixed radio transmitters including TV and radio towers inside the zone are required to transmit such that interference at the antennas is minimized by methods including limited power and using highly directional antennas. With the advent of wireless technology and microprocessors in everything from cameras to cars, it is difficult to keep the sites free of radio interference. To aid in limiting outside interference, the area surrounding the Green Bank Observatory was at one time planted with pines characterized by needles of a certain length to block electromagnetic interference at the wavelengths used by the observatory. At one point, the observatory faced the problem of North American flying squirrels tagged with United States Fish and Wildlife Service telemetry transmitters. Electric fences, electric blankets, faulty automobile electronics, and other radio wave emitters have caused great trouble for the astronomers in Green Bank. All vehicles on the premises are powered by diesel motors to minimize interference by ignition systems.

    Socorro, New Mexico

    The NRAO’s facility in Socorro is the Pete Domenici Array Operations Center (AOC). Located on the New Mexico Technical University campus, the AOC serves as the headquarters for the NRAO Jansky Very Large Array(VLA), which was the setting for the 1997 movie Contact, and is also the control center for the NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA)(US). The ten VLBA telescopes are in Hawaii, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and eight other sites across the continental United States.

    San Pedro de Atacama, Chile

    Access to ALMA observing time by the North American astronomical community will be through the North American ALMA Science Center (NAASC).

    *The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It’s the world’s largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye this sharp, you could be in Los Angeles and clearly read a street sign in New York City!

    Astronomers use the continent-sized VLBA to zoom in on objects that shine brightly in radio waves, long-wavelength light that’s well below infrared on the spectrum. They observe blazars, quasars, black holes, and stars in every stage of the stellar life cycle. They plot pulsars, exoplanets, and masers, and track asteroids and planets.

    Astronomers use the continent-sized VLBA to zoom in on objects that shine brightly in radio waves, long-wavelength light that’s well below infrared on the spectrum. They observe blazars, quasars, black holes, and stars in every stage of the stellar life cycle. They plot pulsars, exoplanets, and masers, and track asteroids and planets.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:45 pm on July 22, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New Study Reveals Previously Unseen Star Formation in Milky Way", , , , GLOSTAR (Global view of the Star formation in the Milky Way), , National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US),   

    From National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US) and MPG Institute for Radio Astronomy[MPG Institut für Radioastronomie](DE): “New Study Reveals Previously Unseen Star Formation in Milky Way” 

    NRAO Banner

    From National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US)

    and

    MPG Institute for Radio Astronomy[MPG Institut für Radioastronomie](DE)

    July 22, 2021

    Dave Finley, Public Information Officer
    (505) 241-9210
    dfinley@nrao.edu

    1
    Credit: Brunthaler et al., Sophia Dagnello, NRAO/Associated Universities Inc (US)/National Science Foundation (US).

    Astronomers using two of the world’s most powerful radio telescopes have made a detailed and sensitive survey of a large segment of our home galaxy — the Milky Way — detecting previously unseen tracers of massive star formation, a process that dominates galactic ecosystems. The scientists combined the capabilities of the National Science Foundation’s Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and the 100-meter Effelsberg Telescope in Germany to produce high-quality data that will serve researchers for years to come.

    Stars with more than about ten times the mass of our Sun are important components of the Galaxy and strongly affect their surroundings. However, understanding how these massive stars are formed has proved challenging for astronomers. In recent years, this problem has been tackled by studying the Milky Way at a variety of wavelengths, including radio and infrared. This new survey, called GLOSTAR (Global view of the Star formation in the Milky Way), was designed to take advantage of the vastly improved capabilities that an upgrade project completed in 2012 gave the VLA to produce previously unobtainable data.

    GLOSTAR has excited astronomers with new data on the birth and death processes of massive stars, as well on the tenuous material between the stars. The GLOSTAR team of researchers has published a series of papers in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics reporting initial results of their work, including detailed studies of several individual objects.

    “A Global View on Star Formation: The GLOSTAR Galactic Plane Survey. I. Overview and first results for the Galactic longitude range 28°< l < 36°”
    https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/full_html/2021/07/aa39856-20/aa39856-20.html

    “A Global View on Star Formation: The GLOSTAR Galactic Plane Survey. II. Supernova remnants in the first quadrant of the Milky Way?”
    https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/full_html/2021/07/aa39873-20/aa39873-20.html

    “A Global View on Star Formation: The GLOSTAR Galactic Plane Survey. III. 6.7 GHz Methanol maser survey in Cygnus X”
    https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/full_html/2021/07/aa40817-21/aa40817-21.html

    “A Global View on Star Formation: The GLOSTAR Galactic Plane Survey. IV. Radio continuum detections of young stellar objects in the Galactic Centre Region”
    https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/full_html/2021/07/aa40802-21/aa40802-21.html

    Observations continue and more results will be published later.

    The survey detected telltale tracers of the early stages of massive star formation, including compact regions of hydrogen gas ionized by the powerful radiation from young stars, and radio emission from methanol (wood alcohol) molecules that can pinpoint the location of very young stars still deeply shrouded by the clouds of gas and dust in which they are forming.

    The survey also found many new remnants of supernova explosions — the dramatic deaths of massive stars. Previous studies had found fewer than a third of the expected number of supernova remnants in the Milky Way. In the region it studied, GLOSTAR more than doubled the number found using the VLA data alone, with more expected to appear in the Effelsberg data.

    “This is an important step to solve this longstanding mystery of the missing supernova remnants,” said Rohit Dokara, a Ph.D student at the MPG Institute for Radio Astronomy[MPG Institut für Radioastronomie](DE) and lead author on a paper about the remnants.

    The GLOSTAR team combined data from the VLA and the Effelsberg telescope to obtain a complete view of the region they studied. The multi-antenna VLA — an interferometer — combines the signals from widely-separated antennas to make images with very high resolution that show small details. However, such a system often cannot also detect large-scale structures. The 100-meter-diameter Effelsberg telescope provided the data on structures larger than those the VLA could detect, making the image complete.

    “This clearly demonstrates that the Effelberg telescope is still very crucial, even after 50 years of operation,” said Andreas Brunthaler of MPIfR, project leader and first author of the survey’s overview paper.

    Visible light is strongly absorbed by dust, which radio waves can readily penetrate. Radio telescopes are essential to revealing the dust-shrouded regions in which young stars form.

    The results from GLOSTAR, combined with other radio and infrared surveys, “offers astronomers a nearly complete census of massive star-forming clusters at various stages of formation, and this will have lasting value for future studies,” said team member William Cotton, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), who is an expert in combining interferometer and single-telescope data.

    “GLOSTAR is the first map of the Galactic Plane at radio wavelengths that detects many of the important star formation tracers at high spatial resolution. The detection of atomic and molecular spectral lines is critical to determine the location of star formation and to better understand the structure of the Galaxy,” said Dana Balser, also of NRAO.

    The initiator of GLOSTAR, the MPIfR’s Karl Menten, added, “It’s great to see the beautiful science resulting from two of our favorite radio telescopes joining forces.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The MPG Institute for Radio Astronomy [MPG Institut für Radioastronomie] (DE) is located in Bonn, Germany. It is one of 80 institutes in the MPG Society.

    By combining the already existing radio astronomy faculty of the University of Bonn led by Otto Hachenberg with the new MPG institute the MPG Institute for Radio Astronomy was formed. In 1972 the 100-m radio telescope in Effelsberg was opened. The institute building was enlarged in 1983 and 2002.

    The institute was founded in 1966 by the MPG Society as the “MPG Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR) (DE)”.

    The foundation of the institute was closely linked to plans in the German astronomical community to construct a competitive large radio telescope in (then) West Germany. In 1964, Professors Friedrich Becker, Wolfgang Priester and Otto Hachenberg of the Astronomische Institute der Universität Bonn submitted a proposal to the Stiftung Volkswagenwerk for the construction of a large fully steerable radio telescope.

    In the same year the Stiftung Volkswagenwerk approved the funding of the telescope project but with the condition that an organization should be found, which would guarantee the operations. It was clear that the operation of such a large instrument was well beyond the possibilities of a single university institute.

    Already in 1965 the MPG Society decided in principle to found the MPG Institut für Radioastronomie. Eventually, after a series of discussions, the institute was officially founded in 1966.

    a href=”https://sciencesprings.wordpress.com/2016/08/26/from-mpg-visualization-of-newly-formed-synapses-with-unprecedented-resolution/mpg-bloc/&#8221; rel=”attachment wp-att-47599″>

    MPG Institute for the Advancement of Science [MPG zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V](DE) is Germany’s most successful research organization. Since its establishment in 1948, no fewer than 18 Nobel laureates have emerged from the ranks of its scientists, putting it on a par with the best and most prestigious research institutions worldwide. The more than 15,000 publications each year in internationally renowned scientific journals are proof of the outstanding research work conducted at MPG Institutes – and many of those articles are among the most-cited publications in the relevant field.

    What is the basis of this success? The scientific attractiveness of the MPG Society is based on its understanding of research: MPG institutes are built up solely around the world’s leading researchers. They themselves define their research subjects and are given the best working conditions, as well as free reign in selecting their staff. This is the core of the Harnack principle, which dates back to Adolph von Harnack, the first president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, which was established in 1911. This principle has been successfully applied for nearly one hundred years. The MPG Society continues the tradition of its predecessor institution with this structural principle of the person-centered research organization.

    The currently 83 MPG Institutes and facilities conduct basic research in the service of the general public in the natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and the humanities. MPG Institutes focus on research fields that are particularly innovative, or that are especially demanding in terms of funding or time requirements. And their research spectrum is continually evolving: new institutes are established to find answers to seminal, forward-looking scientific questions, while others are closed when, for example, their research field has been widely established at universities. This continuous renewal preserves the scope the Max Planck Society needs to react quickly to pioneering scientific developments.

    MPG Society for the Advancement of Science [MPG Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.] is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes founded in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and renamed the MPG Society in 1948 in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck. The society is funded by the federal and state governments of Germany as well as other sources.

    According to its primary goal, the MPG Society supports fundamental research in the natural, life and social sciences, the arts and humanities in its 83 (as of January 2014) MPG institutes. The society has a total staff of approximately 17,000 permanent employees, including 5,470 scientists, plus around 4,600 non-tenured scientists and guests. Society budget for 2015 was about €1.7 billion.

    The MPG Institutes focus on excellence in research. The MPG Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization, with 33 Nobel Prizes awarded to their scientists, and is generally regarded as the foremost basic research organization in Europe and the world. In 2013, the Nature Publishing Index placed the MPG institutes fifth worldwide in terms of research published in Nature journals (after Harvard University (US), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US), Stanford University (US) and the National Institutes of Health (US)). In terms of total research volume (unweighted by citations or impact), the MPG Society is only outranked by the Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院] (CN), the Russian Academy of Sciences [Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к](RU) and Harvard University. The Thomson Reuters-Science Watch website placed the Max Planck Society as the second leading research organization worldwide following Harvard University, in terms of the impact of the produced research over science fields.

    [The blog owner wishes to editorialize: I do not think all of this boasting is warranted when the combined forces of the MPG Society are being weighed against individual universities and institutions. It is not the combined forces of the cited schools and institutions, that could make some sense. No, it is each separate institution standing on its own.]

    The MPG Society and its predecessor Kaiser Wilhelm Society hosted several renowned scientists in their fields, including Otto Hahn, Werner Heisenberg, and Albert Einstein.

    History

    The organization was established in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, or Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft (KWG), a non-governmental research organization named for the then German emperor. The KWG was one of the world’s leading research organizations; its board of directors included scientists like Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, and Fritz Haber. In 1946, Otto Hahn assumed the position of President of KWG, and in 1948, the society was renamed the MPG Society after its former President (1930–37) Max Planck, who died in 1947.

    The MPG Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization. In 2006, the Times Higher Education Supplement rankings of non-university research institutions (based on international peer review by academics) placed the MPG Society as No.1 in the world for science research, and No.3 in technology research (behind AT&T Corporation and the DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory (US).

    The domain mpg.de attracted at least 1.7 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a Compete.com study.

    MPG Institutes and research groups

    The MPG Society consists of over 80 research institutes. In addition, the society funds a number of MPG Research Groups (MPRG) and International MPG Research Schools (IMPRS). The purpose of establishing independent research groups at various universities is to strengthen the required networking between universities and institutes of the MPG Society.

    The research units are primarily located across Europe with a few in South Korea and the U.S. In 2007, the Society established its first non-European centre, with an institute on the Jupiter campus of Florida Atlantic University (US) focusing on neuroscience.

    The MPG Institutes operate independently from, though in close cooperation with, the universities, and focus on innovative research which does not fit into the university structure due to their interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary nature or which require resources that cannot be met by the state universities.

    Internally, MPG Institutes are organized into research departments headed by directors such that each MPG institute has several directors, a position roughly comparable to anything from full professor to department head at a university. Other core members include Junior and Senior Research Fellows.

    In addition, there are several associated institutes:

    International Max Planck Research Schools
    Together with the Association of Universities and other Education Institutions in Germany, the MPG Society established numerous International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS) to promote junior scientists:

    Cologne Graduate School of Ageing Research, Cologne
    International Max Planck Research School for Intelligent Systems, at the MPG Institute for Intelligent Systems (DE) located in Tübingen and Stuttgart
    International Max Planck Research School on Adapting Behavior in a Fundamentally Uncertain World (Uncertainty School), at the Max Planck Institutes for Economics, for Human Development, and/or Research on Collective Goods
    International Max Planck Research School for Analysis, Design and Optimization in Chemical and Biochemical Process Engineering, Magdeburg
    International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics, Heidelberg at the MPG for Astronomy
    International Max Planck Research School for Astrophysics, Garching at the MPG Institute for Astrophysics
    International Max Planck Research School for Complex Surfaces in Material Sciences, Berlin
    International Max Planck Research School for Computer Science, Saarbrücken
    International Max Planck Research School for Earth System Modeling, Hamburg
    International Max Planck Research School for Elementary Particle Physics, Munich, at the MPG Institute for Physics
    International Max Planck Research School for Environmental, Cellular and Molecular Microbiology, Marburg at the MPG Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology
    International Max Planck Research School for Evolutionary Biology, Plön at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology
    International Max Planck Research School “From Molecules to Organisms”, Tübingen at the MPG Institute for Developmental Biology
    International Max Planck Research School for Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Jena at the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
    International Max Planck Research School on Gravitational Wave Astronomy, Hannover and Potsdam MPG Institute for Gravitational Physics
    International Max Planck Research School for Heart and Lung Research, Bad Nauheim at the MPG Institute for Heart and Lung Research
    International Max Planck Research School for Infectious Diseases and Immunity, Berlin at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology
    International Max Planck Research School for Language Sciences, Nijmegen
    International Max Planck Research School for Neurosciences, Göttingen
    International Max Planck Research School for Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience, Tübingen
    International Max Planck Research School for Marine Microbiology (MarMic), joint program of the MPG Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen, the University of Bremen [Universität Bremen](DE), the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, and the Jacobs University Bremen [Jacobs Universität Bremen] (DE)
    International Max Planck Research School for Maritime Affairs, Hamburg
    International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Freiburg
    International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Life Sciences, Munich
    International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Biology, Göttingen
    International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Cell Biology and Bioengineering, Dresden
    International Max Planck Research School Molecular Biomedicine, program combined with the ‘Graduate Programm Cell Dynamics And Disease’ at the University of Münster (DE) and the MPG Institute for Molecular Biomedicine (DE)
    International Max Planck Research School on Multiscale Bio-Systems, Potsdam
    International Max Planck Research School for Organismal Biology, at the University of Konstanz [Universität Konstanz] (DE) and the MPG Institute for Ornithology (DE)
    International Max Planck Research School on Reactive Structure Analysis for Chemical Reactions (IMPRS RECHARGE), Mülheim an der Ruhr, at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion (DE)
    International Max Planck Research School for Science and Technology of Nano-Systems, Halle at MPG Institute of Microstructure Physics (DE)
    International Max Planck Research School for Solar System Science at the University of Göttingen – Georg-August-Universität Göttingen (DE) hosted by MPG Institute for Solar System Research [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung] (DE)
    International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Bonn, at the MPG Institute for Radio Astronomy [MPG Institut für Radioastronomie] (DE) (formerly the International Max Planck Research School for Radio and Infrared Astronomy)
    International Max Planck Research School for the Social and Political Constitution of the Economy, Cologne
    International Max Planck Research School for Surface and Interface Engineering in Advanced Materials, Düsseldorf at MPG Institute for Iron Research [MPG Institut für Eisenforschung] (DE)
    International Max Planck Research School for Ultrafast Imaging and Structural Dynamics, Hamburg

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

    Access to ALMA observing time by the North American astronomical community will be through the North American ALMA Science Center (NAASC).

    *The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It’s the world’s largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye this sharp, you could be in Los Angeles and clearly read a street sign in New York City!

    Astronomers use the continent-sized VLBA to zoom in on objects that shine brightly in radio waves, long-wavelength light that’s well below infrared on the spectrum. They observe blazars, quasars, black holes, and stars in every stage of the stellar life cycle. They plot pulsars, exoplanets, and masers, and track asteroids and planets.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:47 am on July 8, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Molecular Gas in High Redshift Galaxies", National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US), ,   

    From University of Toronto (CA) and From University of British Columbia (CA) via National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US) : “Molecular Gas in High Redshift Galaxies” 

    From University of Toronto (CA)

    and

    U British Columbia bloc

    From University of British Columbia (CA)

    via

    NRAO Banner

    National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US)

    Jeff Shen (University of Toronto) and Allison Man (University of British Columbia)

    1
    White circles in this HST composite color image show the target galaxies at z = 2.9. There are several projected images for some of the galaxies (e.g., 2.a, 2.b and 2.c are three images of the same background galaxy). This effect is caused by gravitational lensing. Blue line indicates the lensing model’s critical line, across which galaxy images are reflected. Adapted from Shen et al. 2021.

    To obtain a complete picture of star formation and galaxy evolution, we must look to high-redshift galaxies in the early Universe. They hold the key to understanding how the galaxies of the past become the galaxies of the present. A crucial epoch is the so-called cosmic noon from z = 2 to 3, when star formation peaked. (Madau and Dickinson 2014). Understanding star formation at these redshifts is often done by observing the carbon monoxide molecule (CO), a tracer for cold gas, which is the immediate fuel for forming stars. This is typically done with powerful radio telescopes. Our team used ALMA to make observations of the CO(3-2) transition in several galaxies at z = 2.9 (Shen et al. 2021; see figure).

    Given that galaxies in the early Universe are very distant, CO observations at these redshifts tend to be biased toward the most extremely star-forming galaxies which harbor large reserves of molecular gas. We use gravitational lensing, whereby a massive foreground galaxy cluster between Earth and the target galaxies magnifies the incoming light from the target galaxies. This allows us to observe galaxies, previously identified in other wavelengths (Borys et al. 2004, Mackenzie et al. 2014), which are far less bright and massive than is typically observed in galaxies at comparable redshifts. To determine the gas mass, we need to convert our CO(3-2) observation into a CO(1-0) equivalent, which introduces significant systematic uncertainty. In the case of the most magnified galaxy, we find gas masses that are an order of magnitude below the typical gas masses of z > 1 galaxies from the literature. This analysis of more “normal” galaxies (i.e., representative of the general galaxy population) is made possible by the fortuitous lensing of the target galaxies, but in the future the ngVLA may make these kinds of observations commonplace.

    The ngVLA would allow for phenomenally detailed observations of cold gas in distant galaxies. With its long baselines, the ngVLA will be able to spatially resolve molecular gas in early galaxies, allowing us to characterize the gas dynamics and obtain virial mass estimates. Additionally, the ngVLA will be able to directly observe the CO(1-0) line, avoiding the uncertainty associated with the conversion from a higher J transition (Casey et al. 2015). These observations will be possible at sensitivities better than ever before, and perhaps more excitingly, it will be possible to detect CO(1-0) across a large range of redshifts, allowing for a more comprehensive view of galaxies through time (Decarli et al. 2018).

    Since 2015, the acronym ngVLA has appeared in 700+ publications indexed in the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System. This article continues a regular feature intended to highlight some of those publications. We are especially interested in showcasing work done by early-career researchers.

    Received via email, so no link.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Access to ALMA observing time by the North American astronomical community will be through the North American ALMA Science Center (NAASC).

    *The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It’s the world’s largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye this sharp, you could be in Los Angeles and clearly read a street sign in New York City!

    Astronomers use the continent-sized VLBA to zoom in on objects that shine brightly in radio waves, long-wavelength light that’s well below infrared on the spectrum. They observe blazars, quasars, black holes, and stars in every stage of the stellar life cycle. They plot pulsars, exoplanets, and masers, and track asteroids and planets.

    U British Columbia Campus

    The University of British Columbia (CA) is a global centre for research and teaching, consistently ranked among the 40 best universities in the world. Since 1915, UBC’s West Coast spirit has embraced innovation and challenged the status quo. Its entrepreneurial perspective encourages students, staff and faculty to challenge convention, lead discovery and explore new ways of learning. At UBC, bold thinking is given a place to develop into ideas that can change the world.

    The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a public research university with campuses in Vancouver and Kelowna, British Columbia. Established in 1908, UBC is British Columbia’s oldest university. The university ranks among the top three universities in Canada. With an annual research budget of $600 million, UBC funds over 8,000 projects a year.

    The Vancouver campus is situated adjacent to the University Endowment Lands located about 10 km (6 mi) west of downtown Vancouver. UBC is home to TRIUMF, Canada’s national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics, which houses the world’s largest cyclotron. In addition to the Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies and Stuart Blusson Quantum Matter Institute, UBC and the Max Planck Society (DE) collectively established the first Max Planck Institute in North America, specializing in quantum materials. One of the largest research libraries in Canada, the UBC Library system has over 9.9 million volumes among its 21 branches. The Okanagan campus, acquired in 2005, is located in Kelowna, British Columbia.

    Eight Nobel laureates, 71 Rhodes scholars, 65 Olympians, ten fellows in both American Academy of Arts & Sciences (US) and the Royal Society, and 273 fellows to the Royal Society of Canada [Société royale du Canada](CA) have been affiliated with UBC. Three Canadian prime ministers, including Canada’s first female prime minister Kim Campbell and current prime minister Justin Trudeau have been educated at UBC.

    Research

    The University of British Columbia is a member of Universitas 21, an international association of research-led institutions and the only Canadian member of the Association of Pacific Rim Universities, a consortium of 42 leading research universities in the Pacific Rim. In 2017, the University of British Columbia had the second-largest sponsored research income out of any Canadian university, totalling C$577 million. In the same year, the university’s faculty averaged a sponsored research income of $249,900, the eighth highest in the country, while graduate students averaged a sponsored research income of $55,200.

    The university has been ranked on several bibliometric university rankings, which uses citation analysis to evaluate the impact a university has on academic publications. In 2019, the Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities ranked UBC 27th in the world and second in Canada. The University Ranking by Academic Performance 2018–19 rankings placed the university 27th in the world and second in Canada.

    The university operates and manages a number of research centres:

    In 1972, a consortium of the University of British Columbia and four other universities from Alberta and British Columbia established the Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre. Located on Vancouver Island, the centre provides year-round research facilities and technical assistance for biologists, ecologists and oceanographers.
    The Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies is an interdisciplinary research institute for fundamental research in the Sciences, Social Sciences, and Humanities.
    The UBC Farm is a 24-hectare (59-acre) learning and research farm in UBC’s South Campus area. It features Saturday Farm Markets from early June until early October, selling organic produce and eggs to the community.
    TRIUMF, a laboratory specializing in particle and nuclear physics, is also situated at the university. The name was formerly an acronym for Tri-University Meson Facility, but TRIUMF is now owned and operated by a consortium of eleven Canadian universities. The consortium runs TRIUMF through a contribution of funds from the National Research Council of Canada [Conseil national de recherches Canada] (CA) and makes TRIUMF’s facilities available to Canadian scientists and to scientists from around the world.
    BC Centre on Substance Use (BCCSU) and UBC have established Professorships in Cannabis Science in 2018 following Canada’s legalization of cannabis.[96]
    The Centre for the Study of Democratic Institutions is a research institute for the teaching and study of innovation in democratic practice and institutions. Established in 2002, the centre conducts research and teaching in cooperation with scholars, public officials, NGOs and students. The centre is formally housed in the UBC School of Public Policy and Global Affairs (SPPGA), and operates in association with faculty in the UBC Department of Political Science. It was initially funded from the Merilees Chair through a donation by Gail and Stephen Jarislowsky.
    The Stewart Blusson Quantum Matter Institute, one of three Canadian research institutes focused on quantum materials and technology research, was established in 2015 with the support of the Canada First Excellence Research Fund and a donation from Stewart Blusson.

    In 2017, UBC inked a $3 million research agreement with Huawei for big data and fuel cell technology. The university refused to release the agreement without an access to information request.

    The University of Toronto (CA) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen’s Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King’s College, the oldest university in the province of Ontario.

    Originally controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed its present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution.

    As a collegiate university, it comprises eleven colleges each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs and significant differences in character and history. The university also operates two satellite campuses located in Scarborough and Mississauga.

    University of Toronto has evolved into Canada’s leading institution of learning, discovery and knowledge creation. We are proud to be one of the world’s top research-intensive universities, driven to invent and innovate.

    Our students have the opportunity to learn from and work with preeminent thought leaders through our multidisciplinary network of teaching and research faculty, alumni and partners.

    The ideas, innovations and actions of more than 560,000 graduates continue to have a positive impact on the world.

    Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory, known collectively as the Toronto School.

    The university was the birthplace of insulin and stem cell research, and was the site of the first electron microscope in North America; the identification of the first black hole Cygnus X-1; multi-touch technology, and the development of the theory of NP-completeness.

    The university was one of several universities involved in early research of deep learning. It receives the most annual scientific research funding of any Canadian university and is one of two members of the Association of American Universities (US) outside the United States, the other being McGill(CA).

    The Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, with ties to gridiron football, rowing and ice hockey. The earliest recorded instance of gridiron football occurred at University of Toronto’s University College in November 1861.

    The university’s Hart House is an early example of the North American student centre, simultaneously serving cultural, intellectual, and recreational interests within its large Gothic-revival complex.

    The University of Toronto has educated three Governors General of Canada, four Prime Ministers of Canada, three foreign leaders, and fourteen Justices of the Supreme Court. As of March 2019, ten Nobel laureates, five Turing Award winners, 94 Rhodes Scholars, and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with the university.

    Early history

    The founding of a colonial college had long been the desire of John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada and founder of York, the colonial capital. As an University of Oxford (UK)-educated military commander who had fought in the American Revolutionary War, Simcoe believed a college was needed to counter the spread of republicanism from the United States. The Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 that a college be established in York.

    On March 15, 1827, a royal charter was formally issued by King George IV, proclaiming “from this time one College, with the style and privileges of a University … for the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion, and for their instruction in the various branches of Science and Literature … to continue for ever, to be called King’s College.” The granting of the charter was largely the result of intense lobbying by John Strachan, the influential Anglican Bishop of Toronto who took office as the college’s first president. The original three-storey Greek Revival school building was built on the present site of Queen’s Park.

    Under Strachan’s stewardship, King’s College was a religious institution closely aligned with the Church of England and the British colonial elite, known as the Family Compact. Reformist politicians opposed the clergy’s control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college secularized. In 1849, after a lengthy and heated debate, the newly elected responsible government of the Province of Canada voted to rename King’s College as the University of Toronto and severed the school’s ties with the church. Having anticipated this decision, the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open Trinity College as a private Anglican seminary. University College was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto. During the American Civil War the threat of Union blockade on British North America prompted the creation of the University Rifle Corps which saw battle in resisting the Fenian raids on the Niagara border in 1866. The Corps was part of the Reserve Militia lead by Professor Henry Croft.

    Established in 1878, the School of Practical Science was the precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering which has been nicknamed Skule since its earliest days. While the Faculty of Medicine opened in 1843 medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887 when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine. Meanwhile the university continued to set examinations and confer medical degrees. The university opened the Faculty of Law in 1887, followed by the Faculty of Dentistry in 1888 when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate. Women were first admitted to the university in 1884.

    A devastating fire in 1890 gutted the interior of University College and destroyed 33,000 volumes from the library but the university restored the building and replenished its library within two years. Over the next two decades a collegiate system took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges including Strachan’s Trinity College in 1904. The university operated the Royal Conservatory of Music from 1896 to 1991 and the Royal Ontario Museum from 1912 to 1968; both still retain close ties with the university as independent institutions. The University of Toronto Press was founded in 1901 as Canada’s first academic publishing house. The Faculty of Forestry founded in 1907 with Bernhard Fernow as dean was Canada’s first university faculty devoted to forest science. In 1910, the Faculty of Education opened its laboratory school, the University of Toronto Schools.

    World wars and post-war years

    The First and Second World Wars curtailed some university activities as undergraduate and graduate men eagerly enlisted. Intercollegiate athletic competitions and the Hart House Debates were suspended although exhibition and interfaculty games were still held. The David Dunlap Observatory in Richmond Hill opened in 1935 followed by the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies in 1949. The university opened satellite campuses in Scarborough in 1964 and in Mississauga in 1967. The university’s former affiliated schools at the Ontario Agricultural College and Glendon Hall became fully independent of the University of Toronto and became part of University of Guelph (CA) in 1964 and York University (CA) in 1965 respectively. Beginning in the 1980s reductions in government funding prompted more rigorous fundraising efforts.

    Since 2000

    In 2000 Kin-Yip Chun was reinstated as a professor of the university after he launched an unsuccessful lawsuit against the university alleging racial discrimination. In 2017 a human rights application was filed against the University by one of its students for allegedly delaying the investigation of sexual assault and being dismissive of their concerns. In 2018 the university cleared one of its professors of allegations of discrimination and antisemitism in an internal investigation after a complaint was filed by one of its students.

    The University of Toronto was the first Canadian university to amass a financial endowment greater than c. $1 billion in 2007. On September 24, 2020 the university announced a $250 million gift to the Faculty of Medicine from businessman and philanthropist James C. Temerty- the largest single philanthropic donation in Canadian history. This broke the previous record for the school set in 2019 when Gerry Schwartz and Heather Reisman jointly donated $100 million for the creation of a 750,000-square foot innovation and artificial intelligence centre.

    Research

    Since 1926 the University of Toronto has been a member of the Association of American Universities (US) a consortium of the leading North American research universities. The university manages by far the largest annual research budget of any university in Canada with sponsored direct-cost expenditures of $878 million in 2010. In 2018 the University of Toronto was named the top research university in Canada by Research Infosource with a sponsored research income (external sources of funding) of $1,147.584 million in 2017. In the same year the university’s faculty averaged a sponsored research income of $428,200 while graduate students averaged a sponsored research income of $63,700. The federal government was the largest source of funding with grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council; and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council amounting to about one-third of the research budget. About eight percent of research funding came from corporations- mostly in the healthcare industry.

    The first practical electron microscope was built by the physics department in 1938. During World War II the university developed the G-suit- a life-saving garment worn by Allied fighter plane pilots later adopted for use by astronauts.Development of the infrared chemiluminescence technique improved analyses of energy behaviours in chemical reactions. In 1963 the asteroid 2104 Toronto was discovered in the David Dunlap Observatory (CA) in Richmond Hill and is named after the university. In 1972 studies on Cygnus X-1 led to the publication of the first observational evidence proving the existence of black holes. Toronto astronomers have also discovered the Uranian moons of Caliban and Sycorax; the dwarf galaxies of Andromeda I, II and III; and the supernova SN 1987A. A pioneer in computing technology the university designed and built UTEC- one of the world’s first operational computers- and later purchased Ferut- the second commercial computer after UNIVAC I. Multi-touch technology was developed at Toronto with applications ranging from handheld devices to collaboration walls. The AeroVelo Atlas which won the Igor I. Sikorsky Human Powered Helicopter Competition in 2013 was developed by the university’s team of students and graduates and was tested in Vaughan.

    The discovery of insulin at the University of Toronto in 1921 is considered among the most significant events in the history of medicine. The stem cell was discovered at the university in 1963 forming the basis for bone marrow transplantation and all subsequent research on adult and embryonic stem cells. This was the first of many findings at Toronto relating to stem cells including the identification of pancreatic and retinal stem cells. The cancer stem cell was first identified in 1997 by Toronto researchers who have since found stem cell associations in leukemia; brain tumors; and colorectal cancer. Medical inventions developed at Toronto include the glycaemic index; the infant cereal Pablum; the use of protective hypothermia in open heart surgery; and the first artificial cardiac pacemaker. The first successful single-lung transplant was performed at Toronto in 1981 followed by the first nerve transplant in 1988; and the first double-lung transplant in 1989. Researchers identified the maturation promoting factor that regulates cell division and discovered the T-cell receptor which triggers responses of the immune system. The university is credited with isolating the genes that cause Fanconi anemia; cystic fibrosis; and early-onset Alzheimer’s disease among numerous other diseases. Between 1914 and 1972 the university operated the Connaught Medical Research Laboratories- now part of the pharmaceutical corporation Sanofi-Aventis. Among the research conducted at the laboratory was the development of gel electrophoresis.

    The University of Toronto is the primary research presence that supports one of the world’s largest concentrations of biotechnology firms. More than 5,000 principal investigators reside within 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the university grounds in Toronto’s Discovery District conducting $1 billion of medical research annually. MaRS Discovery District is a research park that serves commercial enterprises and the university’s technology transfer ventures. In 2008, the university disclosed 159 inventions and had 114 active start-up companies. Its SciNet Consortium operates the most powerful supercomputer in Canada.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:05 pm on June 9, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , A team of astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array has completed the first census of molecular clouds., Each stellar nursery in the Universe can form thousands or even tens of thousands of new stars during its lifetime., National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US), , Ten papers detailing the outcomes of the PHANGS survey are presented this week at the 238th meeting of the American Astronomical Society.   

    From National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US) : Women in STEM-Annie Hughes”Cosmic cartographers map nearby Universe revealing the diversity of star-forming galaxies” 

    NRAO Banner

    From National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US)

    June 8, 2021

    Amy C. Oliver
    Public Information Officer, ALMA
    Public Information & News Manager, NRAO
    +1 434 242 9584
    aoliver@nrao.edu

    1
    Credit: PHANGS, S. Dagnello (NRAO), Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array(CL) (ESO [Observatoire européen austral][Europäische Südsternwarte](EU)(CL)/National Astronomical Observatory of Japan [国立天文台](JP)/National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US)).

    A team of astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)[below] has completed the first census of molecular clouds.

    In the nearby Universe, revealing that contrary to previous scientific opinion, these stellar nurseries do not all look and act the same. In fact, they’re as diverse as the people, homes, neighborhoods, and regions that make up our own world.

    Stars are formed out of clouds of dust and gas called molecular clouds, or stellar nurseries. Each stellar nursery in the Universe can form thousands or even tens of thousands of new stars during its lifetime. Between 2013 and 2019, astronomers on the PHANGS— Physics at High Angular Resolution in Nearby GalaxieS— project conducted the first systematic survey of 100,000 stellar nurseries across 90 galaxies in the nearby Universe to get a better understanding of how they connect back to their parent galaxies.

    ““We used to think that all stellar nurseries across every galaxy must look more or less the same, but this survey has revealed that this is not the case, and stellar nurseries change from place to place,” said Adam Leroy, Associate Professor of Astronomy at Ohio State University (US), and lead author of the paper presenting the PHANGS ALMA survey. “This is the first time that we have ever taken millimeter-wave images of many nearby galaxies that have the same sharpness and quality as optical pictures. And while optical pictures show us light from stars, these ground-breaking new images show us the molecular clouds that form those stars.”

    The scientists compared these changes to the way that people, houses, neighborhoods, and cities exhibit like-characteristics but change from region to region and country to country.

    “To understand how stars form, we need to link the birth of a single star back to its place in the Universe. It’s like linking a person to their home, neighborhood, city, and region. If a galaxy represents a city, then the neighborhood is the spiral arm, the house the star-forming unit, and nearby galaxies are neighboring cities in the region,” said Eva Schinnerer, an astronomer at the MPG Institute for Astronomy [MPG Institut für Astronomie](DE) and principal investigator for the PHANGS collaboration “These observations have taught us that the “neighborhood” has small but pronounced effects on where and how many stars are born.”

    To better understand star formation in different types of galaxies, the team observed similarities and differences in the molecular gas properties and star formation processes of galaxy disks, stellar bars, spiral arms, and galaxy centers. They confirmed that the location, or neighborhood, plays a critical role in star formation.

    “By mapping different types of galaxies and the diverse range of environments that exist within galaxies, we are tracing the whole range of conditions under which star-forming clouds of gas live in the present-day Universe. This allows us to measure the impact that many different variables have on the way star formation happens,” said Guillermo Blanc, an astronomer at the Carnegie Institution for Science (US), and a co-author on the paper.

    “How stars form, and how their galaxy affects that process, are fundamental aspects of astrophysics,” said Joseph Pesce, National Science Foundation’s program officer for NRAO/ALMA. “The PHANGS project utilizes the exquisite observational power of the ALMA observatory and has provided remarkable insight into the story of star formation in a new and different way.”

    Annie Hughes, an astronomer at Research Institute in Astrophysics and Planetology [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie ] (FR), added that this is the first time scientists have a snapshot of what star-forming clouds are really like across such a broad range of different galaxies. “We found that the properties of star-forming clouds depend on where they are located: clouds in the dense central regions of galaxies tend to be more massive, denser, and more turbulent than clouds that reside in the quiet outskirts of a galaxy. The lifecycle of clouds also depends on their environment. How fast a cloud forms stars and the process that ultimately destroys the cloud both seem to depend on where the cloud lives.”

    This is not the first time that stellar nurseries have been observed in other galaxies using ALMA, but nearly all previous studies focused on individual galaxies or part of one. Over a five-year period, PHANGS assembled a full view of the nearby population of galaxies. “The PHANGS project is a new form of cosmic cartography that allows us to see the diversity of galaxies in a new light, literally. We are finally seeing the diversity of star-forming gas across many galaxies and are able to understand how they are changing over time. It was impossible to make these detailed maps before ALMA,” said Erik Rosolowsky, Associate Professor of Physics at the University of Alberta, and a co-author on the research. “This new atlas contains 90 of the best maps ever made that reveal where the next generation of stars is going to form.”

    For the team, the new atlas doesn’t mean the end of the road. While the survey has answered questions about what and where, it has raised others. “This is the first time we have gotten a clear view of the population of stellar nurseries across the whole nearby Universe. In that sense, it’s a big step towards understanding where we come from,” said Leroy. “While we now know that stellar nurseries vary from place to place, we still do not know why or how these variations affect the stars and planets formed. These are questions that we hope to answer in the near future.”

    Ten papers detailing the outcomes of the PHANGS survey are presented this week at the 238th meeting of the American Astronomical Society.

    Resource:
    PHANGS-ALMA: Arcsecond CO(2-1) Imaging of Nearby Star-Forming Galaxies, Leroy et al, Astrophysical Journal Supplement series accepted.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Access to ALMA observing time by the North American astronomical community will be through the North American ALMA Science Center (NAASC).

    *The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It’s the world’s largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye this sharp, you could be in Los Angeles and clearly read a street sign in New York City!

    Astronomers use the continent-sized VLBA to zoom in on objects that shine brightly in radio waves, long-wavelength light that’s well below infrared on the spectrum. They observe blazars, quasars, black holes, and stars in every stage of the stellar life cycle. They plot pulsars, exoplanets, and masers, and track asteroids and planets.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:37 am on June 8, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Qorvo Provides Key Enabling Technology for Identifying Mapping and Tracking Threats from Near-Earth Objects", National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US)   

    From National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US) : “Qorvo Provides Key Enabling Technology for Identifying Mapping and Tracking Threats from Near-Earth Objects” 

    NRAO Banner

    From National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US)

    June 8, 2021

    Amy C. Oliver
    Public Information & News Manager
    National Radio Astronomy Observatory HQ
    +1 434 242 9584
    aoliver@nrao.edu

    Katie Caballero
    Marketing Communications Manager
    Qorvo Infrastructure and Defense Products
    + 1 972 994 8546
    Katie.caballero@qorvo.com

    1
    Credit: S. Dagnello /NRAO/Associated Universities Inc (US)/National Science Foundation (US).

    Qorvo® (Nasdaq: QRVO), a leading provider of innovative radio frequency (RF) solutions that connect the world, today announced its Spatium® solid-state power amplifier (SSPA) technology will play a key role in a new planetary radar experiment using the Green Bank Telescope (US) in West Virginia. Planetary radar is instrumental in characterizing Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) by providing precision measurement of shape, rotation, position, and an estimate of composition.

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and Raytheon Intelligence & Space (RI&S) are collaborating on a project to improve planetary radar capabilities that would allow for earlier and more precise analysis of targeted NEOs. Until now, traditional radar has lacked the necessary power to identify and characterize smaller NEOs. Qorvo’s Spatium power amplifier technology offers advantages of higher RF power output and reliability and could play a key role in the next generation of ground-based planetary radar.

    NRAO and Green Bank Observatory, using a RI&S radar, conducted the first-ever transmission from the National Science Foundation’s Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia. The test produced detailed images of the Apollo 15 moon landing site by way of a transmitter installed on the Green Bank Telescope. At the heart of this RF transmitter lies Spatium technology, 700 watt, 13-16GHz SSPA providing the power necessary to achieve this technological milestone.

    “Our first radar study with Raytheon characterized the moon in unexpected ways, and we anticipate that this upcoming study will do the same for Near-Earth Objects,” said Tony Beasley, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and vice president for Radio Astronomy at Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI). “Each milestone we achieve in this and other research and technology collaborations informs and improves our efforts toward the next generation of radio telescopes and observations.”

    This new capability paves the way for exploring other planets and objects in the solar system without the need to launch additional space probes or satellites. Powerful radar signals have been beamed from Earth into space and bounced from objects in our solar system since the 1950s. Using the Green Bank Telescope and Spatium as a transmitter will increase scientists’ ability to use radar to explore the solar system using ground-based instruments.

    Roger Hall, Qorvo’s general manager of High Performance Solutions, said, “We are proud to be part of this historical technological milestone. Spatium technology provides a unique value proposition in the market and offers customers a solution not available anywhere else. We continue to invest in and develop new standard, higher power derivatives of Spatium products for K, Ka and Ku bands to meet the growing needs of our customers.”

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory and the Green Bank Observatory are facilities of the National Science Foundation (US), operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc (US).

    About Qorvo

    Qorvo (Nasdaq: QRVO) makes a better world possible by providing innovative Radio Frequency (RF) solutions at the center of connectivity. We combine product and technology leadership, systems-level expertise and global manufacturing scale to quickly solve our customers’ most complex technical challenges. Qorvo serves diverse high-growth segments of large global markets, including advanced wireless devices, wired and wireless networks and defense radar and communications. We also leverage unique competitive strengths to advance 5G networks, cloud computing, the Internet of Things, and other emerging applications that expand the global framework interconnecting people, places and things. Visit http://www.qorvo.com to learn how Qorvo connects the world.

    Qorvo is a registered trademark of Qorvo, Inc. in the U.S. and in other countries. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Access to ALMA observing time by the North American astronomical community will be through the North American ALMA Science Center (NAASC).

    *The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It’s the world’s largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye this sharp, you could be in Los Angeles and clearly read a street sign in New York City!

    Astronomers use the continent-sized VLBA to zoom in on objects that shine brightly in radio waves, long-wavelength light that’s well below infrared on the spectrum. They observe blazars, quasars, black holes, and stars in every stage of the stellar life cycle. They plot pulsars, exoplanets, and masers, and track asteroids and planets.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:50 pm on June 3, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Jets from Massive Protostars Might be Very Different from Lower-Mass Systems Astronomers Find", Astronomers studying the fast-moving jet of material ejected by a still-forming massive young star found a major difference between that jet and those ejected by less-massive young stars., , , , National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US),   

    From National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US): “Jets from Massive Protostars Might be Very Different from Lower-Mass Systems Astronomers Find” 

    NRAO Banner

    From National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US)

    June 3, 2021

    Media Contact:
    Dave Finley, Public Information Officer
    (505) 241-9210
    dfinley@nrao.edu

    1
    Credit: Bill Saxton, National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US)/Associated Universities Inc (US)/National Science Foundation (US)

    Astronomers studying the fast-moving jet of material ejected by a still-forming massive young star found a major difference between that jet and those ejected by less-massive young stars. The scientists made the discovery by using the U.S. National Science Foundation’s Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) [below] to make the most detailed image yet of the inner region of such a jet coming from a massive young star.

    Both low- and high-mass young stars, or protostars, propel jets outward perpendicular to a disk of material closely orbiting the star. In stars with masses similar to the Sun, these jets are narrowed, or focused, relatively tightly near to the star in a process called collimation. Because most high-mass protostars are more distant, studying the regions close to them has been more difficult, so astronomers were unclear if this was the case with them.

    A team of scientists observed a massive protostar called Cep A HW2, located about 2,300 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cepheus. Cep A HW2 is expected to develop into a new star about 10 times more massive than the Sun. The new VLA images showed the finest detail yet seen in such an object, giving the astronomers their first view of the innermost portion of the jet, a portion roughly as long as the diameter of the Solar System.

    “What we saw is very different from what usually is seen in the jets from low-mass stars,” said Adriana Rodriguez-Kamenetzky, of the National Autonomous University of Mexico [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México](MX) (UNAM).

    In lower-mass protostars, observations have shown the jets to be collimated as close to the star as only a few times the Earth-Sun distance.

    In Cep A HW2, however, “We see not a single jet, but two things — a wide-angle wind originating close to the star, then a highly-collimated jet some distance away,” said Alberto Sanna, of the INAF Cagliari Observatory [Osservatorio Astronomico Cagliari] (IT) in Italy. The collimated jet starts at a distance from the star comparable to the distance from the Sun to Uranus or Neptune.

    The discovery raises two main possibilities, the astronomers said.

    2
    VLA image of the jet from protostar Cep A HW2. Credit: Carrasco-González et al. Credit: Bill Saxton NRAO/AUI/NSF.

    First, the same mechanism could be at work in both high-mass and low-mass protostars, but the collimation distance could be determined by the mass, occurring farther away in more-massive systems. The second possibility is that high-mass stars might produce only the wide-angle wind seen in Cep A HW2, with collimation only coming when physical conditions around the star restrict the flow.

    “That case would point to a major difference in the mechanisms at work in protostars of different masses,” said Carlos Carrasco-Gonzalez, also of UNAM, leader of the work. “Answering this question is important to understanding how stars of all masses form,” he added.

    Carrasco-Gonzalez and his colleagues are reporting their findings in The Astrophysical Journal Letters .

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Access to ALMA observing time by the North American astronomical community will be through the North American ALMA Science Center (NAASC).

    *The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It’s the world’s largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye this sharp, you could be in Los Angeles and clearly read a street sign in New York City!

    Astronomers use the continent-sized VLBA to zoom in on objects that shine brightly in radio waves, long-wavelength light that’s well below infrared on the spectrum. They observe blazars, quasars, black holes, and stars in every stage of the stellar life cycle. They plot pulsars, exoplanets, and masers, and track asteroids and planets.

     
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