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  • richardmitnick 9:19 pm on February 2, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , NASA Spitzer, SPT-CL J0615-5746   

    From Hubble: “NASA’s Great Observatories Team Up to Find Magnified and Stretched Out Image of Distant Galaxy” 

    NASA Hubble Banner

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    Jan 11, 2018

    Ray Villard
    Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
    410-338-4514
    villard@stsci.edu

    1
    Release type: American Astronomical Society Meeting

    Small, Embryonic Galaxy Formed Just 500 Million Years After the Big Bang.

    As powerful as NASA’s Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes are, they need a little help from nature in seeking out the farthest, and hence earliest galaxies that first appeared in the universe after the big bang. This help comes from a natural zoom lens in the universe, formed by the warping of space by intense gravitational fields.

    Gravitational Lensing NASA/ESA

    The most powerful “zoom lenses” out there are formed by very massive foreground clusters that bend space like a bowling ball rolling across a soft mattress. The lens boosts the brightness of distant background objects. The farthest candidates simply appear as red dots in Hubble photos because of their small size and great distance.

    However, astronomers got very lucky when they looked at galaxy cluster SPT-CL J0615-5746. Embedded in the photo is an arc-like structure that is not only the amplified image of a background galaxy, but an image that has been smeared into a crescent-shape. This image allowed astronomers to estimate that the diminutive galaxy weighs in at no more than 3 billion solar masses (roughly 1/100th the mass of our fully grown Milky Way galaxy). It is less than 2,500 light-years across, half the size of the Small Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of our Milky Way.

    Small Magellanic Cloud. NASA/ESA Hubble and ESO/Digitized Sky Survey 2

    The object is considered prototypical of young galaxies that emerged during the epoch shortly after the big bang. Hubble’s clarity, combined with Spitzer’s infrared sensitivity to light reddened by the expanding universe, allowed for the object’s vast distance to be calculated.

    The Full Story

    1

    An intensive survey deep into the universe by NASA’s Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes has yielded the proverbial needle-in-a-haystack: the farthest galaxy yet seen in an image that has been stretched and amplified by a phenomenon called gravitational lensing.

    NASA/Spitzer Infrared Telescope

    The embryonic galaxy named SPT0615-JD existed when the universe was just 500 million years old. Though a few other primitive galaxies have been seen at this early epoch, they have essentially all looked like red dots given their small size and tremendous distances. However, in this case, the gravitational field of a massive foreground galaxy cluster not only amplified the light from the background galaxy but also smeared the image of it into an arc (about 2 arcseconds long).

    “No other candidate galaxy has been found at such a great distance that also gives you the spatial information that this arc image does. By analyzing the effects of gravitational lensing on the image of this galaxy, we can determine its actual size and shape,” said the study’s lead author Brett Salmon of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. He is presenting his research at the 231st meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Washington, D.C.

    First predicted by Albert Einstein a century ago, the warping of space by the gravity of a massive foreground object can brighten and distort the images of far more distant background objects. Astronomers use this “zoom lens” effect to go hunting for amplified images of distant galaxies that otherwise would not be visible with today’s telescopes.

    SPT0615-JD was identified in Hubble’s Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey (RELICS) and companion S-RELICS Spitzer program. “RELICS was designed to discover distant galaxies like these that are magnified brightly enough for detailed study,” said Dan Coe, Principal Investigator of RELICS. RELICS observed 41 massive galaxy clusters for the first time in the infrared with Hubble to search for such distant lensed galaxies. One of these clusters was SPT-CL J0615-5746, which Salmon analyzed to make this discovery. Upon finding the lens-arc, Salmon thought, “Oh, wow! I think we’re on to something!”

    By combining the Hubble and Spitzer data, Salmon calculated the lookback time to the galaxy of 13.3 billion years. Preliminary analysis suggests the diminutive galaxy weighs in at no more than 3 billion solar masses (roughly 1/100th the mass of our fully grown Milky Way galaxy). It is less than 2,500 light-years across, half the size of the Small Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of our Milky Way. The object is considered prototypical of young galaxies that emerged during the epoch shortly after the big bang.

    The galaxy is right at the limits of Hubble’s detection capabilities, but just the beginning for the upcoming NASA James Webb Space Telescope’s powerful capabilities, said Salmon. “This galaxy is an exciting target for science with the Webb telescope as it offers the unique opportunity for resolving stellar populations in the very early universe.” Spectroscopy with Webb will allow for astronomers to study in detail the firestorm of starbirth activity taking place at this early epoch, and resolve its substructure.

    NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, manages the Spitzer Space Telescope mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. Science operations are conducted at the Spitzer Science Center at Caltech in Pasadena. Spacecraft operations are based at Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Littleton, Colorado. Data are archived at the Infrared Science Archive housed at IPAC at Caltech. Caltech manages JPL for NASA.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), is a free-standing science center, located on the campus of The Johns Hopkins University and operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) for NASA, conducts Hubble science operations.

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  • richardmitnick 1:12 pm on January 20, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Galaxies Show Order in Chaotic Young Universe, , NASA Spitzer,   

    From Sky & Telescope: “Galaxies Show Order in Chaotic Young Universe” 

    SKY&Telescope bloc

    Sky & Telescope

    January 15, 2018
    Monica Young

    New observations of galaxies in a universe just 800 million years old show that they’ve already settled into rotating disks. They must have evolved quickly to display such surprising maturity.

    1
    Data visualization of the the velocity gradient across the two surprisingly evolved young galaxies.
    Hubble (NASA/ESA), ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), P. Oesch (University of Geneva) and R. Smit (University of Cambridge).

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array in Chile in the Atacama at Chajnantor plateau, at 5,000 metres

    Our cosmos was a messy youngster. Hotter and denser than the universe we live in now, it was home to turbulent gas flinging about under the influence of gravity. Theorists think the earliest galaxies built up gradually, first clump by clump, then by mergers with other galaxies.

    Astronomers expected that most galaxies living among this early chaos would be turbulent masses themselves. But new observations have revealed two surprisingly mature galaxies when the universe was only 800 million years old. Renske Smit (University of Cambridge, UK) and colleagues report in the January 11th Nature that these two galaxies have already settled into rotating disks, suggesting they evolved rapidly right after they were born.

    Smit and colleagues first found the two galaxies in deep Spitzer Space Telescope images,

    NASA/Spitzer Infrared Telescope

    then followed up using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), a network of radio dishes high in the Atacama Desert in Chile. ALMA’s incredible resolution enabled the astronomers to measure radiation from ionized carbon — an element associated with forming stars — across the face of these diminutive galaxies.

    Consider for a moment: These galaxies are a fifth the size of the Milky Way, and they’re incredibly far away — their light has traveled 13 billion years to Earth. Even in images taken by the eagle-eyed Hubble Space Telescope, such galaxies appear as small red dots.

    3
    Distant Galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field
    This Hubble Space Telescope image shows 28 of the more than 500 young galaxies that existed when the universe was less than 1 billion years old. The galaxies were uncovered in a study of two of the most distant surveys of the cosmos, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), completed in 2004, and the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), made in 2003.

    Just a few years ago, astronomers had not spotted any galaxies that existed significantly less than 1 billion years after the Big Bang. The galaxies spied in the HUDF and GOODS surveys are blue galaxies brimming with star birth.

    The large image at left shows the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, taken by the Hubble telescope. The numbers next to the small boxes correspond to close-up views of 28 of the newly found galaxies at right. The galaxies in the postage-stamp size images appear red because of their tremendous distance from Earth. The blue light from their young stars took nearly 13 billion years to arrive at Earth. During the journey, the blue light was shifted to red light due to the expansion of space.

    Yet astronomers are now able to point an array of radio dishes to not only spot the galaxies themselves but also capture features within them down to a couple thousand light-years across.

    They Grow Up So Fast

    The ALMA observations revealed that these two galaxies aren’t the turbulent free-for-all that astronomers expect for most galaxies in this early time period. Their rotating disks aren’t quite like the Milky Way’s, as spiral arms take time to form. Instead, they look more like the fluffy disk galaxies typically seen at so-called cosmic noon, the universe’s adolescent period of star formation and galaxy growth. That implies rapid evolution, as cosmic noon occurred more than 2 billion years after these two galaxies existed.

    Simulations had predicted that it’s possible for some galaxies to evolve more quickly than their peers, notes Nicolas LaPorte (University College London), but it had never been observed before. “This paper represents a great leap forward in the study of the first galaxies,” he says.

    Smit says that these two galaxies seem to stand out from their cohort, which makes sense given their quick growth: Among other things, they’re forming tens of Suns’ worth of stars every year, more than is typical for their time period. Smit is already planning additional observations to see just how different these galaxies are from their peers.

    See the full article here .

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    Sky & Telescope magazine, founded in 1941 by Charles A. Federer Jr. and Helen Spence Federer, has the largest, most experienced staff of any astronomy magazine in the world. Its editors are virtually all amateur or professional astronomers, and every one has built a telescope, written a book, done original research, developed a new product, or otherwise distinguished him or herself.

    Sky & Telescope magazine, now in its eighth decade, came about because of some happy accidents. Its earliest known ancestor was a four-page bulletin called The Amateur Astronomer, which was begun in 1929 by the Amateur Astronomers Association in New York City. Then, in 1935, the American Museum of Natural History opened its Hayden Planetarium and began to issue a monthly bulletin that became a full-size magazine called The Sky within a year. Under the editorship of Hans Christian Adamson, The Sky featured large illustrations and articles from astronomers all over the globe. It immediately absorbed The Amateur Astronomer.

    Despite initial success, by 1939 the planetarium found itself unable to continue financial support of The Sky. Charles A. Federer, who would become the dominant force behind Sky & Telescope, was then working as a lecturer at the planetarium. He was asked to take over publishing The Sky. Federer agreed and started an independent publishing corporation in New York.

    “Our first issue came out in January 1940,” he noted. “We dropped from 32 to 24 pages, used cheaper quality paper…but editorially we further defined the departments and tried to squeeze as much information as possible between the covers.” Federer was The Sky’s editor, and his wife, Helen, served as managing editor. In that January 1940 issue, they stated their goal: “We shall try to make the magazine meet the needs of amateur astronomy, so that amateur astronomers will come to regard it as essential to their pursuit, and professionals to consider it a worthwhile medium in which to bring their work before the public.”

     
  • richardmitnick 12:28 pm on January 11, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Galaxy SPT0615-JD, , , NASA Spitzer, NASA's Great Observatories Team Up to Find Magnified and Stretched Image of Distant Galaxy   

    From JPL-Caltech: “NASA’s Great Observatories Team Up to Find Magnified and Stretched Image of Distant Galaxy” 

    NASA JPL Banner

    JPL-Caltech

    January 11, 2018
    Guy Webster
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
    818-354-6278
    guy.webster@jpl.nasa.gov

    Ray Villard
    Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
    410-338-4514
    villard@stsci.edu

    Laurie Cantillo
    NASA Headquarters, Washington
    202-358-1077
    laura.l.cantillo@nasa.gov

    Dwayne Brown
    NASA Headquarters, Washington
    202-358-1726
    dwayne.c.brown@nasa.gov

    1
    This Hubble Space Telescope image shows the farthest galaxy yet seen in an image that has been stretched and amplified by a phenomenon called gravitational lensing. Credits: NASA , ESA, and B. Salmon (STScI)

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    NASA/Spitzer Infrared Telescope

    An intensive survey deep into the universe by NASA’s Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes has yielded the proverbial needle-in-a-haystack: the farthest galaxy yet seen in an image that has been stretched and amplified by a phenomenon called gravitational lensing.

    Gravitational Lensing NASA/ESA

    The embryonic galaxy named SPT0615-JD existed when the universe was just 500 million years old. Though a few other primitive galaxies have been seen at this early epoch, they have essentially all looked like red dots, given their small size and tremendous distances. However, in this case, the gravitational field of a massive foreground galaxy cluster not only amplified the light from the background galaxy but also smeared the image of it into an arc (about 2 arcseconds long).

    “No other candidate galaxy has been found at such a great distance that also gives you the spatial information that this arc image does. By analyzing the effects of gravitational lensing on the image of this galaxy, we can determine its actual size and shape,” said the study’s lead author, Brett Salmon of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore. He is presenting his research at the 231st meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Washington.

    First predicted by Albert Einstein a century ago, the warping of space by the gravity of a massive foreground object can brighten and distort the images of far more distant background objects. Astronomers use this “zoom lens” effect to go hunting for amplified images of distant galaxies that otherwise would not be visible with today’s telescopes.

    SPT0615-JD was identified in Hubble’s Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey (RELICS) and companion S-RELICS Spitzer program. “RELICS was designed to discover distant galaxies like these that are magnified brightly enough for detailed study,” said Dan Coe, principal investigator of RELICS. RELICS observed 41 massive galaxy clusters for the first time in infrared with Hubble to search for such distant lensed galaxies. One of these clusters was SPT-CL J0615-5746, which Salmon analyzed to make this discovery. Upon finding the lens-arc, Salmon thought, “Oh, wow! I think we’re on to something!”

    By combining the Hubble and Spitzer data, Salmon calculated the lookback time to the galaxy of 13.3 billion years. Preliminary analysis suggests the diminutive galaxy weighs in at no more than 3 billion solar masses (roughly 1/100th the mass of our fully grown Milky Way galaxy). It is less than 2,500 light-years across, half the size of the Small Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of our Milky Way. The object is considered prototypical of young galaxies that emerged during the epoch shortly after the big bang.

    The galaxy is right at the limits of Hubble’s detection capabilities, but just the beginning for the upcoming NASA James Webb Space Telescope’s powerful capabilities, said Salmon. “This galaxy is an exciting target for science with the Webb telescope as it offers the unique opportunity for resolving stellar populations in the very early universe.” Spectroscopy with Webb will allow for astronomers to study in detail the firestorm of starbirth activity taking place at this early epoch, and resolve its substructure.

    NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, manages the Spitzer Space Telescope mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. Science operations are conducted at the Spitzer Science Center at Caltech in Pasadena. Spacecraft operations are based at Lockheed Martin Space, Littleton, Colorado. Data are archived at the Infrared Science Archive housed at IPAC at Caltech. Caltech manages JPL for NASA.

    The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and ESA (European Space Agency). NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore conducts Hubble science operations. STScI is operated for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., in Washington.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    NASA JPL Campus

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center located in the San Gabriel Valley area of Los Angeles County, California, United States. Although the facility has a Pasadena postal address, it is actually headquartered in the city of La Cañada Flintridge [1], on the northwest border of Pasadena. JPL is managed by the nearby California Institute of Technology (Caltech) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Laboratory’s primary function is the construction and operation of robotic planetary spacecraft, though it also conducts Earth-orbit and astronomy missions. It is also responsible for operating NASA’s Deep Space Network.

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  • richardmitnick 5:04 pm on December 5, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Abell 2744, , , , , NASA Spitzer, ,   

    From Hubble: “Hubble’s First Frontier Field Finds Thousands of Unseen, Faraway Galaxies” 

    NASA Hubble Banner

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    Jan 7, 2014
    Ray Villard
    Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.
    410-338-4514
    villard@stsci.edu

    1
    Hubble Frontier Field Abell 2744

    2
    Frontier Fields Footprint: Galaxy Cluster Abell 2744

    The first of a set of unprecedented, super-deep views of the universe from an ambitious collaborative program called The Frontier Fields is being released today at the 223rd meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Washington, D.C.

    The long-exposure image taken with NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope is the deepest-ever picture taken of a cluster of galaxies, and also contains images of some of the intrinsically faintest and youngest galaxies ever detected.

    The target is the massive cluster Abell 2744, which contains several hundred galaxies as they looked 3.5 billion years ago. The immense gravity in this foreground cluster is being used as a “gravitational lens,” which warps space to brighten and magnify images of far-more-distant background galaxies as they looked over 12 billion years ago, not long after the big bang.

    “The Frontier Fields is an experiment; can we use Hubble’s exquisite image quality and Einstein’s theory of General Relativity to search for the first galaxies?” said Space Telescope Science Institute Director Matt Mountain. “With the other Great Observatories, we are undertaking an ambitious joint program to use galaxy clusters to explore the first billion years of the universe’s history.”

    Simultaneous observations of this field are being done with NASA’s two other Great Observatories, the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

    NASA/Spitzer Infrared Telescope

    NASA/Chandra Telescope

    The assembly of all this multispectral information is expected to provide new insights into the origin and evolution of galaxies and their accompanying black holes.

    The Hubble exposure reveals nearly 3,000 of these background galaxies interleaved with images of hundreds of foreground galaxies in the cluster. The many background galaxies would otherwise be invisible without the boost from gravitational lensing. Their images not only appear brighter, but also smeared, stretched, and duplicated across the field.

    Thanks to the gravitational lensing phenomenon, the background galaxies are magnified to appear up to 10 to 20 times larger than they would normally appear.

    Gravitational Lensing NASA/ESA

    What’s more, the faintest of these highly magnified objects have intrinsic brightnesses roughly 10 to 20 times fainter than any galaxies ever previously observed.

    The Hubble data are immediately being made available to the worldwide astronomy community where teams of researchers will do a detailed study of the visual crazy quilt of intermingled background and cluster galaxies to better understand the stages of galaxy development.

    Though the foreground cluster Abell 2744 has been intensively studied as one of the most massive clusters in the universe, the Frontier Fields exposure reveals new details of the cluster population. Hubble sees dwarf galaxies in the cluster as small as 1/1,000th the mass of the Milky Way. At the other end of the size spectrum, Hubble detects the extended light from several monster central cluster galaxies that are as much as 100 times more massive than our Milky Way. Also visible is faint intra-cluster light from stars inside the cluster that have been stripped out of galaxies by gravitational interactions. These new deep images will also help astronomers map out the dark matter in the cluster with unprecedented detail, by charting its distorting effects on background light. An unseen form of matter, dark matter makes up the bulk of the mass of the cluster.

    As the Abell cluster was being photographed with Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3, the telescope’s Advanced Camera for Surveys was trained on a nearby parallel field that is 6 arc minutes away from the cluster.

    NASA/ESA Hubble WFC3

    NASA/ESA Hubble ACS

    In this field, Hubble resolves roughly 10,000 galaxies seen in visible light, most of which are randomly scattered galaxies. The blue galaxies are distant star-forming galaxies seen from up to 8 billion years ago; the handful of larger, red galaxies are in the outskirts of the Abell 2744 cluster.

    Hubble will again view these two Frontier Fields in May 2014, but Hubble’s visible-light and infrared camera will switch targets. This will allow for both fields to be observed over a full range of colors, from ultraviolet light to near-infrared.

    With each new camera installed on Hubble, the space telescope has been used to make successively deeper, groundbreaking views of the universe. To get a better assessment of whether doing more deep field observations was scientifically compelling or urgent, the Space Telescope Science Institute or STScI in Baltimore, Md., chartered a “Hubble Deep Field Initiative” working group. The Hubble Frontier Fields initiative grew out of the working group’s high-level discussions at STScI concerning what important, forward-looking science Hubble should be doing in upcoming years. Despite several deep field surveys, astronomers realized that a lot was still to be learned about the far universe. Such knowledge would help in planning the observing strategy for the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope.

    The astronomers also considered synergies with other observatories, such as Spitzer, Chandra, and the new Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array or ALMA.

    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array in Chile in the Atacama at Chajnantor plateau, at 5,000 metres

    Over the coming years five more pairs of fields will be imaged. The next scheduled target is the massive cluster MACS J0416.1-2403, for which observations are starting this week.

    See the full article here .

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    The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), is a free-standing science center, located on the campus of The Johns Hopkins University and operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) for NASA, conducts Hubble science operations.

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  • richardmitnick 1:53 pm on November 25, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , NASA Spitzer,   

    From Spitzer via Manu: “Spitzer Reveals Ancient Galaxies’ Frenzied Starmaking” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    NASA/Spitzer Telescope


    Spitzer

    10.30.17

    1

    A deep look back to the early universe by NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope has revealed a surprisingly rowdy bunch of galaxies. Within a large galaxy sample observed 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang, Spitzer witnessed around 15 percent of galaxies undergoing bouts of extreme starmaking, called starbursts. The discovery suggests that starbursts—a rare phenomenon in the modern cosmos—were actually relatively common in the past, and played a major role in creating our universe’s stars.

    Typically, galaxies go with a take-it-slow approach to starmaking. Over billions of years, that unhurried stellar production has been credited with forging almost all stars in existence. The new findings, however, show starburst galaxies cranking out upwards of half of the total new stars in the cosmic era under study. Moving forward, astronomers will have to ensure galactic evolution theories can account for these more frequent frenzies of starmaking.

    “This research shows for the first time that starburst galaxies are much more important than previously thought in the early star formation history of the universe,” said Karina Caputi, an associate professor at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. Caputi is lead author of a new paper describing the results, published on Oct 30 in The Astrophysical Journal.

    “We have discovered an unknown population of starburst galaxies that could change the way we think many galaxies grow their stars,” said Karina.

    Caputi and her colleagues pored over a voluminous dataset of nearly 6000 distant galaxies observed as part of Spitzer’s Matching Survey of the UltraVISTA ultra-deep Stripes (SMUVS) program. The scientists looked for a type of light, called H-alpha, emitted by the element hydrogen. This glow marks regions where new groups of stars have just formed from the gravitational collapse of giant clouds of gas and dust. Over vast cosmic distances—like the 12 billion light years to the galaxies in Caputi’s study—the expansion of the universe stretches H-alpha’s visible, pink-reddish light into the infrared wavelengths seen by Spitzer. Researchers can therefore leverage Spitzer as a valuable tool in gauging the levels of star formation in the early universe.

    Prior investigations have focused mostly on starbursts breaking out in galaxies with high masses, usually selected out of small datasets. The catalog of observations Caputi’s team went through offered a more complete picture, though, by capturing numerous intermediate-mass galaxies also flush with the signs of starburst activity. Bringing those overlooked galaxies into the fold boosted the overall starburst percentage from negligible to a significant 15 percent, and with it, over half of the total starmaking at that time in the universe’s chronology. “We analyzed a much larger and more representative galaxy sample,” Caputi says.

    The development of a new star—from cold, diffuse gas cloud to a hot, concentrated ball of matter—is a process that spans tens of millions of years. At any given time in a galaxy, only so many stars-to-be are going through this process; our own Milky Way languidly produces only about one Sun’s-mass-worth of new stars annually. Yet in a starburst galaxy, that rate of stellar creation can be hundreds of times faster.

    As a result, although their quantities differ, slow-poke and fast-pace galaxies ultimately make similar contributions to the overall stellar budget. “There appear to be two types of galaxies which form stars: some are more numerous, but grow more slowly. The others are less numerous, but grow much faster,” Caputi explained. “In the end, both groups can form the same total amount of stars.”

    What exactly is causing all the starbursts remains a mystery. Galaxy mergers, where the diffuse star-forming materials in two galaxies mix into gas clouds dense enough to ignite star formation, stand as highly likely candidates. Gravitational interactions with neighboring galaxies, or encounters with uncommonly thick patches of matter in the barren expanses between galaxies, might also fire up starbursts.

    “We still have a lot of work to do in understanding why galaxies go into a starburst mode,” says Caputi. “Now that we have a sense of just how significant these furious periods of activity are for giving us such a large amount of the universe’s stars, we are highly motivated to get to the bottom of the mystery.”

    This research has been funded by the European Research Council through the Consolidator Grant ID 681627-BUILDUP.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    The Spitzer Space Telescope is a NASA mission managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology and part of NASA’s Infrared Processing and Analysis Center.

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  • richardmitnick 8:00 pm on November 16, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Exoplanet 55 Cancri e Likely to have Atmosphere, Lava or Not, , NASA Spitzer   

    From JPL-Caltech: “Lava or Not, Exoplanet 55 Cancri e Likely to have Atmosphere” 

    NASA JPL Banner

    JPL-Caltech

    November 16, 2017
    Elizabeth Landau
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
    818-354-6425
    elizabeth.landau@jpl.nasa.gov

    1
    The super-Earth exoplanet 55 Cancri e, depicted with its star in this artist’s concept, likely has an atmosphere thicker than Earth’s but with ingredients that could be similar to those of Earth’s atmosphere. Spitzer.

    NASA/Spitzer Infrared Telescope

    Twice as big as Earth, the super-Earth 55 Cancri e was thought to have lava flows on its surface. The planet is so close to its star, the same side of the planet always faces the star, such that the planet has permanent day and night sides. Based on a 2016 study using data from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, scientists speculated that lava would flow freely in lakes on the starlit side and become hardened on the face of perpetual darkness. The lava on the dayside would reflect radiation from the star, contributing to the overall observed temperature of the planet.

    Now, a deeper analysis of the same Spitzer data finds this planet likely has an atmosphere whose ingredients could be similar to those of Earth’s atmosphere, but thicker. Lava lakes directly exposed to space without an atmosphere would create local hot spots of high temperatures, so they are not the best explanation for the Spitzer observations, scientists said.

    “If there is lava on this planet, it would need to cover the entire surface,” said Renyu Hu, astronomer at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, and co-author of a study published in The Astronomical Journal. “But the lava would be hidden from our view by the thick atmosphere.”

    Using an improved model of how energy would flow throughout the planet and radiate back into space, researchers find that the night side of the planet is not as cool as previously thought. The “cold” side is still quite toasty by Earthly standards, with an average of 2,400 to 2,600 degrees Fahrenheit (1,300 to 1,400 Celsius), and the hot side averages 4,200 degrees Fahrenheit (2,300 Celsius). The difference between the hot and cold sides would need to be more extreme if there were no atmosphere.

    “Scientists have been debating whether this planet has an atmosphere like Earth and Venus, or just a rocky core and no atmosphere, like Mercury. The case for an atmosphere is now stronger than ever,” Hu said.

    Researchers say the atmosphere of this mysterious planet could contain nitrogen, water and even oxygen — molecules found in our atmosphere, too — but with much higher temperatures throughout. The density of the planet is also similar to Earth, suggesting that it, too, is rocky. The intense heat from the host star would be far too great to support life, however, and could not maintain liquid water.

    Hu developed a method of studying exoplanet atmospheres and surfaces, and had previously only applied it to sizzling, giant gaseous planets called hot Jupiters. Isabel Angelo, first author of the study and a senior at the University of California, Berkeley, worked on the study as part of her internship at JPL and adapted Hu’s model to 55 Cancri e.

    In a seminar, she heard about 55 Cancri e as a potentially carbon-rich planet, so high in temperature and pressure that its interior could contain a large amount of diamond.

    “It’s an exoplanet whose nature is pretty contested, which I thought was exciting,” Angelo said.

    Spitzer observed 55 Cancri e between June 15 and July 15, 2013, using a camera specially designed for viewing infrared light, which is invisible to human eyes. Infrared light is an indicator of heat energy. By comparing changes in brightness Spitzer observed to the energy flow models, researchers realized an atmosphere with volatile materials could best explain the temperatures.

    There are many open questions about 55 Cancri e, especially: Why has the atmosphere not been stripped away from the planet, given the perilous radiation environment of the star?

    › Full image and caption

    Twice as big as Earth, the super-Earth 55 Cancri e was thought to have lava flows on its surface. The planet is so close to its star, the same side of the planet always faces the star, such that the planet has permanent day and night sides. Based on a 2016 study using data from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, scientists speculated that lava would flow freely in lakes on the starlit side and become hardened on the face of perpetual darkness. The lava on the dayside would reflect radiation from the star, contributing to the overall observed temperature of the planet.

    Now, a deeper analysis of the same Spitzer data finds this planet likely has an atmosphere whose ingredients could be similar to those of Earth’s atmosphere, but thicker. Lava lakes directly exposed to space without an atmosphere would create local hot spots of high temperatures, so they are not the best explanation for the Spitzer observations, scientists said.

    “If there is lava on this planet, it would need to cover the entire surface,” said Renyu Hu, astronomer at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, and co-author of a study published in The Astronomical Journal. “But the lava would be hidden from our view by the thick atmosphere.”

    Using an improved model of how energy would flow throughout the planet and radiate back into space, researchers find that the night side of the planet is not as cool as previously thought. The “cold” side is still quite toasty by Earthly standards, with an average of 2,400 to 2,600 degrees Fahrenheit (1,300 to 1,400 Celsius), and the hot side averages 4,200 degrees Fahrenheit (2,300 Celsius). The difference between the hot and cold sides would need to be more extreme if there were no atmosphere.

    “Scientists have been debating whether this planet has an atmosphere like Earth and Venus, or just a rocky core and no atmosphere, like Mercury. The case for an atmosphere is now stronger than ever,” Hu said.

    Researchers say the atmosphere of this mysterious planet could contain nitrogen, water and even oxygen — molecules found in our atmosphere, too — but with much higher temperatures throughout. The density of the planet is also similar to Earth, suggesting that it, too, is rocky. The intense heat from the host star would be far too great to support life, however, and could not maintain liquid water.

    Hu developed a method of studying exoplanet atmospheres and surfaces, and had previously only applied it to sizzling, giant gaseous planets called hot Jupiters. Isabel Angelo, first author of the study and a senior at the University of California, Berkeley, worked on the study as part of her internship at JPL and adapted Hu’s model to 55 Cancri e.

    In a seminar, she heard about 55 Cancri e as a potentially carbon-rich planet, so high in temperature and pressure that its interior could contain a large amount of diamond.

    “It’s an exoplanet whose nature is pretty contested, which I thought was exciting,” Angelo said.

    Spitzer observed 55 Cancri e between June 15 and July 15, 2013, using a camera specially designed for viewing infrared light, which is invisible to human eyes. Infrared light is an indicator of heat energy. By comparing changes in brightness Spitzer observed to the energy flow models, researchers realized an atmosphere with volatile materials could best explain the temperatures.

    There are many open questions about 55 Cancri e, especially: Why has the atmosphere not been stripped away from the planet, given the perilous radiation environment of the star?

    “Understanding this planet will help us address larger questions about the evolution of rocky planets,” Hu said.

    NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, manages the Spitzer Space Telescope mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Science operations are conducted at the Spitzer Science Center at Caltech in Pasadena. Spacecraft operations are based at Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Littleton, Colorado. Data are archived at the Infrared Science Archive housed at IPAC at Caltech. Caltech manages JPL for NASA. For more information about Spitzer, visit:

    http://spitzer.caltech.edu

    https://www.nasa.gov/spitzer

    See the full article here .

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    NASA JPL Campus

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center located in the San Gabriel Valley area of Los Angeles County, California, United States. Although the facility has a Pasadena postal address, it is actually headquartered in the city of La Cañada Flintridge [1], on the northwest border of Pasadena. JPL is managed by the nearby California Institute of Technology (Caltech) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Laboratory’s primary function is the construction and operation of robotic planetary spacecraft, though it also conducts Earth-orbit and astronomy missions. It is also responsible for operating NASA’s Deep Space Network.

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  • richardmitnick 11:36 am on November 10, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , NASA Spitzer,   

    From Science Alert: “Astronomers Are Puzzled by a Huge Object at The Centre of Our Galaxy” 

    ScienceAlert

    Science Alert

    10 NOV 2017
    MIKE MCRAE

    1
    (Nostalgia for Infinity/Shutterstock)

    Planet? Dead star? It’s so massive!

    The Universe is full of oddball objects that simply don’t sit neatly into categories. Take a hint, Pluto.

    Astronomers have used the light-warping effects of gravity to spot a massive object that could be a huge planet or a failed star, right in the centre of our galaxy.

    Gravitational Lensing NASA/ESA

    Not only is it a fun astronomical puzzle, but it’s also pushing the limits of the tools we have for watching space.

    NASA’s Spitzer space telescope has been following Earth’s orbit around the Sun since 2003, using its infrared camera to capture stunning images of the heavens.

    NASA/Spitzer Infrared Telescope

    One task for astronomers has been to use Spitzer’s images to find exoplanets; a goal nobody had considered when it launched. The more ‘traditional’ approach is to watch for the dimming of a star as a planet passes in front of it.

    Planet transit. NASA/Ames

    But Spitzer has another trick up its sleeve – microlensing.

    Gravitational microlensing, S. Liebes, Physical Review B, 133 (1964): 835

    Gravity is the warping of space, which means a massive object can bend space into what is effectively a lens. Spitzer has been used to find a few exoplanets this way.

    But this one takes the cake. If not the whole buffet. (That is, if it’s a planet at all.)

    Its name is OGLE-2016-BLG-1190Lb, and this beast is a whopping 13 times the mass of Jupiter and orbits a star about 22,000 light years away, in the busy neighbourhood of the Milky Way’s centre.

    2
    http://www.truepatriot.net/tag/ogle-2016-blg-1190lbogle-2016-blg-1190lb/

    OGLE might not quite as big as the record-breaking behemoth DENIS-P J082303.1-491201 b, which is 29 times the mass of Jupiter. But it’s up there.

    Before we get too excited, it could still be a brown dwarf star – a boring wannabe that isn’t even big enough to spark a serious nuclear furnace. While tiny stars aren’t unknown, OGLE’s mass puts it at the lower limit of what’s needed to get the party started.

    So why should we care?

    The interesting thing is OGLE sits on the edge of what’s known as the brown dwarf desert – a range of orbits described as a zone devoid of failed stars.

    Astronomers have noticed there’s a distinct lack of brown dwarfs within 5 AU of other stars. For perspective, the distance from Earth to the Sun is 1AU, or about 150 million kilometres.

    OGLE has an orbit roughly 5 AU from its companion star that takes about three years to complete. If it is a planet, it’s grown to mammoth proportions.

    If it’s a small brown dwarf, the fact it sits on the border could help us understand more about the ways cosmic objects grow into stars.

    More information is clearly needed, and microlensing as a technique is still in its infancy. But it could be powerful, identifying details about stars, planets, and even galaxies other methods can’t.

    By perfecting processes that can pull more details from the warped light, especially viewed using different satellites from different positions, we should be able to gain a better understanding of the relationship between stars and their orbiting family members.

    So here’s to you, OGLE. Whatever the hell you are.

    This research has been submitted to The Astronomical Journal
    .

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 9:40 am on November 1, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , MACS J1149.5+2233: A Fusion of Galaxy Clusters, , NASA Spitzer,   

    From Chandra: “MACS J1149.5+2233: A Fusion of Galaxy Clusters” 

    NASA Chandra Banner

    NASA Chandra Telescope

    NASA Chandra

    October 31, 2017

    1
    Composite

    2
    X-ray

    3
    Optical

    4
    Radio

    Credit X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO; Optical: NASA/STScI; Radio: NSF/NRAO/AUI/VLA

    The Frontier Fields is a project that combines long observations from multiple telescopes of galaxy clusters.

    Galaxy clusters contain up to thousands of galaxies and vast reservoirs of hot gas embedded in massive clouds of dark matter.

    Data from Chandra, Hubble, Spitzer and other telescopes are part of the Frontier Fields project.

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    NASA/Spitzer Infrared Telescope

    NRAO/Karl V Jansky VLA, on the Plains of San Agustin fifty miles west of Socorro, NM, USA

    This Frontier Fields galaxy cluster, known as MACS J1149.5+2233, is located about 5 billion light years from Earth.

    MACS J1149.5+2233 (MACS J1149 for short) is a system of merging galaxy clusters located about 5 billion light years from Earth. This galaxy cluster was one of six that have been studied as part of the “Frontier Fields” project. This research effort included long observations of galaxy clusters with powerful telescopes that detected different types of light, including NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory.

    Frontier Fields

    Astronomers are using the Frontier Fields data to learn more about how galaxy clusters grow via collisions. Galaxy clusters are enormous collections of hundreds or even thousands of galaxies and vast reservoirs of hot gas embedded in massive clouds of dark matter, invisible material that does not emit or absorb light but can be detected through its gravitational effects.

    This new image of MACS J1149 combines X-rays from Chandra (diffuse blue), optical data from Hubble (red, green, blue), and radio emission from the Very Large Array (pink). The image is about four million light years across at the distance of MACS J1149.

    The Chandra data reveal gas in the merging clusters with temperatures of millions of degrees. The optical data show galaxies in the clusters and other, more distant, galaxies lying behind the clusters. Some of these background galaxies are highly distorted because of gravitational lensing, the bending of light by massive objects. This effect can also magnify the light from these objects, enabling astronomers to study background galaxies that would otherwise be too faint to detect. Finally, the structures in the radio data trace enormous shock waves and turbulence. The shocks are similar to sonic booms, and are generated by the mergers of smaller clusters of galaxies.

    See the full article here .

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    NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra’s science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:11 am on October 31, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , NASA Spitzer,   

    From Spitzer: “Spitzer Reveals Ancient Galaxies’ Frenzied Starmaking” 

    NASA/Spitzer Telescope


    Spitzer

    10.30.17

    1

    A deep look back to the early universe by NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope has revealed a surprisingly rowdy bunch of galaxies. Within a large galaxy sample observed 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang, Spitzer witnessed around 15 percent of galaxies undergoing bouts of extreme starmaking, called starbursts. The discovery suggests that starbursts—a rare phenomenon in the modern cosmos—were actually relatively common in the past, and played a major role in creating our universe’s stars.

    Typically, galaxies go with a take-it-slow approach to starmaking. Over billions of years, that unhurried stellar production has been credited with forging almost all stars in existence. The new findings, however, show starburst galaxies cranking out upwards of half of the total new stars in the cosmic era under study. Moving forward, astronomers will have to ensure galactic evolution theories can account for these more frequent frenzies of starmaking.

    “This research shows for the first time that starburst galaxies are much more important than previously thought in the early star formation history of the universe,” said Karina Caputi, an associate professor at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. Caputi is lead author of a new paper describing the results, published on Oct 30 in The Astrophysical Journal.

    “We have discovered an unknown population of starburst galaxies that could change the way we think many galaxies grow their stars,” said Karina.

    Caputi and her colleagues pored over a voluminous dataset of nearly 6000 distant galaxies observed as part of Spitzer’s Matching Survey of the UltraVISTA ultra-deep Stripes (SMUVS) program. The scientists looked for a type of light, called H-alpha, emitted by the element hydrogen. This glow marks regions where new groups of stars have just formed from the gravitational collapse of giant clouds of gas and dust. Over vast cosmic distances—like the 12 billion light years to the galaxies in Caputi’s study—the expansion of the universe stretches H-alpha’s visible, pink-reddish light into the infrared wavelengths seen by Spitzer. Researchers can therefore leverage Spitzer as a valuable tool in gauging the levels of star formation in the early universe.

    Prior investigations have focused mostly on starbursts breaking out in galaxies with high masses, usually selected out of small datasets. The catalog of observations Caputi’s team went through offered a more complete picture, though, by capturing numerous intermediate-mass galaxies also flush with the signs of starburst activity. Bringing those overlooked galaxies into the fold boosted the overall starburst percentage from negligible to a significant 15 percent, and with it, over half of the total starmaking at that time in the universe’s chronology. “We analyzed a much larger and more representative galaxy sample,” Caputi says.

    The development of a new star—from cold, diffuse gas cloud to a hot, concentrated ball of matter—is a process that spans tens of millions of years. At any given time in a galaxy, only so many stars-to-be are going through this process; our own Milky Way languidly produces only about one Sun’s-mass-worth of new stars annually. Yet in a starburst galaxy, that rate of stellar creation can be hundreds of times faster.

    As a result, although their quantities differ, slow-poke and fast-pace galaxies ultimately make similar contributions to the overall stellar budget. “There appear to be two types of galaxies which form stars: some are more numerous, but grow more slowly. The others are less numerous, but grow much faster,” Caputi explained. “In the end, both groups can form the same total amount of stars.”

    What exactly is causing all the starbursts remains a mystery. Galaxy mergers, where the diffuse star-forming materials in two galaxies mix into gas clouds dense enough to ignite star formation, stand as highly likely candidates. Gravitational interactions with neighboring galaxies, or encounters with uncommonly thick patches of matter in the barren expanses between galaxies, might also fire up starbursts.

    “We still have a lot of work to do in understanding why galaxies go into a starburst mode,” says Caputi. “Now that we have a sense of just how significant these furious periods of activity are for giving us such a large amount of the universe’s stars, we are highly motivated to get to the bottom of the mystery.”

    This research has been funded by the European Research Council through the Consolidator Grant ID 681627-BUILDUP.

    See the full article here .

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    The Spitzer Space Telescope is a NASA mission managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology and part of NASA’s Infrared Processing and Analysis Center.

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  • richardmitnick 9:28 pm on October 4, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , NASA Spitzer,   

    From Goddard: “NASA’s Webb Telescope to Witness Galactic Infancy” 

    NASA Goddard Banner
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    Oct. 4, 2017
    Eric Villard
    eric.s.villard@nasa.gov
    NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

    Starfield
    The Hubble Ultra Deep Field is a snapshot of about 10,000 galaxies in a tiny patch of sky, taken by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope.
    Credits: NASA, ESA, S. Beckwith (STScI), the HUDF Team

    After it launches and is fully commissioned, scientists plan to focus Webb telescope on sections of the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (HUDF) and the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS).

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    NASA/Chandra Telescope

    NASA/Spitzer Infrared Telescope

    These sections of sky are among Webb’s list of targets chosen by guaranteed time observers, scientists who helped develop the telescope and thus get to be among the first to use it to observe the universe. The group of scientists will primarily use Webb’s mid-infrared instrument (MIRI) to examine a section of HUDF, and Webb’s near infrared camera (NIRCam) to image part of GOODS.

    NASA Webb MIRI

    NASA Webb NIRCam

    “By mixing [the data from] these instruments, we’ll get information about the current star formation rate, but we’ll also get information about the star formation history,” explained Hans Ulrik Nørgaard-Nielsen, an astronomer at the Danish Space Research Institute in Denmark and the principal investigator for the proposed observations.

    Pablo Pérez-González, an astrophysics professor at the Complutense University of Madrid in Spain and one of several co-investigators on Nørgaard-Nielsen’s proposed observation, said they will use Webb to observe about 40 percent of the HUDF area with MIRI, in roughly the same location that ground-based telescopes like the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Very Large Telescope array (VLT) obtained ultra-deep field data.

    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array in Chile in the Atacama at Chajnantor plateau, at 5,000 metres

    ESO/VLT at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    The iconic HUDF image shows about 10,000 galaxies in a tiny section of the sky, equivalent to the amount of sky you would see with your naked eye if you looked at it through a soda straw. Many of these galaxies are very faint, more than 1 billion times fainter than what the naked human eye can see, marking them as some of the oldest galaxies within the visible universe.

    With its powerful spectrographic instruments, Webb will see much more detail than imaging alone can provide. Spectroscopy measures the spectrum of light, which scientists analyze to determine physical properties of what is being observed, including temperature, mass, and chemical composition. Pérez-González explained this will allow scientists to study how gases transformed into stars in the first galaxies, and to better understand the first phases in the formation of supermassive black holes, including how those black holes affect the formation of their home galaxy. Astronomers believe the center of nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole, and that these black holes are related to galactic formation.

    MIRI can observe in the infrared wavelength range of 5 to 28 microns. Pérez-González said they will use the instrument to observe a section of HUDF in 5.6 microns, which Spitzer is capable of, but that Webb will be able to see objects 250 times fainter and with eight times more spatial resolution. In this case, spatial resolution is the ability of an optical telescope, such as Webb, to see the smallest details of an object.

    Pérez-González said in the area of HUDF they will observe, Hubble was able to see about 4,000 galaxies. He added that, with Webb, they “will detect around 2,000 to 2,500 galaxies, but in a completely different spectral band, so many galaxies will be quite different from the ones that [Hubble] detected.”

    With NIRCam, the team will observe a piece of the GOODS region near their selected section of HUDF. The entire GOODS survey field includes observations from Hubble, Spitzer, and several other space observatories.

    “These NIRCam images will be taken in three bands, and they will be the deepest obtained by any guaranteed time observation team,” explained Pérez-González.

    NIRCam can observe in the infrared wavelength range of 0.6 to 5 microns. Pérez-González explained they will use it to observe a section of GOODS in the 1.15 micron band, which Hubble is capable of, but that Webb will be able to see objects 50 times fainter and with two times more spatial resolution. They will also use it to observe the 2.8 and 3.6 micron bands. Spitzer is able to do this as well, but Webb will be able to observe objects nearly 100 times fainter and with eight times greater spatial resolution.

    Because the universe is expanding, light from distant objects in the universe is “redshifted,” meaning the light emitted by those objects is visible in the redder wavelengths by the time it reaches us. The objects farthest away from us, those with the highest redshifts, have their light shifted into the near- and mid-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Webb telescope is specifically designed to observe the objects in that area of the spectrum, which makes it ideal for looking at the early universe.

    “When you build an observatory with unprecedented capabilities, most probably the most interesting results will not be those that you can expect or predict, but those that no one can imagine,” said Pérez-González.

    The James Webb Space Telescope, the scientific complement to NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, will be the most powerful space telescope ever built. Webb is an international project led by NASA with its partners, ESA (European Space Agency) and CSA (Canadian Space Agency).

    MIRI was built by ESA, in partnership with the European Consortium, a group of scientists and engineers from European countries; a team from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California; and scientists from several U.S. institutions. NIRCam was built by Lockheed Martin and the University of Arizona in Tucson.

    For more information about Webb telescope, visit: http://www.webb.nasa.gov or http://www.nasa.gov/webb

    For more information about Hubble telescope, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/hubble

    For more information about Spitzer telescope, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/spitzer

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation’s largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

    Named for American rocketry pioneer Dr. Robert H. Goddard, the center was established in 1959 as NASA’s first space flight complex. Goddard and its several facilities are critical in carrying out NASA’s missions of space exploration and scientific discovery.


    NASA/Goddard Campus

     
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