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  • richardmitnick 1:08 pm on December 22, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , LAMOST telescope, NASA Kepler,   

    From Kavli: “Revealing the Orbital Shape Distributions of Exoplanets with China’s LAMOST Telescope” 

    KavliFoundation

    The Kavli Foundation

    12/22/2016

    Using data from China’s LAMOST telescope, a team of astronomers have derived how the orbital shapes distribute for extrasolar planets. The work is recently published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America” (PNAS). The lead authors are Prof. Jiwei Xie from Nanjing University and Prof. Subo Dong, a faculty member of the Kavli Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University.

    LAMOST telescope located in Xinglong Station, Hebei Province, China
    The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopy Telescope (LAMOST) telescope in Hebei, China. It is the most efficient spectroscopy machine in the world.

    Until two decades ago, the only planetary system known to mankind was our own solar system. Most planets in the solar system revolve around the Sun on nearly circular orbits, and their orbits are almost on the same plane within about 3 degrees on average (i.e., the averaged inclination angle is about 3 degrees). Astronomers use the parameter called eccentricity to describe the shape of a planetary orbit. Eccentricity takes the value between 0 and 1, and the larger the eccentricity, the more an orbit deviates from circular. The averaged eccentricity of solar system planets is merely 0.06. Hundreds of years ago, motivated by circular and coplanar planetary orbits, Kant and Laplace hypothesized that planets should form in disks, and this theory has developed into the “standard model” on how planets form.

    In 1995, astronomers discovered the first exoplanet around a Sun-like star 51 Pegasi with a technique called Radial Velocity, and this discovery started an exciting era of exoplanet exploration. At the beginning of the 21st Century, people had discovered hundreds of exoplanets with the Radial Velocity technique, and most of them are giant planets comparable in mass with the Jupiter. These Jovian planets are relatively rare, found around approximately one tenth of stars studied by the Radial Velocity technique. The shapes of their orbits were a big surprise: a large fraction of them are on highly eccentric orbits, and all the giant planets found by Radial Velocity have a mean eccentricity of about 0.3. This finding challenges the “standard model” of planet formation and raises a long-standing puzzle for astronomers – are the nearly circular and coplanar planetary orbits in the solar system common or exceptional?

    The Kepler satellite launched by NASA in 2009 has discovered thousands of exoplanets by monitoring tiny dimming in the brightness of stars when their planets happen to cross in the front (called “transit”).

    Planet transit. NASA/Ames
    Planet transit. NASA/Ames

    Many of the planets discovered by Kepler have sizes comparable to that of the Earth. Kepler’s revolutionary discoveries show that Earth-size planets are prevalent in our galaxy. However, data from the Kepler satellite alone cannot be used to measure the shape of a transiting exoplanet’s orbit. To do so, one way is to use the size of the planet host star as a “ruler” to measure against the length of the planet transit, while implementing this method needs precise information on the host star parameters such as size and mass. This method has previously been applied to the host stars characterized with the asteroseismology technique but the sample is limited to a relatively small number of stars with high-frequency, exquisite brightness information required by asteroseismology.

    With its innovative design, the LAMOST telescope in China can observe spectra of thousands of celestial objects simultaneously within its large field of view, and it is currently the most efficient spectroscopy machine in the world (Figure 1). In recent years, LAMOST has obtained tens of thousands of stellar spectra in the sky region where the Kepler satellite monitors planet transits, and they include many hundreds of stars hosting transiting exoplanets. By comparing with other methods such as asteroseismology, the research team finds that, high-accuracy characterization of stellar parameters can be reliably obtained from LAMOST spectra, and they can subsequently be used to measure the the orbital shape distributions of Kepler exoplanets.

    They analyze a large sample of about 700 exoplanets whose host stars have LAMOST spectra, and with the LAMOST stellar parameters and Kepler transit data, they measure the eccentricity and inclination angle distributions. They find that about 80% of the analyzed planet orbits are nearly circular (averaged eccentricity less than 0.1) like those in the solar system, and only about 20% of the planets are on relatively eccentric orbits that significantly deviate from circular (average eccentricity large than 0.3). They also find that the average eccentricity and inclination angle for the Kepler systems with multiple planets fit into the pattern of the solar system objects (Figure 2).

    Therefore, circular orbits are not exceptional for planetary systems, and the orbital shapes of most planets inside and outside the solar system appear to distribute in a similar fashion. This implies that the formation and evolution processes leading to the distributions of the orbital shapes of the solar system may be common in the Galaxy.

    See the full article here .

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    The Kavli Foundation, based in Oxnard, California, is dedicated to the goals of advancing science for the benefit of humanity and promoting increased public understanding and support for scientists and their work.

    The Foundation’s mission is implemented through an international program of research institutes, professorships, and symposia in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, neuroscience, and theoretical physics as well as prizes in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience.

     
    • vegetarian dash diet meal pla 1:39 pm on December 22, 2016 Permalink | Reply

      You should take part in a contest for one of the highest quality blogs online.
      I most certainly will recommend this website!

      Like

      • richardmitnick 2:27 pm on December 22, 2016 Permalink | Reply

        Thanks, I am just glad my work is appreciated. I do it for the love of bringing this material which the press ignores to the public. I have about 800 readers in North America , Europe, East Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. No contests.

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  • richardmitnick 2:18 pm on December 15, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: 1.3 meter OGLE Warsaw Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile", , Lake Tekapo, , NASA Kepler, New Zealand, University of Canterbury Mt John Observatory   

    From Goddard: “Microlensing Study Suggests Most Common Outer Planets Likely Neptune-mass” 

    NASA Goddard Banner

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    Dec. 15, 2016
    Francis Reddy
    francis.j.reddy@nasa.gov
    NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland

    A new statistical study of planets found by a technique called gravitational microlensing suggests that Neptune-mass worlds are likely the most common type of planet to form in the icy outer realms of planetary systems. The study provides the first indication of the types of planets waiting to be found far from a host star, where scientists suspect planets form most efficiently.


    Neptune-mass worlds are likely the most common type in the outer realms of planetary systems
    Credits: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

    1
    University of Canterbury Mt John Observatory, Lake Tekapo, New Zealand

    “We’ve found the apparent sweet spot in the sizes of cold planets. Contrary to some theoretical predictions, we infer from current detections that the most numerous have masses similar to Neptune, and there doesn’t seem to be the expected increase in number at lower masses,” said lead scientist Daisuke Suzuki, a post-doctoral researcher at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and the University of Maryland Baltimore County. “We conclude that Neptune-mass planets in these outer orbits are about 10 times more common than Jupiter-mass planets in Jupiter-like orbits.”

    Gravitational microlensing takes advantage of the light-bending effects of massive objects predicted by Einstein’s general theory of relativity.

    Gravitational microlensing
    Gravitational microlensing, S. Liebes, Physical Review B, 133 (1964): 835

    It occurs when a foreground star, the lens, randomly aligns with a distant background star, the source, as seen from Earth. As the lensing star drifts along in its orbit around the galaxy, the alignment shifts over days to weeks, changing the apparent brightness of the source. The precise pattern of these changes provides astronomers with clues about the nature of the lensing star, including any planets it may host.

    2
    This graph plots 4,769 exoplanets and planet candidates according to their masses and relative distances from the snow line, the point where water and other materials freeze solid (vertical cyan line). Gravitational microlensing is particularly sensitive to planets in this region. Planets are shaded according to the discovery technique listed at right. Masses for unconfirmed planetary candidates from NASA’s Kepler mission are calculated based on their sizes. For comparison, the graph also includes the planets of our solar system.
    Credits: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

    “We mainly determine the mass ratio of the planet to the host star and their separation,” said team member David Bennett, an astrophysicist at Goddard. “For about 40 percent of microlensing planets, we can determine the mass of the host star and therefore the mass of the planet.”

    More than 50 exoplanets have been discovered using microlensing compared to thousands detected by other techniques, such as detecting the motion or dimming of a host star caused by the presence of planets. Because the necessary alignments between stars are rare and occur randomly, astronomers must monitor millions of stars for the tell-tale brightness changes that signal a microlensing event.

    However, microlensing holds great potential. It can detect planets hundreds of times more distant than most other methods, allowing astronomers to investigate a broad swath of our Milky Way galaxy. The technique can locate exoplanets at smaller masses and greater distances from their host stars, and it’s sensitive enough to find planets floating through the galaxy on their own, unbound to stars.

    NASA’s Kepler and K2 missions have been extraordinarily successful in finding planets that dim their host stars, with more than 2,500 confirmed discoveries to date.

    NASA/Kepler Telescope
    NASA/Kepler Telescope

    This technique is sensitive to close-in planets but not more distant ones. Microlensing surveys are complementary, best probing the outer parts of planetary systems with less sensitivity to planets closer to their stars.

    “Combining microlensing with other techniques provides us with a clearer overall picture of the planetary content of our galaxy,” said team member Takahiro Sumi at Osaka University in Japan.

    From 2007 to 2012, the Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics (MOA) group, a collaboration between researchers in Japan and New Zealand, issued 3,300 alerts informing the astronomical community about ongoing microlensing events. Suzuki’s team identified 1,474 well-observed microlensing events, with 22 displaying clear planetary signals. This includes four planets that were never previously reported.

    To study these events in greater detail, the team included data from the other major microlensing project operating over the same period, the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE), as well as additional observations from other projects designed to follow up on MOA and OGLE alerts.

    1.3 meter OGLE Warsaw Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile1.3 meter OGLE Warsaw telescope interior
    1.3 meter OGLE Warsaw Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile”

    From this information, the researchers determined the frequency of planets compared to the mass ratio of the planet and star as well as the distances between them. For a typical planet-hosting star with about 60 percent the sun’s mass, the typical microlensing planet is a world between 10 and 40 times Earth’s mass. For comparison, Neptune in our own solar system has the equivalent mass of 17 Earths.

    The results imply that cold Neptune-mass worlds are likely to be the most common types of planets beyond the so-called snow line, the point where water remained frozen during planetary formation. In the solar system, the snow line is thought to have been located at about 2.7 times Earth’s mean distance from the sun, placing it in the middle of the main asteroid belt today.

    3
    Neptune-mass exoplanets like the one shown in this artist’s rendering may be the most common in the icy regions of planetary systems. Beyond a certain distance from a young star, water and other substances remain frozen, leading to an abundant population of icy objects that can collide and form the cores of new planets. In the foreground, an icy body left over from this period drifts past the planet.
    Credits: NASA/Goddard/Francis Reddy

    A paper detailing the findings was published in The Astrophysical Journal on Dec. 13.

    “Beyond the snow line, materials that were gaseous closer to the star condense into solid bodies, increasing the amount of material available to start the planet-building process,” said Suzuki. “This is where we think planetary formation was most efficient, and it’s also the region where microlensing is most sensitive.”

    NASA’s Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), slated to launch in the mid-2020s, will conduct an extensive microlensing survey.

    NASA/WFIRST
    NASA/WFIRST

    Astronomers expect it will deliver mass and distance determinations of thousands of planets, completing the work begun by Kepler and providing the first galactic census of planetary properties.

    NASA’s Ames Research Center manages the Kepler and K2 missions for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California, managed Kepler mission development. Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation operates the flight system with support from the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado in Boulder.

    WFIRST is managed at Goddard, with participation by JPL, the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, also in Pasadena, and a science team comprising members from U.S. research institutions across the country.

    For more information on how NASA’s Kepler is working with ground-based efforts, including the MOA and OGLE groups, to search for planets using microlensing, please visit:

    https://www.nasa.gov/feature/ames/kepler/searching-for-far-out-and-wandering-worlds/

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation’s largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

    Named for American rocketry pioneer Dr. Robert H. Goddard, the center was established in 1959 as NASA’s first space flight complex. Goddard and its several facilities are critical in carrying out NASA’s missions of space exploration and scientific discovery.

    NASA Goddard campus
    NASA/Goddard Campus
    NASA image

     
  • richardmitnick 6:56 pm on June 13, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , NASA Kepler, New Planet Is Largest Discovered That Orbits Two Suns   

    From Goddard: “New Planet Is Largest Discovered That Orbits Two Suns” 

    NASA Goddard Banner

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    June 13, 2016
    Ashley Morrow

    1
    Artist’s impression of the simultaneous stellar eclipse and planetary transit events on Kepler-1647.Credits: Lynette Cook

    If you cast your eyes toward the constellation Cygnus, you’ll be looking in the direction of the largest planet yet discovered around a double-star system. It’s too faint to see with the naked eye, but a team led by astronomers from NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and San Diego State University (SDSU) in California, used NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope to identify the new planet, Kepler-1647b.

    The discovery was announced today in San Diego at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society. The research has been accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal with Veselin Kostov, a NASA Goddard postdoctoral fellow, as lead author.

    Kepler-1647 is 3,700 light-years away and approximately 4.4 billion years old, roughly the same age as Earth. The stars are similar to the sun, with one slightly larger than our home star and the other slightly smaller. The planet has a mass and radius nearly identical to that of Jupiter, making it the largest transiting circumbinary planet ever found.

    Planets that orbit two stars are known as circumbinary planets, or sometimes “Tatooine” planets, after Luke Skywalker’s home world in “Star Wars.” Using Kepler data, astronomers search for slight dips in brightness that hint a planet might be passing or transiting in front of a star, blocking a tiny amount of the star’s light.

    “But finding circumbinary planets is much harder than finding planets around single stars,” said SDSU astronomer William Welsh, one of the paper’s coauthors. “The transits are not regularly spaced in time and they can vary in duration and even depth.”

    2
    Comparison of the relative sizes of several Kepler circumbinary planets. Kepler-1647 b is substantially larger than any of the previously known circumbinary planets. Credits: Lynette Cook

    3
    A bird’s eye view comparison of the orbits of the Kepler circumbinary planets. Kepler-1647 b’s orbit, shown in red, is much larger than the other planets (shown in gray). For comparison, the Earth’s orbit is shown in blue. Credits: B. Quarles

    “It’s a bit curious that this biggest planet took so long to confirm, since it is easier to find big planets than small ones,” said SDSU astronomer Jerome Orosz, a coauthor on the study. “But it is because its orbital period is so long.”

    The planet takes 1,107 days – just over three years – to orbit its host stars, the longest period of any confirmed transiting exoplanet found so far. The planet is also much further away from its stars than any other circumbinary planet, breaking with the tendency for circumbinary planets to have close-in orbits. Interestingly, its orbit puts the planet with in the so-called habitable zone–the range of distances from a star where liquid water might pool on the surface of an orbiting planet

    Like Jupiter, however, Kepler-1647b is a gas giant, making the planet unlikely to host life. Yet if the planet has large moons, they could potentially be suitable for life.

    “Habitability aside, Kepler-1647b is important because it is the tip of the iceberg of a theoretically predicted population of large, long-period circumbinary planets,” said Welsh.

    Once a candidate planet is found, researchers employ advanced computer programs to determine if it really is a planet. It can be a grueling process.

    Laurance Doyle, a coauthor on the paper and astronomer at the SETI Institute, noticed a transit back in 2011. But more data and several years of analysis were needed to confirm the transit was indeed caused by a circumbinary planet. A network of amateur astronomers in the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope “Follow-Up Network” provided additional observations that helped the researchers estimate the planet’s mass.

    For more information about the Kepler mission, please see:

    http://www.nasa.gov/kepler

    A preprint of the paper can be found at:

    http://arxiv.org/pdf/1512.00189v2

    High-resolution artwork can be obtained at:

    http://go.sdsu.edu/kepler/

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation’s largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

    Named for American rocketry pioneer Dr. Robert H. Goddard, the center was established in 1959 as NASA’s first space flight complex. Goddard and its several facilities are critical in carrying out NASA’s missions of space exploration and scientific discovery.

    NASA Goddard Campus
    NASA/Goddard Campus
    NASA

     
  • richardmitnick 2:09 pm on June 11, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Kepler-22b, NASA Kepler   

    From CosmosUp: “Kepler 22b: Meet an Extraordinary Planet” 

    CosmosUp bloc

    CosmosUp

    11, Jun 2016
    No writer credit found

    In constellation Cygnus the swan, about 600 light years away from us, sits an amazing planet that could have continents, oceans and creatures already living on its surface, a place that is just right in meeting all the requirements for life, Kepler 22b.

    We knew about Kepler 22b since 7 Dec. 2011, when NASA’s scientists confirmed and validated the planet after 22 month period of observations, Kepler 22b was the first planet in the “habitable zone” of it’s star to be discovered.

    Remember, we refer to the habitable zone as a region around a star where a rocky planet could have a surface temperature between the freezing point and boiling point of water, the region where liquid water could exist on a planet’s surface.

    Kepler 22b orbits around a star like our sun, a bit smaller and colder, every 290 days; its 15% closer than the Earth is from the Sun. Scientists’ models suggest the planet has comfortable average surface temperature of 22°C (72°F) which sounds remarkably clement.

    As such temperature, the planet is warm enough that it could have liquid water on its surface or even large ocean, as some researchers suggest.

    “It’s not beyond the realm of possibility that life could exist in such an ocean,”

    said Natalie Batalha in an interview.

    1

    How did we find Kepler 22b

    Since March 2009, astronomers use Kepler Space Telescope to hunt for exoplanets, planets beyond our solar system orbiting stars other than the sun. Kepler Telescope is a NASA space probe specially designed to survey our region of the Milky Way looking for alien worlds that resembles our planet, located in or near the habitable zone of their host stars.

    NASA/Kepler Telescope
    NASA/Kepler Telescope

    Kepler is our best instrument that allow us to glimpse into far distant realms, hunting for potential Earth-like planets in our galaxy, the Milky Way. The telescope is staring intently at 155,000 stars in the region of the constellations of Lyra and Cygnus, looking for tiny drops in brightness over time.

    If a planet passes (“transit”) in front of its parent star, we see a small dip in star’ brightness as the planet dimming it’s light by a minuscule amount — this is called by astronomers the transit method.

    Planet transit. NASA
    Planet transit. NASA

    In order to confirm if a planet is actually true, Kepler requires at least 3 transits to verify a signal as a planet.

    Up to June 2016, Kepler has confirmed more than 2,350 exoplanets and even twice waiting candidates; among them are 207 Earth-sized planets but just 21 are small, located in the habitable zone.

    “Fortune smiled upon us with the detection of this planet,

    said then William Borucki who led the team that discovered Kepler-22b.

    The first transit was captured just three days after we declared the spacecraft operationally ready. We witnessed the defining third transit over the 2010 holiday season.”

    2

    Based on the 3 transits observed in the 22-month period between 12 May 2009 and 14 March 2011, Kepler 22b has been validated. By December 2011, NASA was able to confirm Kepler-22b’s existence and announced it as part of a larger press conference.

    “We’re getting closer and closer to discovering the so-called ‘Goldilocks planet,”

    said Pete Worden.

    Can the Kepler 22b support life?

    We actually don’t know, the planet is too far away to scrutiny this world but it’s reasonable to suggest that having liquid water on the surface of the planet would make a good start.

    As the planet is located withing the habitable zone & with an average temperature of 22°C the planet is pleasantly warm and thus liquid water could be there so it can be included in a list of “optimistic” habitable worlds.

    However, some researchers put in question the habitability of this planet, indicating that Kepler-22b, is far from a twin to Earth. Transit observations allowed scientists to determine the planet’s size and it turns out, Kepler 22b is around 2.4 times the radius of Earth — That’s roughly half way between the size of Earth and the size of gas giants Uranus and Neptune.

    So what is that mean? Kepler 22b is most likely a super-Earth and probably has a thick atmosphere which, in turn, probably means the true surface temperature will be higher than the optimistic 22°C.

    “Indeed, if the atmosphere of the planet is sufficiently dense, and rich in greenhouse gasses, it might well be more like Venus than the Earth, with a surface far too warm to house liquid water.”

    Explained Jonti Horner, Post Doctoral Research Fellow, UNSW Australia.

    But again, we don’t know… More data on Kepler-22b is required to determine if the planet is a rocky planet with large ocean or a planet more like Venus or Neptune.

    But if Kepler 22b is more like Earth then how far is it? Well, Kepler 22b is 600 light years that’s 3,527,175,223,910,165 or three and a half quadrillion miles away. Even if we could make somehow a ship that could travel at speed of light it would take 600 years to reach Kepler 22 star system.

    But what about our current technology? The fastest man-made object is Voyager 1 with some 17.05 kilometers per second; with such spacecraft it would take well over 8,400,000 years to reach it, clearly we need something like a worm hole to shorten the distance.

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 2:07 pm on May 17, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Kepler-223 System: Clues to Planetary Migration, NASA Kepler   

    From Kepler: “Kepler-223 System: Clues to Planetary Migration” 

    NASA Kepler Logo

    NASA Kepler Telescope
    NASA/Kepler

    May 17, 2016
    Elizabeth Landau
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
    818-354-6425
    elizabeth.landau@jpl.nasa.gov

    Michele Johnson
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif.
    650-604-6982
    michele.johnson@nasa.gov

    Written by Steve Koppes
    University of Chicago
    773-702-8366
    skoppes@uchicago.edu

    1
    The Kepler-223 planetary system. Image credit: W. Rebel.

    The four planets of the Kepler-223 star system appeared to have little in common with the planets of our own solar system today. But a new study using data from NASA’s Kepler space telescope suggests a possible commonality in the distant past. The Kepler-223 planets orbit their star in the same configuration that Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune may have had in the early history of our solar system, before migrating to their current locations.

    “Exactly how and where planets form is an outstanding question in planetary science,” said the study’s lead author, Sean Mills, a graduate student in astronomy and astrophysics at the University of Chicago in Illinois. “Our work essentially tests a model for planet formation for a type of planet we don’t have in our solar system.”

    2
    Sean Mills (left) and Daniel Fabrycky (right), researchers at the University of Chicago, describe the complex orbital structure of the Kepler-223 system in a new study. Credits: Nancy Wong/University of Chicago

    Mills and his collaborators used data from Kepler — its mission is now known as K2 — to analyze how the four planets block their stars’ light and change each other’s orbits. This information also gave researchers the planets’ sizes and masses. The team performed numerical simulations of planetary migration that generate this system’s current architecture, similar to the migration suspected for the solar system’s gas giants. These calculations are described* in the May 11 Advance Online edition of Nature.


    Access mp4 video here . No video credit.
    These animations show approximately 200,000 years of orbital evolution in the Kepler-223 planetary system. The planets’ interactions with the disk of gas and dust in which they formed caused their orbits to shrink toward their star over time at differing rates.

    The orbital configuration of our own solar system seems to have evolved since its birth 4.6 billion years ago. The four known planets of the much older Kepler-223 system, however, have maintained a single orbital configuration for far longer.

    Astronomers call the planets of Kepler-223 “sub-Neptunes.” They likely consist of a solid core and an envelope of gas, and they orbit their star in periods ranging from only seven to 19 days. They are the most common type of planets known in the galaxy, even though there is nothing quite like them around our sun.

    Kepler-223’s planets also are in resonance, meaning their gravitational influence on each other creates a periodic relationship between their orbits. Planets are in resonance when, for example, every time one of them orbits its sun once, the next one goes around twice. Three of Jupiter’s largest moons, where the phenomenon was discovered, display resonances. Kepler-223 is the first time that four planets in an extrasolar system have been confirmed to be in resonance.

    “This is the most extreme example of this phenomenon,” said study co-author Daniel Fabrycky, an assistant professor of astronomy and astrophysics at the University of Chicago.

    Formation scenarios

    The Kepler-223 system provides alternative scenarios for how planets form and migrate in a planetary system that is different from our own, said study co-author Howard Isaacson, a research astronomer at the University of California, Berkeley, and member of the California Planet Search Team.

    “Data from Kepler and the Keck Telescope were absolutely critical in this regard,” Isaacson said.

    Keck Observatory, Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA
    Keck Observatory Interior
    Keck Observatory, Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA

    Thanks to observations of Kepler-223 and other exoplanetary systems, “We now know of systems that are unlike our sun’s solar system, with hot Jupiters, planets closer than Mercury or in between the size of Earth and Neptune, none of which we see in our solar system. Other types of planets are very common.”

    Some stages of planet formation can involve violent processes. But during other stages, planets can evolve from gaseous disks in a smooth, gentle way, which is probably what the sub-Neptune planets of Kepler-223 did, Mills said.

    “We think that two planets migrate through this disk, get stuck and then keep migrating together; find a third planet, get stuck, migrate together; find a fourth planet and get stuck,” Mills explained.

    That process differs completely from the one that scientists believe led to the formation of Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, which likely formed in their current orbital locations.

    Earth formed from Mars-sized or moon-sized bodies smacking together, Mills said, in a violent and chaotic process. When planets form this way, their final orbital periods are not near a resonance.

    Substantial movement

    But scientists suspect that the solar system’s larger, more distant planets of today — Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune — moved around substantially during their formation. They may have been knocked out of resonances that once resembled those of Kepler-223, possibly after interacting with numerous asteroids and small planets (planetesimals).

    “These resonances are extremely fragile,” Fabrycky said. “If bodies were flying around and hitting each other, then they would have dislodged the planets from the resonance.” But Kepler-223’s planets somehow managed to dodge this scattering of cosmic bodies.

    *Science article:
    A resonant chain of four transiting, sub-Neptune planets

    See the full article here .

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    The Kepler Mission, NASA Discovery mission #10, is specifically designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to discover hundreds of Earth-size and smaller planets in or near the habitable zone→ and determine the fraction of the hundreds of billions of stars in our galaxy that might have such planets.
    The operations phase of the Kepler mission is managed for NASA by the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, managed the mission through development, launch and the start of science operations. Dr. William Borucki of NASA Ames is the mission’s Science Principal Investigator. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp., Boulder, CO, developed the Kepler flight system.

    In October 2009, oversight of the Kepler project was transferred from the Discovery Program at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, to the Exoplanet Exploration Program at JPL

    K2

    Extending Kepler’s power to the ecliptic

    The loss of a second of the four reaction wheels on board the Kepler spacecraft in May 2013 brought an end to Kepler’s four plus year science mission to continuously monitor more than 150,000 stars to search for transiting exoplanets. Developed over the months following this failure, the K2 mission represents a new concept for spacecraft operations that enables continued scientific observations with the Kepler space telescope. K2 became fully operational in June 2014 and is expected to continue operating until 2017 or 2018.

    NASA image

    NASA JPL Icon

     
  • richardmitnick 4:06 pm on March 21, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Caught For The First Time: The Early Flash Of An Exploding Star, NASA Kepler,   

    From Kepler and K2: “Caught For The First Time: The Early Flash Of An Exploding Star” 

    NASA Kepler Logo

    NASA Kepler Telescope
    NASA/Kepler

    March 21, 2016
    Michele Johnson
    Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif.
    650-604-6982
    michele.johnson@nasa.gov

    The brilliant flash of an exploding star’s shockwave—what astronomers call the “shock breakout”—has been captured for the first time in the optical wavelength or visible light by NASA’s planet-hunter, the Kepler space telescope.

    An international science team led by Peter Garnavich, an astrophysics professor at the University of Notre Dame in Indiana, analyzed light captured by Kepler every 30 minutes over a three-year period from 500 distant galaxies, searching some 50 trillion stars. They were hunting for signs of massive stellar death explosions known as supernovae.

    In 2011, two of these massive stars, called red supergiants, exploded while in Kepler’s view. The first behemoth, KSN 2011a, is nearly 300 times the size of our sun and a mere 700 million light years from Earth. The second, KSN 2011d, is roughly 500 times the size of our sun and around 1.2 billion light years away.

    “To put their size into perspective, Earth’s orbit about our sun would fit comfortably within these colossal stars,” said Garnavich.

    Whether it’s a plane crash, car wreck or supernova, capturing images of sudden, catastrophic events is extremely difficult but tremendously helpful in understanding root cause. Just as widespread deployment of mobile cameras has made forensic videos more common, the steady gaze of Kepler allowed astronomers to see, at last, a supernova shockwave as it reached the surface of a star. The shock breakout itself lasts only about 20 minutes, so catching the flash of energy is an investigative milestone for astronomers.

    “In order to see something that happens on timescales of minutes, like a shock breakout, you want to have a camera continuously monitoring the sky,” said Garnavich. “You don’t know when a supernova is going to go off, and Kepler’s vigilance allowed us to be a witness as the explosion began.”

    Supernovae like these — known as Type II — begin when the internal furnace of a star runs out of nuclear fuel causing its core to collapse as gravity takes over.

    The two supernovae matched up well with mathematical models of Type II explosions reinforcing existing theories. But they also revealed what could turn out to be an unexpected variety in the individual details of these cataclysmic stellar events.

    While both explosions delivered a similar energetic punch, no shock breakout was seen in the smaller of the supergiants. Scientists think that is likely due to the smaller star being surrounded by gas, perhaps enough to mask the shockwave when it reached the star’s surface.

    “That is the puzzle of these results,” said Garnavich. “You look at two supernovae and see two different things. That’s maximum diversity.”

    Understanding the physics of these violent events allows scientists to better understand how the seeds of chemical complexity and life itself have been scattered in space and time in our Milky Way galaxy

    “All heavy elements in the universe come from supernova explosions. For example, all the silver, nickel, and copper in the earth and even in our bodies came from the explosive death throes of stars,” said Steve Howell, project scientist for NASA’s Kepler and K2 missions at NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley. “Life exists because of supernovae.”

    Garnavich is part of a research team known as the Kepler Extragalactic Survey or KEGS. The team is nearly finished mining data from Kepler’s primary mission, which ended in 2013 with the failure of reaction wheels that helped keep the spacecraft steady. However, with the reboot of the Kepler spacecraft as NASA’s K2 mission, the team is now combing through more data hunting for supernova events in even more galaxies far, far away.

    “While Kepler cracked the door open on observing the development of these spectacular events, K2 will push it wide open observing dozens more supernovae,” said Tom Barclay, senior research scientist and director of the Kepler and K2 guest observer office at Ames. “These results are a tantalizing preamble to what’s to come from K2!”

    In addition to Notre Dame, the KEGS team also includes researchers from the University of Maryland in College Park; the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia; the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland; and the University of California, Berkeley.

    The research paper reporting this discovery has been accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal.

    Authored by H. Pat Brennan/JPL and Michele Johnson/Ames

    See the full article here .

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    The Kepler Mission, NASA Discovery mission #10, is specifically designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to discover hundreds of Earth-size and smaller planets in or near the habitable zone→ and determine the fraction of the hundreds of billions of stars in our galaxy that might have such planets.
    The operations phase of the Kepler mission is managed for NASA by the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, managed the mission through development, launch and the start of science operations. Dr. William Borucki of NASA Ames is the mission’s Science Principal Investigator. Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp., Boulder, CO, developed the Kepler flight system.

    In October 2009, oversight of the Kepler project was transferred from the Discovery Program at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, to the Exoplanet Exploration Program at JPL

    K2

    Extending Kepler’s power to the ecliptic

    The loss of a second of the four reaction wheels on board the Kepler spacecraft in May 2013 brought an end to Kepler’s four plus year science mission to continuously monitor more than 150,000 stars to search for transiting exoplanets. Developed over the months following this failure, the K2 mission represents a new concept for spacecraft operations that enables continued scientific observations with the Kepler space telescope. K2 became fully operational in June 2014 and is expected to continue operating until 2017 or 2018.

    NASA image

    NASA JPL Icon

     
  • richardmitnick 11:15 pm on January 14, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , NASA Kepler,   

    From Ethan Siegel: “Kepler found its longest-period exoplanet ever” 

    Starts with a bang
    Starts with a Bang

    1.14.16
    Ethan Siegel

    Temp 1
    Image credit: NASA / Michele Johnson.

    And it didn’t even need a transit to do it!

    “Mars is much closer to the characteristics of Earth. It has a fall, winter, summer and spring. North Pole, South Pole, mountains and lots of ice. No one is going to live on Venus; no one is going to live on Jupiter.”
    -Buzz Aldrin

    The Kepler spacecraft was one of the most brilliant technical and scientific achievements of the 2010s.

    NASA Kepler Telescope
    NASA/Kepler

    By launching a telescope into space and pointing it at the same field-of-view of stars for years and years, collecting the light from each one continuously, it became sensitive to tiny, minuscule variations in the intensity of their starlight.

    2
    Image credit: Painting by Jon Lomberg, Kepler mission diagram added by NASA.

    There are a number of reasons the amount of light a star emits could vary in intensity: it could be an intrinsically variable star (like a Cepheid, RR Lyrae or Delta Scuti variable, among others), it could be an eclipsing binary star system (an example of an extrinsic variable star), where one star periodically slips behind the other, or it could be due to the most exciting reason of all: something is transiting in front of that star to block a fraction of its light.

    3
    Image credit: NASA Ames.

    Sometimes, the transiting object could be close by, like an asteroid or a Kuiper belt object.

    4
    Known objects in the Kuiper belt beyond the orbit of Neptune. (Scale in AU; epoch as of January 2015.)

    Other times, it could be more distant, like an interstellar object. But what Kepler’s built to look for, and what it’s particularly seeking, is planets around the stars it’s looking at. In order for this method to be successful, you need for a number of things to happen all at once:

    You need the planetary orbit to be so serendipitously aligned with the star and your spacecraft that the orbital path appears to transit across the disk of the star from your point of view.

    You need the ratio of the planet’s size to the star’s to be large enough that your spacecraft can measure the transit’s magnitude.
    And you need the planet to transit across the star’s surface more than once so that you can be sure it wasn’t a foreground object having nothing to do with the star system you’re observing.

    Even if every star out there had a Solar System like our own, all three of these things being true would be a relatively rare occurrence, so if you’re just searching blindly, you need lots of targets. Kepler began operation in late 2009, pointing at an area of the Milky Way containing about 150,000 stars it was sensitive to. It measured the light from those stars over a long period of time — years — and to date has found close to 10,000 planetary candidates using these criteria. Some of them turn out not to be planets after all, as lots of things can mimic a planetary signal.

    This is why, if you want to confirm an exoplanet candidate, you need a second, independent method to do so.

    5
    Image credit: ESO, under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

    Normally, we use the stellar wobble method. Every planet that orbits a star has a mass, and just as the star pulls the planet into an elliptical orbit around it, the planet adds a tiny elliptical motion to the star’s orbit as well. This doesn’t produce a perceptible change in the star’s position, but does produce a perceptible change in the wavelength of the light emitted from the star: a redshift or blueshift, as the star moves either away or towards you in its periodic dance.

    Over a thousand planetary systems discovered by Kepler have been confirmed by the stellar wobble method, including Kepler-56, which is a star that’s presently evolving into a red giant as its core runs out of hydrogen to burn. Two large, inner planets — one about the mass of Neptune and one about half the mass of Jupiter — were found around this system. The large masses and close-in orbits make these exactly the types of planets that Kepler can find most easily, and also the types of planets that can easily and quickly be confirmed via stellar wobble.

    6
    Image credit: NASA Ames/W. Stenzel, of the Kepler planetary candidates as of July 2015.

    Kepler’s no good at finding planets that are much farther out than Earth is from our Sun, since in order to build up a robust, quality signal, you need multiple transits (more is better) of the planet across the star, which is very hard to do for a planet like say, Jupiter in our Solar System, which has an orbital period of 12 years, especially if your spacecraft has only been up there since 2009. To make things even worse, your chances of having a good alignment with a planet that’s more distant from its parent star drops very quickly as you move away. There’s a reason that hot, inner worlds are so abundant with Kepler: they’re the easiest ones to find.

    But sometimes, you do your follow-up for the transiting planets (the ones Kepler easily finds), and when you look for the stellar wobble, you not only find it…

    7
    Image credit: D. Huber et al., Science 18 October 2013: Vol. 342 no. 6156 pp. 331–334; DOI: 10.1126/science.1242066.

    but you find something else. In the case of Kepler-56, the innermost planet (blue line) gives off a clear signal that can be teased out; the second large planet (red line, higher mass) gives off an even more prominent signal. Yet perhaps the most notable signal is just labeled “trend,” which you need to add to the two planetary signals to get the observed data. When this was first reported in 2013, it was assumed this was probably a planet, but more data was needed to know its orbital properties: mass and period. As first released this week at the American Astronomical Society’s annual meeting, Kepler-56 appears to have a third planet orbiting it — about six times the mass of Jupiter with a period of around three Earth-years — thanks to the work of Justin Otor, Benjamin Montet and John A. Johnson.

    8
    Image credit: Danny Barringer, of Justin Otor’s poster at AAS 227.

    Finally, one almost complete “wobble cycle” of the outer planet has been observed with the follow-up data, and it’s actually a planet that doesn’t transit the star from our line-of-sight. It turns out that Kepler really can’t find these outer worlds on its own, but the clues that Kepler provides, of where to look for planetary systems where the stellar wobble can teach you so much more, can lead us to discover massive, outer planets that we never would’ve known to look for otherwise. Where there’s smoke, you look for the fire; where there are inner worlds, look for the outer ones. If you see the steep rise or fall associated with a massive wobble, you just might break the record.

    This article was partially based on information obtained during the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting, some of which may be unpublished.

    See the full article here .

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    “Starts With A Bang! is a blog/video blog about cosmology, physics, astronomy, and anything else I find interesting enough to write about. I am a firm believer that the highest good in life is learning, and the greatest evil is willful ignorance. The goal of everything on this site is to help inform you about our world, how we came to be here, and to understand how it all works. As I write these pages for you, I hope to not only explain to you what we know, think, and believe, but how we know it, and why we draw the conclusions we do. It is my hope that you find this interesting, informative, and accessible,” says Ethan

     
  • richardmitnick 5:33 pm on January 12, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , NASA Kepler, The search for habitable exoplanets   

    From JPL-Caltech: “NASA’s Kepler Marks 1,000th Exoplanet Discovery, Uncovers More Small Worlds in Habitable Zones” 

    JPL-Caltech

    January 6, 2015
    Whitney Clavin
    NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California
    818-648-9734
    whitney.clavin@jpl.nasa.gov

    Felicia Chou
    NASA Headquarters, Washington
    202-358-0257
    felicia.chou@nasa.gov

    Michele Johnson
    NASA’s Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California
    650-604-6982
    michele.johnson@nasa.gov

    1
    Of the more than 1,000 verified planets found by NASA’s Kepler, eight are less than twice Earth-size and in their stars’ habitable zone. All eight orbit stars cooler and smaller than our sun. The search continues for Earth-size habitable zone worlds around sun-like stars. Credit: NASA Ames/W Stenzel

    How many stars like our sun host planets like our Earth? NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope continuously monitored more than 150,000 stars beyond our solar system, and to date has offered scientists an assortment of more than 4,000 candidate planets for further study — the 1,000th of which was recently verified.

    NASA Kepler Telescope
    NASA Kepler Telescope

    Using Kepler data, scientists reached this millenary milestone after validating that eight more candidates spotted by the planet-hunting telescope are, in fact, planets. The Kepler team also has added another 554 candidates to the roll of potential planets, six of which are near-Earth-size and orbit in the habitable zone of stars similar to our sun.

    Three of the newly-validated planets are located in their distant suns’ habitable zone, the range of distances from the host star where liquid water might exist on the surface of an orbiting planet. Of the three, two are likely made of rock, like Earth.

    “Each result from the planet-hunting Kepler mission’s treasure trove of data takes us another step closer to answering the question of whether we are alone in the universe,” said John Grunsfeld, associate administrator of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate at the agency’s headquarters in Washington. “The Kepler team and its science community continue to produce impressive results with the data from this venerable explorer.”

    To determine whether a planet is made of rock, water or gas, scientists must know its size and mass. When its mass can’t be directly determined, scientists can infer what the planet is made of based on its size.

    Two of the newly validated planets, Kepler-438b and Kepler-442b, are less than 1.5 times the diameter of Earth. Kepler-438b, 475 light-years away, is 12 percent bigger than Earth and orbits its star once every 35.2 days. Kepler-442b, 1,100 light-years away, is 33 percent bigger than Earth and orbits its star once every 112 days.

    2
    Approximate size comparison of Kepler-438b (right) with Earth

    Both Kepler-438b and Kepler-442b orbit stars smaller and cooler than our sun, making the habitable zone closer to their parent star, in the direction of the constellation Lyra. The research paper reporting this finding has been accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal.

    “With each new discovery of these small, possibly rocky worlds, our confidence strengthens in the determination of the true frequency of planets like Earth,” said co-author Doug Caldwell, SETI Institute Kepler scientist at NASA’s Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, California. “The day is on the horizon when we’ll know how common temperate, rocky planets like Earth are.”

    With the detection of 554 more planet candidates from Kepler observations conducted May 2009 to April 2013, the Kepler team has raised the candidate count to 4,175. Eight of these new candidates are between one to two times the size of Earth, and orbit in their sun’s habitable zone. Of these eight, six orbit stars that are similar to our sun in size and temperature. All candidates require follow-up observations and analysis to verify they are actual planets.

    “Kepler collected data for four years — long enough that we can now tease out the Earth-size candidates in one Earth-year orbits,” said Fergal Mullally, SETI Institute Kepler scientist at Ames who led the analysis of a new candidate catalog. “We’re closer than we’ve ever been to finding Earth twins around other sun-like stars. These are the planets we’re looking for.”

    These findings also have been submitted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Supplement.

    Work is underway to translate these recent discoveries into estimates of how often rocky planets appear in the habitable zones of stars like our sun, a key step toward NASA’s goal of understanding our place in the universe.

    Scientists also are working on the next catalog release of Kepler’s four-year data set. The analysis will include the final month of data collected by the mission and also will be conducted using sophisticated software that is more sensitive to the tiny telltale signatures of small Earth-size planets than software used in the past.

    Ames is responsible for Kepler’s mission operations, ground system development and science data analysis. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, managed Kepler mission development. Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. in Boulder, Colorado, developed the Kepler flight system and supports mission operations with the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado in Boulder. The Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore archives, hosts and distributes Kepler science data. Kepler is NASA’s 10th Discovery Mission and was funded by the agency’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington.

    For more information about the Kepler mission, visit:

    http://www.nasa.gov/kepler

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    NASA JPL Campus

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center located in the San Gabriel Valley area of Los Angeles County, California, United States. Although the facility has a Pasadena postal address, it is actually headquartered in the city of La Cañada Flintridge [1], on the northwest border of Pasadena. JPL is managed by the nearby California Institute of Technology (Caltech) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Laboratory’s primary function is the construction and operation of robotic planetary spacecraft, though it also conducts Earth-orbit and astronomy missions. It is also responsible for operating NASA’s Deep Space Network.

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  • richardmitnick 7:54 pm on November 24, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , NASA Kepler,   

    From NASA: “Strange Star Likely Swarmed by Comets” 

    NASA

    NASA

    Nov. 24, 2015
    Whitney Clavin
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California
    818-354-4673
    whitney.clavin@jpl.nasa.gov

    Michele Johnson
    Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif.
    650-604-6982
    michele.johnson@nasa.gov

    1
    This illustration shows a star behind a shattered comet. Observations of the star KIC 8462852 by NASA’s Kepler and Spitzer space telescopes suggest that its unusual light signals are likely from dusty comet fragments, which blocked the light of the star as they passed in front of it in 2011 and 2013. The comets are thought to be traveling around the star in a very long, eccentric orbit. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

    A star called KIC 8462852 has been in the news recently for unexplained and bizarre behavior. NASA’s Kepler mission had monitored the star for four years, observing two unusual incidents, in 2011 and 2013, when the star’s light dimmed in dramatic, never-before-seen ways. Something had passed in front of the star and blocked its light, but what?

    NASA Kepler Telescope
    Kepler

    Scientists first reported the findings in September, suggesting a family of comets as the most likely explanation. Other cited causes included fragments of planets and asteroids.

    A new study using data from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope addresses the mystery, finding more evidence for the scenario involving a swarm of comets.

    NASA Spitzer Telescope
    Spitzer

    The study, led by Massimo Marengo of Iowa State University, Ames, is accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

    One way to learn more about the star is to study it in infrared light. Kepler had observed it in visible light. If a planetary impact, or a collision amongst asteroids, were behind the mystery of KIC 8462852, then there should be an excess of infrared light around the star. Dusty, ground-up bits of rock would be at the right temperature to glow at infrared wavelengths.

    At first, researchers tried to look for infrared light using NASA’s Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, and found none.

    NASA Wise Telescope
    WISE

    But those observations were taken in 2010, before the strange events seen by Kepler — and before any collisions would have kicked up dust.

    To search for infrared light that might have been generated after the oddball events, researchers turned to Spitzer, which, like WISE, also detects infrared light. Spitzer just happened to observe KIC 8462852 more recently in 2015.

    “Spitzer has observed all of the hundreds of thousands of stars where Kepler hunted for planets, in the hope of finding infrared emission from circumstellar dust,” said Michael Werner, the Spitzer project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, and the lead investigator of that particular Spitzer/Kepler observing program.

    But, like WISE, Spitzer did not find any significant excess of infrared light from warm dust. That makes theories of rocky smashups very unlikely, and favors the idea that cold comets are responsible. It’s possible that a family of comets is traveling on a very long, eccentric orbit around the star. At the head of the pack would be a very large comet, which would have blocked the star’s light in 2011, as noted by Kepler. Later, in 2013, the rest of the comet family, a band of varied fragments lagging behind, would have passed in front of the star and again blocked its light.

    By the time Spitzer observed the star in 2015, those comets would be farther away, having continued on their long journey around the star. They would not leave any infrared signatures that could be detected.

    According to Marengo, more observations are needed to help settle the case of KIC 8462852.

    “This is a very strange star,” he said. “It reminds me of when we first discovered pulsars. They were emitting odd signals nobody had ever seen before, and the first one discovered was named LGM-1 after ‘Little Green Men.’”

    In the end, the LGM-1 signals turned out to be a natural phenomenon.

    “We may not know yet what’s going on around this star,” Marengo observed. “But that’s what makes it so interesting.”

    Caltech manages JPL for NASA.

    For more information about Kepler and Spitzer, respectively, visit:

    http://www.nasa.gov/kepler

    http://kepler.nasa.gov

    http://www.nasa.gov/spitzer

    http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Stem Education Coalition

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation’s civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research.

    President Dwight D. Eisenhower established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958 with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science. The National Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 29, 1958, disestablishing NASA’s predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency became operational on October 1, 1958.

    Since that time, most U.S. space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo moon-landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle. Currently, NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Commercial Crew vehicles. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program (LSP) which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. Most recently, NASA announced a new Space Launch System that it said would take the agency’s astronauts farther into space than ever before and lay the cornerstone for future human space exploration efforts by the U.S.

    NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System, advancing heliophysics through the efforts of the Science Mission Directorate’s Heliophysics Research Program, exploring bodies throughout the Solar System with advanced robotic missions such as New Horizons, and researching astrophysics topics, such as the Big Bang, through the Great Observatories [Hubble, Chandra, Spitzer, and associated programs. NASA shares data with various national and international organizations such as from the [JAXA]Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite.

     
  • richardmitnick 6:43 am on July 24, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , NASA Kepler   

    From Keck: “Found: Earth’s Closest Cousin Yet” 

    Keck Observatory

    Keck Observatory

    Keck Observatory

    July 23, 2015
    No Writer Credit

    1
    This artist’s concept compares Earth (left) to the new planet, called Kepler-452b, which is about 60 percent larger in diameter.
    Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle

    2
    This size and scale of the Kepler-452 system compared alongside the Kepler-186 system and the solar system. Kepler-186 is a miniature solar system that would fit entirely inside the orbit of Mercury. Credit: NASA/JPL-CalTech/R. Hurt

    The W. M. Keck Observatory has confirmed the first near-Earth-size planet in the “habitable zone” around a sun-like star. This discovery and the introduction of 11 other new small habitable zone candidate planets were originally made by NASA’s Kepler space telescopes and mark another milestone in the journey to finding another “Earth.”

    NASA Kepler Telescope
    Kepler

    “We can think of Kepler-452b as bigger, older cousin to Earth, providing an opportunity to understand and reflect upon Earth’s evolving environment,” said Jon Jenkins, Kepler data analysis lead at NASA’s Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California, who led the team that discovered Kepler-452b. “It’s awe-inspiring to consider that this planet has spent 6 billion years in the habitable zone of its star; about 1.5 billion years longer than Earth. That’s substantial opportunity for life to arise, should all the necessary ingredients and conditions for life exist on this planet.”

    The data from Kepler suggested to the team there was a planet causing the light from it’s host star to dim as is orbited around it. The team then turned to ground-based observatories including the University of Texas at Austin’s McDonald Observatory, the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, and the world’s largest telescopes at Keck Observatory on Maunakea, Hawaii for confirmation.

    U Texas McDonald Observatory Campus
    University of Texas at Austin’s McDonald Observatory

    CfA Whipple Observatory
    CfA Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory

    Specifically, the ten-meter Keck I telescope, fitted with the HIRES instrument was used to confirm the Kepler data as well as to more precisely determine the properties of the star, specifically its temperature, surface gravity and metallicity.

    Keck HIRES
    HIRES

    “These fundamental properties are used to determine the stellar mass and radius allowing for precise determination of the planet size,” said Howard Isaacson, researcher in the astronomy department at UC Berkeley and mamba of the discovery team. “With the precise stellar parameters from the HIRES spectrum, we can show that planet radius is closer to the size of the Earth, than say Neptune (~4x Earth’s radius). With a radius of 1.6 times the radius of the Earth, the chances of the planet having some sort of rocky surface is predicted to be ~50%. The Keck Observatory spectrum is also used to rule out false positive scenarios. Background stars can confuses the interpretation of the planet hypothesis, and the Keck Observatory spectrum shows that no such background stars are present.”

    The newly discovered Kepler-452b is the smallest planet to date discovered orbiting a sun-like star (G2-type star) in the habitable zone — the area around a star where liquid water could pool on the surface of an orbiting planet. The confirmation of Kepler-452b brings the total number of confirmed planets to 1,030.

    Kepler-452b is 60 percent larger than Earth and is considered a super-Earth-size planet. While its mass and composition are not yet determined, previous research suggests that planets the size of Kepler-452b have a good chance of being rocky.

    While Kepler-452b is larger than Earth, its 385-day orbit is only 5 percent longer. The planet is 5 percent farther from its parent star Kepler-452 than Earth is from the Sun. Kepler-452 is 6 billion years old, 1.5 billion years older than our sun, has the same temperature, and is 10 percent larger and 20 percent brighter.

    The Kepler-452 system is located 1,400 light-years away in the constellation Cygnus. The research paper reporting this finding has been accepted for publication in The Astronomical Journal.

    In addition to confirming Kepler-452b, the Kepler team has increased the number of new exoplanet candidates by 521 from their analysis of observations conducted from May 2009 to May 2013, raising the number of planet candidates detected by the Kepler mission to 4,696. Candidates require follow-up observations and analysis to verify they are actual planets.

    Twelve of the new planet candidates have diameters between one to two times that of Earth, and orbit in their star’s habitable zone. Of these, nine orbit stars that are similar to our sun in size and temperature. These candidates are likely targets for future observing runs at Keck Observatory for confirmation.

    “We’ve been able to fully automate our process of identifying planet candidates, which means we can finally assess every transit signal in the entire Kepler dataset quickly and uniformly,” said Jeff Coughlin, Kepler scientist at the SETI Institute in Mountain View, California, who led the analysis of a new candidate catalog. “This gives astronomers a statistically sound population of planet candidates to accurately determine the number of small, possibly rocky planets like Earth in our Milky Way galaxy.”

    These findings, presented in the seventh Kepler Candidate Catalog, will be submitted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal. These findings are derived from data publically available on the NASA Exoplanet Archive.

    HIRES (the High-Resolution Echelle Spectrometer) produces spectra of single objects at very high spectral resolution, yet covering a wide wavelength range. It does this by separating the light into many “stripes” of spectra stacked across a mosaic of three large CCD detectors. HIRES is famous for finding planets orbiting other stars. Astronomers also use HIRES to study distant galaxies and quasars, finding clues to the Big Bang. 


    See the full article here.

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    Mission
    To advance the frontiers of astronomy and share our discoveries with the world.

    The W. M. Keck Observatory operates the largest, most scientifically productive telescopes on Earth. The two, 10-meter optical/infrared telescopes on the summit of Mauna Kea on the Island of Hawaii feature a suite of advanced instruments including imagers, multi-object spectrographs, high-resolution spectrographs, integral-field spectrometer and world-leading laser guide star adaptive optics systems. Keck Observatory is a private 501(c) 3 non-profit organization and a scientific partnership of the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and NASA.

    Today Keck Observatory is supported by both public funding sources and private philanthropy. As a 501(c)3, the organization is managed by the California Association for Research in Astronomy (CARA), whose Board of Directors includes representatives from the California Institute of Technology and the University of California, with liaisons to the board from NASA and the Keck Foundation.
    Keck UCal

    Keck NASA

    Keck Caltech

     
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