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  • richardmitnick 2:14 pm on August 15, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , M82 starburst, NASA Chandra   

    From Chandra- “M82: Images From Space Telescopes Produce Stunning View of Starburst Galaxy” 2006 

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    NASA Chandra Telescope

    NASA Chandra

    April 24, 2006 [Before my time on this blog.]

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    Credit X-ray: NASA/CXC/JHU/D.Strickland; Optical: NASA/ESA/STScI/AURA/The Hubble Heritage Team; IR: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of AZ/C. Engelbracht

    Images from three of NASA’s Great Observatories were combined to create this spectacular, multiwavelength view of the starburst galaxy M82. Optical light from stars (yellow-green/Hubble Space Telescope) shows the disk of a modest-sized, apparently normal galaxy.

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    Another Hubble observation designed to image 10,000 degree Celsius hydrogen gas (orange) reveals a startlingly different picture of matter blasting out of the galaxy. The Spitzer Space Telescope infrared image (red) shows that cool gas and dust are also being ejected.

    NASA/Spitzer Infrared Telescope

    Chandra’s X-ray image (blue) reveals gas that has been heated to millions of degrees by the violent outflow. The eruption can be traced back to the central regions of the galaxy where stars are forming at a furious rate, some 10 times faster than in the Milky Way Galaxy.

    Many of these newly formed stars are very massive and race through their evolution to explode as supernovas. Vigorous mass loss from these stars before they explode, and the heat generated by the supernovas drive the gas out of the galaxy at millions of miles per hour. It is thought that the expulsion of matter from a galaxy during bursts of star formation is one of the main ways of spreading elements like carbon and oxygen throughout the universe.

    The burst of star formation in M82 is thought to have been initiated by shock waves generated in a close encounter with a large nearby galaxy, M81, about 100 million years ago. These shock waves triggered the collapse of giant clouds of dust and gas in M82. In another 100 million years or so, most of the gas and dust will have been used to form stars, or blown out of the galaxy, so the starburst will subside.

    See the full article here .

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    NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra’s science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:28 pm on August 12, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: astronomers found over a dozen black holes and neutron stars feeding off gas from young massive stellar companions, , , , , IC 10, If the separation between the compact objects becomes small enough as time passes they will produce gravitational waves, NASA Chandra,   

    From Chandra: ” IC 10: A Starburst Galaxy with the Prospect of Gravitational Waves” 

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    NASA Chandra Telescope

    NASA Chandra

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    Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/UMass Lowell/S. Laycock et al.; Optical: Bill Snyder Astrophotography

    In 1887, American astronomer Lewis Swift discovered a glowing cloud, or nebula, that turned out to be a small galaxy about 2.2 million light years from Earth. Today, it is known as the “starburst” galaxy IC 10, referring to the intense star formation activity occurring there.

    More than a hundred years after Swift’s discovery, astronomers are studying IC 10 with the most powerful telescopes of the 21st century. New observations with NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory reveal many pairs of stars that may one day become sources of perhaps the most exciting cosmic phenomenon observed in recent years: gravitational waves.

    By analyzing Chandra observations of IC 10 spanning a decade, astronomers found over a dozen black holes and neutron stars feeding off gas from young, massive stellar companions. Such double star systems are known as “X-ray binaries” because they emit large amounts of X-ray light. As a massive star orbits around its compact companion, either a black hole or neutron star, material can be pulled away from the giant star to form a disk of material around the compact object. Frictional forces heat the infalling material to millions of degrees, producing a bright X-ray source.

    When the massive companion star runs out fuel, it will undergo a catastrophic collapse that will produce a supernova explosion, and leave behind a black hole or neutron star. The end result is two compact objects: either a pair of black holes, a pair of neutron stars, or a black hole and neutron star. If the separation between the compact objects becomes small enough as time passes, they will produce gravitational waves. Over time, the size of their orbit will shrink until they merge. LIGO has found three examples of black hole pairs merging in this way in the past two years.

    Starburst galaxies like IC 10 are excellent places to search for X-ray binaries because they are churning out stars rapidly. Many of these newly born stars will be pairs of young and massive stars. The most massive of the pair will evolve more quickly and leave behind a black hole or a neutron star partnered with the remaining massive star. If the separation of the stars is small enough, an X-ray binary system will be produced.

    This new composite image of IC 10 combines X-ray data from Chandra (blue) with an optical image (red, green, blue) taken by amateur astronomer Bill Snyder from the Heavens Mirror Observatory in Sierra Nevada, California. The X-ray sources detected by Chandra appear as a darker blue than the stars detected in optical light.

    The young stars in IC 10 appear to be just the right age to give a maximum amount of interaction between the massive stars and their compact companions, producing the most X-ray sources. If the systems were younger, then the massive stars would not have had time to go supernova and produce a neutron star or black hole, or the orbit of the massive star and the compact object would not have had time to shrink enough for mass transfer to begin. If the star system were much older, then both compact objects would probably have already formed. In this case transfer of matter between the compact objects is unlikely, preventing the formation of an X-ray emitting disk.

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    X-ray image of IC 10

    Chandra detected 110 X-ray sources in IC 10. Of these, over forty are also seen in optical light and 16 of these contain “blue supergiants”, which are the type of young, massive, hot stars described earlier. Most of the other sources are X-ray binaries containing less massive stars. Several of the objects show strong variability in their X-ray output, indicative of violent interactions between the compact stars and their companions.

    A pair of papers describing these results were published in the February 10th, 2017 issue of The Astrophysical Journal and is available online here and here. The authors of the study are Silas Laycock from the UMass Lowell’s Center for Space Science and Technology (UML); Rigel Capallo, a graduate student at UML; Dimitris Christodoulou from UML; Benjamin Williams from the University of Washington in Seattle; Breanna Binder from the California State Polytechnic University in Pomona; and, Andrea Prestwich from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass.

    See the full article here .

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    NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra’s science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:35 am on July 23, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Hot gas in the center of the milky way, NASA Chandra, Universo Magico   

    From Universo Magico: “Hot gas in the center of the milky way” 

    Universo Magico

    July 23, 2017
    Juan Carlos

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    This image was produced by combining 12 observations of the X Chandra x-ray Observatory of a region 130 light-years from the center of the Milky way .

    NASA/Chandra Telescope

    The colors represent low-energy red X rays, average energy in green and high power in azul. Thanks to the unique power of resolution of Chandra, astronomers have been able to identify thousands of x-ray sources, as well as neutron stars, black holes, white dwarfs, stars in the foreground and the background galaxies. What remains is a diffuse glow of x-rays that extends from the upper left to the lower right, along the direction of the Galactic disk. The spectrum of the diffuse glow is consistent with a cloud of hot gas that contains two components, 10 million degrees Celsius and gas to 100 million degrees. Diffuse x-rays seem to be the brightest part of a crest of x-ray emission measuring thousands of years light across the disk of the Galaxy. The extension of this Crest implies that the diffuse hot gas in this image, probably not is being warmed by the supermassive black hole at the center of the milky way, known by astronomers as Sagittarius A.

    The shockwaves from explosions of supernovae are the most likely explanation to heat the gas up to 10 million degrees, but it is not known how heats the gas of 100 million degrees. Ordinary shock waves from supernova would not warm by very high energy particles that produces the wrong spectrum of x-rays. Moreover, the observed Galactic magnetic field appears to discard the heating and confinement by magnetic turbulence. It is possible that the high energy of the hot gas x-ray component seem only diffuse and, indeed, is due to the combined glow of a yet undetected population of point sources, as well as diffuse lights of a city seen at a great distance. The difficulty with this explanation is that 200,000 radioactive sources in the observed region would be necessary. A population so large sources undetected, would produce a glow of x-rays much softer than is observed. In addition, there is a known class of objects that can account for such a large number of high energy x-ray sources in the center of the milky way.

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 11:33 am on July 20, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Cygnus X-1: NASA's Chandra Adds to Black Hole Birth Announcement 2011, NASA Chandra   

    From Chandra: “Cygnus X-1: NASA’s Chandra Adds to Black Hole Birth Announcement” 2011 

    NASA Chandra Banner

    NASA Chandra Telescope

    NASA Chandra

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    Credit Optical: DSS; Illustration: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss

    Cygnus X-1 is a black hole about 15 times the mass of the Sun in orbit with a massive blue companion star.

    Astronomers used several telescopes including Chandra to study Cygnus X-1.

    The combined data have revealed the spin, mass, and distance of this black hole more precisely than ever before.

    Stephen Hawking lost a bet — originally placed in 1974 — that Cygnus X-1 did not contain a black hole.

    On the left, an optical image from the Digitized Sky Survey shows Cygnus X-1, outlined in a red box. Cygnus X-1 is located near large active regions of star formation in the Milky Way, as seen in this image that spans some 700 light years across. An artist’s illustration on the right depicts what astronomers think is happening within the Cygnus X-1 system. Cygnus X-1 is a so-called stellar-mass black hole, a class of black holes that comes from the collapse of a massive star. The black hole pulls material from a massive, blue companion star toward it. This material forms a disk (shown in red and orange) that rotates around the black hole before falling into it or being redirected away from the black hole in the form of powerful jets.

    A trio of papers with data from radio, optical and X-ray telescopes, including NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory, has revealed new details about the birth of this famous black hole that took place millions of years ago.

    The Extreme Spin of the Black Hole in Cygnus X-1 ApJ in press

    The Mass of the Black Hole in Cygnus X-1 ApJ in press

    The Trigonometric Parallax of Cygnus X-1 ApJ in press

    Using X-ray data from Chandra, the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, and the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics, scientists were able to determine the spin of Cygnus X-1 with unprecedented accuracy, showing that the black hole is spinning at very close to its maximum rate. Its event horizon — the point of no return for material falling towards a black hole — is spinning around more than 800 times a second.

    NASA RXTE

    JAXA ASCA ASTRO-D satellite

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    Chandra X-ray of Cygnus X-1.

    Using optical observations of the companion star and its motion around its unseen companion, the team also made the most precise determination ever for the mass of Cygnus X-1, of 14.8 times the mass of the Sun. It was likely to have been almost this massive at birth, because of lack of time for it to grow appreciably.

    The researchers also announced that they have made the most accurate distance estimate yet of Cygnus X-1 using the National Radio Observatory’s Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA).

    NRAO VLBA

    The new distance is about 6,070 light years from Earth. This accurate distance was a crucial ingredient for making the precise mass and spin determinations.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra’s science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:05 am on July 20, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , CTIO 36 Inch (.91 meter) Telescope, DLR/NASA ROSAT satellite, NASA Chandra, RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A: Chandra Discovers Cosmic Cannonball   

    From Chandra: “RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A: Chandra Discovers Cosmic Cannonball” 2007 

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    NASA Chandra Telescope

    NASA Chandra

    November 28, 2007

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    Credit Chandra: NASA/CXC/Middlebury College/F.Winkler et al; ROSAT: NASA/GSFC/S.Snowden et al.; Optical: NOAO/AURA/NSF/Middlebury College/F.Winkler et al.

    This graphic shows a wide-field view of the Puppis A supernova remnant along with a close-up image of the neutron star, known as RX J0822-4300, that is moving at a blistering pace. The larger field-of-view is a composite of X-ray data from the ROSAT satellite (pink) and optical data (purple), from the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory 0.9-meter telescope, which highlights oxygen emission.

    DLR/NASA ROSAT satellite


    CTIO 36 Inch (.91 meter) Telescope

    Astronomers think Puppis A was created when a massive star ended its life in a supernova explosion about 3,700 years ago, forming an incredibly dense object called a neutron star and releasing debris into space.

    The neutron star was ejected by the explosion. The inset box shows two observations of this neutron star obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory over the span of five years, between December 1999 and April 2005. By combining how far it has moved across the sky with its distance from Earth, astronomers determined the cosmic cannonball is moving at over 3 million miles per hour, one of the fastest moving stars ever observed. At this rate, RX J0822-4300 is destined to escape from the Milky Way after millions of years, even though it has only traveled about 20 light years so far.

    The results from this study suggest the supernova explosion was lop-sided, kicking the neutron star in one direction and much of the debris from the explosion in the other. The estimated location of the explosion is shown in a labeled version of the composite image. The direction of motion of the cannonball, shown by an arrow, is in the opposite direction to the overall motion of the oxygen debris, seen in the upper left. In each case, the arrows show the estimated motion over the next 1,000 years. The oxygen clumps are believed to be massive enough so that momentum is conserved in the aftermath of the explosion, as required by fundamental physics.

    Science paper:
    EXPANDING EJECTA IN THE OXYGEN-RICH SUPERNOVA REMNANT G292.0+1.8: DIRECT MEASUREMENT THROUGH PROPER MOTIONS The Astrophysical Journal.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra’s science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:54 pm on July 12, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , NASA Chandra, , W51   

    From Chandra: “W51: Chandra Peers into a Nurturing Cloud” 

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    NASA Chandra Telescope

    NASA Chandra

    July 12, 2017


    Optical

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    X-ray

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    Infrared
    Credit X-ray: NASA/CXC/PSU/L.Townsley et al; Infrared: NASA/JPL-Caltech
    Release Date July 12, 2017

    Giant molecular clouds, containing mostly hydrogen and helium, are where most new stars and planets form.

    W51 is one of the closest such objects to Earth so it is an excellent target for learning more about the star-formation process.

    A new composite image of W51 with X-ray data from Chandra (blue) and Spitzer (orange and yellow-green) is being released.

    The X-ray data show the young stars are often clumped together in clusters, while bathing their surroundings in high-energy light.

    In the context of space, the term ‘cloud’ can mean something rather different from the fluffy white collections of water in the sky or a way to store data or process information. Giant molecular clouds are vast cosmic objects, composed primarily of hydrogen molecules and helium atoms, where new stars and planets are born. These clouds can contain more mass than a million suns, and stretch across hundreds of light years.

    The giant molecular cloud known as W51 is one of the closest to Earth at a distance of about 17,000 light years. Because of its relative proximity, W51 provides astronomers with an excellent opportunity to study how stars are forming in our Milky Way galaxy.

    A new composite image of W51 shows the high-energy output from this stellar nursery, where X-rays from Chandra are colored blue. In about 20 hours of Chandra exposure time, over 600 young stars were detected as point-like X-ray sources, and diffuse X-ray emission from interstellar gas with a temperature of a million degrees or more was also observed. Infrared light observed with NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope appears orange and yellow-green and shows cool gas and stars surrounded by disks of cool material.

    NASA/Spitzer Telescope

    W51 contains multiple clusters of young stars. The Chandra data show that the X-ray sources in the field are found in small clumps, with a clear concentration of more than 100 sources in the central cluster, called G49.5−0.4.

    Although the W51 giant molecular cloud fills the entire field-of-view of this image, there are large areas where Chandra does not detect any diffuse, low energy X-rays from hot interstellar gas. Presumably dense regions of cooler material have displaced this hot gas or blocked X-rays from it.

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    X-ray Image of W51 (cropped)

    One of the massive stars in W51 is a bright X-ray source that is surrounded by a concentration of much fainter X-ray sources, as shown in a close-up view of the Chandra image. This suggests that massive stars can form nearly in isolation, with just a few lower mass stars rather than the full set of hundreds that are expected in typical star clusters.

    Another young, massive cluster located near the center of W51 hosts a star system that produces an extraordinarily large fraction of the highest energy X-rays detected by Chandra from W51. Theories for X-ray emission from massive single stars can’t explain this mystery, so it likely requires the close interaction of two very young, massive stars. Such intense, energetic radiation must change the chemistry of the molecules surrounding the star system, presenting a hostile environment for planet formation.

    A paper describing these results, led by Leisa Townsley (Penn State), appeared in the July 14th 2014 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series.

    See the full article here .

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    NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra’s science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:04 pm on July 7, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , NASA Chandra,   

    From Chandra: “Chandra Archive Collection: Preserving the Legacy of the X-ray Universe” 

    NASA Chandra Banner

    NASA Chandra Telescope

    NASA Chandra
    October 28, 2013

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    Chandra’s archive enables access to its observations for scientists and the public.

    This collection of eight images is just a sample of vast stores in the archive.

    The primary role of Chandra’s archive is to store and distribute data from the mission.

    Every year, October is designated as American Archive Month. While many people may think “archive” means only dusty books and letters, there are, in fact, many other types of important archives. This includes the use of archives for major telescopes and observatories like NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory.

    The Chandra Data Archive (CDA) plays a central role in the mission by enabling the astronomical community – as well as the general public – access to data collected by the observatory. The primary role of the CDA is to store and distribute data, which the CDA does with the help of powerful search engines. The CDA is one of the legacies of the Chandra mission that will serve both the scientific community and the public for decades to come.

    To celebrate and support American Archive Month, we have selected images from a group of eight objects in the CDA to be released to the public for the first time. These images represent the observations of thousands of objects that are permanently available to the world thanks to Chandra’s archive.

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    G266.2-1.2:
    G266.2-1.2 was produced by the explosion of a massive star in the Milky Way galaxy. A Chandra observation of this supernova remnant reveals the presence of extremely high-energy particles produced as the shock wave from this explosion expands into interstellar space. In this image, the X-rays from Chandra (purple) have been combined with optical data from the Digitized Sky Survey (red, green, and blue).

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    3C353:
    Jets generated by supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies can transport huge amounts of energy across great distances. 3C353 is a wide, double-lobed source where the galaxy is the tiny point in the center and giant plumes of radiation can be seen in X-rays from Chandra (purple) and radio data from the Very Large Array (orange).

    NRAO/Karl V Jansky VLA, on the Plains of San Agustin fifty miles west of Socorro, NM, USA

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    NGC 3576:
    A region of glowing gas in the Sagittarius arm of the Milky Way galaxy, NGC 3576 is located about 9,000 light years from Earth. Such nebulas present a tableau of the drama of the evolution of massive stars, from the formation in vast dark clouds, their relatively brief (a few million years) lives, and the eventual destruction in supernova explosions. The diffuse X-ray data detected by Chandra (blue) are likely due to the winds from young, massive stars that are blowing throughout the nebula. Optical data from ESO are shown in orange and yellow.

    ESO/VLT at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

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    NGC 4945:
    This image provides a view into the central region of a galaxy that is similar in overall appearance to our own Milky Way, but contains a much more active supermassive black hole within the white area near the top. This galaxy, known as NGC 4945, is only about 13 million light years from Earth and is seen edge-on. X-rays from Chandra (blue), which have been overlaid on an optical image from the European [Southern] Observatory, reveal the presence of the supermassive black hole at the center of this galaxy.

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    IC 1396A:
    When radiation and winds from massive young stars impact clouds of cool gas, they can trigger new generations of stars to form. This is what may be happening in this object known as the Elephant Trunk Nebula (or its official name of IC 1396A). X-rays from Chandra (purple) have been combined with optical (red, green, and blue) and infrared (orange and cyan) to give a more complete picture of this source.

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    3C 397 (G41.1-0.3):
    3C 397 (also known as G41.1-0.3) is a Galactic supernova remnant with an unusual shape. Researchers think its box-like appearance is produced as the heated remains of the exploded star — detected by Chandra in X-rays (purple) — runs into cooler gas surrounding it. This composite of the area around 3C 397 also contains infrared emission from Spitzer (yellow) and optical data from the Digitized Sky Survey (red, green, and blue).

    NASA/Spitzer Telescope

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    SNR B0049-73.6:
    The details of how massive stars explode remains one of the biggest questions in astrophysics. Located in the neighboring galaxy of the Small Magellanic Cloud, this supernova, SNR B0049-73.6, provides astronomers with another excellent example of such an explosion to study. Chandra observations of the dynamics and composition of the debris from the explosion support the view that the explosion was produced by the collapse of the central core of a star. In this image, X-rays from Chandra (purple) are combined with infrared data from the 2MASS survey (red, green, and blue).


    Caltech 2MASS Telescopes, a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) at Caltech, at the Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins south of Tucson, AZ, and at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory near La Serena, Chile.

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    NGC 6946:
    NGC 6946 is a medium-sized, face-on spiral galaxy about 22 million light years away from Earth. In the past century, eight supernovas have been observed to explode in the arms of this galaxy. Chandra observations (purple) have, in fact, revealed three of the oldest supernovas ever detected in X-rays, giving more credence to its nickname of the “Fireworks Galaxy.” This composite image also includes optical data from the Gemini Observatory in red, yellow, and cyan.

    Gemini/North telescope at Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA


    Gemini South telescope, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) campus near La Serena, Chile

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra’s science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:57 pm on June 27, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Arp 299: Galactic Goulash, , , , , NASA Chandra, Two galaxies are in the process of merging, ULXs-Ultraluminous X-ray Sources   

    From Chandra: “Arp 299: Galactic Goulash” 

    NASA Chandra Banner

    NASA Chandra Telescope

    NASA Chandra

    June 26, 2017

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    Composite

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    X-ray

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    Optical
    Credit X-ray: NASA/CXC/Univ of Crete/K. Anastasopoulou et al, NASA/NuSTAR/GSFC/A. Ptak et al; Optical: NASA/STScI
    Release Date June 26, 2017

    Arp 299 is a system where two galaxies are in the process of merging.

    Chandra data has revealed 25 bright point-like X-ray sources in Arp 299, 14 of which are categorized as “ULXs”.

    These ULXs are likely binary systems where a black hole or neutron star is pulling material from a companion star.

    Such a high concentration of ULXs is rare, but caused by a high rate of star formation triggered by the galactic merger.

    What would happen if you took two galaxies and mixed them together over millions of years? A new image including data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory reveals the cosmic culinary outcome.

    Arp 299 is a system located about 140 million light years from Earth. It contains two galaxies that are merging, creating a partially blended mix of stars from each galaxy in the process.

    However, this stellar mix is not the only ingredient. New data from Chandra reveals 25 bright X-ray sources sprinkled throughout the Arp 299 concoction. Fourteen of these sources are such strong emitters of X-rays that astronomers categorize them as “ultra-luminous X-ray sources,” or ULXs.

    These ULXs are found embedded in regions where stars are currently forming at a rapid rate. Most likely, the ULXs are binary systems where a neutron star or black hole is pulling matter away from a companion star that is much more massive than the Sun. These double star systems are called high-mass X-ray binaries.

    Such a loaded buffet of high-mass X-ray binaries is rare, but Arp 299 is one of the most powerful star-forming galaxies in the nearby Universe. This is due at least in part to the merger of the two galaxies, which has triggered waves of star formation. The formation of high-mass X-ray binaries is a natural consequence of such blossoming star birth as some of the young massive stars, which often form in pairs, evolve into these systems.

    This new composite image of Arp 299 contains X-ray data from Chandra (pink), higher-energy X-ray data from NuSTAR (purple), and optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (white and faint brown).

    NASA/NuSTAR

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    Arp 299 also emits copious amounts of infrared light that has been detected by observatories such as NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, but those data are not included in this composite.

    NASA/Spitzer Telescope

    The infrared and X-ray emission of the galaxy is remarkably similar to that of galaxies found in the very distant Universe, offering an opportunity to study a relatively nearby analog of these distant objects. A higher rate of galaxy collisions occurred when the universe was young, but these objects are difficult to study directly because they are located at colossal distances.

    The Chandra data also reveal diffuse X-ray emission from hot gas distributed throughout Arp 299. Scientists think the high rate of supernovas, another common trait of star-forming galaxies, has expelled much of this hot gas out of the center of the system.

    A paper describing these results appeared in the August 21st, 2016 issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. The lead author of the paper is Konstantina Anastasopoulou from the University of Crete in Greece.

    See the full article here .

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    NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra’s science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:48 pm on June 22, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Chandra Archive Collection: Banking X-ray Data for the Future, NASA Chandra, October 2015 American Archive Month   

    From Chandra: “Chandra Archive Collection: Banking X-ray Data for the Future” 

    NASA Chandra Banner

    NASA Chandra Telescope

    NASA Chandra

    10.8.15 [I missed this the first time around.]
    M.R. Khan

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    To commemorate October as American Archive Month, six new images are being released from the Chandra Data Archive.

    The archive houses the data from Chandra’s observations, making them available for ongoing and future studies.

    In its over 16 years of operation, Chandra has observed thousands of objects across space.

    Archives, in their many forms, save information from today that people will want to access and study in the future. This is a critical function of all archives, but it is especially important when it comes to storing data from today’s modern telescopes.

    NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory has collected data for over sixteen years on thousands of different objects throughout the Universe. Ultimately, all of the data goes into an archive and is available to the public.

    To celebrate American Archive Month, we are releasing a collection of new images from the Chandra archive. By combining data from different observation dates, new perspectives of cosmic objects can be created. With archives like those from Chandra and other major observatories, such vistas will be available for future exploration.

    X-ray & Infrared Images of W44
    Also known as G34.7-0.4, W44 is an expanding supernova remnant that is interacting with dense interstellar material that surrounds it. X-rays from Chandra (blue) show that hot gas fills the shell of the supernova remnant as it moves outward. Infrared observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope reveal the shell of the supernova remnant (green) as well as the molecular cloud (red) into which the supernova remnant is moving and the stars in the field of view.

    NASA/Spitzer Telescope


    (Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/Univ. of Georgia/R.Shelton & NASA/CXC/GSFC/R.Petre; Infrared: NASA/JPL-Caltech)
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    Composite

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    X-ray

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    Infrared
    Fast Facts for W44:
    Credit X-ray: NASA/CXC/Univ. of Georgia/R.Shelton & NASA/CXC/GSFC/R.Petre; Infrared: NASA/JPL-Caltech
    Scale Image is 52 arcmin across (about 126 light years)
    Category Supernovas & Supernova Remnants
    Coordinates (J2000) RA 18h 55m 59.3s | Dec +01� 20′ 07.0″
    Constellation Aquila
    Observation Dates 3 pointings on 31 Oct 2000, 23 and 25 Jun 2005
    Observation Time 38 hours 10 min (1 day 14 hours 10 min)
    Obs. IDs 1954, 5548, 6312
    Instrument ACIS
    References Shelton, R. et al, 2004, ApJ, 611, 906; arXiv:astro-ph/0407026
    Color Code X-ray (Cyan); Infrared (Red, Green, Blue)
    Distance Estimate About 8300 light years

    X-ray & Optical Images of SN 1987A
    First seen in 1987, this supernova (dubbed SN 1987A) was the brightest supernova and nearest one to Earth in the last century. In a supernova explosion, a massive star runs out of fuel then collapses onto their core, flinging the outer layers of the star into space. By combining X-ray data from Chandra (blue) with optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (appearing orange and red), astronomers can observe the evolution of the expanding shell of hot gas generated by the explosion and watch as a shock wave from the blast heats gas that once surrounded the doomed star. The two bright stars near SN 1987A are not associated with the supernova.

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope


    (Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/PUS/E.Helder et al; Optical: NASA/STScI)

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    X-ray

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    Optical
    Fast Facts for Supernova 1987A:
    Credit X-ray: NASA/CXC/PUS/E.Helder et al; Optical: NASA/STScI
    Scale Image is 20 arcsec across (about 14 light years)
    Category Supernovas & Supernova Remnants
    Coordinates (J2000) RA 05h 35m 28.30s | Dec -69� 16′ 11.10″
    Constellation Dorado
    Observation Dates 4 pointings between Jan 2008 and Jan 2009
    Observation Time 22 hours 13 min
    Obs. IDs 9142, 9143, 9806, 10130
    Instrument ACIS
    Also Known As SN 1987A
    References Helder, E. et al, 2013, ApJ, 764, 11; arXiv:1212.2664
    Color Code X-ray (Blue); Optical (Red, Green, Blue)
    Distance Estimate About 160,000 light years

    X-ray & Optical Images of Kes 79
    Like SN 1987A, this object, known as Kesteven 79, is the remnant of a supernova explosion, but one that went off thousands of years ago. When massive stars run out of fuel, their cores collapse, generating a shock wave that flings the outer layers of the star into space. An expanding shell of debris and the surviving dense central core are often heated to millions of degrees, and give off X-rays. In this image of Kesteven 79, X-rays detected by Chandra (red, green, and blue) have been combined with an optical image from the Digitized Sky Survey of the field of view that reveals the stars (appearing as white).
    (Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/F.Seward et al, Optical: DSS)

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    Composite

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    X=ray

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    Optical

    Fast Facts for Kes 79:
    Credit X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/F.Seward et al, Optical: DSS
    Scale Image is 15.6 arcmin across (about 104 light years)
    Category Supernovas & Supernova Remnants
    Coordinates (J2000) RA 18h 52m 39.00s | Dec +00� 40′ 00.0”
    Constellation Aquila
    Observation Dates 31 Jul 2001
    Observation Time 8 hours 13 min
    Obs. IDs 1982
    Instrument ACIS
    References Sun, M. et al, 2004, ApJ, 605, 742; arXiv:astro-ph/0401165
    Color Code X-ray (Red, Green, Blue); Optical (Red, Green, Blue)
    Distance Estimate About 23,000 light years

    X-ray, Optical & Radio Images of MS 0735.6+7421
    The galaxy cluster MS 0735.6+7421 is home to one of the most powerful eruptions ever observed. X-rays detected by Chandra (blue) show the hot gas that comprises much of the mass of this enormous object. Within the Chandra data, holes, or cavities, can be seen. These cavities were created by an outburst from a supermassive black hole at the center of the cluster, which ejected the enormous jets detected in radio waves (pink) detected the Very Large Array.

    NRAO/Karl V Jansky VLA, on the Plains of San Agustin fifty miles west of Socorro, NM, USA

    These data have been combined with optical data from Hubble of galaxies in the cluster and stars in the field of view (orange).
    (Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/Univ. of Waterloo/A.Vantyghem et al; Optical: NASA/STScI; Radio: NRAO/VLA)
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    Composite

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    X-ray

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    Optical

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    Radio
    Fast Facts for MS 0735.6+7421:
    Credit X-ray: NASA/CXC/Univ. of Waterloo/A.Vantyghem et al; Optical: NASA/STScI; Radio: NRAO/VLA
    Scale Image is 3 arcmin across (about 2 million light years)
    Category Groups & Clusters of Galaxies
    Coordinates (J2000) RA 07h 41m 50.20s | Dec +74° 14′ 51.00″
    Constellation Camelopardalis
    Observation Dates 8 pointings between Nov 2003 and Jul 2009
    Observation Time 144 hours (6 days 47 min)
    Obs. IDs 4197, 10468, 10469, 10470, 10471, 10822, 10918, 10922
    Instrument ACIS
    References Vantyghem, A. et al, 2014, MNRAS, 442, 3192; arXiv:1405.6208
    Color Code X-ray: Blue; Optical: Gold; Radio: Pink
    Distance Estimate About 2.6 billion light years (z = 0.216)

    X-ray & Optical Images of 3C295
    The vast cloud of 50-million-degree gas that pervades the galaxy cluster 3C295 is only visible with an X-ray telescope like Chandra. This composite image shows the superheated gas, detected by Chandra (pink), which has a mass equal to that of a thousand galaxies. Hubble’s optical data (yellow) reveal some of the individual galaxies in the cluster. Galaxy clusters like 3C295 also contain large amounts of dark matter, which holds the hot gas and galaxies together. The total mass of the dark matter needed is typically five times as great as the gas and galaxies combined.
    (Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/Cambridge/S.Allen et al; Optical: NASA/STScI)

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    Composite

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    X-ray

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    Optical

    Fast Facts for 3C295:
    Credit X-ray: NASA/CXC/Cambridge/S.Allen et al; Optical: NASA/STScI
    Scale Image is 1.5 arcmin across (about 1.7 million light years)
    Category Groups & Clusters of Galaxies
    Coordinates (J2000) RA 14h 11m 20s | Dec -52� 12′ 21
    Constellation Boötes
    Observation Dates 2 pointings on 30 Aug 1999 and 18 May 2001
    Observation Time 33 hours 20 min (1 day 9 hours 20 min)
    Obs. IDs 578, 2254
    Instrument ACIS
    Also Known As Cl 1409+524
    References Allen, S. et al, 2001, MNRAS, 324, 842; arXiv:astro-ph/0101162
    Color Code X-ray: Purple; Optical: Yellow
    Distance Estimate About 4.7 billion light years (z=0.464)

    X-ray & Optical Images of Guitar Nebula
    The pulsar B2224+65 is moving through space very rapidly. Because of its high speed, the pulsar is creating a bow shock in its wake. This structure is known as the Guitar Nebula and the likeness of the musical instrument can be seen in the optical data (blue) of this composite image taken by Hubble and the Palomar Observatory.

    Caltech Palomar 200 inch Hale Telescope, at Mt Wilson, CA, USA


    X-ray data from Chandra (pink) reveal a long jet that is coincident with the location of the pulsar at the tip of the “guitar,” but is not aligned with its direction of motion. Astronomers will continue to study this system to determine the nature of this X-ray jet.
    (Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/UMass/S.Johnson et al, Optical: NASA/STScI & Palomar Observatory 5-m Hale Telescope)

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    Optical
    Fast Facts for Guitar Nebula:
    Credit X-ray: NASA/CXC/UMass/S.Johnson et al, Optical: NASA/STScI & Palomar Observatory 5-m Hale Telescope
    Scale Image is 3.3 arcmin across (about 5 light years)
    Category Neutron Stars/X-ray Binaries
    Coordinates (J2000) RA 22h 25m 52.36s | Dec +65� 35′ 33.79”
    Constellation Cepheus
    Observation Dates 6 pointings between Oct 2000 and Aug 2012
    Observation Time 54 hours (2 days 6 hours)
    Obs. IDs 755, 6691, 7400, 13771, 14353, 14467
    Instrument ACIS
    References Johnson, S. et al, 2010, MNRAS, 408, 1216; arXiv:1003.1724
    Color Code X-ray (Pink); Optical (Blue)
    Distance Estimate About 4900 light years

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra’s science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:12 am on June 12, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , N49: Stellar Debris in the Large Magellanic Cloud, NASA Chandra   

    From Chandra- “N49: Stellar Debris in the Large Magellanic Cloud” 2006 

    NASA Chandra Banner

    NASA Chandra Telescope

    NASA Chandra

    November 29, 2006

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    Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/Caltech/S.Kulkarni et al.; Optical: NASA/STScI/UIUC/Y.H.Chu & R.Williams et al.; IR: NASA/JPL-Caltech/R.Gehrz et al.

    This is a composite image of N49, the brightest supernova remnant in optical light in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

    Large Magellanic Cloud. Adrian Pingstone December 2003

    The Chandra X-ray image (blue) shows million-degree gas in the center. Much cooler gas at the outer parts of the remnant is seen in the infrared image from Spitzer (red).

    NASA/Spitzer Telescope

    While astronomers expected that dust particles were generating most of the infrared emission, the study of this object indicates that much of the infrared is instead generated in heated gas.

    The unique filamentary structure seen in the optical image by Hubble (white & yellow) has long set N49 apart from other well understood supernova remnants, as most supernova remnants appear roughly circular in visible light.

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    Recent mapping of molecular clouds suggests that this supernova remnant is expanding into a denser region to the southeast, which would cause its asymmetrical appearance. This idea is confirmed by the Chandra data. Although X-rays reveal a round shell of emission, the X-rays also show brightening in the southeast, confirming the idea of colliding material in that area.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra’s science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

     
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