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  • richardmitnick 2:21 pm on June 26, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "ALMA Pinpoints the Formation Site of Planet around Nearest Young Star", , , , , , NAOJ   

    From ALMA via NAOJ: “ALMA Pinpoints the Formation Site of Planet around Nearest Young Star” 

    NAOJ

    From National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    NAOJ

    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array in Chile in the Atacama at Chajnantor plateau, at 5,000 metres

    From ALMA

    June 26, 2019

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    ALMA image of the protoplanetary disk around the young star TW Hydrae. A small clump of dust was found in the southwestern (bottom right) part of the otherwise highly symmetric disk.

    Researchers using ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) found a small dust concentration in the disk around TW Hydrae, the nearest young star. It is highly possible that a planet is growing or about to be formed in this concentration. This is the first time that the exact place where cold materials are forming the seed of a planet has been pinpointed in the disk around a young star.

    The young star TW Hydrae, located194 light-years away in the constellation Hydra, is the closest star around which planets may be forming. Its surrounding dust disk is the best target to study the process of planet formation.

    Previous ALMA observations revealed that the disk is composed of concentric rings. Now, new higher sensitivity ALMA observations revealed a previously unknown small clump in the planet forming disk. The clump is elongated along the direction of the disk rotation, with a width approximately equal to the distance between the Sun and the Earth, and a length of about four-and-a-half times that.

    “The true nature of the clump is still not clear,” says Takashi Tsukagoshi at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and the lead author of the research paper. “It could be a ‘circumplanetary’ disk feeding a Neptune-sized infant planet. Or it might be that swirling gas is raking up the dust particles.”

    Planets form in disks of gas and dust around young stars. Micrometer-sized dust particles stick together to grow to larger grains, rocks, and finally a planet. Theoretical studies predict that an infant planet is surrounded by a ‘circumplanetary’ disk, a small structure within the larger dust disk around the star. The planet collects material through this circumplanetary disk. It is important to find such a circumplanetary disk to understand the final stage of planet growth.

    Cold dust and gas in the disks around young stars are difficult to see in visible light, but they emit radio waves. With its high sensitivity and resolution for such radio waves, ALMA is one of the most powerful instruments to study the genesis of planets.

    However, the brightness and elongated shape of the structure revealed by ALMA don’t exactly match theoretical predictions for circumplanetary disks. It might be a gas vortex, which are also expected to form here and there around a young star. Finding only a single dust clump at this time is also contrary to theoretical studies. So the research team could not reach a definitive answer on the nature of the dusty clump.

    “Although we do not have a robust conclusion,” says Tsukagoshi. “Pinpointing the exact place of planet formation is highly valuable to us. Next we’ll obtain even higher resolution ALMA images to reveal the temperature distribution in the clump to look for hints of a planet inside. Also we plan to observe it with the Subaru Telescope in infrared to see if there is hot gas around a potential planet.”

    These observation results were published as T. Tsukagoshi et al. “Discovery of an au-scale excess in millimeter emission from the protoplanetary disk around TW Hya” in the Astrophysical Journal Letters on June 10, 2019.

    The research team members are:
    Takashi Tsukagoshi (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan), Takayuki Muto (Kogakuin University), Hideko Nomura (Tokyo Institute of Technology/National Astronomical Observatory of Japan), Ryohei Kawabe (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan/SOKENDAI/The University of Tokyo), Kazuhiro D. Kanagawa (The University of Tokyo), Satoshi Okuzumi (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Shigeru Ida (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Catherine Walsh (University of Leeds), Tom J. Millar (Queen’s University Belfast), Sanemichi Z. Takahashi (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan/Kogakuin University), Jun Hashimoto (Astrobiology Center), Taichi Uyama (California Institute of Technology/The University of Tokyo/National Astronomical Observatory of Japan), and Motohide Tamura (The University of Tokyo/Astrobiology Center)

    This research was supported by JSPS KAKENHI (No. 17K14244, 17H01103, 18H05441, 19K03932), STFC (ST/P000321/1, ST/R000549/1).

    See the full article here .

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    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC) and in East Asia by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan.

    ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by ESO, on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) and on behalf of East Asia by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.

    NRAO Small
    ESO 50 Large

    NAOJ

    The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) is an astronomical research organisation comprising several facilities in Japan, as well as an observatory in Hawaii. It was established in 1988 as an amalgamation of three existing research organizations – the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory of the University of Tokyo, International Latitude Observatory of Mizusawa, and a part of Research Institute of Atmospherics of Nagoya University.

    In the 2004 reform of national research organizations, NAOJ became a division of the National Institutes of Natural Sciences.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:04 am on June 2, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Subaru Telescope Captures 1800 Exploding Stars", , , , , NAOJ,   

    From National Astronomical Observatory of Japan: “Subaru Telescope Captures 1800 Exploding Stars” 

    NAOJ

    From National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

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    Some supernovae discovered in this study. There are three images for each supernova: before it exploded (left), after it exploded (middle), and the supernova itself (difference between the first two images).

    Astronomers using the Subaru Telescope identified about 1800 new supernovae in the distant Universe, including 58 Type Ia supernovae over 8 billion light-years away. These findings will help elucidate the expansion of the Universe.

    A supernova is a powerful explosion at the end of the life of a massive star. The star often becomes as bright as its host galaxy, shining one billion times brighter than the Sun for one to six months before dimming down. Type Ia supernovae are particularly useful because their consistent maximum brightness allows researchers to calculate how far the star is from Earth. This is particularly useful for researchers who want to measure the expansion of the Universe.

    But supernovae are rare events. To spot as many supernovae as possible, a team led by Professor Naoki Yasuda of the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU) used the Subaru Telescope equipped with Hyper Suprime-Cam, an 870 mega-pixel digital camera, to capture sharp stellar images over a very wide area of the night sky. By taking repeated images of the same area of the night sky over a six month period, the researchers could identify new supernovae by looking for stars that suddenly appeared brighter before gradually fading out.

    The team identified about 400 Type Ia supernovae. Fifty-eight of these Type Ia supernovae are located more than 8 billion light-years away from Earth. In comparison, the Hubble Space Telescope took about 10 years to discover a total of 50 supernovae located more than 8 billion light-years away.

    “The Subaru Telescope and Hyper Suprime-Cam have already helped researchers create a 3D map of dark matter, and observation of primordial black holes, but now this result proves that this instrument has a very high capability finding supernovae very, very far away from Earth.” said Yasuda.

    Next, researchers will use the data to calculate the expansion of the Universe more accurately and study how dark energy’s effect on that expansion has changed over time.

    These findings were published as “The Hyper Suprime-Cam SSP Transient Survey in COSMOS: Overview” in the PASJ on May 30, 2019.

    See the full article here .

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    NAOJ

    The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) is an astronomical research organisation comprising several facilities in Japan, as well as an observatory in Hawaii. It was established in 1988 as an amalgamation of three existing research organizations – the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory of the University of Tokyo, International Latitude Observatory of Mizusawa, and a part of Research Institute of Atmospherics of Nagoya University.

    In the 2004 reform of national research organizations, NAOJ became a division of the National Institutes of Natural Sciences.

    NAOJ/Subaru Telescope at Mauna Kea Hawaii, USA,4,207 m (13,802 ft) above sea level


    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array
    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array
    sft
    Solar Flare Telescope

    Nobeyama Radio Telescope - Copy
    Nobeyama Radio Observatory

    Nobeyama Solar Radio Telescope Array
    Nobeyama Radio Observatory: Solar

    Misuzawa Station Japan
    Mizusawa VERA Observatory

    NAOJ Okayama Astrophysical Observatory Telescope
    Okayama Astrophysical Observatory

     
  • richardmitnick 11:21 am on January 16, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Astronomers Have Found Evidence of a Big Black Hole Wandering Our Galaxy, , , , , NAOJ   

    From National Astronomical Observatory of Japan via Science Alert: “Astronomers Have Found Evidence of a Big Black Hole Wandering Our Galaxy” 

    NAOJ

    From National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    via

    ScienceAlert

    Science Alert

    16 JAN 2019
    MICHELLE STARR

    1
    (OzGrav ARC Centre of Excellence/YouTube)

    The peculiar movement of gas at the galactic centre could be the smoking gun that finally leads astronomers to the most elusive type of black hole – the middleweight.

    Black holes are pretty hard to find unless they’re actively feeding (or colliding), since they don’t emit any electromagnetic radiation (except perhaps for Hawking radiation, which, if it exists, we can’t detect).

    That’s because electromagnetic radiation can’t achieve escape velocity from beyond the event horizon; thus black holes are invisible to our detection methods when they’re not doing something noticeable.

    Still, we know there are stellar mass black holes, formed from the core collapse of a massive star, up to about 100 times the mass of the Sun; and supermassive black holes, starting from about 100,000 times the mass of the Sun.

    Between these two extremes, though, is a whopping question mark. Although there has been pretty good indirect evidence that points to the existence of black holes between 100 and 100,000 solar masses, their existence has yet to be confirmed.

    In other words, those black holes of unusual size? We’re not sure they exist.

    In a new paper published on preprint resource arXiv, and yet to be peer-reviewed, astronomers from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) have described evidence that points to one of these mythical beasts drifting around about 20 light-years from the centre of the Milky Way.

    Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) radio telescope, they found streams of molecular gas orbiting what seems to be an invisible massive object.

    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array in Chile in the Atacama at Chajnantor plateau, at 5,000 metres

    “When I checked the ALMA data for the first time,” astrophysicist Shunya Takekawa of the NAOJ told New Scientist, “I was really excited because the observed gas showed obvious orbital motions, which strongly suggest an invisible massive object lurking.”

    Similar high-velocity compact clouds have been observed as a result of collisions between supernova clouds, but the object – called HCN–0.009–0.044 – shows neither the shape nor the expansion pattern associated with a collision of this type.

    Moreover, previous research, also from the NAOJ and co-authored by the team conducting this new research, had already identified HCN–0.009–0.044 as a possible black hole.

    But now they’ve done something new. Based on the shape and movement of the gas streams, the team was able to infer that the object has a mass equivalent of around 32,000 Suns.

    This makes it – if the paper passes peer review – a very strong contender for a black hole missing link, packing all that mass into an object roughly the size of Jupiter.

    In addition to potentially discovering an intermediate black hole, the research points to what could be a new method of discovering inactive black holes.

    As well as the motion of the gas, ionisation of the gas in the inner part of the orbit suggests that at some point, either photoionisation, dissociative shock, or both took place – ionisation processes seen in active black holes.

    So if a black hole is intermittently active, it may produce ionisation that can be detected after it has quietened down again.

    “Our results provide new circumstantial evidences for a wandering intermediate-mass black hole in the Galactic centre, suggesting also that high-velocity compact clouds can be probes of quiescent black holes abound in our Galaxy,” the researchers wrote in their paper.

    “[H]igh-resolution observations of compact high-velocity gas features have the potential to increase the number of candidates for non-luminous black holes, providing a new perspective to search for the missing black holes.”

    See the full article here .

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    NAOJ

    The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) is an astronomical research organisation comprising several facilities in Japan, as well as an observatory in Hawaii. It was established in 1988 as an amalgamation of three existing research organizations – the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory of the University of Tokyo, International Latitude Observatory of Mizusawa, and a part of Research Institute of Atmospherics of Nagoya University.

    In the 2004 reform of national research organizations, NAOJ became a division of the National Institutes of Natural Sciences.

    NAOJ/Subaru Telescope at Mauna Kea Hawaii, USA,4,207 m (13,802 ft) above sea level


    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array
    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array
    sft
    Solar Flare Telescope

    Nobeyama Radio Telescope - Copy
    Nobeyama Radio Observatory

    Nobeyama Solar Radio Telescope Array
    Nobeyama Radio Observatory: Solar

    Misuzawa Station Japan
    Mizusawa VERA Observatory

    NAOJ Okayama Astrophysical Observatory Telescope
    Okayama Astrophysical Observatory

     
  • richardmitnick 6:25 pm on December 17, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: 1.52-m Telescopio Carlos Sánchez at the Teide Observatory Canaries Spain, MuSCAT2-a powerful 4-color simultaneous camera, NAOJ,   

    From National Astronomical Observatory of Japan: “MuSCAT2 to find Earth-like Planets in the TESS Era” 

    NAOJ

    From National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    December 17, 2018

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    Newly Developed simultaneous multi-color camera MuSCAT2 on the 1.52-m Telescopio Carlos Sánchez at the Teide Observatory, Canaries, Spain

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    1.52-m Telescopio Carlos Sánchez at the Teide Observatory, Canaries, Spain

    A Japan-Spain team has developed a powerful 4-color simultaneous camera named MuSCAT2 for the 1.52-m Telescopio Carlos Sánchez at the Teide Observatory, Canaries, Spain. The instrument aims to find a large number of transiting exoplanets, including Earth-like habitable planets orbiting stars near the Sun, in collaboration with NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) launched in April 2018.

    NASA/MIT TESS

    In April 2018, NASA launched a new satellite named Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) to discover new exoplanets around stars near the Sun. TESS finds exoplanets by observing planetary transits, a phenomenon in which a planet passes in front of its host star and blocks part of the star’s light.

    Planet transit. NASA/Ames

    Transiting exoplanets are especially valuable targets for exoplanet studies, since they provide information about the true mass, radius, density, orbital obliquity, and atmosphere of such planets.

    However, transiting exoplanet candidates discovered by TESS are not always real planets. An eclipsing binary, a pair of stars orbiting and eclipsing each other, can also produce transit-like signals. For the TESS mission, the false positive rate caused by eclipsing binaries is predicted to be 30-70% depending on the direction observed. Follow up observations can help distinguish actual exoplanets from false positives.

    Multi-color transit observations are one way to separate exoplanets from eclipsing binary stars. This is because in the case of an eclipsing binary, the light coming from the system changes color as it dims, while for an exoplanet transit the light stays the same color as it dims.

    For this reason, an international team, consisting of Japanese researchers from the Astrobiology Center (ABC) and the University of Tokyo and Spanish researchers from the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), has developed a 4-color simultaneous camera named MuSCAT2 (2nd generation Multi-color Simultaneous Camera for studying Atmospheres of Transiting exoplanets) on the 1.52-m Telescopio Carlos Sánchez at the Teide Observatory, Canaries, Spain.

    The team will use MuSCAT2 more than 162 nights per year until at least 2022. They will work to confirm a large number of new transiting exoplanets, including Earth-like habitable planets orbiting stars near the Sun, in collaboration with the ongoing TESS mission.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    NAOJ

    The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) is an astronomical research organisation comprising several facilities in Japan, as well as an observatory in Hawaii. It was established in 1988 as an amalgamation of three existing research organizations – the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory of the University of Tokyo, International Latitude Observatory of Mizusawa, and a part of Research Institute of Atmospherics of Nagoya University.

    In the 2004 reform of national research organizations, NAOJ became a division of the National Institutes of Natural Sciences.

    NAOJ/Subaru Telescope at Mauna Kea Hawaii, USA,4,207 m (13,802 ft) above sea level


    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array
    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array
    sft
    Solar Flare Telescope

    Nobeyama Radio Telescope - Copy
    Nobeyama Radio Observatory

    Nobeyama Solar Radio Telescope Array
    Nobeyama Radio Observatory: Solar

    Misuzawa Station Japan
    Mizusawa VERA Observatory

    NAOJ Okayama Astrophysical Observatory Telescope
    Okayama Astrophysical Observatory

     
  • richardmitnick 1:31 pm on April 28, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Led by - Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU), NAOJ, , PFS-Prime Focus Instrument, , Supplier - Academia Sinica- Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics in Taiwan, The Metrology Camera   

    From National Astronomical Observatory of Japan : “Next generation of telescope equipment begins arriving in Hawai`i” 

    NAOJ

    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    April 27, 2018

    1
    Summary of PFS, including the Metrology Camera.

    An instrument that will help astronomers study dark matter and galaxies in detail has begun to be assembled at NAOJ’s Subaru Telescope in Hawai`i.

    The Metrology Camera is the first of several sub-components currently under construction worldwide to be assembled at its final destination in order to create the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS). When the PFS is mounted on the telescope, it will be able to measure spectra of up to 2400 celestial objects in the night sky all at once. This is important because it will help astronomers understand how stars and galaxies are distributed, and how they move around us, affected by the presence of dark matter. Studying millions of stars and galaxies across large areas of sky will therefore help create a dark matter map of our Universe.

    The camera arrived in Hawai`i last Friday (April 20) from the Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics in Taiwan, the collaborators in the PFS project who developed it. After checks to make sure the Metrology Camera is not damaged during transportation, the camera will be shipped to the Subaru Telescope on the summit of Mauna Kea for further tests in the telescope’s dome in May, and on the telescope in June and July. Other subcomponents will then follow, and the PFS will be completed.

    Led by the University of Tokyo Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU), the PFS project is an international collaboration to conduct an unprecedented census of the Universe, taking advantage of the Subaru Telescope to take a wide shot of the night sky with great depth. Combining data from the PFS and Hyper Suprime-Cam, astronomers hope to learn more about the nature of dark matter, dark energy, galaxy growth history, and challenge our understanding of the Universe and underlying physics.

    NAOJ Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam

    In the current schedule, the PFS is anticipated to start its experimental run at the Subaru Telescope in 2019, before starting a formal survey in 2021.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) is an astronomical research organisation comprising several facilities in Japan, as well as an observatory in Hawaii. It was established in 1988 as an amalgamation of three existing research organizations – the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory of the University of Tokyo, International Latitude Observatory of Mizusawa, and a part of Research Institute of Atmospherics of Nagoya University.

    In the 2004 reform of national research organizations, NAOJ became a division of the National Institutes of Natural Sciences.

    NAOJ

    NAOJ/Subaru Telescope at Mauna Kea Hawaii, USA,4,207 m (13,802 ft) above sea level


    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array
    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array
    sft
    Solar Flare Telescope

    Nobeyama Radio Telescope - Copy
    Nobeyama Radio Observatory

    Nobeyama Solar Radio Telescope Array
    Nobeyama Radio Observatory: Solar

    Misuzawa Station Japan
    Mizusawa VERA Observatory

    NAOJ Okayama Astrophysical Observatory Telescope
    Okayama Astrophysical Observatory

     
  • richardmitnick 8:53 am on March 2, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , NAOJ, ,   

    From NAOJ: “Unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map” 

    NAOJ

    NAOJ

    March 2, 2018
    No writer credit

    1
    3D distribution of dark matter reconstructed via tomographic methods using the weak lensing technique combined with the redshift estimates of the background galaxies.

    A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope.

    NAOJ Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam

    NAOJ/Subaru Telescope at Mauna Kea Hawaii, USA,4,207 m (13,802 ft) above sea level

    The dark matter distribution is estimated by the weak gravitational lensing technique. The team located the positions and lensing signals of the dark matter halos and found indications that the number of halos could be inconsistent with what the simplest cosmological model suggests. This could be a new clue to understanding why the expansion of the Universe is accelerating.

    These results were published in the HSC special issue of the Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan (Miyazaki et al. 2018, A large sample of shear-selected clusters from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program S16A Wide field mass maps, PASJ, 70, S27; Oguri et al. 2018 Two- and three-dimensional wide-field weak lensing mass maps from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program S16A data, PASJ, 70, S26).

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) is an astronomical research organisation comprising several facilities in Japan, as well as an observatory in Hawaii. It was established in 1988 as an amalgamation of three existing research organizations – the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory of the University of Tokyo, International Latitude Observatory of Mizusawa, and a part of Research Institute of Atmospherics of Nagoya University.

    In the 2004 reform of national research organizations, NAOJ became a division of the National Institutes of Natural Sciences.

    NAOJ/Subaru Telescope at Mauna Kea Hawaii, USA,4,207 m (13,802 ft) above sea level

    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array
    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array
    sft
    Solar Flare Telescope

    Nobeyama Radio Telescope - Copy
    Nobeyama Radio Observatory

    Nobeyama Solar Radio Telescope Array
    Nobeyama Radio Observatory: Solar

    Misuzawa Station Japan
    Mizusawa VERA Observatory

    NAOJ Okayama Astrophysical Observatory Telescope
    Okayama Astrophysical Observatory

    The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) is an astronomical research organisation comprising several facilities in Japan, as well as an observatory in Hawaii. It was established in 1988 as an amalgamation of three existing research organizations – the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory of the University of Tokyo, International Latitude Observatory of Mizusawa, and a part of Research Institute of Atmospherics of Nagoya University.

    In the 2004 reform of national research organizations, NAOJ became a division of the National Institutes of Natural Sciences.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:39 pm on February 6, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , HINODE Captures Record Breaking Solar Magnetic Field, , NAOJ,   

    From NAOJ: “HINODE Captures Record Breaking Solar Magnetic Field” 

    NAOJ

    NAOJ

    JAXA/NASA HINODE spacecraft

    February 6, 2018

    1
    Snapshot of a sunspot observed by the Hinode spacecraft. (top) Visible light continuum image. (bottom) Magnetic field strength map. The color shows the field strength, from weak (cool colors) to strong (warm colors). Red indicates a location with a strength of more than 6,000 gauss (600 mT).

    Astronomers at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) using the HINODE spacecraft observed the strongest magnetic field ever directly measured on the surface of the Sun. Analyzing data for 5 days around the appearance of this record breaking magnetic field, the astronomers determined that it was generated as a result of gas outflow from one sunspot pushing against another sunspot.

    These results were published as Okamoto and Sakurai, Super-strong Magnetic Field in Sunspots, in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 852 (2018).

    From Hinode

    Institute of Space and Astronautical Science / Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA)

    Astronomers at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) using the HINODE spacecraft observed the strongest magnetic field ever directly measured on the surface of the Sun. Analyzing data for 5 days around the appearance of this record breaking magnetic field, the astronomers determined that it was generated as a result of gas outflow from one sunspot pushing against another sunspot.

    Magnetism plays a critical role in various solar phenomena such as flares, mass ejections, flux ropes, and coronal heating. Sunspots are areas of concentrated magnetic fields. A sunspot usually consists of a circular dark core (the umbra) with a vertical magnetic field and radially-elongated fine threads (the penumbra) with a horizontal field. The penumbra harbors an outward flow of gas along the horizontal threads. The darkness of the umbrae is generally correlated with the magnetic field strength. Hence, the strongest magnetic field in each sunspot is located in the umbra in most cases.

    Joten Okamoto (NAOJ Fellow) and Takashi Sakurai (Professor Emeritus of NAOJ) were analyzing data of February 4, 2014 taken by the Solar Optical Telescope onboard HINODE, when they noticed the signature of strongly magnetized iron atoms in a sunspot (Figure 1). Surprisingly the data indicated a magnetic field strength of 6,250 gauss (*1). This is more than double the 3,000 gauss field found around most sunspots. Previously, magnetic fields this strong on the Sun had only been inferred indirectly. More surprisingly, the strongest field was not in the dark part of the umbra, as would be expected, but was actually located at a bright region between two umbrae.

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    Figure 1. (left) Snapshot of the sunspot with the strongest magnetic field. (middle) Spectrum taken along the white line in the left panel. “1” indicates the location of the strongest magnetic field. “2” indicates the location of the umbra. (right) Simplified diagram of the splitting of the iron absorption line. A large distance in the splitting means a strong magnetic field. ( ©NAOJ/JAXA)

    HINODE continuously tracked the same sunspot with high spatial resolution for several days. This is impossible for ground-based telescopes because the Earth’s rotation causes the Sun to set and night to fall on the observatories. These continuous data showed that the strong field was always located at the boundary between the bright region and the umbra, and that the horizontal gas flows along the direction of the magnetic fields over the bright region turned down into the Sun when they reached the strong-field area (Figure 2). This indicates that the bright region with the strong field is a penumbra belonging to the southern umbra (S-pole). The horizontal gas flows from the southern umbra compressed the fields near the other umbra (N-pole) and enhanced the field strength to more than 6,000 gauss.

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    Figure 2. Schematic illustration of the formation mechanism of the strong field. The horizontal flows from the right (S-pole umbra) compress the magnetic field near the left umbra (N-pole) and the magnetic field is enhanced. (©NAOJ)

    Okamoto explains, “HINODE’s continuous high-resolution data allowed us to analyze the sunspots in detail to investigate the distribution and time evolution of the strong magnetic field and also the surrounding environment. Finally, the longtime mystery of the formation mechanism of a stronger field outside an umbra than in the umbra, has been solved.” These results were published as Joten Okamoto and Takashi Sakurai, “Super-strong Magnetic Field in Sunspots,” in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 852 (2018).

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) is an astronomical research organisation comprising several facilities in Japan, as well as an observatory in Hawaii. It was established in 1988 as an amalgamation of three existing research organizations – the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory of the University of Tokyo, International Latitude Observatory of Mizusawa, and a part of Research Institute of Atmospherics of Nagoya University.

    In the 2004 reform of national research organizations, NAOJ became a division of the National Institutes of Natural Sciences.

    NAOJ Subaru Telescope

    NAOJ Subaru Telescope interior
    Subaru

    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array
    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array
    sft
    Solar Flare Telescope

    Nobeyama Radio Telescope - Copy
    Nobeyama Radio Observatory

    Nobeyama Solar Radio Telescope Array
    Nobeyama Radio Observatory: Solar

    Misuzawa Station Japan
    Mizusawa VERA Observatory

    NAOJ Okayama Astrophysical Observatory Telescope
    Okayama Astrophysical Observatory

    The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) is an astronomical research organisation comprising several facilities in Japan, as well as an observatory in Hawaii. It was established in 1988 as an amalgamation of three existing research organizations – the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory of the University of Tokyo, International Latitude Observatory of Mizusawa, and a part of Research Institute of Atmospherics of Nagoya University.

    In the 2004 reform of national research organizations, NAOJ became a division of the National Institutes of Natural Sciences.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:16 pm on January 25, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Mapping of the Milky Way in radio, NAOJ, Nobeyama 45-m Radio Telescope,   

    From NAOJ: “FUGIN Project: Large-scale Exploration of the Invisible Milky Way – Making the Most Detailed Radio Map of the Milky Way” 

    NAOJ

    NAOJ

    January 25, 2018

    1
    Top: Three color (false color) radio map of the Milky Way (l=10-50 deg) obtained by the FUGIN Project. Red, green, and blue represent the radio intensities of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O, respectively. Second Line: Infrared image of the same region obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope. Red, green, and blue represent the intensities of 24 micrometer, 8 micrometer, and 5.8 micrometer radio waves respectively. Top Zoom-In: Three color radio map of the Milky Way (l=12-22 deg) obtained by the FUGIN Project. The colors are the same as the top image. Lower-Left Zoom-In: Enlarged view of the W51 region. The colors are the same as the top image. Lower-Right Zoom-In: Enlarged view of the M17 region. The colors are the same as the top image.

    Astronomers have conducted a large-scale survey of the invisible Milky Way using the Nobeyama 45-m Radio Telescope.

    NAOJ Nobeyama 45m Radio Telescope,located near Minamimaki, Nagano, Japan

    When you look up on a clear dark night, you can see the Milky Way with the naked eye. If you shoot a photograph of the Milky Way, you will find some dark patches with fewer stars. In these areas, clouds of gas and dust in the Milky Way block the light from background stars. By observing the radio waves emitted by the gas in these clouds, astronomers can study the invisible portions of the Milky Way.

    A research group led by Tomofumi Umemoto (Assistant Professor at Nobeyama Radio Observatory), including members from the University of Tsukuba, Nagoya University, Joetsu University of Education, Kagoshima University, and other universities, used the 45-m telescope from 2014 to 2017 to create the most extensive and detailed radio maps of the Milky Way in human history. The team has completed maps covering an area as wide as 520 full moons with about 3 times the spatial resolution of previous maps. This map will enable us to study the structure of the interstellar medium at various scales: from the large-scale structure of the entire Milky Way to the small-scale structure of individual molecular cloud cores which are directly related to star formation. Thanks to the good spatial resolution of the 45-m telescope, the team discovered many filamentary structures which were not seen clearly in previous maps. These structures are thought to hold important clues to understand how stars are formed.

    This radio map will serve as a fundamental data set for future observational studies. We expect many discoveries by researchers around the world based on this map. This result appeared in the Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan in October 2017.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) is an astronomical research organisation comprising several facilities in Japan, as well as an observatory in Hawaii. It was established in 1988 as an amalgamation of three existing research organizations – the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory of the University of Tokyo, International Latitude Observatory of Mizusawa, and a part of Research Institute of Atmospherics of Nagoya University.

    In the 2004 reform of national research organizations, NAOJ became a division of the National Institutes of Natural Sciences.

    NAOJ Subaru Telescope

    NAOJ Subaru Telescope interior
    Subaru

    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array
    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array
    sft
    Solar Flare Telescope

    Nobeyama Radio Telescope - Copy
    Nobeyama Radio Observatory

    Nobeyama Solar Radio Telescope Array
    Nobeyama Radio Observatory: Solar

    Misuzawa Station Japan
    Mizusawa VERA Observatory

    NAOJ Okayama Astrophysical Observatory Telescope
    Okayama Astrophysical Observatory

    The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) is an astronomical research organisation comprising several facilities in Japan, as well as an observatory in Hawaii. It was established in 1988 as an amalgamation of three existing research organizations – the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory of the University of Tokyo, International Latitude Observatory of Mizusawa, and a part of Research Institute of Atmospherics of Nagoya University.

    In the 2004 reform of national research organizations, NAOJ became a division of the National Institutes of Natural Sciences.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:39 pm on November 17, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , NAOJ, Nobeyama Millimeter Array 2017, , Toyokawa 1957   

    From NAOJ: “Solar Minimum Surprisingly Constant – More than Half a Century of Observation yields New Discovery” 

    NAOJ

    NAOJ

    1
    Solar microwave observation telescopes in 1957 (top left) and today (bottom left). Fluctuations observed during 60 years of solar microwave monitoring (top right) and the solar microwave spectrum at each solar minimum (bottom right). The background is full solar disk images taken by the X-ray telescope aboard the Hinode satellite

    1
    Toyokawa 1957

    JAXA/NASA HINODE spacecraft

    Using more than half a century of observations, Japanese astronomers have discovered that the microwaves coming from the Sun at the minimums of the past five solar cycles have been the same each time, despite large differences in the maximums of the cycles.

    In Japan, continuous four-frequency solar microwave observations (1, 2, 3.75 and 9.4 GHz) began in 1957 at the Toyokawa Branch of the Research Institute of Atmospherics, Nagoya University. In 1994 the telescopes were relocated to NAOJ Nobeyama Campus, where they have continued observations up to the present.

    Nobeyama Millimeter Array, located near Minamimaki, Nagano at an elevation of 1350m

    A research group led by Masumi Shimojo (Assistant Professor at NAOJ Chile Observatory), including members from Nagoya University, Kyoto University, and Ibaraki University, analyzed the more than 60 years of solar microwave data from these telescopes. They found that microwave intensities and spectra at the minimums of the latest five cycles were the same every time. In contrast, during the periods of maximum solar activity, both the intensity and spectrum varied from cycle to cycle.

    Masumi Shimojo explains that, “Other than sunspot observations, uniform long-term observations are rare in solar astronomy. It is very meaningful to discover a trend extending beyond a single solar cycle. This is an important step in understanding the creation and amplification of solar magnetic fields, which generate sunspots and other solar activity.”

    The Sun goes through a cycle of active and quiet periods approximately once every 11 years. This “solar cycle” is often associated with the number of sunspots, but there are other types of solar activity as well. So simply counting the number of sunspots is insufficient to understand the solar activity conditions.

    Microwaves are another indicator of solar activity. Microwaves have the advantage that, unlike sunspots, they can be observed on cloudy days. Also, monitoring multiple frequencies of microwaves makes it possible to calculate the relative strength at each frequency (this is called the spectrum). This research was published in the The Astrophysical Journal on October 10, 2017.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) is an astronomical research organisation comprising several facilities in Japan, as well as an observatory in Hawaii. It was established in 1988 as an amalgamation of three existing research organizations – the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory of the University of Tokyo, International Latitude Observatory of Mizusawa, and a part of Research Institute of Atmospherics of Nagoya University.

    In the 2004 reform of national research organizations, NAOJ became a division of the National Institutes of Natural Sciences.

    NAOJ Subaru Telescope

    NAOJ Subaru Telescope interior
    Subaru

    ALMA Array
    ALMA

    sft
    Solar Flare Telescope

    Nobeyama Radio Telescope - Copy
    Nobeyama Radio Observatory

    Nobeyama Solar Radio Telescope Array
    Nobeyama Radio Observatory: Solar

    Misuzawa Station Japan
    Mizusawa VERA Observatory

    NAOJ Okayama Astrophysical Observatory Telescope
    Okayama Astrophysical Observatory

    The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) is an astronomical research organisation comprising several facilities in Japan, as well as an observatory in Hawaii. It was established in 1988 as an amalgamation of three existing research organizations – the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory of the University of Tokyo, International Latitude Observatory of Mizusawa, and a part of Research Institute of Atmospherics of Nagoya University.

    In the 2004 reform of national research organizations, NAOJ became a division of the National Institutes of Natural Sciences.

     
  • richardmitnick 7:08 am on September 29, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , NAOJ, Supersonic gas streams left over from the Big Bang drive massive black hole formation   

    From KAVLI IPMU: “Supersonic gas streams left over from the Big Bang drive massive black hole formation” 

    KavliFoundation

    The Kavli Foundation

    Kavli IPMU
    Kavli IMPU

    September 29, 2017

    Research contacts
    Shingo Hirano
    JSPS Overseas Research Fellow
    Department of Astronomy, University of Texas
    shirano@astro.as.utexas.edu

    Naoki Yoshida
    Principal Investigator
    Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo
    naoki.yoshida@ipmu.jp

    Media Contact
    Motoko Kakubayashi
    Press Officer
    Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe,
    The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study,
    The University of Tokyo
    TEL: +81-04-7136-5980
    press@ipmu.jp

    1
    Figure 1: Projected density distributions of dark matter (background and top panel) and gas (bottom three panels) components when the massive star forms. No image credit.

    2
    Figure 2: Close up showing gas density distribution around a protostar (centre). The high-speed gas flowing from the top left of the image to the right compresses the central gas cloud, while the yellow to light-green areas show the development of strong turbulence. No image credit.

    4
    Figure 3: Evolution of the temperature and density structure during the protostellar accretion phase. The rapid accretion of a dense gas cloud (white contour) causes the brightening of the star, and photoionized regions are lauched (red). No image credit.

    An international team of researchers has successfully used a super-computer simulation to recreate the formation of a massive black hole from supersonic gas streams left over from the Big Bang. Their study, published in this week’s Science, shows this black hole could be the source of the birth and development of the largest and oldest super-massive black holes recorded in our Universe.

    “This is significant progress. The origin of the monstrous black holes has been a long-standing mystery and now we have a solution to it,” said author and Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU) Principal Investigator Naoki Yoshida.

    Recent discoveries of these super-massive black holes located 13 billion light years away, corresponding to when the universe was just five per cent of its present age, pose a serious challenge to the theory of black hole formation and evolution. The physical mechanisms that form black holes and drive their growth are poorly understood.

    Theoretical studies have suggested these black holes formed from remnants of the first generation of stars, or from a direct gravitational collapse of a massive primordial gas cloud. However, these theories either have difficulty in forming super-massive black holes fast enough, or require very particular conditions.

    Yoshida and JSPS Overseas Research Fellow Shingo Hirano, currently at the University of Texas at Austin, identified a promising physical process through which a massive black hole could form fast enough. The key was incorporating the effect of supersonic gas motions with respect to dark matter. The team’s super-computer simulations showed a massive clump of dark matter had formed when the universe was 100 million years old. Supersonic gas streams generated by the Big Bang were caught by dark matter to form a dense, turbulent gas cloud. Inside, a protostar started to form, and because the surrounding gas provided more than enough material for it to feed on, the star was able to grow extremely big in a short amount of time without releasing a lot of radiation.

    “Once reaching the mass of 34,000 times that of our Sun, the star collapsed by its own gravity, leaving a massive black hole. These massive black holes born in the early universe continued to grow and merge together to become a supermassive black hole,” said Yoshida.

    The number density of massive black holes is derived to be approximately one per a volume of three billion light-years on a side – remarkably close to the observed number density of supermassive black holes,” said Hirano.

    The result from this study will be important for future research into the growth of massive black holes. Especially with the increased number of black hole observations in the far universe that are expected to be made when NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope is launched next year.

    This research was published in Science on September 28.

    Aterui, one of the supercomputers this work used, is operated by the Center for Computational Astrophysics (CfCA) of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ).

    3
    NAOJ ATERUI CRAY XC30 supercomputer

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Kavli IPMU (Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe) is an international research institute with English as its official language. The goal of the institute is to discover the fundamental laws of nature and to understand the Universe from the synergistic perspectives of mathematics, astronomy, and theoretical and experimental physics. The Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU) was established in October 2007 under the World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI) of the Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan with the University of Tokyo as the host institution. IPMU was designated as the first research institute within the University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS) in January 2011. It received an endowment from The Kavli Foundation and was renamed the “Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe” in April 2012. Kavli IPMU is located on the Kashiwa campus of the University of Tokyo, and more than half of its full-time scientific members come from outside Japan. http://www.ipmu.jp/
    Stem Education Coalition
    The Kavli Foundation, based in Oxnard, California, is dedicated to the goals of advancing science for the benefit of humanity and promoting increased public understanding and support for scientists and their work.

    The Foundation’s mission is implemented through an international program of research institutes, professorships, and symposia in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, neuroscience, and theoretical physics as well as prizes in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience.

     
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