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  • richardmitnick 11:03 am on October 15, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New nanowire architectures boost computers' processing power", , Nanotechnology,   

    From Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne [EPFL-École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne] (CH): “New nanowire architectures boost computers’ processing power” 

    From Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne [EPFL-École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne] (CH)

    15.10.21
    Sandy Evangelista

    Valerio Piazza is creating new 3D architectures built from an inventive form of nanowire. His research aims to push the boundaries of miniaturization and pave the way to more powerful electronic devices. He has just won the 2020 Piaget Scientific Award, whose prize money will fund his work at EPFL for a year.

    Piazza, a scientist at EPFL’s Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials, studies semiconductors on a nano scale. His focus is nanowires, or nanostructures made of semiconducting materials, and his goal is to move transistors beyond their saturation point. That’s because transistors are everywhere – in cars, traffic lights, and even coffee makers – but their miniaturization capacity is reaching a limit because existing designs are nearly saturated. “The main challenges we now face in processing power relate to overcoming the transistor saturation point, which we can do with nanowires and other kinds of nanostructures,” says Piazza 2020 Piaget Scientific Award.

    1
    Valerio Piazza characterizes nanowires to optimize their electrical properties © 2021 EPFL Alain Herzog.

    Much of the recent improvement in processing power stems from advancements in microfabrication methods. These methods are what have allowed engineers to develop compact, yet sophisticated electronic devices like smartphones and smartwatches. By reducing the size of transistors, engineers can fit more on a circuit, resulting in greater processing power for a given surface area. But that also means there’s a limit to just how small processers can go, based on the size of their transistors. At least that’s true for the current generation of processing technology. Piazza’s work aims to overcome that obstacle by developing new kinds of transistors based on nanowires for use in next-generation quantum computers.

    Today’s computers are made up of electronic components and integrated circuits like processing chips. Each bit corresponds to an electrical charge that indicates whether current is running through a wire or not (i.e., “on” or “off”). On the other hand, quantum computers are not limited to just two states but can accommodate an infinite number of states. The fundamental element of quantum computing is the qubit, which is the smallest unit of memory. And it’s precisely at this sub-micron level that Piazza is conducting his research.

    2
    Nanowires are made up of groups 3 and 5 of the atoms in the periodic table © 2021 EPFL Alain Herzog.

    Piazza’s horizontal nanowires – they can be vertical, too – are made up of atoms from groups III and V of the periodic table: gallium, aluminum, indium, nitrogen, phosphorus and arsenic. “Each step of our development work comes with its own set of challenges. First we have to nanostructure the substrate and create the material – here the challenge is to improve the quality of our crystals. Then we’ll need to characterize our nanowires, with the goal of improving their electrical properties,” he says.

    3
    A complex network of nanowires © 2021 EPFL Alain Herzog.

    Processor transistors currently measure around 10 nm. Piazza’s (horizontal) nanowires are the same size but should offer better electrical performance, depending on crystal quality. His method involves etching nanoconductors on substrate surfaces in order to create different patterns, which will let him test various structures for enhancing performance. “Take a city’s highways as an example. If there’s just one road, you can get only from Point A to Point B. But if there are lots of exits and side streets, you can travel to different neighborhoods and go even farther,” says Piazza. In other words, he’s creating a network. Over the next few months he’ll focus on identifying factors that could improve the process.

    The Piaget Scientific Award, sponsored by Piaget, is a prestigious award given out by EPFL every year to promote groundbreaking research in the broader field of miniaturization and microengineering. The award comes with prize money allowing the winner to conduct research at an EPFL lab for one year. It’s open to outstanding young PhD graduates who have the potential of becoming pioneering researchers in the field.

    See the full article here .

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    EPFL bloc

    EPFL campus

    The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne [EPFL-École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne] (CH) is a research institute and university in Lausanne, Switzerland, that specializes in natural sciences and engineering. It is one of the two Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology, and it has three main missions: education, research and technology transfer.

    The QS World University Rankings ranks EPFL(CH) 14th in the world across all fields in their 2020/2021 ranking, whereas Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranks EPFL(CH) as the world’s 19th best school for Engineering and Technology in 2020.

    EPFL(CH) is located in the French-speaking part of Switzerland; the sister institution in the German-speaking part of Switzerland is the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zürich [Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich)](CH) . Associated with several specialized research institutes, the two universities form the Domain of the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology (ETH Domain) [ETH-Bereich; Domaine des Écoles polytechniques fédérales] (CH) which is directly dependent on the Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research. In connection with research and teaching activities, EPFL(CH) operates a nuclear reactor CROCUS; a Tokamak Fusion reactor; a Blue Gene/Q Supercomputer; and P3 bio-hazard facilities.

    ETH Zürich, EPFL (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne) [École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne](CH), and four associated research institutes form the Domain of the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology (ETH Domain) [ETH-Bereich; Domaine des Écoles polytechniques fédérales] (CH) with the aim of collaborating on scientific projects.

    The roots of modern-day EPFL(CH) can be traced back to the foundation of a private school under the name École spéciale de Lausanne in 1853 at the initiative of Lois Rivier, a graduate of the École Centrale Paris (FR) and John Gay the then professor and rector of the Académie de Lausanne. At its inception it had only 11 students and the offices was located at Rue du Valentin in Lausanne. In 1869, it became the technical department of the public Académie de Lausanne. When the Académie was reorganised and acquired the status of a university in 1890, the technical faculty changed its name to École d’ingénieurs de l’Université de Lausanne. In 1946, it was renamed the École polytechnique de l’Université de Lausanne (EPUL). In 1969, the EPUL was separated from the rest of the University of Lausanne and became a federal institute under its current name. EPFL(CH), like ETH Zürich(CH), is thus directly controlled by the Swiss federal government. In contrast, all other universities in Switzerland are controlled by their respective cantonal governments. Following the nomination of Patrick Aebischer as president in 2000, EPFL(CH) has started to develop into the field of life sciences. It absorbed the Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC) in 2008.

    In 1946, there were 360 students. In 1969, EPFL(CH) had 1,400 students and 55 professors. In the past two decades the university has grown rapidly and as of 2012 roughly 14,000 people study or work on campus, about 9,300 of these being Bachelor, Master or PhD students. The environment at modern day EPFL(CH) is highly international with the school attracting students and researchers from all over the world. More than 125 countries are represented on the campus and the university has two official languages, French and English.

    Organization

    EPFL is organised into eight schools, themselves formed of institutes that group research units (laboratories or chairs) around common themes:

    School of Basic Sciences (SB, Jan S. Hesthaven)

    Institute of Mathematics (MATH, Victor Panaretos)
    Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering (ISIC, Emsley Lyndon)
    Institute of Physics (IPHYS, Harald Brune)
    European Centre of Atomic and Molecular Computations (CECAM, Ignacio Pagonabarraga Mora)
    Bernoulli Center (CIB, Nicolas Monod)
    Biomedical Imaging Research Center (CIBM, Rolf Gruetter)
    Interdisciplinary Center for Electron Microscopy (CIME, Cécile Hébert)
    Max Planck-EPFL Centre for Molecular Nanosciences and Technology (CMNT, Thomas Rizzo)
    Swiss Plasma Center (SPC, Ambrogio Fasoli)
    Laboratory of Astrophysics (LASTRO, Jean-Paul Kneib)

    School of Engineering (STI, Ali Sayed)

    Institute of Electrical Engineering (IEL, Giovanni De Micheli)
    Institute of Mechanical Engineering (IGM, Thomas Gmür)
    Institute of Materials (IMX, Michaud Véronique)
    Institute of Microengineering (IMT, Olivier Martin)
    Institute of Bioengineering (IBI, Matthias Lütolf)

    School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering (ENAC, Claudia R. Binder)

    Institute of Architecture (IA, Luca Ortelli)
    Civil Engineering Institute (IIC, Eugen Brühwiler)
    Institute of Urban and Regional Sciences (INTER, Philippe Thalmann)
    Environmental Engineering Institute (IIE, David Andrew Barry)

    School of Computer and Communication Sciences (IC, James Larus)

    Algorithms & Theoretical Computer Science
    Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning
    Computational Biology
    Computer Architecture & Integrated Systems
    Data Management & Information Retrieval
    Graphics & Vision
    Human-Computer Interaction
    Information & Communication Theory
    Networking
    Programming Languages & Formal Methods
    Security & Cryptography
    Signal & Image Processing
    Systems

    School of Life Sciences (SV, Gisou van der Goot)

    Bachelor-Master Teaching Section in Life Sciences and Technologies (SSV)
    Brain Mind Institute (BMI, Carmen Sandi)
    Institute of Bioengineering (IBI, Melody Swartz)
    Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC, Douglas Hanahan)
    Global Health Institute (GHI, Bruno Lemaitre)
    Ten Technology Platforms & Core Facilities (PTECH)
    Center for Phenogenomics (CPG)
    NCCR Synaptic Bases of Mental Diseases (NCCR-SYNAPSY)

    College of Management of Technology (CDM)

    Swiss Finance Institute at EPFL (CDM-SFI, Damir Filipovic)
    Section of Management of Technology and Entrepreneurship (CDM-PMTE, Daniel Kuhn)
    Institute of Technology and Public Policy (CDM-ITPP, Matthias Finger)
    Institute of Management of Technology and Entrepreneurship (CDM-MTEI, Ralf Seifert)
    Section of Financial Engineering (CDM-IF, Julien Hugonnier)

    College of Humanities (CDH, Thomas David)

    Human and social sciences teaching program (CDH-SHS, Thomas David)

    EPFL Middle East (EME, Dr. Franco Vigliotti)[62]

    Section of Energy Management and Sustainability (MES, Prof. Maher Kayal)

    In addition to the eight schools there are seven closely related institutions

    Swiss Cancer Centre
    Center for Biomedical Imaging (CIBM)
    Centre for Advanced Modelling Science (CADMOS)
    École cantonale d’art de Lausanne (ECAL)
    Campus Biotech
    Wyss Center for Bio- and Neuro-engineering
    Swiss National Supercomputing Centre

     
  • richardmitnick 7:55 am on October 2, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Unprecedented view of a single catalyst nanoparticle at work", , , , Nanotechnology, ,   

    From DESY German Electron Synchrotron [Deütsches Elektronen-Synchrotron] (DE) : “Unprecedented view of a single catalyst nanoparticle at work” 

    From DESY German Electron Synchrotron [Deütsches Elektronen-Synchrotron] (DE)

    2021/10/01

    X-rays reveal compositional changes on active surface under reaction conditions

    A DESY-led research team has been using high-intensity X-rays to observe a single catalyst nanoparticle at work. The experiment has revealed for the first time how the chemical composition of the surface of an individual nanoparticle changes under reaction conditions, making it more active. The team led by DESY’s Andreas Stierle is presenting its findings in the journal Science Advances. This study marks an important step towards a better understanding of real, industrial catalytic materials.

    1
    The X-ray investigation not only provided a complete image of a single catalyst nanoparticle, but also shows changes in the chemical composition of its surface during operation. Credit: Science Communication Lab for DESY.

    Catalysts are materials that promote chemical reactions without being consumed themselves. Today, catalysts are used in numerous industrial processes, from fertiliser production to manufacturing plastics. Because of this, catalysts are of huge economic importance. A very well-known example is the catalytic converter installed in the exhaust systems of cars. These contain precious metals such as platinum, rhodium and palladium, which allow highly toxic carbon monoxide (CO) to be converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and reduce the amount of harmful nitrogen oxides (NOx).

    “In spite of their widespread use and great importance, we are still ignorant of many important details of just how the various catalysts work,” explains Stierle, head of the DESY NanoLab. “That’s why we have long wanted to study real catalysts while in operation.” This is not easy, because in order to make the active surface as large as possible, catalysts are typically used in the form of tiny nanoparticles, and the changes that affect their activity occur on their surface.

    Surface strain relates to chemical composition

    2
    Reconstructed 3D image of the investigated nanoparticle from the X-ray analysis (click to start animation). Credit: Ivan Vartaniants/ DESY.

    In the framework of the EU project Nanoscience Foundries and Fine Analysis (NFFA), the team from DESY NanoLab has developed a technique for labelling individual nanoparticles and thereby identifying them in a sample. “For the study, we grew nanoparticles of a platinum-rhodium alloy on a substrate in the lab and labelled one specific particle,” says co-author Thomas Keller from DESY NanoLab and in charge of the project at DESY. “The diameter of the labelled particle is around 100 nanometres, and it is similar to the particles used in a car’s catalytic converter.” A nanometre is a millionth of a millimetre.

    Using X-rays from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility ESRF in Grenoble, France, the team was not only able to create a detailed image of the nanoparticle; it also measured the mechanical strain within its surface.

    “The surface strain is related to the surface composition, in particular the ratio of platinum to rhodium atoms,” explains co-author Philipp Pleßow from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), whose group computed strain as a function of surface composition. By comparing the observed and computed facet-dependent strain, conclusions can be drawn concerning the chemical composition at the particle surface. The different surfaces of a nanoparticle are called facets, just like the facets of a cut gemstone.

    3
    Carbon monoxide oxidises to carbon dioxide on the surface of the nanoparticle. Credit: Science Communication Lab for DESY.

    When the nanoparticle is grown, its surface consists mainly of platinum atoms, as this configuration is energetically favoured. However, the scientists studied the shape of the particle and its surface strain under different conditions, including the operating conditions of an automotive catalytic converter. To do this, they heated the particle to around 430 degrees Celsius and allowed carbon monoxide and oxygen molecules to pass over it. “Under these reaction conditions, the rhodium inside the particle becomes mobile and migrates to the surface because it interacts more strongly with oxygen than the platinum,” explains Pleßow. This is also predicted by theory.

    “As a result, the surface strain and the shape of the particle change,” reports co-author Ivan Vartaniants, from DESY, whose team converted the X-ray diffraction data into three-dimensional spatial images. “A facet-dependent rhodium enrichment takes place, whereby additional corners and edges are formed.” The chemical composition of the surface, and the shape and size of the particles have a significant effect on their function and efficiency. However, scientists are only just beginning to understand exactly how these are connected and how to control the structure and composition of the nanoparticles. The X-rays allow researchers to detect changes of as little as 0.1 in a thousand in the strain, which in this experiment corresponds to a precision of about 0.0003 nanometres (0.3 picometres).

    Crucial step towards analysing industrial catalyst maerials

    “We can now, for the first time, observe the details of the structural changes in such catalyst nanoparticles while in operation,” says Stierle, Lead Scientist at DESY and professor for nanoscience at the The University of Hamburg [Universität Hamburg](DE). “This is a major step forward and is helping us to understand an entire class of reactions that make use of alloy nanoparticles.” Scientists at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology [Karlsruher Institut für Technologie] (DE) and DESY now want to explore this systematically at the new Collaborative Research Centre 1441, funded by the German Research Foundation [Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft] (DE) (DFG) and entitled “Tracking the Active Sites in Heterogeneous Catalysis for Emission Control (TrackAct)”.

    “Our investigation is an important step towards analysing industrial catalytic materials,” Stierle points out. Until now, scientists have had to grow model systems in the laboratory in order to conduct such investigations. “In this study, we have gone to the limit of what can be done. With DESY’s planned X-ray microscope PETRA IV, we will be able to look at ten times smaller individual particles in real catalysts, and under reaction conditions.”

    See the full article here .


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    desi

    DESY German Electron Synchrotron [Deütsches Elektronen-Synchrotron] (DE) is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:59 pm on September 18, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Scientists demonstrate pathway to forerunner of rugged nanotubes that could lead to widespread industrial fabrication", , , , , Nanotechnology, , ,   

    From DOE’s Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (US) at Princeton University (US) : “Scientists demonstrate pathway to forerunner of rugged nanotubes that could lead to widespread industrial fabrication” 

    From DOE’s Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (US)

    at

    Princeton University

    Princeton University (US)

    September 16, 2021
    John Greenwald

    1
    Author and co-authors with figure from paper. Clockwise from top left: Lead author Yuri Barsukov with co-authors Igor Kaganovich, Alexander Khrabry, Omesh Dwivedi, Sierra Jubin, Stephane Ethier. Credits: Batalova Valentina, Elle Starkman/Office of Communications, Elle Starkman, Han Wei, Hannah Smith, Elle Starkman. Collage by Elle Starkman.

    Scientists have identified a chemical pathway to an innovative insulating nanomaterial that could lead to large-scale industrial production for a variety of uses – including in spacesuits and military vehicles. The nanomaterial — thousands of times thinner than a human hair, stronger than steel and noncombustible — could block radiation to astronauts and help shore up military vehicle armor, for example.

    Collaborative researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have proposed a step-by-step chemical pathway to the precursors of this nanomaterial, known as boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT), which could lead to their large-scale production.

    “Pioneering work”

    The breakthrough brings together plasma physics and quantum chemistry and is part of the expansion of research at PPPL. “This is pioneering work that takes the Laboratory in new directions,” said PPPL physicist Igor Kaganovich, principal investigator of the BNNT project and co-author of the paper that details the results in the journal Nanotechnology.

    Collaborators identified the key chemical pathway steps as the formation of molecular nitrogen and small clusters of boron, which can chemically react together as the temperature created by a plasma jet cools, said lead author Yuri Barsukov of The Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University [Санкт-Петербургский политехнический университет Петра Великого](RU). He developed the chemical reaction pathways by performing quantum chemistry simulations with the assistance of Omesh Dwivedi, a PPPL intern from Drexel University (US), and Sierra Jubin, a graduate student in the Princeton Program in Plasma Physics.

    The interdisciplinary team included Alexander Khrabry, a former PPPL researcher now at The DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (US) who developed a thermodynamic code used in this research, and PPPL physicist Stephane Ethier who helped the students compile the software and set up the simulations.

    The results solved the mystery of how molecular nitrogen, which has the second strongest chemical bond among diatomic, or double-atom molecules, can nonetheless break apart through reactions with boron to form various boron-nitride molecules, Kaganovich said. “We spent considerable amount of time thinking about how to get boron – nitride compounds from a mixture of boron and nitrogen,” he said. “What we found was that small clusters of boron, as opposed to much larger boron droplets, readily interact with nitrogen molecules. That’s why we needed a quantum chemist to go through the detailed quantum chemistry calculations with us.”

    BNNTs have properties similar to carbon nanotubes, which are produced by the ton and found in everything from sporting goods and sportswear to dental implants and electrodes. But the greater difficulty of producing BNNTs has limited their applications and availability.

    Chemical pathway

    Demonstration of a chemical pathway to the formation of BNNT precursors could facilitate BNNT production. The process of BNNT synthesis begins when scientists use a 10,000-degree plasma jet to turn boron and nitrogen gas into plasma consisting of free electrons and atomic nuclei, or ions, embedded in a background gas. This shows how the process unfolds:

    • The jet evaporates the boron while the molecular nitrogen largely stays intact;

    • The boron condenses into droplets as the plasma cools;

    • The droplets form small clusters as the temperature falls to a few thousand degrees;

    • The critical next step is the reaction of nitrogen with small clusters of boron molecules to form boron-nitrogen chains;

    • The chains grow longer by colliding with one another and fold into precursors of boron nitride nanotubes.

    “During the high-temperature synthesis the density of small boron clusters is low,” Barsukov said. “This is the main impediment to large-scale production.”

    The findings have opened a new chapter in BNNT nanomaterial synthesis. “After two years of work we have found the pathway,” Kaganovich said. “As boron condenses it forms big clusters that nitrogen doesn’t react with. But the process starts with small clusters that nitrogen reacts with and there is still a percentage of small clusters as the droplets grow larger,” he said.

    “The beauty of this work,” he added, “is that since we had experts in plasma and fluid mechanics and quantum chemistry we could go through all these processes together in an interdisciplinary group. Now we need to compare possible BNNT output from our model with experiments. That will be the next stage of modeling.”

    Support for this research comes from the DOE Office of Science.

    See the full article here .


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    PPPL campus

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (US) is a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory managed by Princeton University. PPPL, on Princeton University’s Forrestal Campus in Plainsboro, N.J., is devoted to creating new knowledge about the physics of plasmas — ultra-hot, charged gases — and to developing practical solutions for the creation of fusion energy. Results of PPPL research have ranged from a portable nuclear materials detector for anti-terrorist use to universally employed computer codes for analyzing and predicting the outcome of fusion experiments. The Laboratory is managed by the University for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science, which is the largest single supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit https://energy.gov/science.

    Princeton University

    Princeton University

    About Princeton: Overview

    Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey(US). Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The institution moved to Newark in 1747, then to the current site nine years later. It was renamed Princeton University in 1896.

    Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering. It offers professional degrees through the Princeton School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The university also manages the DOE’s Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States.

    As of October 2020, 69 Nobel laureates, 15 Fields Medalists and 14 Turing Award laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Princeton has been associated with 21 National Medal of Science winners, 5 Abel Prize winners, 5 National Humanities Medal recipients, 215 Rhodes Scholars, 139 Gates Cambridge Scholars and 137 Marshall Scholars. Two U.S. Presidents, twelve U.S. Supreme Court Justices (three of whom currently serve on the court) and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton’s alumni body. Princeton has also graduated many prominent members of the U.S. Congress and the U.S. Cabinet, including eight Secretaries of State, three Secretaries of Defense and the current Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

    Princeton University, founded as the College of New Jersey, was considered the successor of the “Log College” founded by the Reverend William Tennent at Neshaminy, PA in about 1726. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746 in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Its purpose was to train ministers. The college was the educational and religious capital of Scottish Presbyterian America. Unlike Harvard University(US), which was originally “intensely English” with graduates taking the side of the crown during the American Revolution, Princeton was founded to meet the religious needs of the period and many of its graduates took the American side in the war. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governor Jonathan Belcher’s interest, Princeton should be named as Belcher College. Belcher replied: “What a name that would be!” In 1756, the college moved its campus to Princeton, New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England.

    Following the untimely deaths of Princeton’s first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that post until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college’s focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for secular leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he tightened academic standards and solicited investment in the college. Witherspoon’s presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and particularly the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers briefly occupied Nassau Hall; American forces, led by George Washington, fired cannon on the building to rout them from it.

    In 1812, the eighth president of the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green (1812–23), helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door. The plan to extend the theological curriculum met with “enthusiastic approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey.” Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include services such as cross-registration and mutual library access.

    Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college’s sole building. The cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754. During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country’s capital for four months. Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires (1802 and 1855), Nassau Hall’s role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory, library, and classroom space; to classroom space exclusively; to its present role as the administrative center of the University. The class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers. Nassau Hall’s bell rang after the hall’s construction; however, the fire of 1802 melted it. The bell was then recast and melted again in the fire of 1855.

    James McCosh became the college’s president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period that had been brought about by the American Civil War. During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, and supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus. McCosh Hall is named in his honor.

    In 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877.

    In 1896, the college officially changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. During this year, the college also underwent large expansion and officially became a university. In 1900, the Graduate School was established.

    In 1902, Woodrow Wilson, graduate of the Class of 1879, was elected the 13th president of the university. Under Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept in the United States that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest.

    In 1906, the reservoir Carnegie Lake was created by Andrew Carnegie. A collection of historical photographs of the building of the lake is housed at the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library on Princeton’s campus. On October 2, 1913, the Princeton University Graduate College was dedicated. In 1919 the School of Architecture was established. In 1933, Albert Einstein became a lifetime member of the Institute for Advanced Study with an office on the Princeton campus. While always independent of the university, the Institute for Advanced Study occupied offices in Jones Hall for 6 years, from its opening in 1933, until its own campus was finished and opened in 1939.

    Coeducation

    In 1969, Princeton University first admitted women as undergraduates. In 1887, the university actually maintained and staffed a sister college, Evelyn College for Women, in the town of Princeton on Evelyn and Nassau streets. It was closed after roughly a decade of operation. After abortive discussions with Sarah Lawrence College to relocate the women’s college to Princeton and merge it with the University in 1967, the administration decided to admit women and turned to the issue of transforming the school’s operations and facilities into a female-friendly campus. The administration had barely finished these plans in April 1969 when the admissions office began mailing out its acceptance letters. Its five-year coeducation plan provided $7.8 million for the development of new facilities that would eventually house and educate 650 women students at Princeton by 1974. Ultimately, 148 women, consisting of 100 freshmen and transfer students of other years, entered Princeton on September 6, 1969 amidst much media attention. Princeton enrolled its first female graduate student, Sabra Follett Meservey, as a PhD candidate in Turkish history in 1961. A handful of undergraduate women had studied at Princeton from 1963 on, spending their junior year there to study “critical languages” in which Princeton’s offerings surpassed those of their home institutions. They were considered regular students for their year on campus, but were not candidates for a Princeton degree.

    As a result of a 1979 lawsuit by Sally Frank, Princeton’s eating clubs were required to go coeducational in 1991, after Tiger Inn’s appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court was denied. In 1987, the university changed the gendered lyrics of “Old Nassau” to reflect the school’s co-educational student body. From 2009 to 2011, Princeton professor Nannerl O. Keohane chaired a committee on undergraduate women’s leadership at the university, appointed by President Shirley M. Tilghman.

    The main campus sits on about 500 acres (2.0 km^2) in Princeton. In 2011, the main campus was named by Travel+Leisure as one of the most beautiful in the United States. The James Forrestal Campus is split between nearby Plainsboro and South Brunswick. The University also owns some property in West Windsor Township. The campuses are situated about one hour from both New York City and Philadelphia.

    The first building on campus was Nassau Hall, completed in 1756 and situated on the northern edge of campus facing Nassau Street. The campus expanded steadily around Nassau Hall during the early and middle 19th century. The McCosh presidency (1868–88) saw the construction of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic and Romanesque Revival styles; many of them are now gone, leaving the remaining few to appear out of place. At the end of the 19th century much of Princeton’s architecture was designed by the Cope and Stewardson firm (same architects who designed a large part of Washington University in St Louis (US) and University of Pennsylvania(US)) resulting in the Collegiate Gothic style for which it is known today. Implemented initially by William Appleton Potter and later enforced by the University’s supervising architect, Ralph Adams Cram, the Collegiate Gothic style remained the standard for all new building on the Princeton campus through 1960. A flurry of construction in the 1960s produced a number of new buildings on the south side of the main campus, many of which have been poorly received. Several prominent architects have contributed some more recent additions, including Frank Gehry (Lewis Library), I. M. Pei (Spelman Halls), Demetri Porphyrios (Whitman College, a Collegiate Gothic project), Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown (Frist Campus Center, among several others), and Rafael Viñoly (Carl Icahn Laboratory).

    A group of 20th-century sculptures scattered throughout the campus forms the Putnam Collection of Sculpture. It includes works by Alexander Calder (Five Disks: One Empty), Jacob Epstein (Albert Einstein), Henry Moore (Oval with Points), Isamu Noguchi (White Sun), and Pablo Picasso (Head of a Woman). Richard Serra’s The Hedgehog and The Fox is located between Peyton and Fine halls next to Princeton Stadium and the Lewis Library.

    At the southern edge of the campus is Carnegie Lake, an artificial lake named for Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie financed the lake’s construction in 1906 at the behest of a friend who was a Princeton alumnus. Carnegie hoped the opportunity to take up rowing would inspire Princeton students to forsake football, which he considered “not gentlemanly.” The Shea Rowing Center on the lake’s shore continues to serve as the headquarters for Princeton rowing.

    Cannon Green

    Buried in the ground at the center of the lawn south of Nassau Hall is the “Big Cannon,” which was left in Princeton by British troops as they fled following the Battle of Princeton. It remained in Princeton until the War of 1812, when it was taken to New Brunswick. In 1836 the cannon was returned to Princeton and placed at the eastern end of town. It was removed to the campus under cover of night by Princeton students in 1838 and buried in its current location in 1840.

    A second “Little Cannon” is buried in the lawn in front of nearby Whig Hall. This cannon, which may also have been captured in the Battle of Princeton, was stolen by students of Rutgers University in 1875. The theft ignited the Rutgers-Princeton Cannon War. A compromise between the presidents of Princeton and Rutgers ended the war and forced the return of the Little Cannon to Princeton. The protruding cannons are occasionally painted scarlet by Rutgers students who continue the traditional dispute.

    In years when the Princeton football team beats the teams of both Harvard University and Yale University in the same season, Princeton celebrates with a bonfire on Cannon Green. This occurred in 2012, ending a five-year drought. The next bonfire happened on November 24, 2013, and was broadcast live over the Internet.

    Landscape

    Princeton’s grounds were designed by Beatrix Farrand between 1912 and 1943. Her contributions were most recently recognized with the naming of a courtyard for her. Subsequent changes to the landscape were introduced by Quennell Rothschild & Partners in 2000. In 2005, Michael Van Valkenburgh was hired as the new consulting landscape architect for the campus. Lynden B. Miller was invited to work with him as Princeton’s consulting gardening architect, focusing on the 17 gardens that are distributed throughout the campus.

    Buildings

    Nassau Hall

    Nassau Hall is the oldest building on campus. Begun in 1754 and completed in 1756, it was the first seat of the New Jersey Legislature in 1776, was involved in the battle of Princeton in 1777, and was the seat of the Congress of the Confederation (and thus capitol of the United States) from June 30, 1783, to November 4, 1783. It now houses the office of the university president and other administrative offices, and remains the symbolic center of the campus. The front entrance is flanked by two bronze tigers, a gift of the Princeton Class of 1879. Commencement is held on the front lawn of Nassau Hall in good weather. In 1966, Nassau Hall was added to the National Register of Historic Places.

    Residential colleges

    Princeton has six undergraduate residential colleges, each housing approximately 500 freshmen, sophomores, some juniors and seniors, and a handful of junior and senior resident advisers. Each college consists of a set of dormitories, a dining hall, a variety of other amenities—such as study spaces, libraries, performance spaces, and darkrooms—and a collection of administrators and associated faculty. Two colleges, First College and Forbes College (formerly Woodrow Wilson College and Princeton Inn College, respectively), date to the 1970s; three others, Rockefeller, Mathey, and Butler Colleges, were created in 1983 following the Committee on Undergraduate Residential Life (CURL) report, which suggested the institution of residential colleges as a solution to an allegedly fragmented campus social life. The construction of Whitman College, the university’s sixth residential college, was completed in 2007.

    Rockefeller and Mathey are located in the northwest corner of the campus; Princeton brochures often feature their Collegiate Gothic architecture. Like most of Princeton’s Gothic buildings, they predate the residential college system and were fashioned into colleges from individual dormitories.

    First and Butler, located south of the center of the campus, were built in the 1960s. First served as an early experiment in the establishment of the residential college system. Butler, like Rockefeller and Mathey, consisted of a collection of ordinary dorms (called the “New New Quad”) before the addition of a dining hall made it a residential college. Widely disliked for their edgy modernist design, including “waffle ceilings,” the dormitories on the Butler Quad were demolished in 2007. Butler is now reopened as a four-year residential college, housing both under- and upperclassmen.

    Forbes is located on the site of the historic Princeton Inn, a gracious hotel overlooking the Princeton golf course. The Princeton Inn, originally constructed in 1924, played regular host to important symposia and gatherings of renowned scholars from both the university and the nearby Institute for Advanced Study for many years. Forbes currently houses nearly 500 undergraduates in its residential halls.

    In 2003, Princeton broke ground for a sixth college named Whitman College after its principal sponsor, Meg Whitman, who graduated from Princeton in 1977. The new dormitories were constructed in the Collegiate Gothic architectural style and were designed by architect Demetri Porphyrios. Construction finished in 2007, and Whitman College was inaugurated as Princeton’s sixth residential college that same year.

    The precursor of the present college system in America was originally proposed by university president Woodrow Wilson in the early 20th century. For over 800 years, however, the collegiate system had already existed in Britain at Cambridge and Oxford Universities. Wilson’s model was much closer to Yale University (US)’s present system, which features four-year colleges. Lacking the support of the trustees, the plan languished until 1968. That year, Wilson College was established to cap a series of alternatives to the eating clubs. Fierce debates raged before the present residential college system emerged. The plan was first attempted at Yale, but the administration was initially uninterested; an exasperated alumnus, Edward Harkness, finally paid to have the college system implemented at Harvard in the 1920s, leading to the oft-quoted aphorism that the college system is a Princeton idea that was executed at Harvard with funding from Yale.

    Princeton has one graduate residential college, known simply as the Graduate College, located beyond Forbes College at the outskirts of campus. The far-flung location of the GC was the spoil of a squabble between Woodrow Wilson and then-Graduate School Dean Andrew Fleming West. Wilson preferred a central location for the college; West wanted the graduate students as far as possible from the campus. Ultimately, West prevailed. The Graduate College is composed of a large Collegiate Gothic section crowned by Cleveland Tower, a local landmark that also houses a world-class carillon. The attached New Graduate College provides a modern contrast in architectural style.

    McCarter Theatre

    The Tony-award-winning McCarter Theatre was built by the Princeton Triangle Club, a student performance group, using club profits and a gift from Princeton University alumnus Thomas McCarter. Today, the Triangle Club performs its annual freshmen revue, fall show, and Reunions performances in McCarter. McCarter is also recognized as one of the leading regional theaters in the United States.

    Art Museum

    The Princeton University Art Museum was established in 1882 to give students direct, intimate, and sustained access to original works of art that complement and enrich instruction and research at the university. This continues to be a primary function, along with serving as a community resource and a destination for national and international visitors.

    Numbering over 92,000 objects, the collections range from ancient to contemporary art and concentrate geographically on the Mediterranean regions, Western Europe, China, the United States, and Latin America. There is a collection of Greek and Roman antiquities, including ceramics, marbles, bronzes, and Roman mosaics from faculty excavations in Antioch. Medieval Europe is represented by sculpture, metalwork, and stained glass. The collection of Western European paintings includes examples from the early Renaissance through the 19th century, with masterpieces by Monet, Cézanne, and Van Gogh, and features a growing collection of 20th-century and contemporary art, including iconic paintings such as Andy Warhol’s Blue Marilyn.

    One of the best features of the museums is its collection of Chinese art, with important holdings in bronzes, tomb figurines, painting, and calligraphy. Its collection of pre-Columbian art includes examples of Mayan art, and is commonly considered to be the most important collection of pre-Columbian art outside of Latin America. The museum has collections of old master prints and drawings and a comprehensive collection of over 27,000 original photographs. African art and Northwest Coast Indian art are also represented. The Museum also oversees the outdoor Putnam Collection of Sculpture.

    University Chapel

    The Princeton University Chapel is located on the north side of campus, near Nassau Street. It was built between 1924 and 1928, at a cost of $2.3 million [approximately $34.2 million in 2020 dollars]. Ralph Adams Cram, the University’s supervising architect, designed the chapel, which he viewed as the crown jewel for the Collegiate Gothic motif he had championed for the campus. At the time of its construction, it was the second largest university chapel in the world, after King’s College Chapel, Cambridge. It underwent a two-year, $10 million restoration campaign between 2000 and 2002.

    Measured on the exterior, the chapel is 277 feet (84 m) long, 76 feet (23 m) wide at its transepts, and 121 feet (37 m) high. The exterior is Pennsylvania sandstone, with Indiana limestone used for the trim. The interior is mostly limestone and Aquia Creek sandstone. The design evokes an English church of the Middle Ages. The extensive iconography, in stained glass, stonework, and wood carvings, has the common theme of connecting religion and scholarship.

    The Chapel seats almost 2,000. It hosts weekly ecumenical Christian services, daily Roman Catholic mass, and several annual special events.

    Murray-Dodge Hall

    Murray-Dodge Hall houses the Office of Religious Life (ORL), the Murray Dodge Theater, the Murray-Dodge Café, the Muslim Prayer Room and the Interfaith Prayer Room. The ORL houses the office of the Dean of Religious Life, Alison Boden, and a number of university chaplains, including the country’s first Hindu chaplain, Vineet Chander; and one of the country’s first Muslim chaplains, Sohaib Sultan.

    Sustainability

    Published in 2008, Princeton’s Sustainability Plan highlights three priority areas for the University’s Office of Sustainability: reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; conservation of resources; and research, education, and civic engagement. Princeton has committed to reducing its carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels by 2020: Energy without the purchase of offsets. The University published its first Sustainability Progress Report in November 2009. The University has adopted a green purchasing policy and recycling program that focuses on paper products, construction materials, lightbulbs, furniture, and electronics. Its dining halls have set a goal to purchase 75% sustainable food products by 2015. The student organization “Greening Princeton” seeks to encourage the University administration to adopt environmentally friendly policies on campus.

    Organization

    The Trustees of Princeton University, a 40-member board, is responsible for the overall direction of the University. It approves the operating and capital budgets, supervises the investment of the University’s endowment and oversees campus real estate and long-range physical planning. The trustees also exercise prior review and approval concerning changes in major policies, such as those in instructional programs and admission, as well as tuition and fees and the hiring of faculty members.

    With an endowment of $26.1 billion, Princeton University is among the wealthiest universities in the world. Ranked in 2010 as the third largest endowment in the United States, the university had the greatest per-student endowment in the world (over $2 million for undergraduates) in 2011. Such a significant endowment is sustained through the continued donations of its alumni and is maintained by investment advisers. Some of Princeton’s wealth is invested in its art museum, which features works by Claude Monet, Vincent van Gogh, Jackson Pollock, and Andy Warhol among other prominent artists.

    Academics

    Undergraduates fulfill general education requirements, choose among a wide variety of elective courses, and pursue departmental concentrations and interdisciplinary certificate programs. Required independent work is a hallmark of undergraduate education at Princeton. Students graduate with either the Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) or the Bachelor of Science in Engineering (B.S.E.).

    The graduate school offers advanced degrees spanning the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering. Doctoral education is available in most disciplines. It emphasizes original and independent scholarship whereas master’s degree programs in architecture, engineering, finance, and public affairs and public policy prepare candidates for careers in public life and professional practice.

    The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University(US).

    Undergraduate

    Undergraduate courses in the humanities are traditionally either seminars or lectures held 2 or 3 times a week with an additional discussion seminar that is called a “precept.” To graduate, all A.B. candidates must complete a senior thesis and, in most departments, one or two extensive pieces of independent research that are known as “junior papers.” Juniors in some departments, including architecture and the creative arts, complete independent projects that differ from written research papers. A.B. candidates must also fulfill a three or four semester foreign language requirement and distribution requirements (which include, for example, classes in ethics, literature and the arts, and historical analysis) with a total of 31 classes. B.S.E. candidates follow a parallel track with an emphasis on a rigorous science and math curriculum, a computer science requirement, and at least two semesters of independent research including an optional senior thesis. All B.S.E. students must complete at least 36 classes. A.B. candidates typically have more freedom in course selection than B.S.E. candidates because of the fewer number of required classes. Nonetheless, in the spirit of a liberal arts education, both enjoy a comparatively high degree of latitude in creating a self-structured curriculum.

    Undergraduates agree to adhere to an academic integrity policy called the Honor Code, established in 1893. Under the Honor Code, faculty do not proctor examinations; instead, the students proctor one another and must report any suspected violation to an Honor Committee made up of undergraduates. The Committee investigates reported violations and holds a hearing if it is warranted. An acquittal at such a hearing results in the destruction of all records of the hearing; a conviction results in the student’s suspension or expulsion. The signed pledge required by the Honor Code is so integral to students’ academic experience that the Princeton Triangle Club performs a song about it each fall. Out-of-class exercises fall under the jurisdiction of the Faculty-Student Committee on Discipline. Undergraduates are expected to sign a pledge on their written work affirming that they have not plagiarized the work.

    Graduate

    The Graduate School has about 2,600 students in 42 academic departments and programs in social sciences; engineering; natural sciences; and humanities. These departments include the Department of Psychology; Department of History; and Department of Economics.

    In 2017–2018, it received nearly 11,000 applications for admission and accepted around 1,000 applicants. The University also awarded 319 Ph.D. degrees and 170 final master’s degrees. Princeton has no medical school, law school, business school, or school of education. (A short-lived Princeton Law School folded in 1852.) It offers professional graduate degrees in architecture; engineering; finance and public policy- the last through the Princeton School of Public and International Affairs founded in 1930 as the School of Public and International Affairs and renamed in 1948 after university president (and U.S. president) Woodrow Wilson, and most recently renamed in 2020.

    Libraries

    The Princeton University Library system houses over eleven million holdings including seven million bound volumes. The main university library, Firestone Library, which houses almost four million volumes, is one of the largest university libraries in the world. Additionally, it is among the largest “open stack” libraries in existence. Its collections include the autographed manuscript of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby and George F. Kennan’s Long Telegram. In addition to Firestone library, specialized libraries exist for architecture, art and archaeology, East Asian studies, engineering, music, public and international affairs, public policy and university archives, and the sciences. In an effort to expand access, these libraries also subscribe to thousands of electronic resources.

    Institutes

    High Meadows Environmental Institute

    The High Meadows Environmental Institute is an “interdisciplinary center of environmental research, education, and outreach” at the university. The institute was started in 1994. About 90 faculty members at Princeton University are affiliated with it.

    The High Meadows Environmental Institute has the following research centers:

    Carbon Mitigation Initiative (CMI): This is a 15-year-long partnership between PEI and British Petroleum with the goal of finding solutions to problems related to climate change. The Stabilization Wedge Game has been created as part of this initiative.
    Center for BioComplexity (CBC)
    Cooperative Institute for Climate Science (CICS): This is a collaboration with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration’s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory.
    Energy Systems Analysis Group
    Grand Challenges

     
  • richardmitnick 11:21 am on September 18, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "First glimpse of hydrodynamic electron flow in 3D materials", , , Electrons flow through most materials more like a gas than a fluid meaning they don’t interact much with one another., , Hydrodynamic electron flow relies on strong interactions between electrons just as water and other fluids rely on strong interactions between their particles., , Nanotechnology, , The researchers developed a new cryogenic scanning probe based on the nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond., The researchers find evidence that the hydrodynamic character of the current strongly depends on the temperature., The researchers proposed that electrons in high density materials could interact with one another through the quantum vibrations of the atomic lattice known as phonons., This research provides a promising avenue for the search for hydrodynamic flow and prominent electron interactions in high-carrier-density materials.   

    From Harvard University John A Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (US) : “First glimpse of hydrodynamic electron flow in 3D materials” 

    From Harvard University John A Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (US)

    at

    Harvard University (US)

    1
    Credit: New Zealand Online News.

    September 16, 2021
    Leah Burrows

    Electrons flow through most materials more like a gas than a fluid meaning they don’t interact much with one another. It was long hypothesized that electrons could flow like a fluid, but only recent advances in materials and measurement techniques allowed these effects to be observed in 2D materials. In 2020, the labs of Amir Yacoby, Professor of Physics and of Applied Physics at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), Philip Kim, Professor of Physics and Professor Applied Physics at Harvard and Ronald Walsworth, formerly of the Department of Physics at Harvard, were among the first to image electrons [Nature] flowing in graphene like water flows through a pipe.

    The findings provided a new sandbox in which to explore electron interactions and offered a new way to control electrons — but only in two-dimensional materials. Electron hydrodynamics in three-dimensional materials remained much more elusive because of a fundamental behavior of electrons in conductors known as screening. When there is a high density of electrons in a material, as in conducting metals, electrons are less inclined to interact with one another.

    Recent research suggested that hydrodynamic electron flow in 3D conductors was possible, but exactly how it happened or how to observe it remained unknown. Until now.

    A team of researchers from Harvard and The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) developed a theory to explain how hydrodynamic electron flow could occur in 3D materials and observed it for the first time using a new imaging technique.

    The research is published in Nature Physics.

    “This research provides a promising avenue for the search for hydrodynamic flow and prominent electron interactions in high-carrier-density materials,” said Prineha Narang, Assistant Professor of Computational Materials Science at SEAS and a senior author of the study.

    Hydrodynamic electron flow relies on strong interactions between electrons just as water and other fluids rely on strong interactions between their particles. In order to flow efficiently, electrons in high density materials arrange themselves in such a way that limits interactions. It’s the same reason that group dances like the electric slide don’t involve a lot of interaction between dancers — with that many people, it’s easier for everyone to do their own moves.

    “To date, hydrodynamic effects have mostly been deduced from transport measurements, which effectively jumbles up the spatial signatures,” said Yacoby. “Our work has charted a different path in observing this dance and understanding hydrodynamics in systems beyond graphene with new quantum probes of electron correlations.”

    The researchers proposed that rather than direct interactions, electrons in high density materials could interact with one another through the quantum vibrations of the atomic lattice, known as phonons.

    “We can think of the phonon-mediated interactions between electrons by imagining two people jumping on a trampoline, who don’t propel each other directly but rather via the elastic force of the springs,” said Yaxian Wang, a postdoctoral scholar in the NarangLab at SEAS and co-author of the study.

    In order to observe this mechanism, the researchers developed a new cryogenic scanning probe based on the nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond, which imaged the local magnetic field of a current flow in a material called layered semimetal tungsten ditelluride.

    “Our tiny quantum sensor is sensitive to small changes in the local magnetic field, allowing us to explore the magnetic structure in a material directly,” said Uri Vool, John Harvard distinguished science fellow and co-lead author of the study.

    Not only did the researchers find evidence of hydrodynamic flow within three-dimensional tungsten ditelluride but they also found that the hydrodynamic character of the current strongly depends on the temperature.

    “Hydrodynamic flow occurs in a narrow regime where temperature is not too high and not too low, and so the unique ability to scan across a wide temperature range was crucial to see the effect,” said Assaf Hamo, a postdoctoral scholar at the Yacoby lab and co-lead author of the study.

    “The ability to image and engineer these hydrodynamic flows in three-dimensional conductors as a function of temperature, opens up the possibility to achieve near dissipation-less electronics in nanoscale devices, as well as provides new insights into understanding electron-electron interactions,” said Georgios Varnavides, a Ph.D student in the NarangLab at SEAS and one of the lead authors of the study. ”The research also paves the way for exploring non-classical fluid behavior in hydrodynamic electron flow, such as steady-state vortices.”

    “This is an exciting and interdisciplinary field synthesizing concepts from condensed matter and materials science to computational hydrodynamics and statistical physics,” said Narang. In previous research, Varnavides and Narang classified different types of hydrodynamic behaviors which could arise in quantum materials where electrons flow collectively.

    This research was co-authored by Tony X. Zhou, Nitesh Kumar, Yuliya Dovzhenko, Ziwei Qiu, Christina A. C. Garcia, Andrew T. Pierce, Johannes Gooth, Polina Anikeeva, and Claudia Felser. It was supported in part by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Basic Energy Sciences Office, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, under award DE-SC0019300, Army Research Office grant no. W911NF-17-1-0023 and Army Research Office MURI (Ab-Initio Solid-State Quantum Materials) grant no. W911NF-18-1-0431 as well as the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through an EPiQS Initiative grant no. GBMF4531 and Moore Inventor Fellowship grant no.GBMF8048.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Through research and scholarship, the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (US) will create collaborative bridges across Harvard and educate the next generation of global leaders. By harnessing the power of engineering and applied sciences we will address the greatest challenges facing our society.

    Specifically, that means that SEAS will provide to all Harvard College students an introduction to and familiarity with engineering and technology as this is essential knowledge in the 21st century.

    Moreover, our concentrators will be immersed in the liberal arts environment and be able to understand the societal context for their problem solving, capable of working seamlessly with others, including those in the arts, the sciences, and the professional schools. They will focus on the fundamental engineering and applied science disciplines for the 21st century; as we will not teach legacy 20th century engineering disciplines.

    Instead, our curriculum will be rigorous but inviting to students, and be infused with active learning, interdisciplinary research, entrepreneurship and engineering design experiences. For our concentrators and graduate students, we will educate “T-shaped” individuals – with depth in one discipline but capable of working seamlessly with others, including arts, humanities, natural science and social science.

    To address current and future societal challenges, knowledge from fundamental science, art, and the humanities must all be linked through the application of engineering principles with the professions of law, medicine, public policy, design and business practice.

    In other words, solving important issues requires a multidisciplinary approach.

    With the combined strengths of SEAS, the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools, Harvard is ideally positioned to both broadly educate the next generation of leaders who understand the complexities of technology and society and to use its intellectual resources and innovative thinking to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

    Ultimately, we will provide to our graduates a rigorous quantitative liberal arts education that is an excellent launching point for any career and profession.

    Harvard University campus

    Harvard University (US) is the oldest institution of higher education in the United States, established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. It was named after the College’s first benefactor, the young minister John Harvard of Charlestown, who upon his death in 1638 left his library and half his estate to the institution. A statue of John Harvard stands today in front of University Hall in Harvard Yard, and is perhaps the University’s bestknown landmark.

    Harvard University (US) has 12 degree-granting Schools in addition to the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. The University has grown from nine students with a single master to an enrollment of more than 20,000 degree candidates including undergraduate, graduate, and professional students. There are more than 360,000 living alumni in the U.S. and over 190 other countries.

    The Massachusetts colonial legislature, the General Court, authorized Harvard University (US)’s founding. In its early years, Harvard College primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, although it has never been formally affiliated with any denomination. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century, Harvard University (US) had emerged as the central cultural establishment among the Boston elite. Following the American Civil War, President Charles William Eliot’s long tenure (1869–1909) transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university; Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900. James B. Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II; he liberalized admissions after the war.

    The university is composed of ten academic faculties plus the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. Arts and Sciences offers study in a wide range of academic disciplines for undergraduates and for graduates, while the other faculties offer only graduate degrees, mostly professional. Harvard has three main campuses: the 209-acre (85 ha) Cambridge campus centered on Harvard Yard; an adjoining campus immediately across the Charles River in the Allston neighborhood of Boston; and the medical campus in Boston’s Longwood Medical Area. Harvard University (US)’s endowment is valued at $41.9 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Endowment income helps enable the undergraduate college to admit students regardless of financial need and provide generous financial aid with no loans The Harvard Library is the world’s largest academic library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items.

    Harvard University (US) has more alumni, faculty, and researchers who have won Nobel Prizes (161) and Fields Medals (18) than any other university in the world and more alumni who have been members of the U.S. Congress, MacArthur Fellows, Rhodes Scholars (375), and Marshall Scholars (255) than any other university in the United States. Its alumni also include eight U.S. presidents and 188 living billionaires, the most of any university. Fourteen Turing Award laureates have been Harvard affiliates. Students and alumni have also won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes, and 108 Olympic medals (46 gold), and they have founded many notable companies.

    Colonial

    Harvard University (US) was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America’s first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge(UK) who had left the school £779 and his library of some 400 volumes. The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650.

    A 1643 publication gave the school’s purpose as “to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust.” It trained many Puritan ministers in its early years and offered a classic curriculum based on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. Harvard University (US) has never affiliated with any particular denomination, though many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches.

    Increase Mather served as president from 1681 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not also a clergyman, marking a turning of the college away from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence.

    19th century

    In the 19th century, Enlightenment ideas of reason and free will were widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties. When Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and President Joseph Willard died a year later, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the Hollis chair in 1805, and the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency two years later, signaling the shift from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.

    Charles William Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the favored position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. Though Eliot was the crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education but by Transcendentalist Unitarian convictions influenced by William Ellery Channing and Ralph Waldo Emerson.

    20th century

    In the 20th century, Harvard University (US)’s reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the university’s scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new graduate schools were begun and the undergraduate college expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as the female counterpart of Harvard College, became one of the most prominent schools for women in the United States. Harvard University (US) became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.

    The student body in the early decades of the century was predominantly “old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians.” A 1923 proposal by President A. Lawrence Lowell that Jews be limited to 15% of undergraduates was rejected, but Lowell did ban blacks from freshman dormitories.

    President James B. Conant reinvigorated creative scholarship to guarantee Harvard University (US)’s preeminence among research institutions. He saw higher education as a vehicle of opportunity for the talented rather than an entitlement for the wealthy, so Conant devised programs to identify, recruit, and support talented youth. In 1943, he asked the faculty to make a definitive statement about what general education ought to be, at the secondary as well as at the college level. The resulting Report, published in 1945, was one of the most influential manifestos in 20th century American education.

    Between 1945 and 1960, admissions were opened up to bring in a more diverse group of students. No longer drawing mostly from select New England prep schools, the undergraduate college became accessible to striving middle class students from public schools; many more Jews and Catholics were admitted, but few blacks, Hispanics, or Asians. Throughout the rest of the 20th century, Harvard became more diverse.

    Harvard University (US)’s graduate schools began admitting women in small numbers in the late 19th century. During World War II, students at Radcliffe College (which since 1879 had been paying Harvard University (US) professors to repeat their lectures for women) began attending Harvard University (US) classes alongside men. Women were first admitted to the medical school in 1945. Since 1971, Harvard University (US) has controlled essentially all aspects of undergraduate admission, instruction, and housing for Radcliffe women. In 1999, Radcliffe was formally merged into Harvard University (US).

    21st century

    Drew Gilpin Faust, previously the dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, became Harvard University (US)’s first woman president on July 1, 2007. She was succeeded by Lawrence Bacow on July 1, 2018.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:25 pm on September 14, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Quantum materials cut closer than ever", , , Nanotechnology, One of the most significant recent discoveries within physics and material technology is two-dimensional materials such as graphene., , The Technical University of Denmark [Danmarks Tekniske Universitet](DK), To unlock the treasure chest for future quantum electronics scientists need to go below 10 nanometers and approach the atomic scale.   

    From The Technical University of Denmark [Danmarks Tekniske Universitet](DK): “Quantum materials cut closer than ever” 

    From The Technical University of Denmark [Danmarks Tekniske Universitet](DK)

    13 Sep 2021

    Peter Bøggild
    Professor
    DTU Physics
    +45 21 36 27 98
    pbog@dtu.dk

    Lene Gammelgaard
    Postdoc
    DTU Physics
    +45 45 25 66 26
    lenga@dtu.dk

    A new method designs nanomaterials with less than 10-nanometer precision. It could pave the way for faster, more energy-efficient electronics.

    DTU and Graphene Flagship (EU) researchers have taken the art of patterning nanomaterials to the next level. Precise patterning of 2D materials is a route to computation and storage using 2D materials, which can deliver better performance and much lower power consumption than today’s technology.

    One of the most significant recent discoveries within physics and material technology is two-dimensional materials such as graphene. Graphene is stronger, smoother, lighter, and better at conducting heat and electricity than any other known material.

    Their most unique feature is perhaps their programmability. By creating delicate patterns in these materials, we can change their properties dramatically and possibly make precisely what we need.

    At DTU, scientists have worked on improving state of the art for more than a decade in patterning 2D materials, using sophisticated lithography machines in the 1500 m2 cleanroom facility. Their work is based in DTU’s Center for Nanostructured Graphene, supported by the Danish National Research Foundation and a part of The Graphene Flagship.

    The electron beam lithography system in DTU Nanolab can write details down to 10 nanometers. Computer calculations can predict exactly the shape and size of patterns in the graphene to create new types of electronics. They can exploit the charge of the electron and quantum properties such as spin or valley degrees of freedom, leading to high-speed calculations with far less power consumption. These calculations, however, ask for higher resolution than even the best lithography systems can deliver: atomic resolution.

    “If we really want to unlock the treasure chest for future quantum electronics scientists need to go below 10 nanometers and approach the atomic scale,” says professor and group leader at DTU Physics, Peter Bøggild.

    And that is exactly what the researchers have succeeded in doing.

    “We showed in 2019 that circular holes placed with just 12-nanometer spacing turn the semimetallic graphene into a semiconductor. Now we know how to create circular holes and other shapes such as triangles, with nanometer sharp corners. Such patterns can sort electrons based on their spin and create essential components for spintronics or valleytronics. The technique also works on other 2D materials. With these supersmall structures, we may create very compact and electrically tunable metalenses to be used in high-speed communication and biotechnology,” explains Peter Bøggild.

    Razor-sharp triangle

    The research was led by postdoc Lene Gammelgaard, an engineering graduate of DTU in 2013 who has since played a vital role in the experimental exploration of 2D materials at DTU:

    “The trick is to place the nanomaterial hexagonal boron-nitride on top of the material you want to pattern. Then you drill holes with a particular etching recipe,” says Lene Gammelgaard, and continues:

    “The etching process we developed over the past years down-size patterns below our electron beam lithography systems’ otherwise unbreakable limit of approximately 10 nanometers. Suppose we make a circular hole with a diameter of 20 nanometers; the hole in the graphene can then be downsized to 10 nanometers. While if we make a triangular hole, with the round holes coming from the lithography system, the downsizing will make a smaller triangle with self-sharpened corners. Usually, patterns get more imperfect when you make them smaller. This is the opposite, and this allows us to recreate the structures the theoretical predictions tell us are optimal.”

    One can e.g. produce flat electronic meta-lenses – a kind of super-compact optical lens that can be controlled electrically at very high frequencies, and which according to Lene Gammelgaard can become essential components for the communication technology and biotechnology of the future.

    1
    Crystals of the material hexagonal boron nitride can be etched so that the pattern you draw at the top transforms into a smaller and razor-sharp version at the bottom. These perforations can be used as a shadow mask to draw components and circuits in graphene. This process enables a precision that is impossible with even the best lithographic techniques today. To the right are images of triangular and square holes taken with an electron microscope. Illustration: Peter Bøggild, Lene Gammelgaard og Dorte Danielsen.

    Pushing the limits

    The other key person is a young student, Dorte Danielsen. She got interested in nanophysics after a 9th-grade internship in 2012, won a spot in the final of a national science competition for high school students in 2014, and pursued studies in Physics and Nanotechnology under DTU’s honors program for elite students.

    She explains that the mechanism behind the “super-resolution” structures is still not well understood:

    “We have several possible explanations for this unexpected etching behavior, but there is still much we don’t understand. Still, it is an exciting and highly useful technique for us. At the same time, it is good news for the thousands of researchers around the world pushing the limits for 2D nanoelectronics and nanophotonics.”

    Supported by the Independent Research Fund Denmark, within the METATUNE project, Dorte Danielsen will continue her work on extremely sharp nanostructures. Here, the technology she helped develop, will be used to create and explore optical metalenses that can be tuned electrically.

    Science paper:
    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

    See the full article here.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Technical University of Denmark [Danmarks Tekniske Universitet](DK) is a university in the town Kongens Lyngby, 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) north of central Copenhagen, Denmark. It was founded in 1829 at the initiative of Hans Christian Ørsted as Denmark’s first polytechnic, and it is today ranked among Europe’s leading engineering institutions.

    Along with École Polytechnique in Paris, EPFL (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne) [École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne](CH), Eindhoven University of Technology [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven](NL), Technical University of Munich [Technische Universität München] (DE) and Technion – Israel Institute of Technology [ הטכניון – מכון טכנולוגי לישראל] (IL), DTU is a member of EuroTech Universities Alliance.

    The Technical University of Denmark was founded in 1829 as the College of Advanced Technology[Den Polytekniske Læreanstalt](NL). The Physicist Hans Christian Ørsted, at that time a professor at the University of Copenhagen [Københavns Universitet](DK), was one of the driving forces behind this initiative. He was inspired by the École Polytechnique in Paris, France which Ørsted had visited as a young scientist. The new institution was inaugurated on 5 November 1829 with Ørsted becoming its Principal, a position he held until his death in 1851.

    The first home of the new college consisted of two buildings located in Studiestræde and St- Pederstræde in the center of Copenhagen. Although these buildings were expanded several times, they eventually became inadequate for the requirements of the college. In 1890 a new building complex was completed and inaugurated located in Sølvgade. The new buildings were designed by the architect Johan Daniel Herholdt.

    In 1903, the College of Advanced Technology commenced the education of electrical engineers in addition to that of the construction engineers, the production engineers, and the mechanical engineers who already at that time were being educated at the college.

    In the 1920s, space again became insufficient and in 1929 the foundation stone was laid for a new school at Østervold. Completion of this building was delayed by World War II and it was not completed before 1954.

    From 1933, the institution was officially known as Danmarks tekniske Højskole (DtH), which commonly was translated into English, as the ‘Technical University of Denmark’. On 1 April 1994, in connection with the joining of Danmarks Ingeniørakademi (DIA) and DTH, the Danish name was changed to Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, this done to include the word ‘University’ thus giving rise to the initials DTU by which the university is commonly known today. The formal name, Den Polytekniske Læreanstalt, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, however, still includes the original name.

    In 1960 a decision was made to move the College of Advanced Technology to new and larger facilities in Lyngby north of Copenhagen. They were inaugurated on 17 May 1974.

    On 23 and 24 November 1967, the University Computing Center hosted the NATO Science Committee’s Study Group first meeting discussing the newly coined term “Software Engineering”.

    On 1 January 2007, the university was merged with the following Danish research centers: Forskningscenter Risø, Danmarks Fødevareforskning, Danmarks Fiskeriundersøgelser (from 1 January 2008: National Institute for Aquatic Resources; DTU Aqua), Danmarks Rumcenter, and Danmarks Transport-Forskning.

    Departments:

    DTU Aqua, National Institute for Aquatic Resources
    DTU Business, DTU Executive School of Business
    DTU Cen, Center for Electron Nanoscopy
    DTU Centre for Technology Entrepreneurship
    DTU Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
    DTU Chemistry, Department of Chemistry
    DTU Civil Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering
    DTU Compute, Institut for Matematik og Computer Science
    DTU Danchip, National Center for Micro and Nanofabrication
    DTU Diplom, Department of Bachelor Engineering
    DTU Electrical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering
    DTU Environment, Department of Environmental Engineering
    DTU Executive School of Business
    DTU Food, National Food Institute

    Research centers

    Arctic Technology Centre
    Center for Facilities Management
    Center for Biological Sequence Analysis – chair Søren Brunak
    Center for Information and Communication Technologies
    Center for Microbial Biotechnology
    Center for Phase Equilibria and Separation Processes
    Center for Technology, Economics and Management
    Center for Traffic and Transport
    Centre for Applied Hearing Research
    Centre for Electric Power and Energy
    Combustion and Harmful Emission Control
    The Danish Polymer Centre
    IMM Statistical Consulting Center
    International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy
    Centre for Advanced Food Studies
    Nano-DTU
    Fluid-DTU
    Food-DTU
    EnergiDTU

     
  • richardmitnick 2:06 pm on September 13, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New laser captures energy like noise-cancelling headphones", , , Extremely powerful microscopic lasers that are even smaller than the wavelength of the light they produce., , Nanotechnology, , This technology uses laser light instead of electronics-an approach called photonics.   

    From Australian National University (AU) : “New laser captures energy like noise-cancelling headphones” 

    ANU Australian National University Bloc

    From Australian National University (AU)

    13 September 2021

    1
    Kirill Koshelev and Yuri Kivshar

    1
    Merging of BICs in the finite-size structure. a Calculated Hz field distribution at a = 573 nm in the finite-size domain with N = 15. N is the number of air holes along the vertical (or horizontal) direction. b Topological charge distributions in FT(Hz) at before-merging (left), pre-merging (middle), and merging (right). FT denotes the spatial Fourier transformation. The white circle of 7° indicates the first field minimum. c Schematic illustrations of the radiative loss in the three cases corresponding to b. d Calculated radiation factor, defined as |FT(Hz)/Q | , for a = 568, 573, 576, and 578 nm. The largest dark area is obtained at pre-merging of a = 573 nm. e The values of the inverse radiation factor plotted as a function of the lattice constant for N = 15 (black) and N = 21 (purple). The vertical red dashed line indicates the merging point in the infinite-size domain. f Radiative Q factor for N = 15 as a function of the lattice constant, calculated by the FDTD simulation. Credit: DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-24502-0

    Physicists at The Australian National University (ANU) have developed extremely powerful microscopic lasers that are even smaller than the wavelength of the light they produce.

    So called ‘nanolasers’ have a huge variety of medical, surgical, industrial and military uses, covering everything from hair removal to laser printers and night-time surveillance.

    According to lead researcher Professor Yuri Kivshar, the nanolasers developed by his team promise to be even more powerful than existing lasers, allowing them to be useful in smaller-scale devices.

    “They can also be integrated on a chip,” he said.

    “For example, they can be mounted directly on the tip of an optical fibre to lighten or operate on a particular spot inside a human body.

    “This technology uses laser light instead of electronics-an approach called photonics. It’s exciting to see how this can be realised in everyday practical devices, like mobile phones.”

    Professor Kivshar’s team used a clever trick to modify conventional lasers, which traditionally comprise some form of light amplification device placed between two mirrors. As the light bounces back and forth between the two mirrors it becomes brighter and brighter.

    Instead of mirrors, the research team created a device that works like “inside-out” noise-cancelling headphones and which traps energy and prevents it from escaping. The trapped light energy builds up into a strong, well-shaped laser.

    This trick overcomes a well-known challenge of nanolasers — energy leakage.

    To fabricate the laser, the team collaborated with Professor Hong-Gyu Park and his group at Korea University [고려대학교](KR).

    The researchers say the device’s efficiency was high — only a small amount of energy was required to start the laser shining — with a threshold about 50 times lower than any previously reported nanolaser and narrow beam.

    Professor Kivshar said the new laser builds on a quantum mechanical discovery made almost 100 years ago.

    “This mathematical solution was published by Wigner and von Neumann in 1929, in a paper that seemed very strange at the time – it was not explained for many years,” Professor Kivshar said.

    “Now this 100-year-old discovery is driving tomorrow’s technology.”

    The research is reported in Nature Communications.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    ANU Campus

    Australian National University (AU) is a world-leading university in Australia’s capital city, Canberra. Our location points to our unique history, ties to the Australian Government and special standing as a resource for the Australian people.

    Our focus on research as an asset, and an approach to education, ensures our graduates are in demand the world-over for their abilities to understand, and apply vision and creativity to addressing complex contemporary challenges.

    Australian National University is regarded as one of the world’s leading research universities, and is ranked as the number one university in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere by the 2021 QS World University Rankings. It is ranked 31st in the world by the 2021 QS World University Rankings, and 59th in the world (third in Australia) by the 2021 Times Higher Education.

    In the 2020 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, an annual ranking of university graduates’ employability, Australian National University was ranked 15th in the world (first in Australia). According to the 2020 QS World University by Subject, the university was also ranked among the top 10 in the world for Anthropology, Earth and Marine Sciences, Geography, Geology, Philosophy, Politics, and Sociology.

    Established in 1946, Australian National University is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. It traces its origins to Canberra University College, which was established in 1929 and was integrated into Australian National University in 1960. Australian National University enrolls 10,052 undergraduate and 10,840 postgraduate students and employs 3,753 staff. The university’s endowment stood at A$1.8 billion as of 2018.

    Australian National University counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni. The university has educated two prime ministers, 30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of government departments of Australia. The latest releases of ANU’s scholarly publications are held through ANU Press online.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:50 pm on September 11, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Reconfigurable Metasurfaces Provide Nanoscale Light Control", , Nanotechnology, Researchers have designed electromechanically reconfigurable ultrathin optical elements that can be controlled and programmed on a pixel-by-pixel level., Spiral patterns that transform from 2D to 3D,   

    From The Optical Society : “Reconfigurable Metasurfaces Provide Nanoscale Light Control” 

    From The Optical Society

    9 September 2021

    Researchers have designed electromechanically reconfigurable ultrathin optical elements that can be controlled and programmed on a pixel-by-pixel level. These versatile metasurfaces could offer a new chip-based way to achieve nanoscale control of light, which could lead to better optical displays, information encoding and digital light processing.

    “Metasurfaces are ultrathin and compact optical elements that can be used to manipulate the amplitude, phase and polarization of light,” said research team leader Jiafang Li from The Beijing Institute of Technology[北京理工大学](CN) in China. “Although most metasurfaces are static and passive, we created metasurfaces that mechanically deform in response to electrostatic forces.”

    In The Optical Society (OSA) journal Optics Express, the researchers describe how they created the new metasurfaces using nanoscale techniques inspired by kirigami, a variation of origami that includes cutting as well as folding. This allowed them to create tiny units that transform from 2D designs into 3D structures when a voltage is applied.

    “We were able to create a dynamic holographic display using our reconfigurable metasurface,” said Li. “These optical elements could lead to new types of devices with optical multitasking and rewritable functionalities. They might also be used in real-time 3D displays and high-resolution projectors, for example.”

    2
    Researchers designed reconfigurable metasurfaces with 2D spirals that deform when a voltage is applied. Each of the spiral units act as a pixel and can be independently manipulated. The researchers demonstrated the metasurface by using it to create a hologram display. Credit: Jiafang Li, Beijing Institute of Technology.

    Spiral patterns that transform from 2D to 3D

    To create the new metasurfaces, the researchers designed a repeating 2D pattern of two combined spirals that are etched into a gold nanofilm and suspended above silicon dioxide pillars. The units are arranged in a square lattice with just two microns of space between each one. When a voltage is applied, the spirals deform due to electrostatic forces. This transformation, which is reversable and repeatable, can be used to dynamically modulate the optical properties of the metasurface.

    The researchers used their new approach to make two types of metasurfaces for controlling light on a pixel-by-pixel basis. One metasurface used the same voltage to deform each unit but featured spirals with structural patterns that varied to create different deformation heights. The second metasurface used different voltages applied to each unit to achieve different deformation heights for units with identical structural patterns.

    As a proof-of-concept demonstration, the researchers used these metasurfaces to demonstrate beam control and to make a holographic display. “We were able to reconstruct images from the metasurface by merely controlling the voltage bias, proving the feasibility of our scheme for effective light modulation,” said Li.

    The researchers plan to explore strategies that can be used to achieve pixelated voltage control, such as the multi-line addressing method used to drive several rows simultaneously in commercial OLED displays. To make the technology more practical, they are also working to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and modulation quality of the reconfiguration system.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Optical Society (OSA) is a professional association of individuals and companies with an interest in optics and photonics. It publishes journals, and organizes conferences and exhibitions. In 2019 it had about 22,000 members in more than 100 different countries, including some 300 companies.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:39 pm on September 3, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: According to the “RNA world” hypothesis primordial living systems were based on self-replicating RNA molecules., , , , , , Nanotechnology, RNA is of particular interest in the context of the origin of life as a promising candidate for the first functional biopolymer.   

    From Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München] (DE) : “The right mixture of salts to get life started” 

    From Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München] (DE)

    26 Aug 2021

    A new study shows how a blend of salts in the presence of heat flows may have contributed to the formation of the first self-replicating biomolecules.

    1
    Basaltic glass is produced when melted basalt is rapidly cooled, e.g. when it comes into contact with ocean water. In combination with convection currents, suitable conditions for RNA folding are created. © IMAGO / ingimage.

    In modern organisms, the hereditary material DNA encodes the instructions for the synthesis of proteins – the versatile nanomachines that enable modern cells to function and replicate. But how was this functional linkage between DNA and proteins established? According to the “RNA world” hypothesis primordial living systems were based on self-replicating RNA molecules. Chemically speaking, RNA is closely related to DNA. However, in addition to storing information, RNA can fold into complex structures that have catalytic activity, similar to the protein nanomachines that catalyze chemical reactions in cells. These properties suggest that RNA molecules should be capable of catalyzing the replication of other RNA strands, and initiating self-sustaining evolutionary processes. Hence, RNA is of particular interest in the context of the origin of life as a promising candidate for the first functional biopolymer.

    In order to fold correctly, RNA requires a relatively high concentration of doubly charged magnesium ions and a minimal concentration of singly charged sodium, since the latter leads to misfolding of RNA strands. Drying alone alters the salt concentration, but not the relative amounts of the different ions. Therefore, researchers led by LMU biophysicists Dieter Braun and Christof Mast, in collaboration with colleagues at the MPG Institute of Biochemistry [MPG Institut für Biochemie](DE), the Technical University of Dortmund [Technische Universität Dortmund](DE) and LMU Geosciences, have now asked how the relevant salt balance might have been achieved under the conditions that prevailed on Earth some 4 billion years ago. “We have shown that a combination of basaltic rocks and simple convection currents can give rise to the optimal relationship between Mg and Na ions under natural conditions,” Mast explains.

    Basaltic glass und heat currents

    For this purpose, LMU geoscientists led by Donald Dingwell and Bettina Scheu first synthesized basaltic glass, and characterized the basalt in its various forms, as both rock and glass. Basaltic glass is produced when melted basalt is rapidly cooled, e.g. when it comes into contact with ocean water – a natural process that occurs continuously on the Earth. In the second step, the LMU biophysicists analyzed the amounts of magnesium and sodium that were extracted from the glass, under diverse conditions – such as temperature or the grain size of the geological material. They always found significantly more sodium than magnesium in the water, and the latter was present in much lower concentrations than those required by the prebiotic RNA nanomachines.

    “However, this situation changed considerably when heat currents – which are very likely to have been present, owing to the high levels of geological activity expected in prebiotic environments – were added,” says Mast. In the narrow pores and cracks that are a feature of basaltic glasses, temperature gradients not only induce convective flows, they also result in the net movement of ions against the direction of the current. The magnitude of this effect, which is known as thermophoresis, is strongly dependent on the size and electrical charge of the ions concerned. This combination of convection and thermophoresis eventually results in the local accumulation of magnesium ions in much higher local concentrations than sodium ions. Furthermore, the magnitude of this concentration effect increases with the size of the system involved.

    Using as a benchmark system catalytic RNA strands that were provided by Hannes Mutschler (MPG Institute for Biochemistry/ Technical University of Dortmund [Technische Universität Dortmund](DE)), the team went on to confirm that ligation of RNA strands and ribozyme self-replication and are more efficient under thermophoretic conditions. In fact, the new study shows that the presence of heat flows permits RNA activity to take place even when the medium contains a large excess (1000:1) of sodium over magnesium ions, i.e. under conditions which are assumed in some prebiotic scenarios but are otherwise incompatible with RNA-based catalytic processes.

    Science paper:
    Nature Chemistry

    See the full article here.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Welcome to Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München] (DE) – the University in the heart of Munich. LMU is recognized as one of Europe’s premier academic and research institutions. Since our founding in 1472, LMU has attracted inspired scholars and talented students from all over the world, keeping the University at the nexus of ideas that challenge and change our complex world.

    Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München] (DE) is a public research university located in Munich, Germany.

    The University of Munich is Germany’s sixth-oldest university in continuous operation. Originally established in Ingolstadt in 1472 by Duke Ludwig IX of Bavaria-Landshut, the university was moved in 1800 to Landshut by King Maximilian I of Bavaria when Ingolstadt was threatened by the French, before being relocated to its present-day location in Munich in 1826 by King Ludwig I of Bavaria. In 1802, the university was officially named Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität by King Maximilian I of Bavaria in his as well as the university’s original founder’s honour.

    The University of Munich is associated with 43 Nobel laureates (as of October 2020). Among these were Wilhelm Röntgen, Max Planck, Werner Heisenberg, Otto Hahn and Thomas Mann. Pope Benedict XVI was also a student and professor at the university. Among its notable alumni, faculty and researchers are inter alia Rudolf Peierls, Josef Mengele, Richard Strauss, Walter Benjamin, Joseph Campbell, Muhammad Iqbal, Marie Stopes, Wolfgang Pauli, Bertolt Brecht, Max Horkheimer, Karl Loewenstein, Carl Schmitt, Gustav Radbruch, Ernst Cassirer, Ernst Bloch, Konrad Adenauer. The LMU has recently been conferred the title of “University of Excellence” under the German Universities Excellence Initiative.

    LMU is currently the second-largest university in Germany in terms of student population; in the winter semester of 2018/2019, the university had a total of 51,606 matriculated students. Of these, 9,424 were freshmen while international students totalled 8,875 or approximately 17% of the student population. As for operating budget, the university records in 2018 a total of 734,9 million euros in funding without the university hospital; with the university hospital, the university has a total funding amounting to approximately 1.94 billion euros.

    Faculties

    LMU’s Institute of Systematic Botany is located at Botanischer Garten München-Nymphenburg
    Faculty of chemistry buildings at the Martinsried campus of LMU Munich

    The university consists of 18 faculties which oversee various departments and institutes. The official numbering of the faculties and the missing numbers 06 and 14 are the result of breakups and mergers of faculties in the past. The Faculty of Forestry Operations with number 06 has been integrated into the Technical University of Munich [Technische Universität München] (DE) in 1999 and faculty number 14 has been merged with faculty number 13.

    01 Faculty of Catholic Theology
    02 Faculty of Protestant Theology
    03 Faculty of Law
    04 Faculty of Business Administration
    05 Faculty of Economics
    07 Faculty of Medicine
    08 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
    09 Faculty for History and the Arts
    10 Faculty of Philosophy, Philosophy of Science and Study of Religion
    11 Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences
    12 Faculty for the Study of Culture
    13 Faculty for Languages and Literatures
    15 Faculty of Social Sciences
    16 Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Statistics
    17 Faculty of Physics
    18 Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy
    19 Faculty of Biology
    20 Faculty of Geosciences and Environmental Sciences

    Research centres

    In addition to its 18 faculties, the University of Munich also maintains numerous research centres involved in numerous cross-faculty and transdisciplinary projects to complement its various academic programmes. Some of these research centres were a result of cooperation between the university and renowned external partners from academia and industry; the Rachel Carson Center for Environment and Society, for example, was established through a joint initiative between LMU Munich and the Deutsches Museum, while the Parmenides Center for the Study of Thinking resulted from the collaboration between the Parmenides Foundation and LMU Munich’s Human Science Center.

    Some of the research centres which have been established include:

    Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM)
    Graduate School of Systemic Neurosciences (GSN)
    Helmholtz Zentrum München – German Research Center for Environmental Health
    Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM)
    Parmenides Center for the Study of Thinking
    Rachel Carson Center for Environment and Society

     
  • richardmitnick 9:05 am on September 3, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Toward Scaling Up Nanocages to Trap Noble Gases", , , , Nanotechnology   

    From DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (US) : “Toward Scaling Up Nanocages to Trap Noble Gases” 

    From DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (US)

    September 1, 2021
    Ariana Manglaviti
    amanglaviti@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-2347

    Peter Genzer
    genzer@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-3174

    Commercially available materials could bring a method for confining noble gases inside tiny cage-like structures from the lab to industrial scale for nuclear energy, health, and other applications.

    1
    (Left to right) Anibal Boscoboinik, Yixin Xu, Shruti Sharma, Alejandro Boscoboinik, and Dario Stacchiola with the ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) instrument at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials [below]. The team used this lab-based AP-XPS instrument to characterize silica (silicon and oxygen) nanocages deposited on thin films of ruthenium metal and to test treatments designed to activate the samples for noble gas trapping. Then, using the synchrotron-based AP-XPS instrument at the National Synchrotron Light Source II [below], they performed experiments to see whether the nanocages would effectively trap xenon. Team members not pictured: Matheus Dorneles de Mello, Chen Zhou, Burcu Karagoz, Ashley Head, Zubin Darbari, Iradwikanari Waluyo, Adrian Hunt, Sergio Manzi, and Victor Pereyra.

    Over the past few years, scientists have demonstrated how cage-like, porous structures made of silicon and oxygen and measuring only billionths of a meter in size can trap noble gases like argon, krypton, and xenon. However, for these silica nanocages to be practically useful—for example, to improve the efficiency of nuclear energy production—they need to be scaled up from their lab versions. The scientists have now taken a step forward in bringing this technology out of the lab and into the real world. As they recently reported in Small, commercially available materials may provide a potentially scalable platform for trapping noble gases.

    “Making one square centimeter of our lab-scale nanocages, which can trap only nanograms of gas, takes us a couple weeks and requires expensive starting components and equipment,” said co-corresponding author Anibal Boscoboinik, a materials scientist in the Interface Science and Catalysis Group at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), a Department of Energy (US) Office of Science User Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. “There are commercial processes to synthesize tons of these silica nanocages, which are so inexpensive they’re used as additives in concrete. However, these commercial materials do not trap noble gases, so a challenge for scaling our technology was to understand what is special about our nanocages.”

    An unexpected discovery

    Boscoboinik has been leading the nanocages research at the CFN since 2014, following an act of serendipity. He and colleagues had just finished a catalysis experiment with silica nanocages deposited on top of a single crystal of ruthenium metal when they noticed individual atoms of argon gas had become trapped inside the structure’s nanosized pores. With this accidental finding, they became the first group to trap a noble gas inside a two-dimensional (2-D) porous structure at room temperature. In 2019, they trapped two other noble gases inside the cages: krypton and xenon. In this second study [Advanced Functional Materials], they learned that for the trapping to work, two processes needed to happen: gas atoms had to be converted into ions (electrically charged atoms) before entering the cages, and the cages had to be in contact with a metallic support to neutralize the ions once inside the cages—effectively trapping them in place.

    With this understanding, in 2020, Boscoboinik and his team filed a patent application, now pending. That same year, through its Technology Commercialization Fund (TCF), the DOE Office of Technology Transitions selected a research proposal submitted by the CFN in collaboration with the Brookhaven Nuclear Science and Technology Department and Forge Nano to scale up the lab-developed nanocages. The goal of this scale-up is to maximize the surface area for trapping krypton and xenon, both products of the nuclear fission of uranium. Capturing them is desirable to improve the efficiency of nuclear reactors, prevent operational failures due to increasing gas pressures, reduce radioactive nuclear waste, and detect nuclear weapons tests.

    A start to scale-up

    2
    A representation of silica nanocages on a thin film of ruthenium trapping atoms of xenon (blue).

    In parallel to the TCF effort, the CFN team independently began to explore how they could scale the nanocages for practical applications, nuclear and beyond. During their explorations, the CFN team found the company that makes large volumes of the silica nanocages, in the form of a powder. Instead of depositing the nanocages on single crystals of ruthenium, the team deposited them on thin films of ruthenium, which are less costly. Unlike the lab-based nanocages, these nanocages have organic (carbon-containing) components. So, after depositing the cages on the thin films, they heated up the material in an oxidizing environment to burn off these components. However, the cages wouldn’t trap any gases.

    “We found that the metal has to be in the metallic state,” said first author Yixin Xu, a graduate student in the Materials Science and Chemical Engineering Department at Stony Brook University-SUNY (US). “While burning the organic components, we partially oxidize ruthenium. We need to heat up the material again in hydrogen or another reducing environment to get the metal back to its metallic state. Then, the metal can act as an electron source to neutralize the gas inside the cages.”

    Next, the CFN scientists and their collaborators from Stony Brook University tested whether the new material would still trap the gases. To do so, they performed ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at the In situ and Operando Soft X-ray Spectroscopy (IOS) beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), another DOE Office of Science User Facility at Brookhaven Lab. In AP-XPS, x-rays excite a sample, causing electrons to be emitted from the surface. A detector records the number and kinetic energy of emitted electrons. By plotting this information, scientists can infer the sample’s chemical composition and chemical bonding states. In this study, the x-rays were not only important for the measurements but also in ionizing the gas—here, xenon. They started the experiment at room temperature and gradually increased the temperature, finding the optimal range for trapping (350 to 530 degrees Fahrenheit). Outside this range, the efficiency starts decreasing. At 890 degrees Fahrenheit, the trapped xenon is completely released. Boscoboinik likens this complex temperature-dependent process to an elevator door opening and closing.

    “Imagine the door is opening and closing extremely fast,” said Boscoboinik. “You would need to be running extremely fast to get inside. Like an elevator, the nanocages have a pore “mouth” that opens and closes. The rate at which the cages open and close needs to be a good match to the rate at which heated gas ions are moving to maximize the chance of ions getting into the cages and becoming neutralized.”

    Following these experiments, scientists from National University of San Luis [Universidad Nacional de San Luis](AR) and University of Pennsylvania (US) validated this elevator door hypothesis. Applying Monte Carlo methods—mathematical techniques for estimating possible outcomes of uncertain events—they modeled the most probable speed of the ions at different gas temperatures. Another collaborator at the Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation calculated the energies required for xenon to exit the cages.

    “These studies gave us information on the mechanistic aspects of the process, especially on thermal effects,” explained co-corresponding author and CFN postdoctoral researcher Matheus Dorneles de Mello.

    Successive steps for scaling

    Now, the scientists will make the materials with a high surface area (a couple hundred square meters) and see whether they continue to function as desired. They will also investigate more practical ways of ionizing the gas.

    The team is considering several potential applications for their technology. For example, the nanocages may be able to trap noble gases like xenon and krypton from the air in a more energy-efficient way. Currently, these gases are separated from the air using an energy-intensive process in which the air must be cooled to extremely low temperatures.

    Xenon and krypton are used to manufacture many products, such as lighting. One of the main uses of xenon is in high-intensity discharge lamps, including some bright white car headlights. Likewise, krypton is used for airport runway lights and photographic flashes for high-speed photography.

    Given previous theoretical calculations, the team believes their process should also be able to trap radioactive noble gases, including radon. Commonly found in basements and lower levels of buildings, radon can damage lung cells, potentially leading to cancer. This capability to trap radioactive noble gases would be relevant to several applications, such as mitigating released radioactive gases, monitoring nuclear nonproliferation, and producing medically relevant isotopes. The CFN team is exploring the medical application in collaboration with the Medical Isotope Research and Production Program at Brookhaven.

    “In surface science, fundamental studies don’t often lead to useful products right away,” said Boscoboinik. “We’re trying to quickly move into doing something impactful with these materials by increasing the level of complexity one step at a time.”

    This CFN-led research was supported by the DOE Office of Science and American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund. The CFN is a DOE Nanoscale Science Research Center. The AP-XPS instrument at the IOS beamline at NSLS-II was built through a partnership between NSLS-II and CFN. The Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation – University of Delaware (US) is an Energy Frontier Research Center located at the University of Delaware and funded by the DOE Office of Science.

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the DOE(US) Office of Science, DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (US) conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University(US), the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle(US), a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

    Research at BNL specializes in nuclear and high energy physics, energy science and technology, environmental and bioscience, nanoscience and national security. The 5,300 acre campus contains several large research facilities, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider [below] and National Synchrotron Light Source II [below]. Seven Nobel prizes have been awarded for work conducted at Brookhaven lab.

    BNL is staffed by approximately 2,750 scientists, engineers, technicians, and support personnel, and hosts 4,000 guest investigators every year. The laboratory has its own police station, fire department, and ZIP code (11973). In total, the lab spans a 5,265-acre (21 km^2) area that is mostly coterminous with the hamlet of Upton, New York. BNL is served by a rail spur operated as-needed by the New York and Atlantic Railway. Co-located with the laboratory is the Upton, New York, forecast office of the National Weather Service.

    Major programs

    Although originally conceived as a nuclear research facility, Brookhaven Lab’s mission has greatly expanded. Its foci are now:

    Nuclear and high-energy physics
    Physics and chemistry of materials
    Environmental and climate research
    Nanomaterials
    Energy research
    Nonproliferation
    Structural biology
    Accelerator physics

    Operation

    Brookhaven National Lab was originally owned by the Atomic Energy Commission(US) and is now owned by that agency’s successor, the United States Department of Energy (DOE). DOE subcontracts the research and operation to universities and research organizations. It is currently operated by Brookhaven Science Associates LLC, which is an equal partnership of Stony Brook University(US) and Battelle Memorial Institute(US). From 1947 to 1998, it was operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) (US), but AUI lost its contract in the wake of two incidents: a 1994 fire at the facility’s high-beam flux reactor that exposed several workers to radiation and reports in 1997 of a tritium leak into the groundwater of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens on which the facility sits.

    Foundations

    Following World War II, the US Atomic Energy Commission was created to support government-sponsored peacetime research on atomic energy. The effort to build a nuclear reactor in the American northeast was fostered largely by physicists Isidor Isaac Rabi and Norman Foster Ramsey Jr., who during the war witnessed many of their colleagues at Columbia University leave for new remote research sites following the departure of the Manhattan Project from its campus. Their effort to house this reactor near New York City was rivalled by a similar effort at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) to have a facility near Boston, Massachusettes(US). Involvement was quickly solicited from representatives of northeastern universities to the south and west of New York City such that this city would be at their geographic center. In March 1946 a nonprofit corporation was established that consisted of representatives from nine major research universities — Columbia University(US), Cornell University(US), Harvard University(US), Johns Hopkins University(US), Massachusetts Institute of Technology(US), Princeton University(US), University of Pennsylvania(US), University of Rochester(US), and Yale University(US).

    Out of 17 considered sites in the Boston-Washington corridor, Camp Upton on Long Island was eventually chosen as the most suitable in consideration of space, transportation, and availability. The camp had been a training center from the US Army during both World War I and World War II. After the latter war, Camp Upton was deemed no longer necessary and became available for reuse. A plan was conceived to convert the military camp into a research facility.

    On March 21, 1947, the Camp Upton site was officially transferred from the U.S. War Department to the new U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

    Research and facilities

    Reactor history

    In 1947 construction began on the first nuclear reactor at Brookhaven, the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor. This reactor, which opened in 1950, was the first reactor to be constructed in the United States after World War II. The High Flux Beam Reactor operated from 1965 to 1999. In 1959 Brookhaven built the first US reactor specifically tailored to medical research, the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, which operated until 2000.

    Accelerator history

    In 1952 Brookhaven began using its first particle accelerator, the Cosmotron. At the time the Cosmotron was the world’s highest energy accelerator, being the first to impart more than 1 GeV of energy to a particle.


    The Cosmotron was retired in 1966, after it was superseded in 1960 by the new Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

    The AGS was used in research that resulted in 3 Nobel prizes, including the discovery of the muon neutrino, the charm quark, and CP violation.

    In 1970 in BNL started the ISABELLE project to develop and build two proton intersecting storage rings.

    The groundbreaking for the project was in October 1978. In 1981, with the tunnel for the accelerator already excavated, problems with the superconducting magnets needed for the ISABELLE accelerator brought the project to a halt, and the project was eventually cancelled in 1983.

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (US) operated from 1982 to 2014 and was involved with two Nobel Prize-winning discoveries. It has since been replaced by the National Synchrotron Light Source II (US) [below].

    After ISABELLE’S cancellation, physicist at BNL proposed that the excavated tunnel and parts of the magnet assembly be used in another accelerator. In 1984 the first proposal for the accelerator now known as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)[below] was put forward. The construction got funded in 1991 and RHIC has been operational since 2000. One of the world’s only two operating heavy-ion colliders, RHIC is as of 2010 the second-highest-energy collider after the Large Hadron Collider(CH). RHIC is housed in a tunnel 2.4 miles (3.9 km) long and is visible from space.

    On January 9, 2020, It was announced by Paul Dabbar, undersecretary of the US Department of Energy Office of Science, that the BNL eRHIC design has been selected over the conceptual design put forward by DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility [Jlab] (US) as the future Electron–ion collider (EIC) in the United States.

    In addition to the site selection, it was announced that the BNL EIC had acquired CD-0 (mission need) from the Department of Energy. BNL’s eRHIC design proposes upgrading the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, which collides beams light to heavy ions including polarized protons, with a polarized electron facility, to be housed in the same tunnel.

    Other discoveries

    In 1958, Brookhaven scientists created one of the world’s first video games, Tennis for Two. In 1968 Brookhaven scientists patented Maglev, a transportation technology that utilizes magnetic levitation.

    Major facilities

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which was designed to research quark–gluon plasma and the sources of proton spin. Until 2009 it was the world’s most powerful heavy ion collider. It is the only collider of spin-polarized protons.
    Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), used for the study of nanoscale materials.
    BNL National Synchrotron Light Source II(US), Brookhaven’s newest user facility, opened in 2015 to replace the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which had operated for 30 years.[19] NSLS was involved in the work that won the 2003 and 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
    Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, a particle accelerator that was used in three of the lab’s Nobel prizes.
    Accelerator Test Facility, generates, accelerates and monitors particle beams.
    Tandem Van de Graaff, once the world’s largest electrostatic accelerator.
    Computational Science resources, including access to a massively parallel Blue Gene series supercomputer that is among the fastest in the world for scientific research, run jointly by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University.
    Interdisciplinary Science Building, with unique laboratories for studying high-temperature superconductors and other materials important for addressing energy challenges.
    NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, where scientists use beams of ions to simulate cosmic rays and assess the risks of space radiation to human space travelers and equipment.

    Off-site contributions

    It is a contributing partner to ATLAS experiment, one of the four detectors located at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).


    It is currently operating at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland.

    Brookhaven was also responsible for the design of the SNS accumulator ring in partnership with Spallation Neutron Source at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US), Tennessee.

    Brookhaven plays a role in a range of neutrino research projects around the world, including the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN) nuclear power plant, approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China.


     
  • richardmitnick 1:12 pm on September 1, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Quantum Microscope Made in Jülich", A unique scanning tunnelling microscope with magnetic cooling to study quantum effects, Another example is a phenomenon called superfluidity: Individual atoms fuse into a collective state and move past each other without friction., , At these low temperatures the laws of quantum physics come into play and reveal special properties of materials., , Electric current then flows freely without any resistance., , Nanotechnology, Physicists consider the temperature range near absolute zero to be a particularly exciting area for research., , Researchers have been using the instruments for many years to explore the world of nanoscopic phenomena., Thanks to magnetic cooling the scanning tunnelling microscope works without any moving parts and is almost vibration-free at extremely low temperatures as low as 30 millikelvin., The Jülich scientists are the first ever to have constructed a scanning tunneling microscope using adiabatic cooling., These extremely low temperatures are also required to research and harness quantum effects for quantum computing., This microscope enables matter to be visualized and manipulated at the level of individual atoms and molecules in many different ways.   

    From Jülich Research Centre [Forschungszentrum Jülichs] (FZJ)(DE): “Quantum Microscope Made in Jülich” 

    From Jülich Research Centre [Forschungszentrum Jülichs] (FZJ)(DE)

    31 August 2021

    Contact:
    Prof. Dr. Ruslan Temirov
    Research group leader “Low temperature scanning probe microscopy”
    Peter Grünberg Institute, Quantum Nanoscience (PGI-3)
    Tel: +49 2461 61-3462
    r.temirov@fz-juelich.de

    Prof. Dr. F. Stefan Tautz
    Head of the Peter Grünberg Institute, Quantum Nanoscience (PGI-3)
    Tel: + 49 2461 61-4561
    s.tautz@fz-juelich.de

    Press contact:
    Tobias Schlößer
    Press officer, Forschungszentrum Jülich
    Tel: +49 2461 61-4771
    t.schloesser@fz-juelich.de

    Physicists at Forschungszentrum Jülich have developed a unique scanning tunnelling microscope with magnetic cooling to study quantum effects.

    Scanning tunnelling microscopes capture images of materials with atomic precision and can be used to manipulate individual molecules or atoms. Researchers have been using the instruments for many years to explore the world of nanoscopic phenomena. A new approach by physicists at Forschungszentrum Jülich is now creating new possibilities for using the devices to study quantum effects. Thanks to magnetic cooling the scanning tunnelling microscope works without any moving parts and is almost vibration-free at extremely low temperatures as low as 30 millikelvin. The instrument can help researchers unlock the exceptional properties of quantum materials, which are crucial for the development of quantum computers and sensors.

    1
    Prof. Stefan Tautz (left below), Dr Taner Esat (left above) and Prof. Ruslan Temirov (right) at the Jülich quantum microscope. © Sascha Kreklau/ Forschungszentrum Jülich.

    Physicists consider the temperature range near absolute zero to be a particularly exciting area for research. Thermal fluctuations are reduced to a minimum. The laws of quantum physics come into play and reveal special properties of materials. Electric current then flows freely without any resistance. Another example is a phenomenon called superfluidity: Individual atoms fuse into a collective state and move past each other without friction.

    These extremely low temperatures are also required to research and harness quantum effects for quantum computing. Researchers worldwide as well as at Forschungszentrum Jülich are currently pursuing this goal at full speed. Quantum computers could be far superior to conventional supercomputers for certain tasks. However, development is still in its infancy. A key challenge is finding materials and processes that make complex architectures with stable quantum bits possible.

    “I believe a versatile microscope like ours is the tool of choice for this fascinating task, because it enables matter to be visualized and manipulated at the level of individual atoms and molecules in many different ways,” explains Ruslan Temirov from Forschungszentrum Jülich.

    Over years of work, he and his team have equipped a scanning tunnelling microscope with magnetic cooling for this purpose. “Our new microscope differs from all the others in a similar way to how an electric car differs from a vehicle with a combustion engine,” explains the Jülich physicist. Until now, researchers have relied on a kind of liquid fuel, a mixture of two helium isotopes, to bring microscopes to such low temperatures. “During operation, this cooling mixture circulates continuously through thin pipes, which leads to increased background noise,” says Temirov.

    The cooling device of Jülich’s microscope, on the other hand, is based on the process of adiabatic demagnetization. The principle is not new. It was used in the 1930s to reach temperatures below 1 kelvin in the laboratory for the first time. For the operation of microscopes, it has several advantages, says Ruslan Temirov: “With this method, we can cool our new microscope just by changing the strength of the electric current passing through an electromagnetic coil. Thus, our microscope has no moving parts and is practically vibration-free.”

    The Jülich scientists are the first ever to have constructed a scanning tunneling microscope using this technique. “The new cooling technology has several practical advantages. Not only does it improve the imaging quality, but the operation of the whole instrument and the entire setup are simplified,” says institute director Stefan Tautz. Thanks to its modular design, the Jülich quantum microscope also remains open to technical advances, he adds, as upgrades can be easily implemented.

    “Adiabatic cooling is a real quantum leap for scanning tunneling microscopy. The advantages are so significant that we are now developing a commercial prototype as our next step,” Stefan Tautz explains. Quantum technologies are currently the focus of much research. The interest of many research groups in such an instrument is therefore assured.

    Science paper:
    Review of Scientific Instruments

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Jülich Research Centre[Forschungszentrum Jülich] is a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren ](DE) and is one of the largest interdisciplinary research centres in Europe. It was founded on 11 December 1956 by the state of North Rhine-Westphalia as a registered association, before it became “Kernforschungsanlage Jülich GmbH” or Nuclear Research Centre Jülich in 1967. In 1990, the name of the association was changed to “Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH”. It has close collaborations with RWTH Aachen in the form of Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA).

    Jülich Research Centre [Forschungszentrum Jülichs](FZJ)(DE) is situated in the middle of the Stetternich Forest in Jülich (Kreis Düren, Rheinland) and covers an area of 2.2 square kilometres.

    Jülich Research Centre [Forschungszentrum Jülichs](FZJ)(DE) employs more than 5,700 members of staff (2015) and works within the framework of the disciplines physics, chemistry, biology, medicine and engineering on the basic principles and applications in the areas of health, information, environment and energy. Amongst the members of staff, there are approx. 1,500 scientists including 400 PhD students and 130 diploma students. Around 600 people work in the administration and service areas, 500 work for project management agencies, and there are 1,600 technical staff members, while around 330 trainees are completing their training in more than 20 professions.

    More than 800 visiting scientists come to Forschungszentrum Jülich every year from about 50 countries.

     
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