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  • richardmitnick 3:10 pm on August 2, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Calibrating the Universe:: Behind the Scenes-NIST Scientists Play a Critical Role in Improving Gravitational Wave Measurements", , LIGO–Virgo–KAGRA-GEO600-eLISA, Multimessenger Astronomy/Astrophysics,   

    From The National Institute of Standards and Technology: “Calibrating the Universe:: Behind the Scenes-NIST Scientists Play a Critical Role in Improving Gravitational Wave Measurements” 

    From The National Institute of Standards and Technology

    8.2.22

    Technical Contact

    Matthew Spidell
    matthew.spidell@nist.gov
    (303) 497-5796

    Michelle Stephens
    michelle.stephens@nist.gov
    (303) 497-3742

    Space-time ripples, exploding stars, colliding black holes …. and the National Institute of Standards and Technology? NIST doesn’t exactly come to mind when thinking about cataclysmic events in the cosmos. But behind the scenes, NIST played an essential supporting role in the Nobel Prize-winning discovery of ripples in spacetime — gravitational waves — which scientists at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) announced in 2015. NIST researchers helped calibrate the gravitational-wave detector system, ensuring that the LIGO team accurately measured the historic event.

    Now, the NIST scientists have more than doubled the accuracy of those calibrations. When LIGO resumes observations in mid-December, the new calibrations will enable astronomers to more accurately pinpoint the origin and nature of future space-time disturbances.

    ___________________________________________________________________
    LIGOVIRGOKAGRAGEO 600LIGO-India ESA/NASA eLISA

    Caltech /MIT Advanced aLigo.

    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo detector installation Livingston, LA, USA.

    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo Hanford, WA, USA installation.

    VIRGO Gravitational Wave interferometer, near Pisa, Italy.

    KAGRA Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational Wave Telescope Project (JP).


    ___________________________________________________________________

    LIGO Virgo Kagra GEO600 Masses in the Stellar Graveyard. Credit: Frank Elavsky and Aaron Geller at Northwestern University.
    ___________________________________________________________________

    2
    Front side of the radiometer developed at NIST (left) and view inside the vacuum chamber (right). The radiometer helps calibrate the power of infrared lasers used at LIGO to ever so slightly nudge the detector’s mirrored test masses, simulating the passage of a gravitational wave. Credit: NIST.

    The first ripple ever directly detected arrived at LIGO’s twin sites in Louisiana and Washington state on Sept. 14, 2015. Generated by the collision of two black holes, the wave had journeyed 1.3 billion light-years to reach Earth.

    The detection provided stunning confirmation of Albert Einstein’s century-old prediction that massive bodies undergoing acceleration not only distort but actually shake spacetime.

    The discovery was also a technological feat. Each LIGO observatory features two L-shaped, 4-kilometer-long arms that form an exquisitely sensitive interferometer, a device that uses light to measure distance. When a gravitational wave passes by, it alternately compresses one arm while stretching the other by an amount much less than the diameter of a single proton. This alters the relative separation between sets of mirrored test masses, suspended within each arm.

    The size of the displacement induced by the wave and the frequency at which the wave oscillates encode information that cosmologists have sought for decades about some of the most violent events in the universe. The data include the location in the sky, the exact distance from Earth, and the mass and identity of the cosmic participants in these massive collisions. To accurately determine these properties, LIGO researchers must measure the displacement imparted by a gravitational wave to better than one ten-thousandth the diameter of a proton. Even then, scientists can’t reliably determine the force and other features of the gravitational wave unless they can compare the tiny displacement it imparts to the same displacement imparted by a well-calibrated force.

    3
    One of LIGO’s test masses, a 40-kilogram mirror that reflects laser beams along the length of one of the two detector arms. A tiny displacement of the mass—much less than the diameter of a single proton—could signal the passage of a gravitational wave. Credit: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab.

    The power carried by a ray of light can be equated to the force it imparts to objects it strikes. The force is tiny, but if the power is accurately measured, that tiny force can be, too. LIGO scientists use a low-power infrared laser to produce the force. The laser light bouncing off the mirrored mass nudges the body ever so slightly, simulating the action of a gravitational wave. To ensure accuracy, that power must be precisely calibrated. And that’s where the expertise of scientists at NIST comes in.

    Meeting the needs of U.S. industry, defense and academic research, NIST calibrates laser power ranging from the output of single photons (less than a billionth of a watt) to more than 10,000 watts, and across wavelengths from the ultraviolet to far infrared. To perform these calibrations, NIST researchers over the past four decades have developed and employed two types of devices — calorimeters, which measure the total energy generated by a system, and radiometers, which measure the intensity of radiation. These instruments, now operated by a NIST team led by Matthew Spidell, measure optical power and energy without having to compare those quantities to those measured by another instrument. Instead, the instruments enable researchers to directly link optical power and energy to the fundamental physical constants, which by definition do not vary and require no calibration.

    See the full article here.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    NIST Campus, Gaitherberg, MD.

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology‘s Mission, Vision, Core Competencies, and Core Values

    Mission

    To promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology in ways that enhance economic security and improve our quality of life.

    NIST’s vision

    NIST will be the world’s leader in creating critical measurement solutions and promoting equitable standards. Our efforts stimulate innovation, foster industrial competitiveness, and improve the quality of life.

    NIST’s core competencies

    Measurement science
    Rigorous traceability
    Development and use of standards

    NIST’s core values

    NIST is an organization with strong values, reflected both in our history and our current work. NIST leadership and staff will uphold these values to ensure a high performing environment that is safe and respectful of all.

    Perseverance: We take the long view, planning the future with scientific knowledge and imagination to ensure continued impact and relevance for our stakeholders.
    Integrity: We are ethical, honest, independent, and provide an objective perspective.
    Inclusivity: We work collaboratively to harness the diversity of people and ideas, both inside and outside of NIST, to attain the best solutions to multidisciplinary challenges.
    Excellence: We apply rigor and critical thinking to achieve world-class results and continuous improvement in everything we do.

    Background

    The Articles of Confederation, ratified by the colonies in 1781, contained the clause, “The United States in Congress assembled shall also have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective states—fixing the standards of weights and measures throughout the United States”. Article 1, section 8, of the Constitution of the United States (1789), transferred this power to Congress; “The Congress shall have power…To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures”.

    In January 1790, President George Washington, in his first annual message to Congress stated that, “Uniformity in the currency, weights, and measures of the United States is an object of great importance, and will, I am persuaded, be duly attended to”, and ordered Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson to prepare a plan for Establishing Uniformity in the Coinage, Weights, and Measures of the United States, afterwards referred to as the Jefferson report. On October 25, 1791, Washington appealed a third time to Congress, “A uniformity of the weights and measures of the country is among the important objects submitted to you by the Constitution and if it can be derived from a standard at once invariable and universal, must be no less honorable to the public council than conducive to the public convenience”, but it was not until 1838, that a uniform set of standards was worked out. In 1821, John Quincy Adams had declared “Weights and measures may be ranked among the necessities of life to every individual of human society”.

    From 1830 until 1901, the role of overseeing weights and measures was carried out by the Office of Standard Weights and Measures, which was part of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey in the Department of the Treasury.

    Bureau of Standards

    In 1901 in response to a bill proposed by Congressman James H. Southard (R- Ohio) the National Bureau of Standards was founded with the mandate to provide standard weights and measures and to serve as the national physical laboratory for the United States. (Southard had previously sponsored a bill for metric conversion of the United States.)

    President Theodore Roosevelt appointed Samuel W. Stratton as the first director. The budget for the first year of operation was $40,000. The Bureau took custody of the copies of the kilogram and meter bars that were the standards for US measures, and set up a program to provide metrology services for United States scientific and commercial users. A laboratory site was constructed in Washington DC (US) and instruments were acquired from the national physical laboratories of Europe. In addition to weights and measures the Bureau developed instruments for electrical units and for measurement of light. In 1905 a meeting was called that would be the first National Conference on Weights and Measures.

    Initially conceived as purely a metrology agency the Bureau of Standards was directed by Herbert Hoover to set up divisions to develop commercial standards for materials and products. Some of these standards were for products intended for government use; but product standards also affected private-sector consumption. Quality standards were developed for products including some types of clothing; automobile brake systems and headlamps; antifreeze; and electrical safety. During World War I, the Bureau worked on multiple problems related to war production even operating its own facility to produce optical glass when European supplies were cut off. Between the wars Harry Diamond of the Bureau developed a blind approach radio aircraft landing system. During World War II military research and development was carried out including development of radio propagation forecast methods; the proximity fuze and the standardized airframe used originally for Project Pigeon; and shortly afterwards the autonomously radar-guided Bat anti-ship guided bomb and the Kingfisher family of torpedo-carrying missiles.

    In 1948, financed by the United States Air Force the Bureau began design and construction of SEAC: the Standards Eastern Automatic Computer. The computer went into operation in May 1950 using a combination of vacuum tubes and solid-state diode logic. About the same time the Standards Western Automatic Computer, was built at the Los Angeles office of the NBS by Harry Huskey and used for research there. A mobile version- DYSEAC- was built for the Signal Corps in 1954.

    Due to a changing mission, the “National Bureau of Standards” became the “ The National Institute of Standards and Technology” in 1988.

    Following September 11, 2001, NIST conducted the official investigation into the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings.

    Organization

    NIST is headquartered in Gaithersburg, Maryland, and operates a facility in Boulder, Colorado, which was dedicated by President Eisenhower in 1954. NIST’s activities are organized into laboratory programs and extramural programs. Effective October 1, 2010, NIST was realigned by reducing the number of NIST laboratory units from ten to six. NIST Laboratories include:

    Communications Technology Laboratory (CTL)
    Engineering Laboratory (EL)
    Information Technology Laboratory (ITL)
    Center for Neutron Research (NCNR)
    Material Measurement Laboratory (MML)
    Physical Measurement Laboratory (PML)

    Extramural programs include:

    Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP), a nationwide network of centers to assist small and mid-sized manufacturers to create and retain jobs, improve efficiencies, and minimize waste through process improvements and to increase market penetration with innovation and growth strategies;
    Technology Innovation Program (TIP), a grant program where NIST and industry partners cost share the early-stage development of innovative but high-risk technologies;
    Baldrige Performance Excellence Program, which administers the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, the nation’s highest award for performance and business excellence.

    NIST’s Boulder laboratories are best known for NIST‑F1 which houses an atomic clock. NIST‑F1 serves as the source of the nation’s official time. From its measurement of the natural resonance frequency of cesium—which defines the second—NIST broadcasts time signals via longwave radio station WWVB near Fort Collins in Colorado, and shortwave radio stations WWV and WWVH, located near Fort Collins and Kekaha in Hawai’i, respectively.

    NIST also operates a neutron science user facility: the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR). The NCNR provides scientists access to a variety of neutron scattering instruments which they use in many research fields (materials science; fuel cells; biotechnology etc.).

    The SURF III Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility is a source of synchrotron radiation in continuous operation since 1961. SURF III now serves as the US national standard for source-based radiometry throughout the generalized optical spectrum. All NASA-borne extreme-ultraviolet observation instruments have been calibrated at SURF since the 1970s, and SURF is used for measurement and characterization of systems for extreme ultraviolet lithography.

    The Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (CNST) performs research in nanotechnology, both through internal research efforts and by running a user-accessible cleanroom nanomanufacturing facility. This “NanoFab” is equipped with tools for lithographic patterning and imaging (e.g., electron microscopes and atomic force microscopes).

    Committees

    NIST has seven standing committees:

    Technical Guidelines Development Committee (TGDC)
    Advisory Committee on Earthquake Hazards Reduction (ACEHR)
    National Construction Safety Team Advisory Committee (NCST Advisory Committee)
    Information Security and Privacy Advisory Board (ISPAB)
    Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology (VCAT)
    Board of Overseers for the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA Board of Overseers)
    Manufacturing Extension Partnership National Advisory Board (MEPNAB)

    Measurements and standards

    As part of its mission, NIST supplies industry, academia, government, and other users with over 1,300 Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). These artifacts are certified as having specific characteristics or component content, used as calibration standards for measuring equipment and procedures, quality control benchmarks for industrial processes, and experimental control samples.

    Handbook 44

    NIST publishes the Handbook 44 each year after the annual meeting of the National Conference on Weights and Measures (NCWM). Each edition is developed through cooperation of the Committee on Specifications and Tolerances of the NCWM and the Weights and Measures Division (WMD) of the NIST. The purpose of the book is a partial fulfillment of the statutory responsibility for “cooperation with the states in securing uniformity of weights and measures laws and methods of inspection”.

    NIST has been publishing various forms of what is now the Handbook 44 since 1918 and began publication under the current name in 1949. The 2010 edition conforms to the concept of the primary use of the SI (metric) measurements recommended by the Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:02 pm on June 24, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Gravitational-wave observatory amasses discoveries", , , , Multimessenger Astronomy/Astrophysics, VIRGO Gravitational Wave interferometer near Pisa Italy.   

    From “Astronomy Magazine” : “Gravitational-wave observatory amasses discoveries” 

    From “Astronomy Magazine”

    June 17, 2022
    Yvette Cendes

    With its latest run complete, LIGO heralds a new phase in the exploration of extreme physics.

    ___________________________________________________________________
    Caltech /MIT Advanced aLigo

    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo Hanford, WA, USA installation.

    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo detector installation Livingston, LA, USA.

    SXS – Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes

    Gravitational waves. Credit: MPG Institute for Gravitational Physics [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik] (Albert Einstein Institute) (DE)/W.Benger-Zib

    Gravity is talking. Lisa will listen. Dialogos of Eide.

    European Space Agency(EU)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (US) eLISA space based, the future of gravitational wave research.
    ___________________________________________________________________

    Gravitational-wave astronomy is growing up. These ripples in the fabric of space-time are created by accelerating masses, which then travel outward from their origin at the speed of light. While anything with mass can produce a gravitational wave (GW), only the biggest events are currently detectable: either from two black holes colliding, or two neutron stars smashing into each other, or a combination of the two.

    The first GWs were detected in 2015 by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), when two black holes about 1.3 billion light-years away slammed into each other. LIGO consists of two interferometers — one in Louisiana, one in Washington state — which are L-shaped vacuum tunnels about 2.5 miles long on each side. A laser is shot from the crux of the L to mirrors at the end of each side, and if one of those laser beams arrives slightly late, the tardy beam is recorded by the detector. The detectors are sensitive enough to pick up nearby noises on Earth as well, such as passing trucks and falling trees. These events can mask

    or mimic gravitational-wave signals, so having two detectors far apart helps scientists distinguish real GW vibrations from false alarms.

    The actual detector that spotted the first gravitational wave is now in the Nobel Prize Museum in Stockholm, Sweden, as the 2017 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded for this discovery. But LIGO didn’t stop there: A few months later, in collaboration with the newly completed Virgo interferometer in Italy, LIGO detected another gravitational wave event — this time produced by colliding neutron stars.

    The discovery also corresponded with a short gamma-ray burst and subsequent discovery of the merger site with optical telescopes. Within days of that momentous discovery, however, LIGO went offline for scheduled upgrades.

    The detectors turned on again on April 1, 2019, for a new observing run, dubbed O3, which was highly anticipated by the astronomical community. New upgrades meant LIGO could spot GWs even further in space during its year-long run, and working in conjunction with Virgo meant even greater precision on where in space the detected merger happened. What would LIGO discover this time?

    2
    LIGO team member Alena Ananyeva works on hardware upgrades in advance of LIGO’s third run. Credit: Matt Heintze/CalTech/MIT aLIGO.

    Detecting astronomical events

    Data from the first half of O3 has been released, and it is clear that with O3, LIGO has entered a new phase. “We have moved from the discovery phase of GW events and are transitioning into routine,” explains Samaya Nissanke, an astrophysicist at the University of Amsterdam and member of the LIGO collaboration. The observing runs before O3 detected just 11 GW events; the O3 run detected several dozen. Almost overnight, the discovery of gigantic black holes smashing into each other millions of light-years away from us was rendered nearly routine.

    What’s more, for each new detection, LIGO sent out alerts in real time, as observatories routinely do for astronomical events that require rapid follow-up. These alerts were distributed automatically when the Virgo detector and both the Louisiana and Washington LIGO detectors saw what looked like a GW signal at the same time. The alert also included a sky map of where the signal might have come from, called a localization. Once issued, these messages were distributed through automatic alerts to astronomers, apps, and even the LIGO Twitter feed. Although the alerts were peppered at first with events subsequently attributed to local interference on Earth — “It was a bit of a rocky start,” admits Nissanke — once the kinks were smoothed out, astronomers could comb the sky almost instantaneously for any faint glow detected from a GW merger. Plans are in the works to apply automatic algorithms and machine-learning techniques to make the alerts more accurate in the future.

    As the verified O3 detections progressed, however, it was clear that LIGO was growing its sample of black holes at a fast rate. “We’ve seen a doubling in our number of black hole detections, and with that increase we’re getting a much better idea of the population out there,” explains Lionel London, an astrophysicist at MIT who specializes in modeling the GW signatures of black holes in LIGO. One notable example, called GW190814 (because it was detected on Aug. 14, 2019), was exciting because it was either the heaviest neutron star or the lightest black hole ever discovered.

    Previously, astronomers had noted that the heaviest-known neutron stars are about twice the mass of the sun, and the smallest-known black hole is three times the mass of the sun. This “mass gap,” as it’s called, puzzled scientists — was there a physical reason for it, or had we just not found anything to fill that gap yet? GW190814 is one of the first residents to fill it: One of the two components was around 2.6 times the mass of the sun. The jury is still out on what exactly the object was, but it’s clear it was something unusual, and that it met its end merging with a black hole 23 times the mass of our own sun. The two together formed a black hole nearly 26 times more massive than the sun — bigger than a black hole created by a dying star, for example — about 800 million light-years from Earth.

    3
    This graphic shows the masses of all of LIGO’s announced gravitational wave detections, as well as black holes and neutron stars previously obtained through electromagnetic observations.
    LIGO-Virgo-Kagra/Aaron Geller/Northwestern.

    Scientific discoveries have also come from the real-time detection alerts. Most notable has been the possible discovery of light from two colliding black holes reported by the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) at Caltech, the first time such a detection has been claimed. Black holes are famously so dense that light cannot escape them, and the merger of two black holes is not expected to give off any light in normal circumstances either. In this case, however, a flash of light observed by ZTF is argued by the team to correspond with a GW event on May 21, 2019, when two black holes merged. The angular momentum from the merger itself, researchers argue, would have led to an interaction with surrounding gas. It is this interaction that could have, in turn, given off the sudden flash they observed.

    Beyond individual events, however, a catalog of black hole detections is invaluable for testing our understanding of physics itself. Each part of a GW detection is made of several components, including the inspiral of the two objects, the collision itself and the reverberating aftershock of the merger. The extreme physics during these moments provide a new hotbed for testing theories relating to gravity, ranging from general relativity to mysterious dark energy driving the expansion of the universe. “In terms of the theoretical interpretation, these are really early days,” explains London. “Some of the tests are really rudimentary.” Once the sample of events grows larger and the signatures are better understood, however, scientists can use statistics to probe physics in entirely new ways.

    Unfortunately, the O3 run was cut short in March 2020 by the coronavirus pandemic. GW scientists are confident, however, that the next run, O4, will be even more exciting when it begins in December 2022. Not only will they peer further into space than before, but in 2020, a new GW detector, the Kamioka Gravitational Wave Detector (KAGRA), came online in Japan. Working in tandem with the LIGO and Virgo instruments, KAGRA will allow for even more precise estimates for where the GWs originate from. Looking even further ahead, LIGO-India is currently in the works and slated to begin observations in 2026. When it does, the ability to pinpoint where a gravitational wave came from in the sky will be significantly better than where they are now. This will allow astronomers to identify the locations of cosmic collisions better than ever before.

    “We are opening the zoo of astrophysically formed black holes,” observes Nissanke, “and it’s exciting to see what’s out there.”

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Astronomy is a magazine about the science and hobby of astronomy. Based near Milwaukee in Waukesha, Wisconsin, it is produced by Kalmbach Publishing. Astronomy’s readers include those interested in astronomy and those who want to know about sky events, observing techniques, astrophotography, and amateur astronomy in general.

    Astronomy was founded in 1973 by Stephen A. Walther, a graduate of The University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point and amateur astronomer. The first issue, August 1973, consisted of 48 pages with five feature articles and information about what to see in the sky that month. Issues contained astrophotos and illustrations created by astronomical artists. Walther had worked part time as a planetarium lecturer at The University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee and developed an interest in photographing constellations at an early age. Although even in childhood he was interested to obsession in Astronomy, he did so poorly in mathematics that his mother despaired that he would ever be able to earn a living. However, he graduated in Journalism from the University of Wisconsin Stevens Point, and as a senior class project he created a business plan for a magazine for amateur astronomers. With the help of his brother David, he was able to bring the magazine to fruition. He died in 1977.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:39 pm on June 23, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "A star’s demise is connected to a neutrino outburst", , Ground based Neutrino Observation, , Multimessenger Astronomy/Astrophysics, , On 1 October 2019 the IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica detected a 0.2 PeV neutrino., , , , Recently the Zwicky Transient Facility observed another TDE that was coincident with a high-energy neutrino detected by IceCube., Seven hours later the Zwicky Transient Facility observed optical an emission in the direction of the incoming neutrino., , The optical emission was caused by a bright transient phenomenon known as a tidal disruption event (TDE)., The prospect of high-energy neutrinos being formed by tidal forces ripping apart a star near a supermassive black hole has garnered new support.   

    From “Physics Today” : “A star’s demise is connected to a neutrino outburst” 

    Physics Today bloc

    From “Physics Today”

    23 Jun 2022
    Alex Lopatka

    The prospect of high-energy neutrinos being formed by tidal forces ripping apart a star near a supermassive black hole has garnered new support.

    (S. Reusch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 128, 221101, 2022.)

    1
    Technicians install a camera at the Zwicky Transient Facility. Credit: Caltech/Palomar.

    On 1 October 2019 the IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica detected a 0.2 PeV neutrino.

    Seven hours later the Zwicky Transient Facility in California followed up with a wide-field survey of the sky at optical and IR wavelengths. The facility observed optical emission in the direction of the incoming neutrino.

    Researchers concluded [Nature Astronomy] that the two observations could be connected after studying the exceptional energy flux of the emission, its location within the reported uncertainty region of the high-energy neutrino, and some modeling results. The optical emission was caused by a bright transient phenomenon known as a tidal disruption event (TDE), and that particular one had first been observed one year before the neutrino. Such events occur when stars get close enough to supermassive black holes to experience spaghettification—the stretching and compression of an object into a long, thin shape due to the black hole’s extreme tidal forces. (See the article by Suvi Gezari, Physics Today, May 2014, page 37.)

    A theory paper [Nature Astronomy] proposed that neutrinos with energies above 100 TeV, like the 2019 sighting, could be produced in relativistic jets of plasma, which are composed of stellar debris that’s flung outward after such an event. TDEs and many other sources for high-energy neutrinos have been debated in the literature. But with only one reported TDE–neutrino association researchers haven’t been able to conclusively establish TDEs as high-energy neutrino sources.

    3
    Credit: S. Reusch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 128, 221101 (2022)

    Recently the Zwicky Transient Facility observed another TDE that was coincident with a high-energy neutrino detected by IceCube. Simeon Reusch, Marek Kowalski, and their colleagues estimated that the probability of a second such pairing happening by chance is 0.034%, lending more credence to TDEs as a source for high-energy neutrinos.

    The second TDE caused a long-duration optical flare which reached its peak luminosity in August 2019. The neutrino was detected by IceCube in May 2020, by which point the flare’s flux had decreased by about 30% from its peak. Such flares often last several months, though this one was still detectable as of June 2022.

    To better understand how the unusually long-lasting TDE may have produced high-energy neutrinos, the research team simulated three mechanisms. The figure shows the predicted neutrino flux as a function of energy, and the vertical dotted line indicates the energy of the neutrino observed by IceCube. Any of the three mechanisms could reasonably explain the neutrino. Besides relativistic jets, a TDE could also generate an accretion disk, and emission from its corona or a subrelativistic wind of ejected material may generate neutrinos too.

    Other uncertainties remain. The radio-emission measurements of the flare, for example, mean that it could have originated from an active galactic nucleus instead of a TDE. In addition, IceCube’s statistical analysis cannot rule out that the neutrino may have formed from atmospheric processes on Earth.

    Although it’ll take more observations to lower those uncertainties, the latest detection of a TDE–neutrino pairing reinforces the significance of TDEs as neutrino sources. And if the association is true, TDEs would have to be surprisingly efficient particle accelerators, a possibility that could only be further studied with more comprehensive multimessenger data.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    “Our mission

    The mission of ”Physics Today” is to be a unifying influence for the diverse areas of physics and the physics-related sciences.

    It does that in three ways:

    • by providing authoritative, engaging coverage of physical science research and its applications without regard to disciplinary boundaries;
    • by providing authoritative, engaging coverage of the often complex interactions of the physical sciences with each other and with other spheres of human endeavor; and
    • by providing a forum for the exchange of ideas within the scientific community.”

     
  • richardmitnick 4:39 pm on June 8, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Combination of heavy-ion experiments and astronomy and theory offers new insights", , , , , Multimessenger Astronomy/Astrophysics,   

    From The MPG Institute for Gravitational Physics [MPG Institut für Gravitationsphysik](Albert Einstein Institut) (DE) : “Combination of heavy-ion experiments and astronomy and theory offers new insights” 

    From The MPG Institute for Gravitational Physics [MPG Institut für Gravitationsphysik](Albert Einstein Institut) (DE)

    June 08, 2022

    Media contact
    Dr. Elke Müller
    Press Officer AEI Potsdam, Scientific Coordinator
    Tel +49 331 567-7303
    Fax +49 331 567-7298
    elke.mueller@aei.mpg.de

    Science contact
    Prof. Dr. Tim Dietrich
    Max Planck Fellow
    Tel +49 331 567-7253
    Fax +49 331 567-7298
    tim.dietrich@aei.mpg.de

    Constraining neutron-star matter with microscopic and macroscopic collisions.
    For the first time, an international research team, including researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute) and Potsdam University has combined data from nuclear physics experiments, gravitational-wave measurements and other astronomical observations with theoretical insights to more precisely constrain how nuclear matter behaves inside neutron stars. The results were published in the scientific journal Nature today.

    1
    Artist’s impression combining a numerical-relativity simulation of a binary neutron star merger with a detection picture of the particles created in an gold-ion collision. The neutron star merger mimics the properties of the gravitational-wave signal GW170817 with two non-spinning neutron stars and a chirp mass of 1.188 solar masses. The gold-ion collision with a relativistic kinetic energy of 1.5 GeV per nucleon is shown by the detection picture of such an event in the FOPI detector at GSI. © T. Dietrich (Potsdam University & Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics), A. Le Fevre (GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH), K. Huyser (NIKHEF); background: ESA/Hubble, Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

    Neutron stars are born in supernova explosions that mark the end of the life of massive stars. Sometimes neutron stars are bound in binary systems and will eventually collide with each other. These high-energy, astrophysical phenomena feature such extreme conditions that they produce most of the heavy elements, such as silver and gold. Consequently, neutron stars and their collisions are a unique laboratory to study the properties of matter at densities far beyond the densities inside atomic nuclei. Heavy-ion collision experiments conducted with particle accelerators are a complementary way to produce and probe matter at high densities and under extreme conditions.

    “Combining knowledge from nuclear theory, nuclear experiment, and astrophysical observations is essential to shedding light on the properties of neutron-rich matter over the entire density range probed in neutron stars,” said Sabrina Huth from Technical University Darmstadt, who is one of the lead authors of the publication. Peter T. H. Pang, another lead author from the Institute for Gravitational and Subatomic Physics (GRASP), Utrecht University, added, “We find that constraints from collisions of gold ions in particle colliders show a remarkable consistency with astrophysical observations even though they are obtained with completely contrary methods.”

    “Over the last years, we have developed accurate models that allow us to extract the properties of the neutron stars from the observed gravitational-wave data. This is a key aspect of a reliable multi-messenger interpretation”, says Tim Dietrich, Professor at Potsdam University and Leader of a Max Planck Fellow Group at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute).

    Recent progress in multi-messenger astronomy allowed the international research team, involving researchers from Germany, the Netherlands, the US, and Sweden to open up a new field to improve and complete the fundamental understanding of nuclear forces. In an interdisciplinary effort, the researchers included information obtained in heavy-ion collisions into a framework combining astronomical observations of electromagnetic signals, measurements of gravitational waves, and high-performance astrophysics computations with theoretical nuclear-physics calculations. Their systematic study combines all these individual disciplines for the first time.

    The authors incorporated the information from gold-ion collision experiments performed at GSI in Darmstadt as well as at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the USA in their multi-step procedure that analyzes constraints from nuclear theory and astrophysical observations, including neutron star mass measurements through radio observations, information from rapidly spinning neutron stars gained in the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission on the International Space Station (ISS), and multi-messenger observations of binary neutron star mergers.

    New information from laboratory experiments, astronomical observations, or theory can easily be included in the framework to further improve our understanding of dense matter in the coming years. New gravitational-wave observations will be possible from late 2022 with the next observing run of the international detector network [LIGO, VIRGO KAGRA below]. “We are living in exciting times in which it becomes possible to directly compare nuclear physics computations and experiments with astrophysical modeling and observations. In late 2022, the existing gravitational-wave detectors will start their next observing runs and we can hope for a few more multi-messenger detections of merging neutron stars.

    These data will pave the way for a better understanding of supranuclear dense matter and it will allow us to perform interdisciplinary studies with unprecedented accuracy”, says Tim Dietrich.

    See the full article here.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The MPG Institute for Gravitational Physics [MPG Institut für Gravitationsphysik] (Albert Einstein Institut)(DE) is the largest research institute in the world specializing in General Relativity and beyond. The institute is located in Potsdam-Golm and in Hannover where it is closely related to the Leibniz Universität Hannover.

    The MPG Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute) is a Max Planck Institute whose research is aimed at investigating Albert Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity and beyond: Mathematics; quantum gravity; astrophysical relativity; and gravitational-wave astronomy. The Institute was founded in 1995 and is located in the Potsdam Science Park in Golm, Potsdam and in Hannover where it is closely related to the Leibniz University Hannover [Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover](DE). The Potsdam part of the institute is organized in three research departments, while the Hannover part has two departments. Both parts of the institute host a number of independent research groups.

    The institute conducts fundamental research in Mathematics; data analysis; Astrophysics and Theoretical Physics; as well as research in Laser Physics; vacuum technology; vibration isolation; and Classical and Quantum Optics.

    When the Caltech MIT Advanced aLIGO Scientific Collaboration announced the first detection of gravitational waves, researchers of the Institute were involved in modeling, detecting, analyzing and characterizing the signals. The Institute is part of a number of collaborations and projects: it is a main partner in the gravitational-wave detector GEO600. Institute scientists are developing waveform-models that are applied in the gravitational-wave detectors for detecting and characterizing gravitational waves. They are developing detector technology and are also analyzing data from the detectors of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, the VIRGO European Gravitational Observatory(IT) and the KAGRA Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitional wave Telescope Project(JP).
    ___________________________________________________________________
    LIGOVIRGOKAGRA

    Caltech /MIT Advanced aLigo.

    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo detector installation Livingston, LA, USA.

    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo Hanford, WA, USA installation.

    VIRGO Gravitational Wave interferometer, near Pisa, Italy.

    KAGRA Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational Wave Telescope Project (JP).
    ___________________________________________________________________

    LIGO Virgo Kagra Masses in the Stellar Graveyard. Credit: Frank Elavsky and Aaron Geller at Northwestern University.
    ___________________________________________________________________

    They also play a leading role in planning and preparing the space-based detector European Space Agency(EU)/National Aeronautics and Space Agency LISA Next Gravitational Wave Observatory; Einstein Telescope » APPEC(EU); and the Cosmic Explorer.

    The Institute is also a major player in the Einstein@Home(DE) and PyCBC projects.

    From 1998 to 2015, the institute has published the open access review journal Living Reviews in Relativity.

    History

    The newly founded institute started its work in April 1995 and has been located in Potsdam-Golm since 1999.

    In 2002 the Institute opened a branch at the Leibniz University Hannover [Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover](DE) with a focus on data analysis and the development and operation of gravitational-wave detectors on Earth and in space. The Hannover institute originated from the Institute for Atom and Molecule Physics (AMP) of the Universität Hannover, which was established in 1979 by the Department of Physics.

    Research

    The research focus of the Institute is in the field of General Relativity. It covers Theoretical and Experimental Gravitational Physics; quantum gravity; Multi-messenger Astrophysics and Cosmology. The Institute has a strong research focus on Gravitational-wave Astronomy: four out of five departments are working on different aspects of this research field. Central research topics are:

    Source modeling (binary neutron stars, binary black holes, mixed binaries, stellar core collapse).
    Experimental work on gravitational-wave detectors – both on Earth and in space.
    Solving the Two-Body problem in General Relativity.
    Analytical and numerical solutions of Einstein’s equations.
    Development and implementation of data analysis algorithms for gravitational-wave searches.
    Follow-up analyses to infer properties of the gravitational-wave sources.

    All these efforts enable a new kind of Astronomy, which began with the first direct detection of gravitational waves on Earth.

    Scientists of the Institute also work towards the unification of the fundamental theories of PhysicsGeneral Relativity and Quantum Mechanics – into a theory of Quantum Gravity.

    Max Planck Partner Groups

    Max Planck Partner Groups carry out research in fields overlapping with those of the former host Max Planck institute. They are established to support junior scientists returning to their home country after a research stay at a Max Planck Institute.

    The Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics has five Max Planck Partner Groups:

    at the Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN), collaborating with the “Quantum Gravity and Unified Theories” department.
    at the Chennai Mathematical Institute(IN), collaborating with “Quantum Gravity and Unified Theories” department.
    at the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur(IN), collaborating with the “Quantum Gravity and Unified Theories” department.
    at Jilin University [吉林大学](CN) collaborating with the “Quantum Gravity and Unified Theories” department.
    at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research(IN), collaborating with the “Observational Relativity and Cosmology” department.

    MPG Society for the Advancement of Science [MPG Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.] is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes founded in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and renamed the Max Planck Society in 1948 in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck. The society is funded by the federal and state governments of Germany as well as other sources.

    According to its primary goal, the MPG Society supports fundamental research in the natural, life and social sciences, the arts and humanities in its 83 (as of January 2014) MPG Institutes. The society has a total staff of approximately 17,000 permanent employees, including 5,470 scientists, plus around 4,600 non-tenured scientists and guests. Society budget for 2015 was about €1.7 billion.

    The MPG Institutes focus on excellence in research. The MPG Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization, with 33 Nobel Prizes awarded to their scientists, and is generally regarded as the foremost basic research organization in Europe and the world. In 2013, the Nature Publishing Index placed the MPG institutes fifth worldwide in terms of research published in Nature journals (after Harvard University, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University and The National Institutes of Health). In terms of total research volume, the Max Planck Society is only outranked by The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN), The Russian Academy of Sciences [Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к](RU) and Harvard University. The Thomson Reuters-Science Watch website placed the MPG Society as the second leading research organization worldwide following Harvard University, in terms of the impact of the produced research over science fields.

    The MPG Society and its predecessor Kaiser Wilhelm Society hosted several renowned scientists in their fields, including Otto Hahn, Werner Heisenberg, and Albert Einstein.

    History

    The organization was established in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, or Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft (KWG), a non-governmental research organization named for the then German emperor. The KWG was one of the world’s leading research organizations; its board of directors included scientists like Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, and Fritz Haber. In 1946, Otto Hahn assumed the position of President of KWG, and in 1948, the society was renamed the Max Planck Society (MPG) after its former President (1930–37) Max Planck, who died in 1947.

    The MPG Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization. In 2006, the Times Higher Education Supplement rankings of non-university research institutions (based on international peer review by academics) placed the MPG Society as No.1 in the world for science research, and No.3 in technology research (behind AT&T Corporation and The DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory.

    The domain mpg.de attracted at least 1.7 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a Compete.com study.

    MPG Institutes and research groups

    The MPG Society consists of over 80 research institutes. In addition, the society funds a number of Max Planck Research Groups (MPRG) and International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS). The purpose of establishing independent research groups at various universities is to strengthen the required networking between universities and institutes of the Max Planck Society.
    The research units are primarily located across Europe with a few in South Korea and the U.S. In 2007, the Society established its first non-European centre, with an institute on the Jupiter campus of Florida Atlantic University focusing on neuroscience.

    The MPG Institutes operate independently from, though in close cooperation with, the universities, and focus on innovative research which does not fit into the university structure due to their interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary nature or which require resources that cannot be met by the state universities.

    Internally, MPG Institutes are organized into research departments headed by directors such that each MPI has several directors, a position roughly comparable to anything from full professor to department head at a university. Other core members include Junior and Senior Research Fellows.

    In addition, there are several associated institutes:

    International Max Planck Research Schools

    International Max Planck Research Schools

    Together with the Association of Universities and other Education Institutions in Germany, the Max Planck Society established numerous International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS) to promote junior scientists:

    • Cologne Graduate School of Ageing Research, Cologne
    • International Max Planck Research School for Intelligent Systems, at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems located in Tübingen and Stuttgart
    • International Max Planck Research School on Adapting Behavior in a Fundamentally Uncertain World (Uncertainty School), at the Max Planck Institutes for Economics, for Human Development, and/or Research on Collective Goods
    • International Max Planck Research School for Analysis, Design and Optimization in Chemical and Biochemical Process Engineering, Magdeburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics, Heidelberg at the MPI for Astronomy
    • International Max Planck Research School for Astrophysics, Garching at the MPI for Astrophysics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Complex Surfaces in Material Sciences, Berlin
    • International Max Planck Research School for Computer Science, Saarbrücken
    • International Max Planck Research School for Earth System Modeling, Hamburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Elementary Particle Physics, Munich, at the MPI for Physics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Environmental, Cellular and Molecular Microbiology, Marburg at the Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology
    • International Max Planck Research School for Evolutionary Biology, Plön at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology
    • International Max Planck Research School “From Molecules to Organisms”, Tübingen at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology
    • International Max Planck Research School for Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Jena at the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
    • International Max Planck Research School on Gravitational Wave Astronomy, Hannover and Potsdam MPI for Gravitational Physics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Heart and Lung Research, Bad Nauheim at the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research
    • International Max Planck Research School for Infectious Diseases and Immunity, Berlin at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology
    • International Max Planck Research School for Language Sciences, Nijmegen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Neurosciences, Göttingen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience, Tübingen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Marine Microbiology (MarMic), joint program of the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen, the University of Bremen, the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, and the Jacobs University Bremen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Maritime Affairs, Hamburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Freiburg
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Life Sciences, Munich
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Biology, Göttingen
    • International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Cell Biology and Bioengineering, Dresden
    • International Max Planck Research School Molecular Biomedicine, program combined with the ‘Graduate Programm Cell Dynamics And Disease’ at the University of Münster and the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine
    • International Max Planck Research School on Multiscale Bio-Systems, Potsdam
    • International Max Planck Research School for Organismal Biology, at the University of Konstanz and the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    • International Max Planck Research School on Reactive Structure Analysis for Chemical Reactions (IMPRS RECHARGE), Mülheim an der Ruhr, at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion
    • International Max Planck Research School for Science and Technology of Nano-Systems, Halle at Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics
    • International Max Planck Research School for Solar System Science at the University of Göttingen hosted by MPI for Solar System Research
    • International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Bonn, at the MPI for Radio Astronomy (formerly the International Max Planck Research School for Radio and Infrared Astronomy)
    • International Max Planck Research School for the Social and Political Constitution of the Economy, Cologne
    • International Max Planck Research School for Surface and Interface Engineering in Advanced Materials, Düsseldorf at Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH
    • International Max Planck Research School for Ultrafast Imaging and Structural Dynamics, Hamburg

    Max Planck Schools

    • Max Planck School of Cognition
    • Max Planck School Matter to Life
    • Max Planck School of Photonics

    Max Planck Center

    • The Max Planck Centre for Attosecond Science (MPC-AS), POSTECH Pohang
    • The Max Planck POSTECH Center for Complex Phase Materials, POSTECH Pohang

    Max Planck Institutes

    Among others:
    • Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology of Behavior – caesar, Bonn
    • Max Planck Institute for Aeronomics in Katlenburg-Lindau was renamed to Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in 2004;
    • Max Planck Institute for Biology in Tübingen was closed in 2005;
    • Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Ladenburg b. Heidelberg was closed in 2003;
    • Max Planck Institute for Economics in Jena was renamed to the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in 2014;
    • Max Planck Institute for Ionospheric Research in Katlenburg-Lindau was renamed to Max Planck Institute for Aeronomics in 1958;
    • Max Planck Institute for Metals Research, Stuttgart
    • Max Planck Institute of Oceanic Biology in Wilhelmshaven was renamed to Max Planck Institute of Cell Biology in 1968 and moved to Ladenburg 1977;
    • Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research in Munich merged into the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in 2004;
    • Max Planck Institute for Protein and Leather Research in Regensburg moved to Munich 1957 and was united with the Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry in 1977;
    • Max Planck Institute for Virus Research in Tübingen was renamed as Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology in 1985;
    • Max Planck Institute for the Study of the Scientific-Technical World in Starnberg (from 1970 until 1981 (closed)) directed by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and Jürgen Habermas.
    • Max Planck Institute for Behavioral Physiology
    • Max Planck Institute of Experimental Endocrinology
    • Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Social Law
    • Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics
    • Max Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding
    • Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing

     
  • richardmitnick 1:05 pm on March 9, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Black hole billiards in the centers of galaxies may explain black hole mergers", , , Multimessenger Astronomy/Astrophysics,   

    From The University of Copenhagen [Københavns Universitet](DK) and The Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet](DK) via phys.org: “Black hole billiards in the centers of galaxies may explain black hole mergers” 

    From The University of Copenhagen [Københavns Universitet](DK)

    and

    Niels Bohr Institute bloc

    The Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet](DK)

    via

    phys.org

    1
    Illustration of a swarm of smaller black holes in a gas disk rotating around a giant black hole. Credit: J. Samsing/Niels Bohr Institute

    Researchers have provided the first plausible explanation to why one of the most massive black hole pairs observed to date by gravitational waves also seemed to merge on a non-circular orbit. Their suggested solution, now published in Nature, involves a chaotic triple drama inside a giant disk of gas around a supermassive black hole in another galaxy.

    Black holes are one of the most fascinating objects in the universe, but our knowledge of them is still limited—especially because they do not emit any light. Up until a few years ago, light was our main source of knowledge about our universe and its black holes, until the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) in 2015 made its breakthrough observation of gravitational waves from the merger of two black holes.

    “But how and where in our universe do such black holes form and merge? Does it happen when nearby stars collapse and both turn into black holes, is it through close chance encounters in star clusters, or is it something else? These are some of the key questions in the new era of Gravitational Wave Astrophysics,” says assistant professor Johan Samsing from the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen, lead author of the paper.

    He and his collaborators may have now provided a new piece to the puzzle, which possibly solves the last part of a mystery that astrophysicists have struggled with for the past few years.

    Unexpected discovery in 2019

    The mystery dates back to 2019, when an unexpected discovery of gravitational waves was made by the LIGO and Virgo observatories. The event, named GW190521, is understood to be the merger of two black holes that were not only heavier than previously thought physically possible, but had also produced a flash of light.

    Possible explanations have since been provided for these two characteristics, but the gravitational waves also revealed a third astonishing feature of this event—namely that the black holes did not orbit each other along a circle in the moments before merging.

    “The gravitational wave event GW190521 is the most surprising discovery to date. The black holes’ masses and spins were already surprising, but even more surprising was that they appeared not to have a circular orbit leading up to the merger,” says co-author Imre Bartos, professor at the University of Florida.

    But why is a non-circular orbit so unusual and unexpected?

    “This is because of the fundamental nature of the gravitational waves emitted, which not only brings the pair of black holes closer for them to finally merge but also acts to circularize their orbit.” explains co-author Zoltan Haiman, a professor at Columbia University.

    This observation made many people around the world, including Johan Samsing in Copenhagen, wonder.

    “It made me start thinking about how such non-circular (known as ‘eccentric’) mergers can happen with the surprisingly high probability as the observation suggests,” says Samsing.

    It takes three to tango

    A possible answer would be found in the harsh environment in the centers of galaxies harboring a giant black hole millions of times the mass of the sun and surrounded by a flat, rotating disk of gas.

    “In these environments the typical velocity and density of black holes is so high that smaller black holes bounce around as in a giant game of billiards and wide circular binaries cannot exist,” points out co-author professor Bence Kocsis from the University of Oxford.

    But as the group further argued, a giant black hole is not enough.

    “New studies show that the gas disk plays an important role in capturing smaller black holes, which over time move closer to the center and also closer to one other. This not only implies they meet and form pairs, but also that such a pair might interact with another, third, black hole, often leading to a chaotic tango with three black holes flying around, ” explains astrophysicist Hiromichi Tagawa from Tohoku University, co-author of the study.

    However, all previous studies up to observation of GW190521 indicated that forming eccentric black hole mergers is relatively rare. This naturally brings up the question: Why did the already unusual gravitational wave source GW190521 also merge on an eccentric orbit?

    Two-dimensional black hole billiards

    Everything that has been calculated so far was based on the notion that the black hole interactions are taking place in three dimensions, as expected in the majority of stellar systems considered so far.

    “But then we started thinking about what would happen if the black hole interactions were instead to take place in a flat disk, which is closer to a two-dimensional environment. Surprisingly, we found in this limit that the probability of forming an eccentric merger increases by as much as a 100 times, which leads to about half of all black hole mergers in such disks possibly being eccentric,” says Johan Samsing and continues:

    “And that discovery fits incredibly well with the observation in 2019, which all in all now points in the direction that the otherwise spectacular properties of this source are not so strange again, if it was created in a flat gas disk surrounding a supermassive black hole in a galactic nucleus.”

    This possible solution also adds to a century-old problem in mechanics,

    “The interaction between three objects is one of the oldest problems in physics, which both Newton, myself, and others have intensely studied. That this now seems to play a crucial role in how black holes merge in some of the most extreme places of our universe is incredibly fascinating “, says co-author Nathan W. Leigh, professor at Universidad de Concepción, Chile.

    Black holes in gaseous disks

    The theory of the gas disk also fits with other researchers’ explanations of the other two puzzling properties of GW190521. The large masses of the black hole have been reached by successive mergers inside the disk, while the emission of light could originate from the ambient gas.

    “We have now shown that there can be a huge difference in the signals emitted from black holes that merge in flat, two-dimensional disks, versus those we often consider in three-dimensional stellar systems, which tells us that we now have an extra tool that we can use to learn about how black holes are created and merge in our universe,” says Samsing.

    But this study is only the beginning.

    “People have been working on understanding the structure of such gas disks for many years, but the problem is difficult. Our results are sensitive to how flat the disk is, and how the black holes move around in it. Time will tell whether we will learn more about these disks, once we have a larger population of black hole mergers, including more unusual cases similar to GW190521. To enable this, we must build on our now published discovery, and see where it leads us in this new and exciting field,” concludes co-author Zoltan Haiman.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Niels Bohr Institute Campus

    The Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet](DK) is a research institute of the The University of Copenhagen [Københavns Universitet][UCPH] (DK). The research of the institute spans astronomy, geophysics, nanotechnology, particle physics, quantum mechanics and biophysics.

    The Institute was founded in 1921, as the Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Københavns Universitet [UCPH](DK), by the Danish theoretical physicist Niels Bohr, who had been on the staff of the University of Copenhagen since 1914, and who had been lobbying for its creation since his appointment as professor in 1916. On the 80th anniversary of Niels Bohr’s birth – October 7, 1965 – the Institute officially became The Niels Bohr Institutet (DK). Much of its original funding came from the charitable foundation of the Carlsberg brewery, and later from the Rockefeller Foundation.

    During the 1920s, and 1930s, the Institute was the center of the developing disciplines of atomic physics and quantum physics. Physicists from across Europe (and sometimes further abroad) often visited the Institute to confer with Bohr on new theories and discoveries. The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics is named after work done at the Institute during this time.

    On January 1, 1993 the institute was fused with the Astronomic Observatory, the Ørsted Laboratory and the Geophysical Institute. The new resulting institute retained the name Niels Bohr Institutet (DK)).

    The University of Copenhagen [Københavns Universitet][UCPH] (DK) is the oldest university and research institution in Denmark. Founded in 1479 as a studium generale, it is the second oldest institution for higher education in Scandinavia after Uppsala University [Uppsala universitet](SE) (1477). The university has 23,473 undergraduate students, 17,398 postgraduate students, 2,968 doctoral students and over 9,000 employees. The university has four campuses located in and around Copenhagen, with the headquarters located in central Copenhagen. Most courses are taught in Danish; however, many courses are also offered in English and a few in German. The university has several thousands of foreign students, about half of whom come from Nordic countries.

    The university is a member of the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU), along with University of Cambridge (UK), Yale University, The Australian National University (AU), and The University of California-Berkeley(US), amongst others. The 2016 Academic Ranking of World Universities ranks the University of Copenhagen as the best university in Scandinavia and 30th in the world, the 2016-2017 Times Higher Education World University Rankings as 120th in the world, and the 2016-2017 QS World University Rankings as 68th in the world. The university has had 9 alumni become Nobel laureates and has produced one Turing Award recipient.

    Its establishment sanctioned by Pope Sixtus IV, the University of Copenhagen was founded by Christian I of Denmark as a Catholic teaching institution with a predominantly theological focus. After 1537, it became a Lutheran seminary under King Christian III. Up until the 18th century, the university was primarily concerned with educating clergymen. Through various reforms in the 18th and 19th century, the University of Copenhagen was transformed into a modern, secular university, with science and the humanities replacing theology as the main subjects studied and taught.

    The University of Copenhagen consists of six different faculties, with teaching taking place in its four distinct campuses, all situated in Copenhagen. The university operates 36 different departments and 122 separate research centres in Copenhagen, as well as a number of museums and botanical gardens in and outside the Danish capital. The University of Copenhagen also owns and operates multiple research stations around Denmark, with two additional ones located in Greenland. Additionally, The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences and the public hospitals of the Capital and Zealand Region of Denmark constitute the conglomerate Copenhagen University Hospital.

    A number of prominent scientific theories and schools of thought are namesakes of the University of Copenhagen. The famous Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum mechanics was conceived at the Niels Bohr Institute [Niels Bohr Institutet](DK), which is part of the university. The Department of Political Science birthed the Copenhagen School of Security Studies which is also named after the university. Others include the Copenhagen School of Theology and the Copenhagen School of Linguistics.

    As of October 2020, 39 Nobel laureates and 1 Turing Award laureate have been affiliated with the University of Copenhagen as students, alumni or faculty. Alumni include one president of the United Nations General Assembly and at least 24 prime ministers of Denmark. The University of Copenhagen fosters entrepreneurship, and between 5 and 6 start-ups are founded by students, alumni or faculty members each week.

    History

    The University of Copenhagen was founded in 1479 and is the oldest university in Denmark. In 1474, Christian I of Denmark journeyed to Rome to visit Pope Sixtus IV, whom Christian I hoped to persuade into issuing a papal bull permitting the establishment of university in Denmark. Christian I failed to persuade the pope to issue the bull however and the king returned to Denmark the same year empty-handed. In 1475 Christian I’s wife Dorothea of Brandenburg Queen of Denmark made the same journey to Rome as her husband did a year before. Unlike Christian I Dorothea managed to persuade Pope Sixtus IV into issuing the papal bull. On the 19th of June, 1475 Pope Sixtus IV issued an official papal bull permitting the establishment of what was to become the University of Copenhagen.

    On the 4th of October, 1478 Christian I of Denmark issued a royal decree by which he officially established the University of Copenhagen. In this decree Christian I set down the rules and laws governing the university. The royal decree elected magistar Peder Albertsen as vice chancellor of the university and the task was his to employ various learned scholars at the new university and thereby establish its first four faculties: theology; law; medicine; and philosophy. The royal decree made the University of Copenhagen enjoy royal patronage from its very beginning. Furthermore, the university was explicitly established as an autonomous institution giving it a great degree of juridical freedom. As such the University of Copenhagen was to be administered without royal interference and it was not subject to the usual laws governing the Danish people.

    The University of Copenhagen was closed by the Church in 1531 to stop the spread of Protestantism and re-established in 1537 by King Christian III after the Lutheran Reformation and transformed into an evangelical-Lutheran seminary. Between 1675 and 1788 the university introduced the concept of degree examinations. An examination for theology was added in 1675 followed by law in 1736. By 1788 all faculties required an examination before they would issue a degree.

    In 1807 the British Bombardment of Copenhagen destroyed most of the university’s buildings. By 1836 however the new main building of the university was inaugurated amid extensive building that continued until the end of the century. The University Library (now a part of the Royal Library); the Zoological Museum; the Geological Museum; the Botanic Garden with greenhouses; and the Technical College were also established during this period.

    Between 1842 and 1850 the faculties at the university were restructured. Starting in 1842 the University Faculty of Medicine and the Academy of Surgeons merged to form the Faculty of Medical Science while in 1848 the Faculty of Law was reorganised and became the Faculty of Jurisprudence and Political Science. In 1850 the Faculty of Mathematics and Science was separated from the Faculty of Philosophy. In 1845 and 1862 Copenhagen co-hosted nordic student meetings with Lund University [Lunds universitet] (SE).

    The first female student was enrolled at the university in 1877. The university underwent explosive growth between 1960 and 1980. The number of students rose from around 6,000 in 1960 to about 26,000 in 1980 with a correspondingly large growth in the number of employees. Buildings built during this time period include the new Zoological Museum; the Hans Christian Ørsted and August Krogh Institutes; the campus centre on Amager Island; and the Panum Institute.

    The new university statute instituted in 1970 involved democratisation of the management of the university. It was modified in 1973 and subsequently applied to all higher education institutions in Denmark. The democratisation was later reversed with the 2003 university reforms. Further change in the structure of the university from 1990 to 1993 made a Bachelor’s degree programme mandatory in virtually all subjects.

    Also in 1993 the law departments broke off from the Faculty of Social Sciences to form a separate Faculty of Law. In 1994 the University of Copenhagen designated environmental studies; north–south relations; and biotechnology as areas of special priority according to its new long-term plan. Starting in 1996 and continuing to the present the university planned new buildings including for the University of Copenhagen Faculty of Humanities at Amager (Ørestaden) along with a Biotechnology Centre. By 1999 the student population had grown to exceed 35,000 resulting in the university appointing additional professors and other personnel.

    In 2003 the revised Danish university law removed faculty staff and students from the university decision process creating a top-down control structure that has been described as absolute monarchy since leaders are granted extensive powers while being appointed exclusively by higher levels in the organization.

    In 2005 the Center for Health and Society (Center for Sundhed og Samfund – CSS) opened in central Copenhagen housing the Faculty of Social Sciences and Institute of Public Health which until then had been located in various places throughout the city. In May 2006 the university announced further plans to leave many of its old buildings in the inner city of Copenhagen- an area that has been home to the university for more than 500 years. The purpose of this has been to gather the university’s many departments and faculties on three larger campuses in order to create a bigger more concentrated and modern student environment with better teaching facilities as well as to save money on rent and maintenance of the old buildings. The concentration of facilities on larger campuses also allows for more inter-disciplinary cooperation. For example the Departments of Political Science and Sociology are now located in the same facilities at CSS and can pool resources more easily.

    In January 2007 the University of Copenhagen merged with the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University and the Danish University of Pharmaceutical Science. The two universities were converted into faculties under the University of Copenhagen and were renamed as the Faculty of Life Sciences and the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences. In January 2012 the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the veterinary third of the Faculty of Life Sciences merged with the Faculty of Health Sciences forming the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences and the other two thirds of the Faculty of Life Sciences were merged into the Faculty of Science.

    Cooperative agreements with other universities

    The university cooperates with universities around the world. In January 2006, the University of Copenhagen entered into a partnership of ten top universities, along with the Australian National University (AU), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich [ETH Zürich] [Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich](CH), The National University of Singapore [Universiti Nasional Singapura] (SG), Peking University [北京大学](CN), University of California Berkeley (US), University of Cambridge (UK), University of Oxford (UK), University of Tokyo {東京大学](JP) and Yale University (US). The partnership is referred to as the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU).

    The Department of Scandinavian Studies and Linguistics at University of Copenhagen signed a cooperation agreement with the Danish Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2009.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:57 pm on January 20, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "RIT scientists confirm a highly eccentric black hole merger for the first time", , , , , Multimessenger Astronomy/Astrophysics,   

    From The Rochester Institute of Technology (US): “RIT scientists confirm a highly eccentric black hole merger for the first time” 

    From The Rochester Institute of Technology (US)

    January 20, 2022
    Luke Auburn
    luke.auburn@rit.edu

    1
    Artist’s impression of binary black holes about to collide. Credit: Mark Myers, ARC Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery (OzGrav)

    For the first time, scientists believe they have detected a merger of two black holes with eccentric orbits. According to a paper published in Nature Astronomy by researchers from Rochester Institute of Technology’s Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation and The University of Florida (US), this can help explain how some of the black hole mergers detected by LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration are much heavier than previously thought possible.

    _____________________________________________________________________________________
    LIGOVIRGOKAGRA

    Caltech /MIT Advanced aLigo

    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo detector installation Livingston, LA, USA.

    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo Hanford, WA, USA installation.

    VIRGO Gravitational Wave interferometer, near Pisa, Italy

    KAGRA Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational Wave Telescope Project (JP)
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    LIGO Virgo Kagra Masses in the Stellar Graveyard. Credit: Frank Elavsky and Aaron Geller at Northwestern University(US)

    Eccentric orbits are a sign that black holes could be repeatedly gobbling up others during chance encounters in areas densely populated with black holes such as galactic nuclei. The scientists studied the most massive gravitational wave binary observed to date, GW190521, to determine if the merger had eccentric orbits.

    “The estimated masses of the black holes are more than 70 times the size of our sun each, placing them well above the estimated maximum mass predicted currently by stellar evolution theory,” said Carlos Lousto, a professor in the School of Mathematical Sciences and a member of the CCRG. “This makes an interesting case to study as a second generation binary black hole system and opens up to new possibilities of formation scenarios of black holes in dense star clusters.”

    A team of RIT researchers including Lousto, Research Associate James Healy, Jacob Lange ’20 Ph.D. (astrophysical sciences and technology), Professor and CCRG Director Manuela Campanelli, Associate Professor Richard O’Shaughnessy, and collaborators from the University of Florida formed to give a fresh look at the data to see if the black holes had highly eccentric orbits before they merged. They found the merger is best explained by a high-eccentricity, precessing model. To achieve this, the team performed hundreds of new full numerical simulations in local and national lab supercomputers, taking nearly a year to complete.

    “This represents a major advancement in our understanding of how black holes merge,” said Campanelli. “Through our sophisticated supercomputer simulations and the wealth of new data provided by LIGO and Virgo’s rapidly advancing detectors, we are making new discoveries about the universe at astonishing rates.”

    An extension of this analysis by the same RIT and UFL team used a possible electromagnetic counterpart observed by the Zwicky Transient Facility to compute independently the cosmological Hubble constant with GW150521 as an eccentric binary black hole merger.

    Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) instrument installed on the 1.2m diameter Samuel Oschin Telescope at Palomar Observatory in California. Credit: Caltech Optical Observatories.

    Caltech Palomar Samuel Oschin 48 inch Telescope, located in San Diego County, California, U.S.A., altitude 1,712 m (5,617 ft). Credit: Caltech.

    They found excellent agreement with the expected values and recently published the work in The Astrophysical Journal.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Rochester Institute of Technology (US) is a private doctoral university within the town of Henrietta in the Rochester, New York metropolitan area.

    RIT is composed of nine academic colleges, including National Technical Institute for the Deaf(RIT)(US). The Institute is one of only a small number of engineering institutes in the State of New York, including New York Institute of Technology, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute(US). It is most widely known for its fine arts, computing, engineering, and imaging science programs; several fine arts programs routinely rank in the national “Top 10” according to US News & World Report.

    The university offers undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees and online masters as well.

    The university was founded in 1829 and is the tenth largest private university in the country in terms of full-time students. It is internationally known for its science; computer; engineering; and art programs as well as for the National Technical Institute for the Deaf- a leading deaf-education institution that provides educational opportunities to more than 1000 deaf and hard-of-hearing students. RIT is known for its Co-op program that gives students professional and industrial experience. It has the fourth oldest and one of the largest Co-op programs in the world. It is classified among “R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity”.

    RIT’s student population is approximately 19,000 students, about 16,000 undergraduate and 3000 graduate. Demographically, students attend from all 50 states in the United States and from more than 100 countries around the world. The university has more than 4000 active faculty and staff members who engage with the students in a wide range of academic activities and research projects. It also has branches abroad, its global campuses, located in China, Croatia and United Arab Emirates (Dubai).

    Fourteen RIT alumni and faculty members have been recipients of the Pulitzer Prize.

    History

    The university began as a result of an 1891 merger between Rochester Athenæum, a literary society founded in 1829 by Colonel Nathaniel Rochester and associates and The Mechanics Institute- a Rochester school of practical technical training for local residents founded in 1885 by a consortium of local businessmen including Captain Henry Lomb- co-founder of Bausch & Lomb. The name of the merged institution at the time was called Rochester Athenæum and Mechanics Institute (RAMI). The Mechanics Institute however, was considered as the surviving school by taking over The Rochester Athenaeum’s charter. From the time of the merger until 1944 RAMI celebrated The former Mechanics Institute’s 1885 founding charter. In 1944 the school changed its name to Rochester Institute of Technology and re-established The Athenaeum’s 1829 founding charter and became a full-fledged research university.

    The university originally resided within the city of Rochester, New York, proper, on a block bounded by the Erie Canal; South Plymouth Avenue; Spring Street; and South Washington Street (approximately 43.152632°N 77.615157°W). Its art department was originally located in the Bevier Memorial Building. By the middle of the twentieth century, RIT began to outgrow its facilities, and surrounding land was scarce and expensive. Additionally in 1959 the New York Department of Public Works announced a new freeway- the Inner Loop- was to be built through the city along a path that bisected the university’s campus and required demolition of key university buildings. In 1961 an unanticipated donation of $3.27 million ($27,977,071 today) from local Grace Watson (for whom RIT’s dining hall was later named) allowed the university to purchase land for a new 1,300-acre (5.3 km^2) campus several miles south along the east bank of the Genesee River in suburban Henrietta. Upon completion in 1968 the university moved to the new suburban campus, where it resides today.

    In 1966 RIT was selected by the Federal government to be the site of the newly founded National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID). NTID admitted its first students in 1968 concurrent with RIT’s transition to the Henrietta campus.

    In 1979 RIT took over Eisenhower College- a liberal arts college located in Seneca Falls, New York. Despite making a 5-year commitment to keep Eisenhower open RIT announced in July 1982 that the college would close immediately. One final year of operation by Eisenhower’s academic program took place in the 1982–83 school year on the Henrietta campus. The final Eisenhower graduation took place in May 1983 back in Seneca Falls.

    In 1990 RIT started its first PhD program in Imaging Science – the first PhD program of its kind in the U.S. RIT subsequently established PhD programs in six other fields: Astrophysical Sciences and Technology; Computing and Information Sciences; Color Science; Microsystems Engineering; Sustainability; and Engineering. In 1996 RIT became the first college in the U.S to offer a Software Engineering degree at the undergraduate level.

    Colleges

    RIT has nine colleges:

    RIT College of Engineering Technology
    Saunders College of Business
    B. Thomas Golisano College of Computing and Information Sciences
    Kate Gleason College of Engineering
    RIT College of Health Sciences and Technology
    College of Art and Design
    RIT College of Liberal Arts
    RIT College of Science
    National Technical Institute for the Deaf

    There are also three smaller academic units that grant degrees but do not have full college faculties:

    RIT Center for Multidisciplinary Studies
    Golisano Institute for Sustainability
    University Studies

    In addition to these colleges, RIT operates three branch campuses in Europe, one in the Middle East and one in East Asia:

    RIT Croatia (formerly the American College of Management and Technology) in Dubrovnik and Zagreb, Croatia
    RIT Kosovo (formerly the American University in Kosovo) in Pristina, Kosovo
    RIT Dubai in Dubai, United Arab Emirates
    RIT China-Weihai Campus

    RIT also has international partnerships with the following schools:

    Yeditepe University İstanbul Eğitim ve Kültür Vakfı] (TR) in Istanbul, Turkey
    Birla Institute of Technology and Science [बिरला इंस्टिट्यूट ऑफ़ टेक्नोलॉजी एंड साइंस] (IN) in India
    Mother and Teacher Pontifical Catholic University[Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra] (DO)
    Santo Domingo Institute of Technology[Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo – INTEC] (DO) in Dominican Republic
    Central American Technological University [La universidad global de Honduras] (HN)
    University of the North [Universidad del Norte] (COL)in Colombia
    Peruvian University of Applied Sciences [Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas] (PE) (UPC) in Peru
    Research

    RIT’s research programs are rapidly expanding. The total value of research grants to university faculty for fiscal year 2007–2008 totaled $48.5 million- an increase of more than twenty-two percent over the grants from the previous year. The university currently offers eight PhD programs: Imaging science; Microsystems Engineering; Computing and Information Sciences; Color science; Astrophysical Sciences and Technology; Sustainability; Engineering; and Mathematical modeling.

    In 1986 RIT founded the Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science and started its first doctoral program in Imaging Science in 1989. The Imaging Science department also offers the only Bachelors (BS) and Masters (MS) degree programs in imaging science in the country. The Carlson Center features a diverse research portfolio; its major research areas include Digital Image Restoration; Remote Sensing; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Printing Systems Research; Color Science; Nanoimaging; Imaging Detectors; Astronomical Imaging; Visual Perception; and Ultrasonic Imaging.

    The Center for Microelectronic and Computer Engineering was founded by RIT in 1986. The university was the first university to offer a bachelor’s degree in Microelectronic Engineering. The Center’s facilities include 50,000 square feet (4,600 m^2) of building space with 10,000 square feet (930 m^2) of clean room space. The building will undergo an expansion later this year. Its research programs include nano-imaging; nano-lithography; nano-power; micro-optical devices; photonics subsystems integration; high-fidelity modeling and heterogeneous simulation; microelectronic manufacturing; microsystems integration; and micro-optical networks for computational applications.

    The Center for Advancing the Study of CyberInfrastructure (CASCI) is a multidisciplinary center housed in the College of Computing and Information Sciences. The Departments of Computer science; Software Engineering; Information technology; Computer engineering; Imaging Science; and Bioinformatics collaborate in a variety of research programs at this center. RIT was the first university to launch a Bachelor’s program in Information technology in 1991; the first university to launch a Bachelor’s program in Software Engineering in 1996 and was also among the first universities to launch a Computer science Bachelor’s program in 1972. RIT helped standardize the Forth programming language and developed the CLAWS software package.

    The Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation was founded in 2007. The CCRG comprises faculty and postdoctoral research associates working in the areas of general relativity; gravitational waves; and galactic dynamics. Computing facilities in the CCRG include gravitySimulator, a novel 32-node supercomputer that uses special-purpose hardware to achieve speeds of 4TFlops in gravitational N-body calculations, and newHorizons [image N/A], a state-of-the art 85-node Linux cluster for numerical relativity simulations.

    2
    Gravity Simulator at the Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, RIT, Rochester, New York, USA.

    The Center for Detectors was founded in 2010. The CfD designs; develops; and implements new advanced sensor technologies through collaboration with academic researchers; industry engineers; government scientists; and university/college students. The CfD operates four laboratories and has approximately a dozen funded projects to advance detectors in a broad array of applications, e.g. astrophysics; biomedical imaging; Earth system science; and inter-planetary travel. Center members span eight departments and four colleges.

    RIT has collaborated with many industry players in the field of research as well, including IBM; Xerox; Rochester’s Democrat and Chronicle; Siemens; National Aeronautics Space Agency(US); and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (US) (DARPA). In 2005, it was announced by Russell W. Bessette- Executive Director New York State Office of Science Technology & Academic Research (NYSTAR), that RIT will lead the SUNY University at Buffalo (US) and Alfred University (US) in an initiative to create key technologies in microsystems; photonics; nanomaterials; and remote sensing systems and to integrate next generation IT systems. In addition, the collaboratory is tasked with helping to facilitate economic development and tech transfer in New York State. More than 35 other notable organizations have joined the collaboratory, including Boeing, Eastman Kodak, IBM, Intel, SEMATECH, ITT, Motorola, Xerox, and several Federal agencies, including as NASA.

    RIT has emerged as a national leader in manufacturing research. In 2017, the U.S. Department of Energy selected RIT to lead its Reducing Embodied-Energy and Decreasing Emissions (REMADE) Institute aimed at forging new clean energy measures through the Manufacturing USA initiative. RIT also participates in five other Manufacturing USA research institutes.

     
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