Tagged: MicroBooNE Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • richardmitnick 4:18 pm on April 16, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , MicroBooNE, , MINOS, ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS and MINOS+” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    April 16, 2019

    1
    MINOS far detector as seen in 2012. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    The MINOS+ collaboration at the Department of Energy’s Fermilab has published a paper in Physical Review Letters about their latest results: new constraints on the existence of sterile neutrinos. The collaboration has exploited new high-statistics data and a new analysis regime to set more stringent boundaries on the possibility of sterile neutrinos mixing with muon neutrinos. They have significantly improved on their previous results published in 2016. With close to 40 publications that have garnered more than 6,000 citations, MINOS has been at the forefront of studying neutrino oscillations physics since its first data-taking days in 2005.

    The experiment uses two iron-scintillator sampling-and-tracking calorimetric particle detectors: The near detector is placed 1.04 kilometers from the neutrino source at Fermilab, and the far detector is placed 735 kilometers away in Minnesota.

    FNAL MINOS near detector

    FNAL MINOS Far Detector in the Soudan Mine in northern Minnesota

    The MINOS experiment collected data using a low-energy neutrino beam from May 1, 2005, to April 29, 2012, and MINOS+ collected data with a medium-energy neutrino beam from Sept. 4, 2013 to June 29, 2016.

    The detectors have accumulated high-statistics samples of muon neutrino interactions. Using a Fermilab neutrino beam composed of almost 100 percent muon neutrinos, they measured the disappearance of muon neutrinos as the particles arrived at the far detector. The collaboration used these data to obtain some of the most precise to-date measurements of standard three-neutrino mixings. These data also restrict phenomena beyond the Standard Model, including the hypothetical light sterile neutrinos.

    The analysis has simultaneously employed the energy spectra of charged-current (W boson exchange) and neutral-current (Z boson exchange) interactions between the neutrinos and the atoms inside the detector.

    Using a neutrino oscillation model that assumed the existence of the three known kinds of neutrinos plus a fourth type of neutrino referred to as a single sterile neutrino, the MINOS+ collaboration found no evidence of sterile neutrinos. Instead, the collaboration was able to set rigorous limits on the mixing parameter sin2θ24 for the mass splitting Δm241 > 10−4 eV2.

    The results significantly increase the tension with results obtained by experiments conducted with single detectors studying electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam. The LSND and MiniBooNE techniques and limited statistics present challenges that are now being tackled by the MicroBooNE experiment at Fermilab, designed specifically for this task.

    LSND experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Virginia Tech

    FNAL/MiniBooNE

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    Scientists from 33 institutions in five countries — the United States, UK, Brazil, Poland and Greece — are members of the MINOS+ collaboration. More information can be found on the MINOS+ website.

    This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

    FNAL MINERvA front face Photo Reidar Hahn

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL MINOS Far Detector in the Soudan Mine in northern Minnesota

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 1:25 pm on December 17, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Anode plane assemblies, , Components from three continents, DUNE-Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, , MicroBooNE, , , , Short-Baseline Neutrino Detector, Sterile neutrino?,   

    From Symmetry: “First critical components arrive for SBND” 

    Symmetry Mag
    From Symmetry

    12/17/18
    Jim Daley

    International collaborators are delivering parts to be used in Fermilab’s Short-Baseline Neutrino program.

    1
    Photo by Reidar Hahn, Fermilab

    Major components for a new neutrino experiment at the US Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are arriving at the lab from around the world. The components will be used in the upcoming Short-Baseline Near Detector, an important piece of the laboratory’s neutrino program. The first of four anode plane assemblies, highly sensitive electronic components, came to Fermilab in October. More are on their way.

    SBND is one of three particle detectors that make up the Short-Baseline Neutrino program at Fermilab. Neutrinos, renegade particles that are famously difficult to study, could provide scientists with clues about the evolution of the universe.

    The Short-Baseline Neutrino program, or SBN, focuses its search on a particular type of neutrino, called the sterile neutrino, which could be the explanation for unexpected results seen in several past neutrino experiments. The particle’s existence has been teased but never clearly confirmed.

    SBND will also be a testing ground for some of the technologies, including the anode plane assemblies, that will be used in the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, known as DUNE, a megascience experiment hosted by Fermilab that is currently under construction in South Dakota.

    Fermilab’s three Short-Baseline Neutrino detectors will be positioned at various distances along the path of a neutrino beam generated by Fermilab’s particle accelerators.

    “The reason you have three detectors is that you want to sample the neutrino beam along the beamline at different distances,” says Ornella Palamara, SBND co-spokesperson and neutrino scientist at Fermilab.

    Of the three, SBND will be the nearest to the beam source at a distance of 110 meters. The other two, MicroBooNE and ICARUS, are 470 meters and 600 meters from the source, respectively. MicroBooNE has been taking data since 2015. ICARUS, installed earlier this year, is expected to begin taking data in 2019.

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector

    FNAL/MicroBooNE

    FNAL/ICARUS

    As neutrinos pass through one detector after the other, some of them leave behind traces in the detectors. SBN scientists will analyze this information to search for firm evidence of the hypothesized but never seen member of the neutrino family.

    Making a (dis)appearance

    Neutrinos come in one of three lepton flavors, or types, which correspond to three other particles: electron, muon and tau. They change from one flavor into another as they travel through space, a behavior called oscillation. Neutrinos are known to oscillate in and out of the three flavors, but only further evidence will help scientists determine whether they also oscillate into a fourth type—a sterile neutrino.

    SBN scientists will look for signs of neutrinos oscillating into the new type.

    “The overall goal of the SBN program is to perform a definitive measurement that tests the possibility of sterile neutrino oscillations,” Palamara says.

    Sterile neutrinos are hypothetical particles that don’t interact with matter at all. (The neutrinos we’re familiar with do interact, but only rarely.) In 1995, results from the LSND experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory hinted at the possibility of the sterile neutrino’s existence, but so far, no one has confirmed it. Results from the MiniBooNE experiment at Fermilab also indicate that something is going on with neutrinos that we don’t yet fully understand.

    FNAL/MiniBooNE

    SBND, as the first detector in the beam, will record the number of electron and muon neutrinos that pass through it before oscillation can occur. The vast majority of them—about 99.5 percent—will be muon neutrinos. By the time of their arrival at the far detectors, MicroBooNE and ICARUS, a few out of every thousand muon neutrinos may have converted into electron neutrinos.

    “The SBN program is powerful because you can measure this oscillation by looking at two different effects,” Palamara says.

    One is that the far detectors see more electron neutrinos than expected. This could be evidence that sterile neutrinos are also present: The neutrinos could be converting into and out of sterile neutrino states in a way that produces an excess of electron neutrinos.

    The other is that the far detectors see fewer muon neutrinos than expected—the muon neutrinos spotted in SBND “disappear”—because they converted into sterile neutrinos.

    Either effect could indicate the existence of the new particle.

    “Having a single experiment where we can see electron neutrino appearance and muon neutrino disappearance simultaneously and make sure their magnitudes are compatible with one another is enormously powerful for trying to discover sterile neutrino oscillations,” says David Schmitz, SBND co-spokesperson and assistant professor at the University of Chicago. “The near detector substantially improves our ability to do so.”

    Components from three continents

    SBND will be a 4-by-4-by-5-meter tank—the size of a large bedroom—filled with liquid argon. Its active liquid-argon mass—the volume monitored by the anode plane assemblies, or APAs—comes to 112 tons. The APAs, situated inside the detector, are huge frames covered with thousands of delicate sense wires. An electric field lies between the wire planes and a cathode plane.

    When a neutrino collides with the nucleus of an argon atom, charged particles are produced. These particles stream through the liquid volume, ionizing argon atoms as they pass by. The ionization produces thousands of free electrons, which “drift” under the influence of the electric field toward the APAs, where they are detected. By collecting these clouds of electrons on the wires, scientists create detailed images of the tracks of the particles emerging from a collision, which give information about the original neutrino that triggered the interaction.

    The construction of the wire planes is a collaboration between a group of universities in the United Kingdom funded by the Science and Technology Facilities Council, part of UK Research and Innovation, and another group of universities in the United States funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. The US effort to build the wire planes was a collaboration between Syracuse University, the University of Chicago and Yale University. In the United Kingdom, Lancaster University, Manchester University and the University of Sheffield contributed to the effort.

    The APA technology will also be an integral part of DUNE, which will be the world’s largest liquid-argon neutrino detector when complete. The National Science Foundation recently funded a planning grant for DUNE’s anode plane assemblies; the NSF has a long history of pioneering investments in major particle physics experiments, including several neutrino experiments.

    Institutions in Europe, South America and the United States are helping build SBND’s various components. In all, more than 20 institutions on three continents are involved in the effort. Another dozen are collaborating on software tools to analyze data once the detector is operational, Schmitz says.

    “Being part of an international collaboration is great,” Palamara says. “Of course, there are challenges, but it’s fantastic to see people coming from all around the world to work on the program. Having pieces of the detector built in different places and then seeing everything come together is exciting.”

    Assembly of SBND is expected to finish in fall 2019, after which the detector will be installed in its building along the accelerator-generated neutrino beam. SBND is scheduled to be commissioned and begin receiving beam in June 2020.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 2:04 pm on September 12, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , MicroBooNE, , ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “MicroBooNE demonstrates use of convolutional neural networks on liquid-argon TPC data for first time” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    Fermi National Accelerator Lab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    September 12, 2018
    Victor Genty, Kazuhiro Terao and Taritree

    It is hard these days not to encounter examples of machine learning out in the world. Chances are, if your phone unlocks using facial recognition or if you’re using voice commands to control your phone, you are likely using machine learning algorithms — in particular deep neural networks.

    What makes these algorithms so powerful is that they learn relationships between high-level concepts we wish to find in an image (faces) or sound wave (words) with sets of low-level patterns (lines, shapes, colors, textures, individual sounds), which represent them in the data. Furthermore, these low-level patterns and relationships do not have to be conceived of or hand-designed by humans, but instead are learned directly from examples of the data. Not having to come up with new patterns to find for each new problem is why deep neural networks have been able to advance the state of the art for so many different types of problems: from analyzing video for self-driving cars to assisting robots in learning how to manipulate objects.

    Here at Fermilab, there has been a lot of effort in having these deep neural networks help us analyze the data from our particle detectors so that we can more quickly and effectively use it to look for new physics. These applications are a continuation of the high-energy physics community’s long history in adopting and furthering the use of machine learning algorithms.

    Recently, the MicroBooNE neutrino experiment published a paper describing how they used convolutional neural networks — a particular type of deep neural network — to sort individual pixels coming from images made by a particular type of detector known as a liquid-argon time projection (LArTPC) chamber. The experiment designed a convolutional neural network called U-ResNet to distinguish between two types of pixels: those that were a part of a track-like particle trajectory from those that were a part of a shower-like particle trajectory.

    1
    This plot shows a comparison of U-ResNet performance on data and simulation, where the true pixel labels are provided by a physicist. The sample used is 100 events that contain a charged-current neutrino interaction candidate with neutral pions produced at the event vertex. The horizontal axis shows the fraction of pixels where the prediction by U-ResNet differed from the labels for each event. The error bars indicate only a statistical uncertainty.

    Track-like trajectories, made by particles such as a muon or proton, consist of a line with small curvature. Shower-like trajectories, produced by particles such as an electron or photon, are more complex topological features with many branching trajectories. This distinction is important because separating these type of topologies is known to be difficult for traditional algorithms. Not only that, shower-like shapes are produced when electrons and photons interact in the detector, and these two particles are often an important signal or background in physics analyses.

    MicroBooNE researchers demonstrated that these networks not only performed well but also worked in a similar fashion when presented with simulated data and real data. The latter is the first time this has been demonstrated for data from LArTPCs.

    Showing that networks behave the same on simulated and real data is critical, because these networks are typically trained on simulated data. Recall that these networks learn by looking at many examples. In industry, gathering large “training” data sets is an arduous and expensive task. However, particle physicists have a secret weapon — they can create as much simulated data as they want, since all experiments produce a highly detailed model of their detectors and data acquisition systems in order to produce as faithful a representation of the data as possible.

    However, these models are never perfect. And so a big question was, “Is the simulated data close enough to the real data to properly train these neural networks?” The way MicroBooNE answered this question is by performing a Turing test that compares the performance of the network to that of a physicist. They demonstrated that the accuracy of the human was similar to the machine when labeling simulated data, for which an absolute accuracy can be defined. They then compared the labels for real data. Here the disagreement between labels was low, and similar between machine and human (See the top figure. See the figure below for an example of how a human and computer labeled the same data event.) In addition, a number of qualitative studies looked at the correlation between manipulations of the image and the label provided by the network. They showed that the correlations follow human-like intuitions. For example, as a line segment gets shorter, the network becomes less confident if the segment is due to a track or a shower. This suggests that the low-level correlations being used are the same physically motivated correlations a physicist would use if engineering an algorithm by hand.

    2
    This example image shows a charged-current neutrino interaction with decay gamma rays from a neutral pion (left). The label image (middle) is shown with the output of U-ResNet (right) where track and shower pixels are shown in yellow and cyan color respectively.

    Demonstrating this simulated-versus-real data milestone is important because convolutional neural networks are valuable to current and future neutrino experiments that will use LArTPCs. This track-shower labeling is currently being employed in upcoming MicroBooNE analyses. Furthermore, for the upcoming Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), convolutional neural networks are showing much promise toward having the performance necessary to achieve DUNE’s physics goals, such as the measurement of CP violation, a possible explanation of the asymmetry in the presence of matter and antimatter in the current universe.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    The more demonstrations there are that these algorithms work on real LArTPC data, the more confidence the community can have that convolutional neural networks will help us learn about the properties of the neutrino and the fundamental laws of nature once DUNE begins to take data.

    Science paper:
    A Deep Neural Network for Pixel-Level Electromagnetic Particle Identification in the MicroBooNE Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber
    https://arxiv.org/abs/1808.07269

    Victor Genty, Kazuhiro Terao and Taritree Wongjirad are three of the scientists who analyzed this result. Victor Genty is a graduate student at Columbia University. Kazuhiro Terao is a physicist at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Taritree Wongjirad is an assistant professor at Tufts University.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 2:01 pm on August 16, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Hunt for the sterile neutrino, , , MicroBooNE, , , , , Short-Baseline Neutrino experiments   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “ICARUS neutrino detector installed in new Fermilab home” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    August 16, 2018
    Leah Hesla

    For four years, three laboratories on two continents have prepared the ICARUS particle detector to capture the interactions of mysterious particles called neutrinos at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

    On Tuesday, Aug. 14, ICARUS moved into its new Fermilab home, a recently completed building that houses the large, 20-meter-long neutrino hunter. Filled with 760 tons of liquid argon, it is one of the largest detectors of its kind in the world.

    With this move, ICARUS now sits in the path of Fermilab’s neutrino beam, a milestone that brings the detector one step closer to taking data.

    It’s also the final step in an international scientific handoff. From 2010 to 2014, ICARUS operated at the Italian Gran Sasso National Laboratory, run by the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics. Then the detector was sent to the European laboratory CERN, where it was refurbished for its future life at Fermilab, outside Chicago. In July 2017, ICARUS completed its trans-Atlantic trip to the American laboratory.

    1
    The second of two ICARUS detector modules is lowered into its place in the detector hall. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    “In the first part of its life, ICARUS was an exquisite instrument for the Gran Sasso program, and now CERN has improved it, bringing it in line with the latest technology,” said CERN scientist and Nobel laureate Carlo Rubbia, who led the experiment when it was at Gran Sasso and currently leads the ICARUS collaboration. “I eagerly anticipate the results that come out of ICARUS in the Fermilab phase of its life.”

    Since 2017, Fermilab, working with its international partners, has been instrumenting the ICARUS building, getting it ready for the detector’s final, short move.

    “Having ICARUS settled in is incredibly gratifying. We’ve been anticipating this moment for four years,” said scientist Steve Brice, who heads the Fermilab Neutrino Division. “We’re grateful to all our colleagues in Italy and at CERN for building and preparing this sophisticated neutrino detector.”

    Neutrinos are famously fleeting. They rarely interact with matter: Trillions of the subatomic particles pass through us every second without a trace. To catch them in the act of interacting, scientists build detectors of considerable size. The more massive the detector, the greater the chance that a neutrino stops inside it, enabling scientists to study the elusive particles.

    ICARUS’s 760 tons of liquid argon give neutrinos plenty of opportunity to interact. The interaction of a neutrino with an argon atom produces fast-moving charged particles. The charged particles liberate atomic electrons from the argon atoms as they pass by, and these tracks of electrons are drawn to planes of charged wires inside the detector. Scientists study the tracks to learn about the neutrino that kicked everything off.

    Rubbia himself spearheaded the effort to make use of liquid argon as a detection material more than 25 years ago, and that same technology is being developed for the future Fermilab neutrino physics program.

    “This is an exciting moment for ICARUS,” said scientist Claudio Montanari of INFN Pavia, who is the technical coordinator for ICARUS. “We’ve been working for months choreographing and carrying out all the steps involved in refurbishing and installing it. This move is like the curtain coming down after the entr’acte. Now we’ll get to see the next act.”

    ICARUS is one part of the Fermilab-hosted Short-Baseline Neutrino program, whose aim is to search for a hypothesized but never conclusively observed type of neutrino, known as a sterile neutrino. Scientists know of three neutrino types. The discovery of a fourth could reveal new physics about the evolution of the universe. It could also open an avenue for modeling dark matter, which constitutes 23 percent of the universe’s mass.

    ICARUS is the second of three Short-Baseline Neutrino detectors to be installed. The first, called MicroBooNE, began operating in 2015 and is currently taking data. The third, called the Short-Baseline Near Detector, is under construction. All use liquid argon.

    FNAL/MicroBooNE

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector

    Fermilab’s powerful particle accelerators provide a plentiful supply of neutrinos and will send an intense beam of the particle through the three detectors — first SBND, then MicroBooNE, then ICARUS. Scientists will study the differences in data collected by the trio to get a precise handle on the neutrino’s behavior.

    “So many mysteries are locked up inside neutrinos,” said Fermilab scientist Peter Wilson, Short-Baseline Neutrino coordinator. “It’s thrilling to think that we might solve even one of them, because it would help fill in our frustratingly incomplete picture of how the universe evolved into what we see today.”

    2
    Members of the crew that moved ICARUS stand by the detector. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    The three Short-Baseline Neutrino experiments are just one part of Fermilab’s vibrant suite of experiments to study the subtle neutrino.

    NOvA, Fermilab’s largest operating neutrino experiment, studies a behavior called neutrino oscillation.


    FNAL/NOvA experiment map


    FNAL NOvA detector in northern Minnesota


    FNAL Near Detector

    The three neutrino types change character, morphing in and out of their types as they travel. NOvA researchers use two giant detectors spaced 500 miles apart — one at Fermilab and another in Ash River, Minnesota — to study this behavior.

    Another Fermilab experiment, called MINERvA, studies how neutrinos interact with nuclei of different elements, enabling other neutrino researchers to better interpret what they see in their detectors.

    Scientists at Fermilab use the MINERvA to make measurements of neutrino interactions that can support the work of other neutrino experiments. Photo Reidar Hahn

    FNAL/MINERvA


    “Fermilab is the best place in the world to do neutrino research,” Wilson said. “The lab’s particle accelerators generate beams that are chock full of neutrinos, giving us that many more chances to study them in fine detail.”

    The construction and operation of the three Short-Baseline Neutrino experiments are valuable not just for fundamental research, but also for the development of the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) and the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), both hosted by Fermilab.

    DUNE will be the largest neutrino oscillation experiment ever built, sending particles 800 miles from Fermilab to Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota. The detector in South Dakota, known as the DUNE far detector, is mammoth: Made of four modules — each as tall and wide as a four-story building and almost as long as a football field — it will be filled with 70,000 tons of liquid argon, about 100 times more than ICARUS.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    The knowledge and expertise scientists and engineers gain from running the Short-Baseline Neutrino experiments, including ICARUS, will inform the installation and operation of LBNF/DUNE, which is expected to start up in the mid-2020s.

    “We’re developing some of the most advanced particle detection technology ever built for LBNF/DUNE,” Brice said. “In preparing for that effort, there’s no substitute for running an experiment that uses similar technology. ICARUS fills that need perfectly.”

    Eighty researchers from five countries collaborate on ICARUS. The collaboration will spend the next year instrumenting and commissioning the detector. They plan to begin taking data in 2019.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 2:10 pm on June 8, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , MicroBooNE, ,   

    From Fermilab: “A boon for physicists: new insights into neutrino interactions” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermilab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    June 8, 2018
    1
    Image of a 3-track neutrino event in the MicroBooNE data with a muon, charged pion, and proton candidate in the final state. Image: MicroBooNE collaboration

    Physicists on the MicroBooNE collaboration at the Department of Energy’s Fermilab have produced their first collection of science results. Roxanne Guenette of Harvard University presented the results on behalf of the collaboration at the international Neutrino 2018 conference in Germany. The measurements are of three independent quantities that describe neutrino interactions with argon atoms, which make up the 170 tons of total target material used for neutrino collisions inside the MicroBooNE detector.

    MicroBooNE started operations in the fall of 2015. The detector, about the size of a school bus, has recorded hundreds of thousands of neutrino-argon collisions since then. It features a time projection chamber with three wire planes that record the particle tracks created by those collisions, similar to a digital camera recording images of fireworks. The Booster particle accelerator at Fermilab is used to create the muon neutrino beam for the experiment.

    It is the first low-energy neutrino experiment to make detailed observations of the subatomic processes that happen when a muon neutrino hits and interacts with an argon atom, leading to showers of secondary particles including protons, pions, muons and more. Using noise-reducing analysis techniques, MicroBooNE scientists can interpret the precise images of the particle tracks.

    One of the new results reported at the Neutrino 2018 conference was the first measurement of the multiplicity – or number of particles – that these neutrino-argon collisions generate. A new paper describing these results was submitted to the journal Physical Review D last week. Other measurements determined the likelihood, or more precisely the cross section, of a neutrino-argon collision occurring and producing a neutral pion or a more inclusive final state.

    The new results are of great importance for the groundbreaking measurements to be performed by neutrino experiments with liquid-argon TPCs. This includes the search for a fourth type of neutrino with the Short-Baseline Neutrino program at Fermilab, which comprises three neutrino detectors: the ICARUS detector, built by Italy’s INFN, refurbished at CERN, and then shipped to Fermilab in 2017; the new Short Baseline Near Detector; and MicroBooNE.

    FNAL/ICARUS

    FNAL Short Baseline near Detector

    FNAL Near Detector

    FNAL/MicroBooNE

    The measurements are also important for the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment hosted by Fermilab, which will use both neutrino and antineutrino collisions with argon to search for differences between neutrino and antineutrino interactions, with the goal of understanding what role neutrinos played in the evolution of the universe.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    “We are building on the success of neutrino interaction measurements in ICARUS and ArgoNeuT now with much larger statistics in MicroBooNE, to enable precise cross section measurements on argon,” said MicroBooNE co-spokesperson Bonnie Fleming, who holds a joint appointment with Fermilab and Yale University. “These are the first high-statistics, precision measurements on argon. They will be critical for the DUNE program.”

    Nearly 200 scientists from 31 institutions in Israel, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States are members of the MicroBooNE collaboration. The experiment is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 1:58 pm on January 30, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Fermilab’s Short-Baseline Neutrino Program, , , MicroBooNE, , , , , Short-Baseline Near Detector   

    From Symmetry “Sterile neutrino sleuths” 

    Symmetry Mag

    Symmetry

    01/30/18
    Tom Barratt
    Leah Poffenberger

    FNAL/ICARUS

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Short baseline neutrino detector

    Meet the detectors of Fermilab’s Short-Baseline Neutrino Program, hunting for signs of a possible fourth type of neutrino.

    Neutrinos are not a sociable bunch. Every second, trillions upon trillions of the tiny particles shoot down to Earth from space, but the vast majority don’t stop in to pay a visit—they continue on their journey, almost completely unaffected by any matter they come across.

    Their reluctance to hang around is what makes it such a challenge to study them. But the Short-Baseline Neutrino (SBN) Program at the US Department of Energy’s Fermilab is doing just that: further unraveling the mysteries of neutrinos with three vast detectors filled with ultrapure liquid argon.

    Argon is an inert substance normally found in the air around us—and, once isolated, an excellent medium for studying neutrinos. A neutrino colliding with an argon nucleus leaves behind a signature track and a spray of new particles such as electrons or photons, which can be picked up inside a detector.

    SBN uses three detectors along a straight line in the path of a specially designed neutrino source called the Booster Neutrino Beamline (BNB) at Fermilab. Scientists calculated the exact positions that would yield the most interesting and useful results from the experiment.

    The detectors study a property of neutrinos that scientists have known about for a while but do not have a complete grasp on: oscillations, the innate ability of neutrinos to change their form as they travel. Neutrinos come in three known types, or “flavors”: electron, muon and tau. But oscillations mean each of those types is interchangeable with the others, so a neutrino that begins life as a muon neutrino can naturally transform into an electron neutrino by the end of its journey.

    Some experiments, however, have come up with intriguing results that suggest there could be a fourth type of neutrino that interacts even less than the three types that have already been documented. An experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1995 showed the first evidence that a fourth neutrino might exist. It was dubbed the “sterile” neutrino because it appears to be unaffected by anything other than gravity. In 2007, MiniBooNE, a previous experiment at Fermilab, showed possible hints of its existence, too, but neither experiment was powerful enough to say if their results definitively demonstrated the existence of a new type of neutrino.

    That’s why it’s crucial to have these three, more powerful detectors. Carefully comparing the findings from all three detectors should allow the best measurement yet of whether a sterile neutrino is lurking out of sight. And finding the sterile neutrino would be evidence of new, intriguing physics—something that doesn’t fit our current picture of the world.

    These three detectors are international endeavors, funded in part by DOE’s Office of Science, the National Science Foundation, the Science and Technology Facilities Council in the UK, CERN, the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) in Italy, the Swiss National Science Foundation and others. Each helps further develop the technologies, training and expertise needed to design, build and operate another experiment that has been under construction since July: the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). This international mega-scientific collaboration hosted by Fermilab will send neutrinos 800 miles from Illinois to the massive DUNE detectors, which will be installed a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    Meet each of the SBN detectors below:

    3
    Artwork by Sandbox Studio, Chicago

    Short-Baseline Near Detector

    Closest to the BNB source at just 110 meters, the Short-Baseline Near Detector (SBND) provides a benchmark for the whole experiment, studying the neutrinos just after they leave the source and before they have a chance to oscillate between flavors. Almost a cube shape, the detecting part of the SBND is four meters tall and wide, five meters long and weighs around 260 tons in total—with a 112-ton active liquid argon volume.

    With a CERN-designed state-of-the-art membrane design for its cooling cryostat—which keeps the argon in a liquid state—SBND is a pioneering detector in the field of neutrino research. It will test new technologies and techniques that will be used in later neutrino projects such as DUNE.

    Due to its proximity to the neutrino source, SBND will collect a colossal amount of interaction data. A secondary, long-term goal of SBND will be to work through this cache to precisely study the physics of these neutrino interactions and even to search for other signs of new physics.

    “After a few years of running, we will have recorded millions of neutrino interactions in SBND, which will be a treasure trove of data that we can use to make many measurements,” says David Schmitz, physicist at the University of Chicago and co-spokesperson for the experiment. “Studying these neutrino interactions in this particular type of detector will have long-term value, especially in the context of DUNE, which will use the same detection principles.”

    The SBND is well on its way to completion; its groundbreaking took place in April 2016 and its components are being built in Switzerland, the UK, Italy and at CERN.

    ___________________________________________
    Stats
    Detector name- SBND (Short-Baseline Near Detector)
    Dimensions- Almost cubic, 4x4x5m (5 meters in beam direction)
    Primary materials- Cryostat and structure made from stainless steel, with polyurethane thermal insulation
    Argon mass- 260 tons in total (112-ton active volume)
    Location- 110 meters from BNB source
    Construction status- Groundbreaking in April 2016, components currently being manufactured in universities and labs around the world
    What makes it unique- Uses membrane cryostat technology, modular TPC construction, and sophisticated electronics operated at cryogenic temperatures, like that which will be used in DUNE; will record millions of neutrino interactions per year
    ___________________________________________

    4
    Artwork by Sandbox Studio, Chicago

    MicroBooNE

    The middle detector, MicroBooNE, was the first of the three detectors to come online. When it did so in 2015, it was the first detector ever to collect data on neutrino interactions in argon at the energies provided by the BNB. The detector sits 360 meters past SBND, nestled as close as possible to its predecessor, MiniBooNE. This proximity is on purpose: MicroBooNE, a more advanced detector, is designed to get a better look at the intriguing results from MiniBooNE.

    In all, MicroBooNE weighs 170 tons (with an active liquid argon volume of 89 tons), making it currently the largest operating neutrino detector in the United States of its kind—a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC). That title will transfer to the far detector, ICARUS (see below), upon its installation in 2018.

    While following up on MiniBooNE’s anomaly, MicroBooNE has another important job: providing scientists at Fermilab with useful experience of operating a liquid argon detector, which contributes to the development of new technology for the next generation of experiments.

    “We’ve never in history had more than one liquid argon detector on any beamline, and that’s what makes the SBN Program exciting,” says Fermilab’s Sam Zeller, co-spokesperson for MicroBooNE. “It’s the first time we will have at least two detectors studying neutrino oscillations with liquid argon technology.”

    Techniques used to fill MicroBooNE with argon will pave the way for the gargantuan DUNE far detector in the future, which will hold more than 400 times as much liquid argon as MicroBooNE. Neutrino detectors rely on the liquid inside being extremely pure, and to achieve this goal, all the air normally has to be pumped out before liquid is put in. But MicroBooNE scientists used a different technique: They pumped argon gas into the detector—which pushed all the air out—and then cooled until it condensed into liquid. This new approach will eliminate the need to evacuate the air from DUNE’s six-story-tall detectors.

    Along with contributing to the next generation of detectors, MicroBooNE also contributes to training the next generation of neutrino scientists from around the world. Over half of the collaboration in charge of running MicroBooNE are students and postdocs who bring innovative ideas for analyzing its data.

    ___________________________________________________
    Stats
    Detector name- MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment)
    Dimensions- Cylindrical shape (outer), inner TPC: 10.3m long x 2.3m tall x 2.5m wide
    Primary materials- Stainless steel cylinder containing argon vessel and detector elements (stabilized with front and rear supports), polyurethane foam insulation on outer surfaces
    Argon mass- 170 tons in total (89-ton active volume)
    Location- 470 meters from BNB source
    Construction status- Assembled at Fermilab 2012-13, installed in June 2014, has been operating since 2015
    What makes it unique- Used gas-pumped technique to fill with argon; more than half of operators are students or postdocs

    __________________________________________________

    5
    Artwork by Sandbox Studio, Chicago

    ICARUS (Imaging Cosmic And Rare Underground Signals)

    The largest of SBN’s detectors, ICARUS, is also the most distant from the neutrino source—600 meters down the line. Like SBND and MicroBooNE, ICARUS uses liquid argon as a neutrino detection technique, with over 700 tons of the dense liquid split between two symmetrical modules. These colossal tanks of liquid argon, together with excellent imaging capabilities, will allow extremely sensitive detections of neutrino interactions when the detector comes online at Fermilab in 2018.

    The positioning of ICARUS along the neutrino beamline is crucial to its mission. The detector will measure the proportion of both electron and muon neutrinos that collide with argon nuclei as the intense beam of neutrinos passes through it. By comparing this data with that from SBND, scientists will be able to see if the results match with those from previous experiments and explore whether they could be explained by the existence of a sterile neutrino.

    ICARUS, along with MicroBooNE, is also positioned on the Fermilab site close to another neutrino beam, called Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI), which provides neutrinos for the existing experiments at Fermilab and in Minnesota. Unlike the main BNB beam, the NuMI beam will hit ICARUS at an angle through the detector. The goal will be to measure neutrino cross-sections—a measure of their interaction likelihood—rather than their oscillations. The energy of the NuMI beam is similar to that which will be used for DUNE, so ICARUS will provide excellent knowledge and experience to work out the kinks for the huge experiment.

    The detector’s journey has been a long one. From its groundbreaking development, construction and operation in Italy at INFN’s Gran Sasso Laboratory under the leadership of Nobel laureate Carlo Rubbia, ICARUS traveled to CERN in Switzerland in 2014 for some renovation and upgrades. Equipped with new observing capabilities, it was then shipped across the Atlantic to Fermilab in 2017, where it is currently being installed in its future home. Scientists intend to begin taking data with ICARUS in 2018.

    “ICARUS unlocked the potential of liquid argon detectors, and now it’s becoming a crucial part of our research,” says Peter Wilson, head of Fermilab’s SBN program. “We’re excited to see the data coming out of our short-baseline neutrino detectors and apply the lessons we learn to better understand neutrinos with DUNE.”

    _________________________________________
    Stats
    Detector name- ICARUS (Imaging Cosmic And Rare Underground Signals)
    Dimensions- Argon chamber split into two separate argon chambers, each 3.6m long, 3.9m high, 19.6m long
    Primary materials- Detector components held by low-carbon stainless-steel structure, inside cryostat made of aluminum, with thermal shielding layers of boiling nitrogen (to maintain cryostat temperature) and polyurethane thermal insulation
    Argon mass- 760 tons in total (476-ton active volume)
    Location- 600 meters from BNB source
    Construction status- Designed and built in the INFN lab in Pavia, Italy, from the late 1990s, then transferred to the INFN Underground Laboratory at Gran Sasso Laboratory, Italy, where it began operating in 2010. Traveled to CERN for refurbishment in 2014. Arrived at Fermilab in July 2017; currently under installation. Aims to start taking data in 2018.
    What makes it unique- Largest neutrino liquid argon TPC ever built

    _________________________________________

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 12:54 pm on November 30, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , MicroBooNE, , ,   

    From FNAL: “Handy and trendy: MicroBooNE’s new look” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    November 30, 2016
    Ricarda Laasch

    1
    MicroBooNE’s shiny new exterior helps scientists identify cosmic rays masquerading as neutrinos. From left: Elena Gramellini, Thomas Mettler. Martin Auger, Mark Shoun, John Voirin. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    The signals of cosmic rays

    Cosmic rays are a constant rain of particles that are created in our sun or faraway stars and travel through space to our planet.

    They’re subjects of many important physics studies, but for MicroBooNE’s research, they simply get in the way. That’s because MicroBooNE scientists are looking for something else — abundant, subtle particles called neutrinos.

    FNAL/MicrobooNE
    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    Unlocking the secrets neutrinos hold could help us understand the evolution of our universe, but they’re exceedingly difficult to measure. Fleeting neutrinos are rarely captured, even as they sail through detectors built for that purpose.

    Add to that the fact that their interactions are potentially drowned in a sea of cosmic rays rushing through the same detector, and you get a sense of the formidable challenge that neutrinos represent.

    The MicroBooNE experiment starts with Fermilab’s powerful accelerators, which create neutrino beams that are then propelled through the MicroBooNE detector.

    2
    July 8, 2015 Fermilab’s Main Injector accelerator, one of the most powerful particle accelerators in the world, has just achieved a world record for high-energy beams for neutrino experiments. Photo: Fermilab

    3

    4
    Fermilab’s accelerator complex comprises seven particle accelerators and storage rings. It produces the world’s most powerful, high-energy neutrino beam and provides proton beams for a variety of experiments and R&D programs.

    Fermilab is currently upgrading its accelerator complex to deliver high-intensity neutrino beams and to provide beams for a broad range of new and existing experiments, including the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment, Muon g-2 and Mu2e.

    “The neutrino beam here at the lab gives us the right conditions to study neutrinos,” said Elena Gramellini, a Yale University graduate student on the MicroBooNE experiment. “Our challenge is to pick out neutrinos from many cosmic rays passing through the detector.”

    Since cosmic rays are made of some of the same particles produced when a neutrino interacts with matter, they leave signals in the MicroBooNE detector that are often similar to the sought-after neutrino signals. Scientists need to be able to sort the cosmic rays in the MicroBooNE data from the neutrino signals.

    Tagging and sorting

    Even several feet of concrete enclosure would not completely block cosmic rays from hitting a detector such as MicroBooNE, not to mention that such a structure would be inconvenient and expensive. Instead, MicroBooNE uses the aforementioned panels, called a cosmic ray tagger, or CRT. While the panels don’t block cosmic rays, they do detect them.

    Each CRT panel has particle-detecting components – strips of scintillator – that lie beneath its shiny aluminum enclosure. Cosmic ray particles can easily pass through aluminum and the scintillator — a clear, plastic-like material — on their way toward the MicroBooNE detector.

    The cosmic ray particles deposit energy in the plastic scintillator, which then emits light. An optical fiber buried inside the scintillator captures the emitted light and transmits it to devices that generate the digital information that tells scientists where and when the cosmic ray struck.

    “With our current layout of scintillator strips in each panel, we are able to tell precisely where the cosmic ray enters the MicroBooNE detector after it left the panel,” said Igor Kreslo, professor at the University of Bern who designed the CRT panels for MicroBooNE. “Our design effort really paid off and now ensures thorough cosmic ray tracking.“

    So why the shiny aluminum shell? It blocks unwanted light from the detector’s immediate surroundings so that only light created by cosmic rays inside a CRT panel reaches the optical fiber and is detected.

    Putting up panels

    The 49 rectangular CRT panels are the contribution of the University of Bern in Switzerland, one of the 28 institutions collaborating on MicroBooNE worldwide. They produced the panels last winter and shipped them to Fermilab during the spring.

    “This was a large project for us, and it took everyone in Bern to finish everything in time,” said Martin Auger, scientist at the University of Bern who planned the arrangement of the CRT panels. “A key moment was the test of the CRT panels after the long journey to Fermilab. All the panels arrived in good shape!”

    The installation team overcame a number of challenges —including the tight space in which MicroBooNE stands — to successfully place the panels around the detector.

    “The installation crew is a crack team of veteran Fermilab employees,” said John Voirin, who leads experiment installations at the laboratory. “In the end we have a very elegant, safe operating product that is a valuable asset to the experiment.”

    Later this year the group will complete the installation by placing the final layer on top of the MicroBooNE detector. Even without it, the CRT already greatly enhances the capabilities of the experiment.

    “We started taking data just in time for the first neutrinos delivered to the experiment,” Gramellini said.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon
    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel
%d bloggers like this: