Tagged: MIchigan State University Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • richardmitnick 8:21 pm on October 5, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New 'living' wood could be an environmental superhero", A new building material that sounds like something out of a comic book., , “Living wood" - a first-of-its-kind concept using the natural activity of microbes implanted in wood., , Michigan State University, Michigan State University and Purdue University researchers team up to create a new type of strong sustainable self-healing timber infused with microbes., , , The new material be stronger than steel and have the power to heal itself while pulling greenhouse gases out of the atmosphere.   

    From Michigan State University And Purdue University: “New ‘living’ wood could be an environmental superhero” 

    Michigan State Bloc

    From Michigan State University

    And

    Purdue University

    9.28.22
    Matt Davenport

    Michigan State University and Purdue University researchers team up to create a new type of strong sustainable self-healing timber infused with microbes.

    Michigan State University and Purdue University are teaming up to create a new building material that sounds like something out of a comic book. It’ll be stronger than steel and have the power to heal itself while pulling greenhouse gases out of the atmosphere.

    As fantastic — or amazing or uncanny — as that might sound, this new material won’t rely on alien technology or supernatural forces. It will, instead, leverage the very natural forces of microbes and timber.

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy, or ARPA-E, has awarded the research team nearly $1 million to develop “living wood” – a first-of-its-kind concept using the natural activity of microbes implanted in wood. The grant is one of 18 awarded to institutions around the country as part of the competitive Harnessing Emissions into Structures Taking Inputs from the Atmosphere, or HESTIA, program.

    “We know that, naturally, wood decomposes from microbial activity,” said Jinxing Li, an assistant professor in the College of Engineering and the Institute for Quantitative Health Science and Engineering, or IQ. Li is MSU’s lead investigator on the project.

    “But on the other end, there are microbes that can make strong biomaterials,” he said. “So we started asking if we can engineer certain microbes into the wood that will make it stronger instead of degrading it.”

    “We are harnessing the microbial properties that are already there in nature,” said Tian Li, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering at Purdue University and the project’s principal investigator.

    Improving pore performance

    Wood is a naturally porous material, and its pores often store things that don’t benefit timber as a building material. For instance, the pores can store air, which promotes flammability, or moisture, which can accelerate degradation.

    1
    Vittorio Mottini, a biomedical engineering doctoral student in Jinxing Li’s lab at Michigan State University, holds a stack of samples the team is using in their new “living wood” project. The team laser etched an image of Sparty, MSU’s mascot, in the top plank. Credit: Jinxing Li.

    The team’s goal is to introduce microbes into the wood’s porous network, let them gobble up carbon dioxide from the environment and convert that into tough biomaterials that will plug the pores.

    “By filling up this empty volume in wood, you’re going to have improved mechanical strength and flame resistance,” Tian Li said.

    In addition to filling pores, the microbe-made materials could also help repair damage sustained by the wood over its lifetime.

    “And the process itself consumes carbon dioxide, so we’ll be making stronger wood while reducing greenhouse gas emissions,” Jinxing Li said.

    This project and others in the HESTIA program are helping the U.S. reach its zero emissions goal by 2050. Addressing climate change is also a key initiative of the Michigan State University 2030 strategic plan.

    This new Michigan State University and Purdue University collaboration took root a couple of years ago, when Jinxing Li and Tian Li were both on the job market and crossing paths during interviews. They would bounce ideas off each other, and that practice continued after they secured their faculty positions. Building on earlier, unfunded ideas and connecting with new colleagues at their new universities, the researchers developed this successful ARPA-E proposal.

    “Teamwork at its best”

    The living wood will have three components: the wood itself and microbes in the form of bacteria and fungi. At Michigan State University, Jinxing Li connected with Gregory Bonito, an associate professor in the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources; Bige Deniz Unluturk, an assistant professor in the College of Engineering; and Gemma Reguera, a professor in the College of Natural Science.

    “Gemma and Greg are the top brains in microbiology. Gemma focuses on screening and designing the best bacteria for carbon capture and wood enhancement, while Greg focuses on using the fungal network to guide the biological modification of the wood. Bige is an expert in using computer models to guide our design,” Jinxing Li said. “Then at Purdue University, we have experts in wood, building and life-cycle assessment.”

    For his part, Jinxing Li will be developing “bio inks” containing microbes that will be infused into timber.

    “My goal is to engineer a liquid or ink that has the best chemical and physical properties to penetrate the wood’s pores as deeply as we can,” he said. “We can also tune the nutrients in the ink and use synthetic biology to improve the output of the microbes.”

    “The project is a perfect blend of biology and engineering disciplines to make something totally new and transformative,” said Reguera, who recently joined the College of Natural Science’s leadership team as an associate dean. “I am delighted to work with great colleagues at Michigan State University and Purdue University. We were all so excited to join forces — this is teamwork at its best.”

    Both Reguera and Li acknowledged the idea of a “living” wood outperforming other established building materials may sound wild or farfetched. But it’s important to remember the team is trying to coordinate and optimize things nature already does in a way that better serves humanity’s needs.

    Microbes already capture carbon dioxide and synthesize sturdy materials. There are even reports of them doing this naturally in some trees.

    “The microbial activities generate biomaterials that harden the wood and protect the tree from mechanical stress,” Reguera said.

    “They also turn the wood into a very elegant dark color because of the minerals inside. The wood is actually used in furniture and art, particularly in Japan and China,” Jinxing Li said. “We were excited to discover such a phenomenon does exist in nature, thus boosting our confidence of success.”

    Other members of the Purdue University team are Fu Zhao, an associate professor in the School of Mechanical Engineering, and Eva Haviarova, a professor in the Department of Forestry and Natural Resources.

    “Coming together as a team has been a joy,” said Reguera. “We are truly excited about the proposition and the possibilities to advance knowledge in such an innovative way.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Purdue University is a public land-grant research university in West Lafayette, Indiana, and the flagship campus of the Purdue University system. The university was founded in 1869 after Lafayette businessman John Purdue donated land and money to establish a college of science, technology, and agriculture in his name. The first classes were held on September 16, 1874, with six instructors and 39 students.

    The main campus in West Lafayette offers more than 200 majors for undergraduates, over 69 masters and doctoral programs, and professional degrees in pharmacy and veterinary medicine. In addition, Purdue has 18 intercollegiate sports teams and more than 900 student organizations. Purdue is a member of the Big Ten Conference and enrolls the second largest student body of any university in Indiana, as well as the fourth largest foreign student population of any university in the United States.

    Purdue University is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. Purdue has 25 American astronauts as alumni and as of April 2019, the university has been associated with 13 Nobel Prizes.

    In 1865, the Indiana General Assembly voted to take advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act of 1862 and began plans to establish an institution with a focus on agriculture and engineering. Communities throughout the state offered facilities and funding in bids for the location of the new college. Popular proposals included the addition of an agriculture department at Indiana State University, at what is now Butler University. By 1869, Tippecanoe County’s offer included $150,000 (equivalent to $2.9 million in 2019) from Lafayette business leader and philanthropist John Purdue; $50,000 from the county; and 100 acres (0.4 km^2) of land from local residents.

    On May 6, 1869, the General Assembly established the institution in Tippecanoe County as Purdue University, in the name of the principal benefactor. Classes began at Purdue on September 16, 1874, with six instructors and 39 students. Professor John S. Hougham was Purdue’s first faculty member and served as acting president between the administrations of presidents Shortridge and White. A campus of five buildings was completed by the end of 1874. In 1875, Sarah A. Oren, the State Librarian of Indiana, was appointed Professor of Botany.

    Purdue issued its first degree, a Bachelor of Science in chemistry, in 1875, and admitted its first female students that autumn.

    Emerson E. White, the university’s president, from 1876 to 1883, followed a strict interpretation of the Morrill Act. Rather than emulate the classical universities, White believed Purdue should be an “industrial college” and devote its resources toward providing a broad, liberal education with an emphasis on science, technology, and agriculture. He intended not only to prepare students for industrial work, but also to prepare them to be good citizens and family members.

    Part of White’s plan to distinguish Purdue from classical universities included a controversial attempt to ban fraternities, which was ultimately overturned by the Indiana Supreme Court, leading to White’s resignation. The next president, James H. Smart, is remembered for his call in 1894 to rebuild the original Heavilon Hall “one brick higher” after it had been destroyed by a fire.

    By the end of the nineteenth century, the university was organized into schools of agriculture, engineering (mechanical, civil, and electrical), and pharmacy; former U.S. President Benjamin Harrison served on the board of trustees. Purdue’s engineering laboratories included testing facilities for a locomotive, and for a Corliss steam engine—one of the most efficient engines of the time. The School of Agriculture shared its research with farmers throughout the state, with its cooperative extension services, and would undergo a period of growth over the following two decades. Programs in education and home economics were soon established, as well as a short-lived school of medicine. By 1925, Purdue had the largest undergraduate engineering enrollment in the country, a status it would keep for half a century.

    President Edward C. Elliott oversaw a campus building program between the world wars. Inventor, alumnus, and trustee David E. Ross coordinated several fundraisers, donated lands to the university, and was instrumental in establishing the Purdue Research Foundation. Ross’s gifts and fundraisers supported such projects as Ross–Ade Stadium, the Memorial Union, a civil engineering surveying camp, and Purdue University Airport. Purdue Airport was the country’s first university-owned airport and the site of the country’s first college-credit flight training courses.

    Amelia Earhart joined the Purdue faculty in 1935 as a consultant for these flight courses and as a counselor on women’s careers. In 1937, the Purdue Research Foundation provided the funds for the Lockheed Electra 10-E Earhart flew on her attempted round-the-world flight.

    Every school and department at the university was involved in some type of military research or training during World War II. During a project on radar receivers, Purdue physicists discovered properties of germanium that led to the making of the first transistor. The Army and the Navy conducted training programs at Purdue and more than 17,500 students, staff, and alumni served in the armed forces. Purdue set up about a hundred centers throughout Indiana to train skilled workers for defense industries. As veterans returned to the university under the G.I. Bill, first-year classes were taught at some of these sites to alleviate the demand for campus space. Four of these sites are now degree-granting regional campuses of the Purdue University system. On-campus housing became racially desegregated in 1947, following pressure from Purdue President Frederick L. Hovde and Indiana Governor Ralph F. Gates.

    After the war, Hovde worked to expand the academic opportunities at the university. A decade-long construction program emphasized science and research. In the late 1950s and early 1960s the university established programs in veterinary medicine, industrial management, and nursing, as well as the first computer science department in the United States. Undergraduate humanities courses were strengthened, although Hovde only reluctantly approved of graduate-level study in these areas. Purdue awarded its first Bachelor of Arts degrees in 1960. The programs in liberal arts and education, formerly administered by the School of Science, were soon split into an independent school.

    The official seal of Purdue was officially inaugurated during the university’s centennial in 1969.

    1

    Consisting of elements from emblems that had been used unofficially for 73 years, the current seal depicts a griffin, symbolizing strength, and a three-part shield, representing education, research, and service.

    In recent years, Purdue’s leaders have continued to support high-tech research and international programs. In 1987, U.S. President Ronald Reagan visited the West Lafayette campus to give a speech about the influence of technological progress on job creation.

    In the 1990s, the university added more opportunities to study abroad and expanded its course offerings in world languages and cultures. The first buildings of the Discovery Park interdisciplinary research center were dedicated in 2004.

    Purdue launched a Global Policy Research Institute in 2010 to explore the potential impact of technical knowledge on public policy decisions.

    On April 27, 2017, Purdue University announced plans to acquire for-profit college Kaplan University and convert it to a public university in the state of Indiana, subject to multiple levels of approval. That school now operates as Purdue University Global, and aims to serve adult learners.

    Campuses

    Purdue’s campus is situated in the small city of West Lafayette, near the western bank of the Wabash River, across which sits the larger city of Lafayette. State Street, which is concurrent with State Road 26, divides the northern and southern portions of campus. Academic buildings are mostly concentrated on the eastern and southern parts of campus, with residence halls and intramural fields to the west, and athletic facilities to the north. The Greater Lafayette Public Transportation Corporation (CityBus) operates eight campus loop bus routes on which students, faculty, and staff can ride free of charge with Purdue Identification.

    Organization and administration

    The university president, appointed by the board of trustees, is the chief administrative officer of the university. The office of the president oversees admission and registration, student conduct and counseling, the administration and scheduling of classes and space, the administration of student athletics and organized extracurricular activities, the libraries, the appointment of the faculty and conditions of their employment, the appointment of all non-faculty employees and the conditions of employment, the general organization of the university, and the planning and administration of the university budget.

    The Board of Trustees directly appoints other major officers of the university including a provost who serves as the chief academic officer for the university, several vice presidents with oversight over specific university operations, and the regional campus chancellors.

    Academic divisions

    Purdue is organized into thirteen major academic divisions.

    College of Agriculture

    The university’s College of Agriculture supports the university’s agricultural, food, life, and natural resource science programs. The college also supports the university’s charge as a land-grant university to support agriculture throughout the state; its agricultural extension program plays a key role in this.

    College of Education

    The College of Education offers undergraduate degrees in elementary education, social studies education, and special education, and graduate degrees in these and many other specialty areas of education. It has two departments: (a) Curriculum and Instruction and (b) Educational Studies.

    College of Engineering

    The Purdue University College of Engineering was established in 1874 with programs in Civil and Mechanical Engineering. The college now offers B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in more than a dozen disciplines. Purdue’s engineering program has also educated 24 of America’s astronauts, including Neil Armstrong and Eugene Cernan who were the first and last astronauts to have walked on the Moon, respectively. Many of Purdue’s engineering disciplines are recognized as top-ten programs in the U.S. The college as a whole is currently ranked 7th in the U.S. of all doctorate-granting engineering schools by U.S. News & World Report.

    Exploratory Studies

    The university’s Exploratory Studies program supports undergraduate students who enter the university without having a declared major. It was founded as a pilot program in 1995 and made a permanent program in 1999.

    College of Health and Human Sciences

    The College of Health and Human Sciences was established in 2010 and is the newest college. It offers B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in all 10 of its academic units.

    College of Liberal Arts

    Purdue’s College of Liberal Arts contains the arts, social sciences and humanities programs at the university. Liberal arts courses have been taught at Purdue since its founding in 1874. The School of Science, Education, and Humanities was formed in 1953. In 1963, the School of Humanities, Social Sciences, and Education was established, although Bachelor of Arts degrees had begun to be conferred as early as 1959. In 1989, the School of Liberal Arts was created to encompass Purdue’s arts, humanities, and social sciences programs, while education programs were split off into the newly formed School of Education. The School of Liberal Arts was renamed the College of Liberal Arts in 2005.

    Krannert School of Management

    The Krannert School of Management offers management courses and programs at the undergraduate, master’s, and doctoral levels.

    College of Pharmacy

    The university’s College of Pharmacy was established in 1884 and is the 3rd oldest state-funded school of pharmacy in the United States. The school offers two undergraduate programs leading to the B.S. in Pharmaceutical Sciences (BSPS) and the Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) professional degree. Graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees are offered in three departments (Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, and Pharmacy Practice). Additionally, the school offers several non-degree certificate programs and post-graduate continuing education activities.

    Purdue Polytechnic Institute

    The Purdue Polytechnic Institute offers bachelor’s, master’s and Ph.D. degrees in a wide range of technology-related disciplines. With over 30,000 living alumni, it is one of the largest technology schools in the United States.

    College of Science

    The university’s College of Science houses the university’s science departments: Biological Sciences; Chemistry; Computer Science; Earth, Atmospheric, & Planetary Sciences; Mathematics; Physics & Astronomy; and Statistics. The science courses offered by the college account for about one-fourth of Purdue’s one million student credit hours.

    College of Veterinary Medicine

    The College of Veterinary Medicine is accredited by the AVMA to offer the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree, associate’s and bachelor’s degrees in veterinary technology, master’s and Ph.D. degrees, and residency programs leading to specialty board certification. Within the state of Indiana, the Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine is the only veterinary school, while the Indiana University School of Medicine is one of only two medical schools (the other being Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine). The two schools frequently collaborate on medical research projects.

    Honors College

    Purdue’s Honors College supports an honors program for undergraduate students at the university.

    The Graduate School

    The university’s Graduate School supports graduate students at the university.

    Research

    The university expended $622.814 million in support of research system-wide in 2017, using funds received from the state and federal governments, industry, foundations, and individual donors. The faculty and more than 400 research laboratories put Purdue University among the leading research institutions. Purdue University is considered by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education to have “very high research activity”. Purdue also was rated the nation’s fourth best place to work in academia, according to rankings released in November 2007 by The Scientist magazine. Purdue’s researchers provide insight, knowledge, assistance, and solutions in many crucial areas. These include, but are not limited to Agriculture; Business and Economy; Education; Engineering; Environment; Healthcare; Individuals, Society, Culture; Manufacturing; Science; Technology; Veterinary Medicine. The Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP), a global research consortium focused on global economic governance challenges (trade, climate, resource use) is also coordinated by the University. Purdue University generated a record $438 million in sponsored research funding during the 2009–10 fiscal year with participation from National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Department of Agriculture, Department of Defense, Department of Energy, and Department of Health and Human Services. Purdue University was ranked fourth in Engineering research expenditures amongst all the colleges in the United States in 2017, with a research expenditure budget of 244.8 million. Purdue University established the Discovery Park to bring innovation through multidisciplinary action. In all of the eleven centers of Discovery Park, ranging from entrepreneurship to energy and advanced manufacturing, research projects reflect a large economic impact and address global challenges. Purdue University’s nanotechnology research program, built around the new Birck Nanotechnology Center in Discovery Park, ranks among the best in the nation.

    The Purdue Research Park which opened in 1961 was developed by Purdue Research Foundation which is a private, nonprofit foundation created to assist Purdue. The park is focused on companies operating in the arenas of life sciences, homeland security, engineering, advanced manufacturing and information technology. It provides an interactive environment for experienced Purdue researchers and for private business and high-tech industry. It currently employs more than 3,000 people in 155 companies, including 90 technology-based firms. The Purdue Research Park was ranked first by the Association of University Research Parks in 2004.

    Purdue’s library system consists of fifteen locations throughout the campus, including an archives and special collections research center, an undergraduate library, and several subject-specific libraries. More than three million volumes, including one million electronic books, are held at these locations. The Library houses the Amelia Earhart Collection, a collection of notes and letters belonging to Earhart and her husband George Putnam along with records related to her disappearance and subsequent search efforts. An administrative unit of Purdue University Libraries, Purdue University Press has its roots in the 1960 founding of Purdue University Studies by President Frederick Hovde on a $12,000 grant from the Purdue Research Foundation. This was the result of a committee appointed by President Hovde after the Department of English lamented the lack of publishing venues in the humanities. Since the 1990s, the range of books published by the Press has grown to reflect the work from other colleges at Purdue University especially in the areas of agriculture, health, and engineering. Purdue University Press publishes print and ebook monograph series in a range of subject areas from literary and cultural studies to the study of the human-animal bond. In 1993 Purdue University Press was admitted to membership of the Association of American University Presses. Purdue University Press publishes around 25 books a year and 20 learned journals in print, in print & online, and online-only formats in collaboration with Purdue University Libraries.

    Sustainability

    Purdue’s Sustainability Council, composed of University administrators and professors, meets monthly to discuss environmental issues and sustainability initiatives at Purdue. The University’s first LEED Certified building was an addition to the Mechanical Engineering Building, which was completed in Fall 2011. The school is also in the process of developing an arboretum on campus. In addition, a system has been set up to display live data detailing current energy production at the campus utility plant. The school holds an annual “Green Week” each fall, an effort to engage the Purdue community with issues relating to environmental sustainability.

    Rankings

    In its 2021 edition, U.S. News & World Report ranked Purdue University the 5th most innovative national university, tied for the 17th best public university in the United States, tied for 53rd overall, and 114th best globally. U.S. News & World Report also rated Purdue tied for 36th in “Best Undergraduate Teaching, 83rd in “Best Value Schools”, tied for 284th in “Top Performers on Social Mobility”, and the undergraduate engineering program tied for 9th at schools whose highest degree is a doctorate.

    Michigan State Campus

    Michigan State University is a public research university located in East Lansing, Michigan, United States. Michigan State University was founded in 1855 and became the nation’s first land-grant institution under the Morrill Act of 1862, serving as a model for future land-grant universities.

    The university was founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, one of the country’s first institutions of higher education to teach scientific agriculture. After the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, Michigan State University is one of the largest universities in the United States (in terms of enrollment) and has approximately 634,300 living alumni worldwide.

    U.S. News & World Report ranks its graduate programs the best in the U.S. in elementary teacher’s education, secondary teacher’s education, industrial and organizational psychology, rehabilitation counseling, African history (tied), supply chain logistics and nuclear physics in 2019. Michigan State University pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and communication sciences. Michigan State University is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. The university’s campus houses the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, the Abrams Planetarium, the Wharton Center for Performing Arts, the Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, and the country’s largest residence hall system.

    Research

    The university has a long history of academic research and innovation. In 1877, botany professor William J. Beal performed the first documented genetic crosses to produce hybrid corn, which led to increased yields. Michigan State University dairy professor G. Malcolm Trout improved the process for the homogenization of milk in the 1930s, making it more commercially viable. In the 1960s, Michigan State University scientists developed cisplatin, a leading cancer fighting drug, and followed that work with the derivative, carboplatin. Albert Fert, an Adjunct professor at Michigan State University, was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Peter Grünberg.

    Today Michigan State University continues its research with facilities such as the Department of Energy -sponsored Plant Research Laboratory and a particle accelerator called the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory [below]. The Department of Energy Office of Science named Michigan State University as the site for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The $730 million facility will attract top researchers from around the world to conduct experiments in basic nuclear science, astrophysics, and applications of isotopes to other fields.

    Michigan State University FRIB [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams] .

    In 2004, scientists at the Cyclotron produced and observed a new isotope of the element germanium, called Ge-60 In that same year, Michigan State University, in consortium with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the government of Brazil, broke ground on the 4.1-meter Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) in the Andes Mountains of Chile.

    The consortium telescope will allow the Physics & Astronomy department to study galaxy formation and origins. Since 1999, Michigan State University has been part of a consortium called the Michigan Life Sciences Corridor, which aims to develop biotechnology research in the State of Michigan. Finally, the College of Communication Arts and Sciences’ Quello Center researches issues of information and communication management.


    The Michigan State University Spartans compete in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference. Michigan State Spartans football won the Rose Bowl Game in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014, and the university claims a total of six national football championships. Spartans men’s basketball won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and has attained the Final Four eight times since the 1998–1999 season. Spartans ice hockey won NCAA national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007. The women’s cross country team was named Big Ten champions in 2019. In the fall of 2019, MSU student-athletes posted all-time highs for graduation success rates and federal graduation rates, according to NCAA statistics.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:03 am on October 3, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "What it takes for plants to survive drought", , , , , , Michigan State University, Michigan State University researchers are studying plants that can survive extreme drought and what they can teach us about life without water., Most biology across all life occurs within a narrow window of water content and most things need to be fully hydrated for them to function, The College of Natural Science   

    From The College of Natural Science At Michigan State University: “What it takes for plants to survive drought” 

    From The College of Natural Science

    At

    Michigan State Bloc

    Michigan State University

    9.21.22
    Emilie Lorditch

    Michigan State University researchers are studying plants that can survive extreme drought and what they can teach us about life without water.

    1
    Rose Marks rappelling and researching drought-resistant plants. Image courtesy of Rose Marks.

    As climate change causes more frequent drought conditions, Michigan State University researchers are learning more about the biology of plants, fungi and microscopic animals that survive on very little water in a drought or desiccation state. This research is part of a $12.5 million multi-institution and cross-disciplinary National Science Foundation grant as part of the NSF Biology Integration Institutes.

    “Most biology across all life occurs within a narrow window of water content and most things need to be fully hydrated for them to function,” said Robert “Bob” VanBuren, an assistant professor in MSU’s Plant Resilience Institute and the colleges of Natural Science and Agriculture and Natural Resources. “If we can understand the ways that these extreme plants can survive without water, we could use those to engineer more drought tolerance into some of our staple crops.”

    The grant, led by Seung Yon “Sue” Rhee at the Carnegie Institution for Science, will create the virtual Water and Life Interface Institute — WALII, pronounced “Wally” — to explore the evolutionary history of drought-resistant plants and organisms, genetic and physical factors that make them able to survive long periods of time without water, how plants and organisms rehydrate when they are exposed to water again and the connection between protein structures and how they tolerate drought conditions.

    One of the research teams at MSU is focused on resurrection plants, which can survive without 90% of the water in their cells.

    2
    Resurrection plants go from dehydrated on the left to hydrated on the right. Image courtesy of Rose Marks.

    “Resurrection plants are amazing,” said Rose Marks, a postdoctoral researcher in the Plant Resilience Institute and the colleges of Natural Science and Agriculture and Natural Resources, and a postdoctoral fellow in the NSF Plant Genome Research Program.

    “These plants go from looking completely dead and dormant to springing back to life in just a few hours. The first time I saw this in the field, I was like a child jumping up and down — it’s just one of those exciting things in the natural world.”

    VanBuren and Marks will be looking at the genetic makeup of resurrection plants to identify the genes that are essential for protecting these plants when water is lost or regained.

    In addition to MSU researchers and the Carnegie Institution for Science, scientists from Baylor College of Medicine, California State University Channel Islands, the USDA Agricultural Research Service National Laboratory for Genetic Resources Preservation, the University of California Merced, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the University of Wyoming and Washington University in St. Louis are also participating in the grant.

    “It’s a relatively large program,” VanBuren said. “You get the chance to work with people that you maybe wouldn’t have traditionally worked with, and it really pushes you to think beyond the boundaries of your current research.”

    By branching out its research, the team is excited about future possibilities. “We could develop drought tolerance or climate resilience in plants,” Marks said. “We can look toward nature for inspiration and find that plants have naturally evolved to survive extreme stress.”

    Another part of a plant that experiences desiccation and rehydration is its seeds. Seeds are all around us and are dry too.

    “You can dry anything,” said Margaret Fleming, an assistant professor in the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources. “But the question is, does it revive when it gets wet?”

    Fleming and her team are drying and rehydrating seeds under various conditions and imaging them using an MRI scanner to track the path the water takes as it rehydrates the seed.

    3
    MRI image of a soybean as it is being rehydrated. The water is white. Image courtesy of Margaret Fleming.

    4
    Mullein seeds and fruits collected to study. Image courtesy of Margaret Fleming.

    The grant also has an extensive outreach component. One outreach program geared toward middle school students is modeled after MSU’s famous, long-running Beal buried seed experiment, which began in 1879 when Professor William J. Beal buried 20 bottles filled with sand and seeds from weed species to see how long the seeds could remain viable. Seeds keep best in dry, cool, unchanging environments, but these buried seeds have gone through many cycles of wetting and drying. And in 2021 — 142 years later — 20 seeds from a common weed called mullein did germinate.

    “We plan to bury bottles filled with seeds each year so that students can have something new to test every year,” said Margaret Fleming, an assistant professor in the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources. “There are endless possibilities for ways to inspire students.”

    5
    Margaret Fleming nurturing mullein plants. Image courtesy of Margaret Fleming.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition


    About The College of Natural Science

    The College of Natural Science at Michigan State University is home to 27 departments and programs in the biological, physical and mathematical sciences.

    The college averages $57M in research expenditures annually while providing world-class educational opportunities to more than 5,500 undergraduate majors and 1,200 graduate and postdoc students. There are 800+ faculty and academic staff associated with NatSci and more than 63,000 living alumni worldwide.

    College of Natural Science Vision, Mission, Values

    The Michigan State University College of Natural Science is committed to creating a safe, collaborative and supportive environment in which differences are valued and all members of the NatSci community are empowered to grow and succeed.

    The following is the college’s vision, mission and values, as co-created and affirmed by the College of Natural Science community:

    Vision:

    A thriving planet and healthy communities through scientific discovery.

    Mission:

    To use discovery, innovation and our collective ingenuity to advance knowledge across the natural sciences. Through equitable, inclusive practices in research, education and service, we empower our students, staff and faculty to solve challenges in a complex and rapidly changing world.

    Core Values:

    Inclusiveness-

    Foster a safe, supportive, welcoming community that values diversity, respects difference and promotes belonging. We commit to providing equitable opportunity for all.

    Innovation-

    Cultivate creativity and imagination in the quest for new knowledge and insights. Through individual and collaborative endeavors, we seek novel solutions to current and emergent challenges in the natural sciences.

    Openness-

    Commit to honesty and transparency. By listening and being open to other perspectives, we create an environment of trust where ideas are freely shared and discussed.

    Professionalism-

    Strive for excellence, integrity and high ethical standards. We hold ourselves and each other accountable to these expectations in a respectful and constructive manner.

    Michigan State Campus

    Michigan State University is a public research university located in East Lansing, Michigan, United States. Michigan State University was founded in 1855 and became the nation’s first land-grant institution under the Morrill Act of 1862, serving as a model for future land-grant universities.

    The university was founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, one of the country’s first institutions of higher education to teach scientific agriculture. After the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, Michigan State University is one of the largest universities in the United States (in terms of enrollment) and has approximately 634,300 living alumni worldwide.

    U.S. News & World Report ranks its graduate programs the best in the U.S. in elementary teacher’s education, secondary teacher’s education, industrial and organizational psychology, rehabilitation counseling, African history (tied), supply chain logistics and nuclear physics in 2019. Michigan State University pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and communication sciences. Michigan State University is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. The university’s campus houses the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, the Abrams Planetarium, the Wharton Center for Performing Arts, the Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, the the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, and the country’s largest residence hall system.

    Research

    The university has a long history of academic research and innovation. In 1877, botany professor William J. Beal performed the first documented genetic crosses to produce hybrid corn, which led to increased yields. Michigan State University dairy professor G. Malcolm Trout improved the process for the homogenization of milk in the 1930s, making it more commercially viable. In the 1960s, Michigan State University scientists developed cisplatin, a leading cancer fighting drug, and followed that work with the derivative, carboplatin. Albert Fert, an Adjunct professor at Michigan State University, was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Peter Grünberg.

    Today Michigan State University continues its research with facilities such as the Department of Energy -sponsored Plant Research Laboratory and a particle accelerator called the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory [below]. The Department of Energy Office of Science named Michigan State University as the site for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The $730 million facility will attract top researchers from around the world to conduct experiments in basic nuclear science, astrophysics, and applications of isotopes to other fields.

    Michigan State University FRIB [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams] .

    In 2004, scientists at the Cyclotron produced and observed a new isotope of the element germanium, called Ge-60 In that same year, Michigan State University, in consortium with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the government of Brazil, broke ground on the 4.1-meter Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) in the Andes Mountains of Chile.

    The consortium telescope will allow the Physics & Astronomy department to study galaxy formation and origins. Since 1999, MSU has been part of a consortium called the Michigan Life Sciences Corridor, which aims to develop biotechnology research in the State of Michigan. Finally, the College of Communication Arts and Sciences’ Quello Center researches issues of information and communication management.


    The Michigan State University Spartans compete in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference. Michigan State Spartans football won the Rose Bowl Game in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014, and the university claims a total of six national football championships. Spartans men’s basketball won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and has attained the Final Four eight times since the 1998–1999 season. Spartans ice hockey won NCAA national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007. The women’s cross country team was named Big Ten champions in 2019. In the fall of 2019, MSU student-athletes posted all-time highs for graduation success rates and federal graduation rates, according to NCAA statistics.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:56 am on September 11, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Michigan State University, , "Michigan State University researchers help reveal a ‘blueprint’ for photosynthesis", Environmental Protection   

    From Michigan State University: “Michigan State University researchers help reveal a ‘blueprint’ for photosynthesis” 

    Michigan State Bloc

    From Michigan State University

    8.31.22
    Matt Davenport

    1
    MSU researchers helped reveal, with nearly atomic precision, the biological structure of an “antenna” used by cyanobacteria for photosynthesis. Knowing the position of different proteins and pigments (shown in different colors) helps researchers better understand this natural process and can inspire future applications in areas such as renewable energy. Credit: Domínguez-Martín et al., Nature (2022)

    New findings in microbes called cyanobacteria present new opportunities for plant science, bioengineering and environmental protection.

    Michigan State University researchers and colleagues at the University of California-Berkeley, the University of South Bohemia and The DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have helped reveal the most detailed picture to date of important biological “antennae.”

    Nature has evolved these structures to harness the sun’s energy through photosynthesis, but these sunlight receivers don’t belong to plants. They’re found in microbes known as cyanobacteria, the evolutionary descendants of the first organisms on Earth capable of taking sunlight, water and carbon dioxide and turning them into sugars and oxygen.

    Published Aug. 31 in the journal Nature [below], the findings immediately shed new light on microbial photosynthesis — specifically, how light energy is captured and sent to where it’s needed to power the conversion of carbon dioxide into sugars. Going forward, the insights could also help researchers remediate harmful bacteria in the environment, develop artificial photosynthetic systems for renewable energy and enlist microbes in sustainable manufacturing that starts with the raw materials of carbon dioxide and sunlight.

    “There’s a lot of interest in using cyanobacteria as solar-powered factories that capture sunlight and convert it into a kind of energy that can be used to make important products,” said Cheryl Kerfeld, Hannah Distinguished Professor of structural bioengineering in the College of Natural Science. “With a blueprint like the one we’ve provided in this study, you can start thinking about tuning and optimizing the light-harvesting component of photosynthesis.”

    “Once you see how something works, you have a better idea of how you can modify it and manipulate it. That’s a big advantage,” said Markus Sutter, a senior research associate in the Kerfeld Lab, which operates at MSU and Berkeley Lab in California.

    For decades, researchers have been working to visualize the different building blocks of phycobilisomes to try to understand how they’re put together. Phycobilisomes are fragile, necessitating this piecemeal approach. Historically, researchers have been unable to get the high-resolution images of intact antennae needed to understand how they capture and conduct light energy.

    Now, thanks to an international team of experts and advances in a technique known as cryo-electron microscopy, the structure of a cyanobacterial light harvesting antenna is available with nearly atomic resolution. The team included researchers from Michigan State University, Berkeley Lab, the University of California, Berkeley and the University of South Bohemia in the Czech Republic.

    “We were fortunate to be a team made up of people with complementary expertise, people who worked well together,” said Kerfeld, who is also a member of the MSU-DOE Plant Research Laboratory, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. “The group had the right chemistry.”

    ‘A long journey full of nice surprises’

    “This work is a breakthrough in the field of photosynthesis,” said Paul Sauer, a postdoctoral researcher in Professor Eva Nogales’ cryogenic electron microscopy lab at The DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and The University of California-Berkeley.

    “The complete light-harvesting structure of a cyanobacteria’s antenna has been missing until now,” Sauer said. “Our discovery helps us understand how evolution came up with ways to turn carbon dioxide and light into oxygen and sugar in bacteria, long before any plants existed on our planet.”

    Along with Kerfeld, Sauer is a corresponding author of the new article. The team documented several notable results, including finding a new phycobilisome protein and observing two new ways that the phycobilisome orients its light-capturing rods that hadn’t been resolved before.

    “It is 12 pages of discoveries,” said María Agustina Domínguez-Martín of the Nature report. As a postdoctoral researcher in the Kerfeld Lab, Domínguez-Martín initiated the study at Michigan State University and brought it to completion at the Berkeley Lab. She is currently at the University of Cordoba in Spain as part of the Marie Skłowdoska-Curie Postdoctoral Fellowship. “It’s been a long journey full of nice surprises.”

    One surprise, for example, came in how a relatively small protein can act as a surge protector for the massive antenna. Before this work, researchers knew the phycobilisome could corral molecules called orange carotenoid proteins, or OCPs, when the phycobilisome had absorbed too much sunlight. The OCPs release the excess energy as heat, protecting a cyanobacterium’s photosynthetic system from burning up.

    Until now, there’s been debate about how many OCPs the phycobilisome could bind and where those binding sites were. The new research answers these fundamental questions and offers potentially practical insights.

    This kind of surge-protecting system — which is called photoprotection and has analogs in the plant world — naturally tends to be wasteful. Cyanobacteria are slow to turn their photoprotection off after it has done its job. Now, with the complete picture of how the surge protector works, researchers can design ways to engineer “smart,” less wasteful photoprotection, Kerfeld said.

    3
    MSU researchers helped uncover an unparalleled level of detail in phycobilisomes, the green and blue assemblies in this illustration. These structures work as antennae that cyanobacteria use in photosynthesis. The blue and green colors represent different proteins and pigments in the phycobilisome. OCPs, the occasional orange hangers-on, help dissipate excess captured energy as heat. Credit: Janet Iwasa/University of Utah.

    And, despite helping make the planet habitable for humans and countless other organisms that need oxygen to survive, cyanobacteria have a dark side. Cyanobacteria blooms in lakes, ponds and reservoirs can produce toxins that are deadly to native ecosystems as well as humans and their pets. Having a blueprint of how the bacteria not only collect the sun’s energy, but also protect themselves from too much of it could inspire new ideas to attack harmful blooms.

    Beyond the new answers and potential applications this work offers, the researchers are also excited about the new questions it raises and the research it could inspire.

    “If you think of this like Legos, you can keep building up, right? The proteins and pigments are like blocks making the phycobilisome, but then that’s part of the photosystem, which is in the cell membrane, which is part of the entire cell,” Sutter said. “We’re climbing up the ladder of scale in a way. We’ve found something new on our rung, but we can’t say we’ve got the system settled.”

    “We’ve answered some questions, but we’ve opened the doors on others and, to me, that’s what makes it a breakthrough,” Domínguez-Martín said. “I’m excited to see how the field develops from here.”

    This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the National Institutes of Health, the Czech Science Foundation and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program.

    Science paper:
    Nature

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Michigan State Campus

    Michigan State University is a public research university located in East Lansing, Michigan, United States. Michigan State University was founded in 1855 and became the nation’s first land-grant institution under the Morrill Act of 1862, serving as a model for future land-grant universities.

    The university was founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, one of the country’s first institutions of higher education to teach scientific agriculture. After the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, Michigan State University is one of the largest universities in the United States (in terms of enrollment) and has approximately 634,300 living alumni worldwide.

    U.S. News & World Report ranks its graduate programs the best in the U.S. in elementary teacher’s education, secondary teacher’s education, industrial and organizational psychology, rehabilitation counseling, African history (tied), supply chain logistics and nuclear physics in 2019. Michigan State University pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and communication sciences. Michigan State University is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. The university’s campus houses the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, the Abrams Planetarium, the Wharton Center for Performing Arts, the Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, and the country’s largest residence hall system.

    Research

    The university has a long history of academic research and innovation. In 1877, botany professor William J. Beal performed the first documented genetic crosses to produce hybrid corn, which led to increased yields. Michigan State University dairy professor G. Malcolm Trout improved the process for the homogenization of milk in the 1930s, making it more commercially viable. In the 1960s, Michigan State University scientists developed cisplatin, a leading cancer fighting drug, and followed that work with the derivative, carboplatin. Albert Fert, an Adjunct professor at Michigan State University, was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Peter Grünberg.

    Today Michigan State University continues its research with facilities such as the Department of Energy -sponsored Plant Research Laboratory and a particle accelerator called the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory [below]. The Department of Energy Office of Science named Michigan State University as the site for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The $730 million facility will attract top researchers from around the world to conduct experiments in basic nuclear science, astrophysics, and applications of isotopes to other fields.

    Michigan State University FRIB [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams] .

    In 2004, scientists at the Cyclotron produced and observed a new isotope of the element germanium, called Ge-60 In that same year, Michigan State University, in consortium with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the government of Brazil, broke ground on the 4.1-meter Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) in the Andes Mountains of Chile.

    The consortium telescope will allow the Physics & Astronomy department to study galaxy formation and origins. Since 1999, Michigan State University has been part of a consortium called the Michigan Life Sciences Corridor, which aims to develop biotechnology research in the State of Michigan. Finally, the College of Communication Arts and Sciences’ Quello Center researches issues of information and communication management.


    The Michigan State University Spartans compete in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference. Michigan State Spartans football won the Rose Bowl Game in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014, and the university claims a total of six national football championships. Spartans men’s basketball won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and has attained the Final Four eight times since the 1998–1999 season. Spartans ice hockey won NCAA national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007. The women’s cross country team was named Big Ten champions in 2019. In the fall of 2019, MSU student-athletes posted all-time highs for graduation success rates and federal graduation rates, according to NCAA statistics.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:44 am on September 2, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Research Team Reveals A ‘Blueprint’ for Photosynthesis", , , Michigan State University,   

    From The DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory And Michigan State University: “Research Team Reveals A ‘Blueprint’ for Photosynthesis” 

    From The DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    And

    Michigan State Bloc

    Michigan State University

    9.1.22
    Matt Davenport

    1
    A 360-degree view of the phycobilisome structure researchers helped reveal. Credit: The Kerfeld Lab/Nature.

    Researchers at Michigan State University, UC Berkeley, the University of Southern Bohemia, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have helped reveal the most detailed picture to date of important biological “antennae.”

    Nature has evolved these structures to harness the sun’s energy through photosynthesis, but these sunlight receivers don’t belong to plants. They’re found in microbes known as cyanobacteria, the evolutionary descendants of the first organisms on Earth capable of taking sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide and turning them into sugars and oxygen.

    Published this week in the journal Nature [below], the findings immediately shed new light on microbial photosynthesis — specifically how light energy is captured and sent to where it’s needed to power the conversion of CO2 into sugars. Going forward, the insights could also help researchers remediate harmful algal blooms, develop artificial photosynthesis systems for renewable energy, and enlist microbes in sustainable manufacturing that starts with the raw materials of CO2 and sunlight.

    “There’s a lot of interest in using cyanobacteria as solar-powered factories that capture sunlight and convert it into a kind of energy that can be used to make important products,” said Cheryl Kerfeld, a member of the MSU-DOE Plant Research Laboratory, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. “With a blueprint like the one we’ve provided in this study, you can start thinking about tuning and optimizing the light-harvesting component of photosynthesis.”

    “Once you see how something works, you have a better idea of how you can modify it and manipulate it. That’s a big advantage,” said Markus Sutter, a senior research associate in the Kerfeld Lab, which operates at Michigan State University and Berkeley Lab.

    2
    The researchers uncovered an unparalleled level of detail in the phycobilisome, which cyanobacteria use in photosynthesis. Its constituent protein and pigment structures are shown as the blue and green assemblies in this illustration. The OCP, the occasional orange hangers-on, help dissipate excess captured energy as heat. Credit: Janet Iwasa/University of Utah.

    The cyanobacterial antenna structures, called phycobilisomes, are complex collections of pigments and proteins, which assemble into relatively massive complexes.

    For decades, researchers have been working to visualize the different building blocks of phycobilisomes to understand how they’re put together. Phycobilisomes are fragile, necessitating this piecemeal approach. Historically, researchers have been unable to get the high-resolution images of intact antennae needed to understand how they capture and conduct light energy.

    Now, thanks to an international team of experts and advances in cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM), the structure of a cyanobacterial light harvesting antenna is available with nearly atomic resolution.

    “We were fortunate to be a team made up of people with complementary expertise, people who worked well together,” said Kerfeld, who is also a professor of structural bioengineering at Michigan State University. “The group had the right chemistry.”

    ‘A long journey, full of surprises’

    “This work is a breakthrough in the field of photosynthesis,” said Paul Sauer, a postdoctoral researcher in UC Berkeley Professor Eva Nogales’ cryo-EM lab. Nogales is also a senior faculty scientist in Berkeley Lab’s Biosciences Area.

    “The complete light-harvesting structure of a cyanobacteria’s antenna has been missing until now,” Sauer said. “Our discovery helps us understand how evolution came up with ways to turn CO2 and light into oxygen and sugar in bacteria, long before any plants existed on our planet.”

    Along with Kerfeld, Sauer is a corresponding author of the new article. The team documented several new findings, including finding a new phycobilisome protein and observing two new ways that the phycobilisome orients its light-capturing rods that hadn’t been resolved before.

    “It’s 12 pages of discoveries,” said María Agustina Domínguez-Martín of the Nature report. As a postdoctoral researcher in the Kerfeld Lab, Domínguez-Martín initiated the study at Michigan State University and brought it to completion at Berkeley Lab. She is currently at the University of Cordoba in Spain as part of the Marie Skłowdoska-Curie Postdoctoral Fellowship. “It’s been a long journey full of nice surprises.”

    One surprise, for example, was how a relatively small protein can act as a surge protector for the massive antenna. Before this work, researchers knew the phycobilisome could corral molecules called orange carotenoid proteins, or OCPs, when the phycobilisome had absorbed too much sunlight. The OCP releases the excess energy as heat, protecting a cyanobacterium’s photosynthetic system from burning up.

    Until now, there’s been debate about how many OCPs the phycobilisome could bind and where those binding sites were. The new research answers these fundamental questions and offers potentially practical insights.

    This kind of surge protecting system — which is called photoprotection and has analogs in the plant world — naturally tends to be wasteful. Cyanobacteria are slow to turn their photoprotection off after it has done its job. Now, with the complete picture of how the surge protector works, researchers can design ways to engineer “smart,” less wasteful, photoprotection, Kerfeld said.

    And, despite helping make the planet habitable for humans and countless other organisms that need oxygen to survive, cyanobacteria have a dark side. Cyanobacteria blooms in lakes, ponds, and reservoirs can produce toxins that are deadly to native ecosystems as well as humans and their pets. Having a blueprint of how the bacteria not only collect the sun’s energy, but also protect themselves from too much of it, could inspire new ideas to attack harmful blooms.

    Beyond the new answers and potential applications this work offers, the researchers are also excited about the new questions this work raises and the research it could inspire.

    “If you think of this like Legos, you can keep building up, right? The proteins and pigments are like blocks making the phycobilisome, but then that’s part of the photosystem which is in the cell membrane which is part of the entire cell,” Sutter said. “We’re climbing up the ladder of scale in a way. We’ve found something new on our rung, but we can’t say we’ve got the system settled.”

    “We’ve answered some questions, but we’ve opened the doors on others and, to me, that’s what makes it a breakthrough,” Domínguez-Martín said. “I’m excited to see how the field develops from here.”

    Science paper:
    Nature

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Michigan State Campus

    Michigan State University is a public research university located in East Lansing, Michigan, United States. Michigan State University was founded in 1855 and became the nation’s first land-grant institution under the Morrill Act of 1862, serving as a model for future land-grant universities.

    The university was founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, one of the country’s first institutions of higher education to teach scientific agriculture. After the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, Michigan State University is one of the largest universities in the United States (in terms of enrollment) and has approximately 634,300 living alumni worldwide.

    U.S. News & World Report ranks its graduate programs the best in the U.S. in elementary teacher’s education, secondary teacher’s education, industrial and organizational psychology, rehabilitation counseling, African history (tied), supply chain logistics and nuclear physics in 2019. Michigan State University pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and communication sciences. Michigan State University is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. The university’s campus houses the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, the Abrams Planetarium, the Wharton Center for Performing Arts, the Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, and the country’s largest residence hall system.

    Research

    The university has a long history of academic research and innovation. In 1877, botany professor William J. Beal performed the first documented genetic crosses to produce hybrid corn, which led to increased yields. Michigan State University dairy professor G. Malcolm Trout improved the process for the homogenization of milk in the 1930s, making it more commercially viable. In the 1960s, Michigan State University scientists developed cisplatin, a leading cancer fighting drug, and followed that work with the derivative, carboplatin. Albert Fert, an Adjunct professor at Michigan State University, was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Peter Grünberg.

    Today Michigan State University continues its research with facilities such as the Department of Energy -sponsored Plant Research Laboratory and a particle accelerator called the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory [below]. The Department of Energy Office of Science named Michigan State University as the site for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The $730 million facility will attract top researchers from around the world to conduct experiments in basic nuclear science, astrophysics, and applications of isotopes to other fields.

    Michigan State University FRIB [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams] .

    In 2004, scientists at the Cyclotron produced and observed a new isotope of the element germanium, called Ge-60 In that same year, Michigan State University, in consortium with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the government of Brazil, broke ground on the 4.1-meter Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) in the Andes Mountains of Chile.

    The consortium telescope will allow the Physics & Astronomy department to study galaxy formation and origins. Since 1999, MSU has been part of a consortium called the Michigan Life Sciences Corridor, which aims to develop biotechnology research in the State of Michigan. Finally, the College of Communication Arts and Sciences’ Quello Center researches issues of information and communication management.


    The Michigan State University Spartans compete in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference. Michigan State Spartans football won the Rose Bowl Game in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014, and the university claims a total of six national football championships. Spartans men’s basketball won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and has attained the Final Four eight times since the 1998–1999 season. Spartans ice hockey won NCAA national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007. The women’s cross country team was named Big Ten champions in 2019. In the fall of 2019, Michigan State University student-athletes posted all-time highs for graduation success rates and federal graduation rates, according to NCAA statistics.

    LBNL campus

    Bringing Science Solutions to the World

    In the world of science, The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) is synonymous with “excellence.” Thirteen Nobel prizes are associated with Berkeley Lab. Seventy Lab scientists are members of the The National Academy of Sciences, one of the highest honors for a scientist in the United States. Thirteen of our scientists have won the National Medal of Science, our nation’s highest award for lifetime achievement in fields of scientific research. Eighteen of our engineers have been elected to the The National Academy of Engineering, and three of our scientists have been elected into the Institute of Medicine. In addition, Berkeley Lab has trained thousands of university science and engineering students who are advancing technological innovations across the nation and around the world.

    Berkeley Lab is a member of the national laboratory system supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through its Office of Science. It is managed by the University of California and is charged with conducting unclassified research across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Located on a 202-acre site in the hills above the University of California- Berkeley campus that offers spectacular views of the San Francisco Bay, Berkeley Lab employs approximately 3,232 scientists, engineers and support staff. The Lab’s total costs for FY 2014 were $785 million. A recent study estimates the Laboratory’s overall economic impact through direct, indirect and induced spending on the nine counties that make up the San Francisco Bay Area to be nearly $700 million annually. The Lab was also responsible for creating 5,600 jobs locally and 12,000 nationally. The overall economic impact on the national economy is estimated at $1.6 billion a year. Technologies developed at Berkeley Lab have generated billions of dollars in revenues, and thousands of jobs. Savings as a result of Berkeley Lab developments in lighting and windows, and other energy-efficient technologies, have also been in the billions of dollars.

    Berkeley Lab was founded in 1931 by Ernest Orlando Lawrence, a University of California-Berkeley physicist who won the 1939 Nobel Prize in physics for his invention of the cyclotron, a circular particle accelerator that opened the door to high-energy physics. It was Lawrence’s belief that scientific research is best done through teams of individuals with different fields of expertise, working together. His teamwork concept is a Berkeley Lab legacy that continues today.

    History

    1931–1941

    The laboratory was founded on August 26, 1931, by Ernest Lawrence, as the Radiation Laboratory of the University of California-Berkeley, associated with the Physics Department. It centered physics research around his new instrument, the cyclotron, a type of particle accelerator for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1939.

    LBNL 88 inch cyclotron.

    LBNL 88 inch cyclotron.

    Throughout the 1930s, Lawrence pushed to create larger and larger machines for physics research, courting private philanthropists for funding. He was the first to develop a large team to build big projects to make discoveries in basic research. Eventually these machines grew too large to be held on the university grounds, and in 1940 the lab moved to its current site atop the hill above campus. Part of the team put together during this period includes two other young scientists who went on to establish large laboratories; J. Robert Oppenheimer founded The DOE’s Los Alamos Laboratory, and Robert Wilson founded The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

    1942–1950

    Leslie Groves visited Lawrence’s Radiation Laboratory in late 1942 as he was organizing the Manhattan Project, meeting J. Robert Oppenheimer for the first time. Oppenheimer was tasked with organizing the nuclear bomb development effort and founded today’s Los Alamos National Laboratory to help keep the work secret. At the RadLab, Lawrence and his colleagues developed the technique of electromagnetic enrichment of uranium using their experience with cyclotrons. The “calutrons” (named after the University) became the basic unit of the massive Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Lawrence’s lab helped contribute to what have been judged to be the three most valuable technology developments of the war (the atomic bomb, proximity fuse, and radar). The cyclotron, whose construction was stalled during the war, was finished in November 1946. The Manhattan Project shut down two months later.

    1951–2018

    After the war, the Radiation Laboratory became one of the first laboratories to be incorporated into the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) (now The Department of Energy . The most highly classified work remained at Los Alamos, but the RadLab remained involved. Edward Teller suggested setting up a second lab similar to Los Alamos to compete with their designs. This led to the creation of an offshoot of the RadLab (now The DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) in 1952. Some of the RadLab’s work was transferred to the new lab, but some classified research continued at Berkeley Lab until the 1970s, when it became a laboratory dedicated only to unclassified scientific research.

    Shortly after the death of Lawrence in August 1958, the UC Radiation Laboratory (both branches) was renamed the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory. The Berkeley location became the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in 1971, although many continued to call it the RadLab. Gradually, another shortened form came into common usage, LBNL. Its formal name was amended to Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1995, when “National” was added to the names of all DOE labs. “Ernest Orlando” was later dropped to shorten the name. Today, the lab is commonly referred to as “Berkeley Lab”.

    The Alvarez Physics Memos are a set of informal working papers of the large group of physicists, engineers, computer programmers, and technicians led by Luis W. Alvarez from the early 1950s until his death in 1988. Over 1700 memos are available on-line, hosted by the Laboratory.

    The lab remains owned by the Department of Energy , with management from the University of California. Companies such as Intel were funding the lab’s research into computing chips.

    Science mission

    From the 1950s through the present, Berkeley Lab has maintained its status as a major international center for physics research, and has also diversified its research program into almost every realm of scientific investigation. Its mission is to solve the most pressing and profound scientific problems facing humanity, conduct basic research for a secure energy future, understand living systems to improve the environment, health, and energy supply, understand matter and energy in the universe, build and safely operate leading scientific facilities for the nation, and train the next generation of scientists and engineers.

    The Laboratory’s 20 scientific divisions are organized within six areas of research: Computing Sciences; Physical Sciences; Earth and Environmental Sciences; Biosciences; Energy Sciences; and Energy Technologies. Berkeley Lab has six main science thrusts: advancing integrated fundamental energy science; integrative biological and environmental system science; advanced computing for science impact; discovering the fundamental properties of matter and energy; accelerators for the future; and developing energy technology innovations for a sustainable future. It was Lawrence’s belief that scientific research is best done through teams of individuals with different fields of expertise, working together. His teamwork concept is a Berkeley Lab tradition that continues today.

    Berkeley Lab operates five major National User Facilities for the DOE Office of Science:

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a synchrotron light source with 41 beam lines providing ultraviolet, soft x-ray, and hard x-ray light to scientific experiments.

    The DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source.
    The ALS is one of the world’s brightest sources of soft x-rays, which are used to characterize the electronic structure of matter and to reveal microscopic structures with elemental and chemical specificity. About 2,500 scientist-users carry out research at ALS every year. Berkeley Lab is proposing an upgrade of ALS which would increase the coherent flux of soft x-rays by two-three orders of magnitude.

    The DOE Joint Genome Institute supports genomic research in support of the DOE missions in alternative energy, global carbon cycling, and environmental management. The JGI’s partner laboratories are Berkeley Lab, DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), DOE’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology . The JGI’s central role is the development of a diversity of large-scale experimental and computational capabilities to link sequence to biological insights relevant to energy and environmental research. Approximately 1,200 scientist-users take advantage of JGI’s capabilities for their research every year.

    LBNL Molecular Foundry

    The LBNL Molecular Foundry is a multidisciplinary nanoscience research facility. Its seven research facilities focus on Imaging and Manipulation of Nanostructures; Nanofabrication; Theory of Nanostructured Materials; Inorganic Nanostructures; Biological Nanostructures; Organic and Macromolecular Synthesis; and Electron Microscopy. Approximately 700 scientist-users make use of these facilities in their research every year.

    The DOE’s NERSC National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is the scientific computing facility that provides large-scale computing for the DOE’s unclassified research programs. Its current systems provide over 3 billion computational hours annually. NERSC supports 6,000 scientific users from universities, national laboratories, and industry.

    DOE’s NERSC National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

    Cray Cori II supercomputer at National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center at DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, named after Gerty Cori, the first American woman to win a Nobel Prize in science.

    NERSC Hopper Cray XE6 supercomputer.

    NERSC Cray XC30 Edison supercomputer.

    NERSC GPFS for Life Sciences.

    The Genepool system is a cluster dedicated to the DOE Joint Genome Institute’s computing needs. Denovo is a smaller test system for Genepool that is primarily used by NERSC staff to test new system configurations and software.

    NERSC PDSF computer cluster in 2003.

    PDSF is a networked distributed computing cluster designed primarily to meet the detector simulation and data analysis requirements of physics, astrophysics and nuclear science collaborations.

    Cray Shasta Perlmutter SC18 AMD Epyc Nvidia pre-exascale supercomputer.

    NERSC is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

    The DOE’s Energy Science Network is a high-speed network infrastructure optimized for very large scientific data flows. ESNet provides connectivity for all major DOE sites and facilities, and the network transports roughly 35 petabytes of traffic each month.

    Berkeley Lab is the lead partner in the DOE’s Joint Bioenergy Institute (JBEI), located in Emeryville, California. Other partners are the DOE’s Sandia National Laboratory, the University of California (UC) campuses of Berkeley and Davis, the Carnegie Institution for Science , and DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). JBEI’s primary scientific mission is to advance the development of the next generation of biofuels – liquid fuels derived from the solar energy stored in plant biomass. JBEI is one of three new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Research Centers (BRCs).

    Berkeley Lab has a major role in two DOE Energy Innovation Hubs. The mission of the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) is to find a cost-effective method to produce fuels using only sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. The lead institution for JCAP is the California Institute of Technology and Berkeley Lab is the second institutional center. The mission of the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) is to create next-generation battery technologies that will transform transportation and the electricity grid. DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory leads JCESR and Berkeley Lab is a major partner.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:56 pm on July 13, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Michigan State University researchers create method for breaking down plant materials for earth-friendly energy", According to the most optimistic projections (not great) what we could harvest annually from biomass in the U.S. only has about two-thirds as much carbon in it as the crude oil that the nation uses., , , , , , , Michigan State University,   

    From Michigan State University: “Michigan State University researchers create method for breaking down plant materials for earth-friendly energy” 

    Michigan State Bloc

    From Michigan State University

    July 7, 2022
    Emilie Lorditch

    1
    Michigan State University – College of Natural Science

    These chemical tools can access renewable energy from plant matter that could lessen our dependence on fossil fuels.

    With energy costs rising, and the rapidly emerging effects of burning fossil fuels on the global climate, the need has never been greater for researchers to find paths to products and fuels that are truly renewable.

    “We use 20 million barrels of oil a day in the U.S.; that’s about a fifth of the world’s usage,” said Ned Jackson, a professor of organic chemistry in the College of Natural Science at Michigan State University. “All our liquid fuels and nearly all of our manufactured materials, from gasoline and gallon jugs to countertops and clothes, start with petroleum — crude oil.”

    Developing the tools to move from fossil fuels to renewable sources of carbon for all these components of daily life is necessary. But according to the most optimistic projections, Jackson said, “What we could harvest annually from biomass in the U.S. only has about two-thirds as much carbon in it as the crude oil that the nation uses.”

    Jackson and his former graduate student Yuting Zhou, now a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Illinois, have developed a chemical method that enables electricity and water to break the strong chemical bonds in biomass or plant matter. This “electrocatalytic” process could be applied to lignin, a carbon-rich biomass component that is usually discarded or simply burned as a byproduct of making paper. This new tool also has the potential to destroy environmental pollutants.

    A global goal is to tap into both the carbon and the energy stored in biomass to enable it to replace petroleum. But new, efficient methods are needed to break this complex, tough, low-energy material down into the building blocks for fuels and products. Specifically, tools are needed to disconnect the strong chemical bonds that bind it together, while retaining — and even enhancing — as much of the carbon and energy content as possible.

    “One of the things that drives us is the idea that our main use of petroleum is fuel that is burned to produce energy, adding greenhouse gases to the atmosphere,” Jackson said. “The new science is a step toward extracting useful carbon compounds to displace some fraction of the fossil petroleum that we use today.”

    Parts of this research were supported by the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center. The GLBRC is led by the University of Wisconsin-Madison and brings together over 400 scientists, engineers, students and staff from across different disciplines from institutions like MSU. One of GLBRC’s goals is to develop sustainable biofuels.

    Science paper:
    The research was published on April 19, 2022, in the journal Nature Communications.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Michigan State Campus

    Michigan State University is a public research university located in East Lansing, Michigan, United States. Michigan State University was founded in 1855 and became the nation’s first land-grant institution under the Morrill Act of 1862, serving as a model for future land-grant universities.

    The university was founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, one of the country’s first institutions of higher education to teach scientific agriculture. After the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, Michigan State University is one of the largest universities in the United States (in terms of enrollment) and has approximately 634,300 living alumni worldwide.

    U.S. News & World Report ranks its graduate programs the best in the U.S. in elementary teacher’s education, secondary teacher’s education, industrial and organizational psychology, rehabilitation counseling, African history (tied), supply chain logistics and nuclear physics in 2019. Michigan State University pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and communication sciences. Michigan State University is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. The university’s campus houses the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, the Abrams Planetarium, the Wharton Center for Performing Arts, the Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, the the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, and the country’s largest residence hall system.

    Research

    The university has a long history of academic research and innovation. In 1877, botany professor William J. Beal performed the first documented genetic crosses to produce hybrid corn, which led to increased yields. Michigan State University dairy professor G. Malcolm Trout improved the process for the homogenization of milk in the 1930s, making it more commercially viable. In the 1960s, Michigan State University scientists developed cisplatin, a leading cancer fighting drug, and followed that work with the derivative, carboplatin. Albert Fert, an Adjunct professor at Michigan State University, was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Peter Grünberg.

    Today Michigan State University continues its research with facilities such as the Department of Energy -sponsored Plant Research Laboratory and a particle accelerator called the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory [below]. The Department of Energy Office of Science named Michigan State University as the site for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The $730 million facility will attract top researchers from around the world to conduct experiments in basic nuclear science, astrophysics, and applications of isotopes to other fields.

    Michigan State University FRIB [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams] .

    In 2004, scientists at the Cyclotron produced and observed a new isotope of the element germanium, called Ge-60 In that same year, Michigan State University, in consortium with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the governments of Brazil and Chile, broke ground on the 4.1-meter Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) in the Andes Mountains of Chile.

    The consortium telescope will allow the Physics & Astronomy department to study galaxy formation and origins. Since 1999, MSU has been part of a consortium called the Michigan Life Sciences Corridor, which aims to develop biotechnology research in the State of Michigan. Finally, the College of Communication Arts and Sciences’ Quello Center researches issues of information and communication management.


    The Michigan State University Spartans compete in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference. Michigan State Spartans football won the Rose Bowl Game in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014, and the university claims a total of six national football championships. Spartans men’s basketball won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and has attained the Final Four eight times since the 1998–1999 season. Spartans ice hockey won NCAA national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007. The women’s cross country team was named Big Ten champions in 2019. In the fall of 2019, MSU student-athletes posted all-time highs for graduation success rates and federal graduation rates, according to NCAA statistics.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:07 pm on June 29, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Michigan State University and Merit Network awarded $10.5M for statewide broadband infrastructure", Michigan State University   

    From Michigan State University: “Michigan State University and Merit Network awarded $10.5M for statewide broadband infrastructure” 

    Michigan State Bloc

    From Michigan State University

    June 27, 2022
    Dan Olsen

    Merit Network and Michigan State University are joint recipients of a $10.5 million National Telecommunications and Information Administration, or NTIA, Broadband Infrastructure Program Grant that will connect Michigan’s many disparate internet pathways.

    This program, named the Michigan Open Optical Network — Leveraging Innovation to Get High-Speed Technology, or MOON-Light — will help address critical infrastructure gaps by enabling technologically advanced, middle-mile fiber optic infrastructure across the state. It will allow interconnecting local internet service providers to bring affordable, robust, high-speed broadband internet to homes and businesses in Michigan’s underserved and unserved population areas.

    “The MOON-Light initiative will have a transformational impact across the state in providing internet access and is a true force-multiplier for upcoming ISP last-mile projects,” said Joseph Sawasky, president and CEO, Merit Network. “We are privileged to partner with Michigan State University and the MSU Quello Center on this initiative that is one of the first of its kind in the nation. With nonprofit and cooperative organizations working together with commercial ISPs, we are uniquely positioned to reduce costs and accelerate broadband projects for Michigan in model public-private partnerships. This project sets a strategic digital foundation for Michigan and will create a statewide ‘digital autobahn.’ Our goal is to actually #FixTheDamnInternet for citizens and learners. We are incredibly thankful for the continuing trust that the National Telecommunications and Information Administration has placed in our vision.”

    “Closing the digital divide is essential to the future success of our state and our young people,” said MSU President Samuel L. Stanley Jr., M.D. “When we partner together to solve our state’s most pressing challenges, we create a place that is full of opportunity – for all people and businesses. This partnership is a prime example of that and MSU is proud to play a role in this effort to connect Michigan.”

    Letters of intent from several ISPs including Highline, Barger Creek and Northern Michigan University have already been signed to further the public-private collaboration of MOON-Light.

    This project leverages funding from the National Telecommunications and Information Administration’s Broadband Infrastructure Program, one of the earliest of the recent infrastructure programs. BIP was a precursor to the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, which was signed into law by President Joe Biden on Nov. 15, 2021.

    As the state of Michigan continues to prepare for federally funded broadband investments, MSU and Merit proactively and independently applied for the NTIA grant to move things ahead faster.

    “MSU is committed to creating a world in which all can thrive, especially Michigan communities. By receiving the NTIA grant, we’re able to forge a more equitable path forward,” said Melissa Woo, executive vice president for administration, chief information officer and chair of the Merit Network Board of Directors. “This solution enables equal and open access to broadband services to all Michiganders and can be leveraged to deliver education, health care and employment services.”

    The project deploys equipment only on a statewide scale and requires no additional middle-mile fiber construction. Implementation is expected to take 12 months.

    “This project will be a major step towards eliminating discrepancies in broadband access across the entire state,” said Johannes M. Bauer, director of the Quello Center for Media and Information Policy at MSU, a collaborator in the proposal. “Once investment in the middle mile is completed in 2023, commercial and noncommercial service providers will be able to close the current gap in broadband access faster and more cheaply. This will enable Michiganders to more fully participate in the economy and communities to pursue new paths of economic development and inclusion. It will provide new means to access education, health care and government services. In many communities, broadband access has also energized civic life.”

    Entire regions across Michigan lack high-performance fiber optical connections to the internet through mainline attachments (“middle-mile” infrastructure), and many residents remain unserved, with approximately 380,000 lacking any connectivity to their homes and businesses (“last mile” infrastructure).

    Unlike closed (private) infrastructure that offer services from a single service provider to residents, the MOON-Light network will provide regional connectivity through an open-access network approach. Open-access networks are high-performance networks that are open to multiple providers that leverage the infrastructure to offer high-capacity broadband services to residents and businesses.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Michigan State Campus

    Michigan State University is a public research university located in East Lansing, Michigan, United States. Michigan State University was founded in 1855 and became the nation’s first land-grant institution under the Morrill Act of 1862, serving as a model for future land-grant universities.

    The university was founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, one of the country’s first institutions of higher education to teach scientific agriculture. After the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, Michigan State University is one of the largest universities in the United States (in terms of enrollment) and has approximately 634,300 living alumni worldwide.

    U.S. News & World Report ranks its graduate programs the best in the U.S. in elementary teacher’s education, secondary teacher’s education, industrial and organizational psychology, rehabilitation counseling, African history (tied), supply chain logistics and nuclear physics in 2019. Michigan State University pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and communication sciences. Michigan State University is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. The university’s campus houses the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, the Abrams Planetarium, the Wharton Center for Performing Arts, the Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, the the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, and the country’s largest residence hall system.

    Research

    The university has a long history of academic research and innovation. In 1877, botany professor William J. Beal performed the first documented genetic crosses to produce hybrid corn, which led to increased yields. Michigan State University dairy professor G. Malcolm Trout improved the process for the homogenization of milk in the 1930s, making it more commercially viable. In the 1960s, Michigan State University scientists developed cisplatin, a leading cancer fighting drug, and followed that work with the derivative, carboplatin. Albert Fert, an Adjunct professor at Michigan State University, was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Peter Grünberg.

    Today Michigan State University continues its research with facilities such as the Department of Energy -sponsored Plant Research Laboratory and a particle accelerator called the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory [below]. The Department of Energy Office of Science named Michigan State University as the site for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The $730 million facility will attract top researchers from around the world to conduct experiments in basic nuclear science, astrophysics, and applications of isotopes to other fields.

    Michigan State University FRIB [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams] .

    In 2004, scientists at the Cyclotron produced and observed a new isotope of the element germanium, called Ge-60 In that same year, Michigan State University, in consortium with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the government of Brazil, broke ground on the 4.1-meter Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) in the Andes Mountains of Chile.


    The consortium telescope will allow the Physics & Astronomy department to study galaxy formation and origins. Since 1999, MSU has been part of a consortium called the Michigan Life Sciences Corridor, which aims to develop biotechnology research in the State of Michigan. Finally, the College of Communication Arts and Sciences’ Quello Center researches issues of information and communication management.


    The Michigan State University Spartans compete in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference. Michigan State Spartans football won the Rose Bowl Game in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014, and the university claims a total of six national football championships. Spartans men’s basketball won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and has attained the Final Four eight times since the 1998–1999 season. Spartans ice hockey won NCAA national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007. The women’s cross country team was named Big Ten champions in 2019. In the fall of 2019, MSU student-athletes posted all-time highs for graduation success rates and federal graduation rates, according to NCAA statistics.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:24 pm on June 8, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Hey neutrino. What’s the antimatter?", Antimatter is far less abundant in the universe than “regular” matter., Antiparticles can be thought of as “opposites” or partners to the fundamental particles that make regular everyday matter., , Matter and antimatter can also annihilate each other if they come in contact., Michigan State University, Neutrinoless double beta decay has never been observed., , New theoretical research from FRIB could help answer looming questions about the ghost-like neutrino particle including its mass and whether it is its own antiparticle., , The detection experiment itself will likely require a large international project that’s buried deep underground to shield it from unwanted background effects., The team refined calculations for a theoretical way that certain atoms can decay.   

    From Michigan State University: “Hey neutrino. What’s the antimatter?” 

    Michigan State Bloc

    From Michigan State University

    June 2, 2022

    New theoretical research from FRIB [below] could help answer looming questions about the ghost-like neutrino particle, including its mass and whether it is its own antiparticle.

    1
    New theoretical research from FRIB could help answer looming questions about the ghost-like neutrino particle, including its mass and whether it is its own antiparticle. (Credit: Facility for Rare Isotope Beams)

    Heiko Hergert grew up on a dairy farm in Germany discussing history with his father while they worked. Back then, he never guessed he’d be one day helping solve mysteries of the universe at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, or FRIB, at Michigan State University.

    “I had good grades in high school and people told me, ‘Maybe you should go to college,’” said Hergert, who is an associate professor of physics at FRIB and in MSU’s Department of Physics and Astronomy.

    Enrolling in college would be his first step toward becoming the first member of his family to pursue a career in academia — which the FRIB and MSU faculty member said he couldn’t have done without support from relatives, friends and teachers. But he didn’t know it would launch his career trajectory at the time. And there was still the small matter of picking which subject to study.

    Hergert shared his father’s love of history, but he also liked math and science and thought he’d find better career options if he pursued that path. Along the way, he was drawn to using math to answer some of the most fundamental questions in physics.

    “I recognized that I was good at math and theoretical physics. And I was enjoying it,” said Hergert, who became the first in his family to earn a doctorate. “It becomes self-reinforcing. You realize, ‘I can actually make a contribution.’ Then you want to keep making them.”

    Hergert published his latest contribution on Dec. 10, 2021, in the journal Physical Review Letters, working with Roland Wirth and Jiangming Yao, who were postdoctoral researchers at FRIB.

    The team refined calculations for a theoretical way that certain atoms can decay, or fall apart, and the results suggest that scientists have a better likelihood of observing this decay than previously thought.

    “To compute specific parameters for this supposed rare decay, we need to have consistent ingredients in our theory,” Hergert said. “Our work is a more consistent calculation, and this added consistency leads to an increased probability in detecting the decay.”

    That is, if this process does actually happen in nature.

    This so-called neutrinoless double beta decay has never been observed. But scientists are already designing experiments to detect it because, if it does occur, it could reveal intimate information about one of the most ubiquitous and mysterious particles known to science: the neutrino.

    Neutrinos are the second most common particle in the universe, behind only photons, which are particles of light. But, unlike light, neutrinos don’t glow, reflect from mirrors or interact very much with anything at all, which is why some people refer to them as ghost particles.

    In fact, about 100 trillion neutrinos zip through our bodies undetected every second. And if our bodies could actually detect neutrinos, it would take 100 years to sense one.

    Despite this wispy existence, neutrinos are an integral part of the Standard Model of particle physics.

    This can be thought of as humanity’s best effort to explain some of the most fundamental physics in the universe.

    Yet, even with the Standard Model, large questions linger about the nature of neutrinos, like how massive they are. There’s also a possibility that neutrinos are their own antiparticles, which is the name given to the fundamental particles that make up antimatter.

    Antimatter is far less abundant in the universe than “regular” matter — the stuff that makes up the things we see and touch every day. Matter and antimatter can also annihilate each other if they come in contact (why, yes, that is the technical term).

    Antiparticles can be thought of as “opposites” or partners to the fundamental particles that make regular everyday matter. For example, the negatively charged electrons found in regular matter have positively charged antiparticles called positrons. Neutrinos are uncharged, but they have other properties that would be inverted in an antineutrino. Or not, if the Standard Model is missing something and a neutrino is its own antiparticle.

    Detecting neutrinoless double beta decay would provide scientists with a new approach to solve mysteries about the neutrino’s mass, its antiparticle’s identity and more.

    “The actual detection wouldn’t happen at FRIB, but scientists at FRIB are strongly involved in the effort to measure and accurately model the nuclear structure of the likely detection materials,” Hergert said.

    The detection experiment itself will likely require a large, likely international project that’s buried deep underground to shield it from unwanted background effects. That may sound a little farfetched to those outside the fields of nuclear or particle physics, but precedents do exist. Take, for instance, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, a collaboration of more than 40 institutions from 12 countries, including MSU, from 12 countries that’s using a cubic kilometer of Antarctica’s ice to help detect and study neutrinos.

    Researchers have also already built demonstration-scale versions of the detector needed to sniff out the neutrinoless double beta decay, Hergert said, but it may take a decade or two to build the full-size detector and collect the necessary data.

    In the meantime, there are still contributions for Hergert and his colleagues to make, further reinforcing his choice to take on some of the biggest questions in physics.

    “Nuclei are ripe with opportunities to test our fundamental understanding of nature, and now that FRIB is launching, we will have a powerful tool at our disposal that can help us find answers to these questions,” he said. “It’s an extremely exciting time.”

    Michigan State University (MSU) operates the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) as a user facility for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC), supporting the mission of the DOE-SC Office of Nuclear Physics. The establishment of FRIB was funded by DOE-SC, MSU, and the state of Michigan, and user facility operation is supported by the DOE-SC Office of Nuclear Physics.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Michigan State Campus

    Michigan State University is a public research university located in East Lansing, Michigan, United States. Michigan State University was founded in 1855 and became the nation’s first land-grant institution under the Morrill Act of 1862, serving as a model for future land-grant universities.

    The university was founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, one of the country’s first institutions of higher education to teach scientific agriculture. After the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, Michigan State University is one of the largest universities in the United States (in terms of enrollment) and has approximately 634,300 living alumni worldwide.

    U.S. News & World Report ranks its graduate programs the best in the U.S. in elementary teacher’s education, secondary teacher’s education, industrial and organizational psychology, rehabilitation counseling, African history (tied), supply chain logistics and nuclear physics in 2019. Michigan State University pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and communication sciences. Michigan State University is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. The university’s campus houses the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, the Abrams Planetarium, the Wharton Center for Performing Arts, the Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, the the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, and the country’s largest residence hall system.

    Research

    The university has a long history of academic research and innovation. In 1877, botany professor William J. Beal performed the first documented genetic crosses to produce hybrid corn, which led to increased yields. Michigan State University dairy professor G. Malcolm Trout improved the process for the homogenization of milk in the 1930s, making it more commercially viable. In the 1960s, Michigan State University scientists developed cisplatin, a leading cancer fighting drug, and followed that work with the derivative, carboplatin. Albert Fert, an Adjunct professor at Michigan State University, was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Peter Grünberg.

    Today Michigan State University continues its research with facilities such as the Department of Energy -sponsored Plant Research Laboratory and a particle accelerator called the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory [below]. The Department of Energy Office of Science named Michigan State University as the site for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The $730 million facility will attract top researchers from around the world to conduct experiments in basic nuclear science, astrophysics, and applications of isotopes to other fields.

    Michigan State University FRIB [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams] .

    In 2004, scientists at the Cyclotron produced and observed a new isotope of the element germanium, called Ge-60 In that same year, Michigan State University, in consortium with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the government of Brazil, broke ground on the 4.1-meter Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) in the Andes Mountains of Chile.


    The consortium telescope will allow the Physics & Astronomy department to study galaxy formation and origins. Since 1999, MSU has been part of a consortium called the Michigan Life Sciences Corridor, which aims to develop biotechnology research in the State of Michigan. Finally, the College of Communication Arts and Sciences’ Quello Center researches issues of information and communication management.


    The Michigan State University Spartans compete in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference. Michigan State Spartans football won the Rose Bowl Game in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014, and the university claims a total of six national football championships. Spartans men’s basketball won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and has attained the Final Four eight times since the 1998–1999 season. Spartans ice hockey won NCAA national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007. The women’s cross country team was named Big Ten champions in 2019. In the fall of 2019, MSU student-athletes posted all-time highs for graduation success rates and federal graduation rates, according to NCAA statistics.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:31 pm on June 3, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New tool to detect species declines can help protect biodiversity", A unique model to analyze declining biodiversity and understand the changes occurring within individual species and across broader wildlife communities., Data integration is one of the most promising approaches for assessing and predicting biodiversity in a changing world., , Michigan State University, The hope is that this model will lead to similar analyses on other taxonomic groups around the world and better-informed conservation efforts., The team recently produced a freely available software package "spOccupancy", The team shows how integrating data from multiple species and data sources can take analyses a step further than previous approaches., The team used data from a community of 12 foliage-gleaning bird species across the White Mountain National Forest as a case study and compared the results against previous models.   

    From Michigan State University: “New tool to detect species declines can help protect biodiversity” 

    Michigan State Bloc

    From Michigan State University

    5.27.22

    1
    The graphs above show trends in occurrence probabilities of foliage-gleaning bird species in the White Mountain National Forest from 2010 to 2018 when using differing subsets of three data sources (cropped). Credit: Zipkin Quantitative Ecology Lab

    Jeff Doser wants to give conservationists the tools they need to make better decisions. As a postdoctoral researcher in Michigan State University’s Zipkin Quantitative Ecology Lab in the College of Natural Science (NatSci), he and his team developed a unique model to analyze declining biodiversity and understand the changes occurring within individual species and across broader wildlife communities.

    In a new paper, published in Methods in Ecology and Evolution, the team shows how integrating data from multiple species and data sources can take analyses a step further than previous approaches. Their integrated community occupancy model, or ICOM, merges two fields of statistical ecology: data integration and hierarchical community modeling, into a single analytical framework that can reveal how biodiversity patterns and dynamics are changing over space and time.

    3
    Overview of the Integrated Community Occupancy Model. Credit: Zipkin Quantitative Ecology Lab.

    “By taking a holistic approach, we can make better conservation recommendations,” Doser said. “We can evaluate how species and whole communities are responding to global changes and we can determine which areas to prioritize for conservation. We can also pinpoint locations with insufficient data.”

    To test the new framework, the team used data from a community of 12 foliage-gleaning bird species across the White Mountain National Forest as a case study and compared the results against previous models. Finding enough data to address broad-scale biodiversity questions is often difficult because it can be expensive and logistically challenging to collect data across vast regions. There is often a tradeoff in data collection in which high data quality data can only be obtained in smaller areas and generally over shorter time frames. So Doser and his team combined multiple data sources to account for these complexities.

    “Data integration is one of the most promising approaches for assessing and predicting biodiversity in a changing world,” said senior author Elise Zipkin, associate professor in the NatSci Department of Integrative Biology and director of the Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior Program. “One of the greatest challenges that conservationists face is determining what exactly causes species declines and yet, there is limited data available for most species in most geographic regions.”

    To benefit from different types of data, Doser used two high quality data sources from two small forest plots and one lower quality source with data available throughout the forest. The case study and simulations showed that the ICOM surpassed its predecessors on many fronts. Compared to single-species analyses, it provided more precise and more accurate estimates of species parameters than analyses that used only one data source. It also generated more accurate biodiversity inferences as compared to previous multi-species models that used only a single data source.

    The hope is that this model will lead to similar analyses on other taxonomic groups around the world and better-informed conservation efforts. Zipkin’s lab is already extending this framework to understand how climate change and land-use change are influencing bird and butterfly communities in the United States over the last several decades, with the goal of making forecasts on species distributions into later parts of the century.

    For Doser, the research is only part of the work. His commitment to disseminating robust modeling tools has led him down the path of software development. The team recently produced a freely available software package, spOccupancy, to provide researchers and conservation practitioners with the ability to evaluate species trends using state-of-the-art modeling tools, such as the ICOM. The package was introduced in another paper in the journal Methods in Ecology and Evolution.

    “Making our models accessible to other researchers and the interested public is important for what we want to accomplish”, Doser said. “Many resource managers have limited training in mathematics and statistics, so it is important to provide accessible tools that they can leverage to achieve conservation goals. This is the direction my research is heading.”

    The ICOM code is posted, with directions, on the Zipkin lab’s code archive alongside all the models the lab has developed.

    “Open science is critical to effective conservation,” Zipkin added. “We strive to make our work accessible, reproducible, and transparent, which, we hope, will help push forward this important area of research.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Michigan State Campus

    Michigan State University is a public research university located in East Lansing, Michigan, United States. Michigan State University was founded in 1855 and became the nation’s first land-grant institution under the Morrill Act of 1862, serving as a model for future land-grant universities.

    The university was founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, one of the country’s first institutions of higher education to teach scientific agriculture. After the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, Michigan State University is one of the largest universities in the United States (in terms of enrollment) and has approximately 634,300 living alumni worldwide.

    U.S. News & World Report ranks its graduate programs the best in the U.S. in elementary teacher’s education, secondary teacher’s education, industrial and organizational psychology, rehabilitation counseling, African history (tied), supply chain logistics and nuclear physics in 2019. Michigan State University pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and communication sciences. Michigan State University is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. The university’s campus houses the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, the Abrams Planetarium, the Wharton Center for Performing Arts, the Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, the the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, and the country’s largest residence hall system.

    Research

    The university has a long history of academic research and innovation. In 1877, botany professor William J. Beal performed the first documented genetic crosses to produce hybrid corn, which led to increased yields. Michigan State University dairy professor G. Malcolm Trout improved the process for the homogenization of milk in the 1930s, making it more commercially viable. In the 1960s, Michigan State University scientists developed cisplatin, a leading cancer fighting drug, and followed that work with the derivative, carboplatin. Albert Fert, an Adjunct professor at Michigan State University, was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Peter Grünberg.

    Today Michigan State University continues its research with facilities such as the Department of Energy -sponsored Plant Research Laboratory and a particle accelerator called the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory [below]. The Department of Energy Office of Science named Michigan State University as the site for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The $730 million facility will attract top researchers from around the world to conduct experiments in basic nuclear science, astrophysics, and applications of isotopes to other fields.

    Michigan State University FRIB [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams] .

    In 2004, scientists at the Cyclotron produced and observed a new isotope of the element germanium, called Ge-60 In that same year, Michigan State University, in consortium with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the government of Brazil, broke ground on the 4.1-meter Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) in the Andes Mountains of Chile.


    The consortium telescope will allow the Physics & Astronomy department to study galaxy formation and origins. Since 1999, MSU has been part of a consortium called the Michigan Life Sciences Corridor, which aims to develop biotechnology research in the State of Michigan. Finally, the College of Communication Arts and Sciences’ Quello Center researches issues of information and communication management.


    The Michigan State University Spartans compete in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference. Michigan State Spartans football won the Rose Bowl Game in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014, and the university claims a total of six national football championships. Spartans men’s basketball won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and has attained the Final Four eight times since the 1998–1999 season. Spartans ice hockey won NCAA national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007. The women’s cross country team was named Big Ten champions in 2019. In the fall of 2019, MSU student-athletes posted all-time highs for graduation success rates and federal graduation rates, according to NCAA statistics.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:14 pm on May 25, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Global food trade research upends assumptions about how biodiversity fares", , , , Michigan State University   

    From Michigan State University: “Global food trade research upends assumptions about how biodiversity fares” 

    Michigan State Bloc

    From Michigan State University

    May 12, 2022 [Just now in social media.]
    Sue Nichols

    Examining the complexities of global food trade and the impacts of biodiversity hotspots.

    1

    In this week’s Nature Food, Michigan State University (MSU) researchers find that imports from high-income countries benefit biodiversity in low-income countries.

    The findings fly in the face of conventional wisdoms: that high-income countries harm biodiversity in low-income countries by importing food from them, and yet low-income countries, particularly those with biodiversity hotspots, were increasingly becoming net importers themselves.

    The findings in “International food trade benefits biodiversity and food security in low-income countries” fly in the face of conventional wisdoms: that high-income countries harm biodiversity in low-income countries by importing food from them, and yet low-income countries, particularly those with biodiversity hotspots, were increasingly becoming net importers themselves.

    Two MSU sustainability scholars from the Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability (CSIS) looked at the growing complexities of global food trade for a better understanding of the interactions and impacts of growing food to feed the world and protecting some of the most precious natural resources. Their paper is entitled
    Understanding the interrelationships between food security and biodiversity is essential to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, said CSIS director Jianguo “Jack” Liu, MSU Rachel Carson Chair in Sustainability and co-author. “Our work seeks to understand how we can achieve global food security to feed a growing population without sacrificing biodiversity in the telecoupled world.”

    Countries that are growing both in population and wealth demand more food, and often turn to importing foods. Countries that are increasing their food exports, which often means converting their lands to farms or pastures, can find it results in damage to the environment and biodiversity.

    2
    Illinois-grown corn for export.

    Liu and Min Gon Chung, who received his PhD at MSU and now is a postdoctoral researcher at University of California, Merced, examined comprehensive datasets comprising 189 food items across 157 countries during 2000–2018.

    The pair offer suggestions, such has having food prices include costs to biodiversity, and those earnings be used to mitigate the damages to biodiversity. Underscoring all solutions involves countries working together to strike agreements benefiting both coffers and the environment.

    “With increasing the complexity of food trade among countries with and without biodiversity hotspots, more innovative approaches are needed to minimize the negative impacts of global food production and trade on biodiversity in hotspot countries worldwide,” Chung said.

    The work was funded by the National Science Foundation, Michigan AgBioResearch and Sustainable Michigan Endowment Project.

    A related Nature News & Views article has been written by Stuart Pimm at Duke University’s Nicholas School of the Environment.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Michigan State Campus

    Michigan State University is a public research university located in East Lansing, Michigan, United States. Michigan State University was founded in 1855 and became the nation’s first land-grant institution under the Morrill Act of 1862, serving as a model for future land-grant universities.

    The university was founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, one of the country’s first institutions of higher education to teach scientific agriculture. After the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, Michigan State University is one of the largest universities in the United States (in terms of enrollment) and has approximately 634,300 living alumni worldwide.

    U.S. News & World Report ranks its graduate programs the best in the U.S. in elementary teacher’s education, secondary teacher’s education, industrial and organizational psychology, rehabilitation counseling, African history (tied), supply chain logistics and nuclear physics in 2019. Michigan State University pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and communication sciences. Michigan State University is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. The university’s campus houses the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, the Abrams Planetarium, the Wharton Center for Performing Arts, the Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, the the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, and the country’s largest residence hall system.

    Research

    The university has a long history of academic research and innovation. In 1877, botany professor William J. Beal performed the first documented genetic crosses to produce hybrid corn, which led to increased yields. Michigan State University dairy professor G. Malcolm Trout improved the process for the homogenization of milk in the 1930s, making it more commercially viable. In the 1960s, Michigan State University scientists developed cisplatin, a leading cancer fighting drug, and followed that work with the derivative, carboplatin. Albert Fert, an Adjunct professor at Michigan State University, was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Peter Grünberg.

    Today Michigan State University continues its research with facilities such as the Department of Energy -sponsored Plant Research Laboratory and a particle accelerator called the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory [below]. The Department of Energy Office of Science named Michigan State University as the site for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The $730 million facility will attract top researchers from around the world to conduct experiments in basic nuclear science, astrophysics, and applications of isotopes to other fields.

    Michigan State University FRIB [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams] .

    In 2004, scientists at the Cyclotron produced and observed a new isotope of the element germanium, called Ge-60 In that same year, Michigan State University, in consortium with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the government of Brazil, broke ground on the 4.1-meter Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) in the Andes Mountains of Chile.


    The consortium telescope will allow the Physics & Astronomy department to study galaxy formation and origins. Since 1999, MSU has been part of a consortium called the Michigan Life Sciences Corridor, which aims to develop biotechnology research in the State of Michigan. Finally, the College of Communication Arts and Sciences’ Quello Center researches issues of information and communication management.


    The Michigan State University Spartans compete in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference. Michigan State Spartans football won the Rose Bowl Game in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014, and the university claims a total of six national football championships. Spartans men’s basketball won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and has attained the Final Four eight times since the 1998–1999 season. Spartans ice hockey won NCAA national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007. The women’s cross country team was named Big Ten champions in 2019. In the fall of 2019, MSU student-athletes posted all-time highs for graduation success rates and federal graduation rates, according to NCAA statistics.

     
  • richardmitnick 7:21 am on May 19, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Of novae and ‘nuclear thermometers’ ", A classical nova is created by two stars orbiting each other closely enough that one star can siphon nuclear fuel from the other., About half of the stars we see in the sky are actually two-star systems, , , “GADGET” and “GADGET 2”, , , Michigan State University, NSCL-National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, or binary star systems., , , Those binary star systems are particularly important in the Milky Way., Understanding the nuclear processes of all stars helps researchers understand where the universe’s elements come from.   

    From Michigan State University: “Of novae and ‘nuclear thermometers’ “ 

    Michigan State Bloc

    From Michigan State University

    May 17, 2022
    Matt Davenport

    MSU helps deliver insights to better characterize the nuclear physics and extreme environments of cosmic explosions.

    Michigan State researchers have helped peer inside a nova — a type of astrophysical nuclear explosion — without leaving Earth.

    These stellar events help forge the universe’s chemical elements, and Spartans helped explore their nature with an intense isotope beam and a custom experimental device with record-setting sensitivity at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, or NSCL.


    The team published its work May 3 in the journal Physical Review Letters.

    We’ve been working on this project for about five years, so it’s really exciting to see this paper come out,” said Christopher Wrede, a professor of physics at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, or FRIB, and in MSU’s Department of Physics and Astronomy. Wrede, an MSU/FRIB faculty member, led the international research project.

    NSCL was a National Science Foundation facility that served the scientific community for decades. FRIB, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science user facility, officially launched on May 2. Now, FRIB will usher in a new era of experiments that empower researchers like Wrede to better test and verify scientific theories explaining the cosmos.



    For example, with their experiments at NSCL, the researchers provided a better calibration for what are known as “nuclear thermometers.” The experimental results improved the precision of calculations scientists use to determine the interior temperature of novae — the plural of nova. With its results, the team confirmed that the interior of a nova named V838 Herculis was about 50,000 times hotter than the surface of the sun.

    “Ultimately, the information we extracted from our experiments reduced the uncertainties in this calculation by a factor of two to four,” Wrede said. “We were actually surprised at how close it was to the temperature we expected.”

    This agreement helps solidify theories underlying the nuclear physics of novae, which is saying something. Our understanding of novae has come a long way since people first observed them hundreds of years ago — a fact exemplified by the name nova itself, which means “new.”

    2
    An illustration of a classical nova shows a bright white dwarf star near the center accumulating fuel in an orange disc from its neighboring main sequence star (shown in bright orange). Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech.

    3
    A photograph of the GADGET detector. Credit: Courtesy of the Wrede Lab.

    “A long time ago, if something in the sky popped out of nowhere, you can imagine people thinking ‘Wait a minute. What the heck is that?’” Wrede said. “‘It must be a star that wasn’t there before.’”

    Scientists have since learned that novae are not new stars, but distant extant stars that become visible on Earth when they explode or trigger explosions. Perhaps the best-known example of a “new star” is a supernova, which is when an entire star explodes. In our galaxy, the Milky Way, this is comparatively rare, happening once every hundred years or so.

    The nuclear reactions Wrede and his team study, however, are found in what are called classical novae, which are more common in our cosmic neighborhood. Scientists observe about a dozen in a typical year, often aided by amateur astronomers. And, because a star doesn’t explode completely in a classical nova, the same one can appear more than once (although the typical time between appearances is about 10,000 years, Wrede said).

    A classical nova is created by two stars orbiting each other closely enough that one star can siphon nuclear fuel from the other. When the siphoning star borrows enough fuel, it can trigger an energetic series of nuclear explosions.

    Understanding the nuclear processes of all stars helps researchers understand where the universe’s elements come from and those involving two stars are particularly important in the Milky Way, Wrede said.

    “About half of the stars we see in the sky are actually two-star systems, or binary star systems,” he said. “If we really want to understand how our galaxy is working to produce chemical elements, there’s no way we can ignore them.”

    Wrede has been studying a specific nuclear reaction within novae that, in nature, involves versions, or isotopes, of phosphorus. Phosphorus inside a nova can gobble up an extra proton to create sulfur isotopes, but unfortunately, scientists can’t recreate this reaction at stellar conditions on Earth. So Wrede and the team did the next best thing.

    They instead started with chlorine isotopes that decay into sulfur isotopes. They then watched those sulfur isotopes spit out protons to become phosphorus. It’s the reaction of interest in reverse, which lets the researchers essentially synthesize an instant replay of the action that they can rewind to better understand nature’s playbook.

    But there was another wrinkle. To achieve its goal, the team needed to take record-setting measurements of the lowest-energy protons that came out of the sulfur. To do this, the researchers built an instrument they’ve dubbed the Gaseous Detector with Germanium Tagging, or “GADGET”.

    “These protons have really low energy, and using conventional techniques, the signal would get swamped by background,” Wrede said. GADGET took an unconventional approach — using a gaseous detector component instead of solid silicon — to achieve the sensitivity needed to see the protons.

    “In terms of sensitivity, it’s a world record,” Wrede said.

    Of course, the tools and techniques are just part of the equation. The team also needed the talent to build the instrument, run the experiments and interpret the data. Wrede, in particular, commended Spartan graduate student researcher Tamas Budner, the first author of the paper who had a hand in each phase of the project.

    Budner will be earning his doctoral degree this summer from MSU’s top-ranked graduate program in nuclear physics thanks in no small part to this project, which he called serendipitous. When he first started his grad program in 2016, he didn’t know whose lab he’d work in or which project he’d take on.

    “When I came to MSU, I didn’t really know what I wanted to work on. But it seemed like an exciting environment where people were working on lots of different things with a lot of cool, cutting-edge technology,” Budner said.

    “I emailed Chris about this project, and it checked a lot of boxes for me. I’d get to see all the steps involved in the process: building a new detector, doing a new experiment and analyzing the data,” he said. “It had all the things I wanted to try.”

    Also joining the Spartans on this project were researchers from around the globe. Team members hailed from institutions in France, Spain, China, Israel, Canada and South Korea. There was also a domestic cohort of collaborators joining from the University of Notre Dame in Indiana and The DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

    4
    This graph shows proton detection data from the GADGET instrument. Readings from a single detector pad are shown in black and an aggregated signal from five pads is shown in pink. In both curves, several peaks are obvious above energies of about 800 keV, or kiloelectronvolts. What GADGET allowed researchers to detect was the important but tiny blip at the low energy of 260 keV (highlighted with a gray bar). Before these measurements, a proton peak this weak from this nuclear process had never been detected below 400 keV. Credit: Phys. Rev. Lett.

    MSU, though, was the epicenter of the experiments as home to NSCL, which provided the requisite high-intensity beam of chlorine isotopes. Now FRIB will carry on the tradition of NSCL, continuing to attract top researchers from around the globe to answer some of science’s biggest questions with experiments that aren’t possible anywhere else.

    And Wrede’s team will be part of that. It already has the approval to run a new experiment at FRIB, with a new GADGET system to boot.

    “We’ve already upgraded GADGET. We call it GADGET 2,” Wrede said. “It’s a much more complex system and can measure protons even more sensitively.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Michigan State Campus

    Michigan State University is a public research university located in East Lansing, Michigan, United States. Michigan State University was founded in 1855 and became the nation’s first land-grant institution under the Morrill Act of 1862, serving as a model for future land-grant universities.

    The university was founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, one of the country’s first institutions of higher education to teach scientific agriculture. After the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, Michigan State University is one of the largest universities in the United States (in terms of enrollment) and has approximately 634,300 living alumni worldwide.

    U.S. News & World Report ranks its graduate programs the best in the U.S. in elementary teacher’s education, secondary teacher’s education, industrial and organizational psychology, rehabilitation counseling, African history (tied), supply chain logistics and nuclear physics in 2019. Michigan State University pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and communication sciences. Michigan State University is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. The university’s campus houses the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, the Abrams Planetarium, the Wharton Center for Performing Arts, the Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, the the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, and the country’s largest residence hall system.

    Research

    The university has a long history of academic research and innovation. In 1877, botany professor William J. Beal performed the first documented genetic crosses to produce hybrid corn, which led to increased yields. Michigan State University dairy professor G. Malcolm Trout improved the process for the homogenization of milk in the 1930s, making it more commercially viable. In the 1960s, Michigan State University scientists developed cisplatin, a leading cancer fighting drug, and followed that work with the derivative, carboplatin. Albert Fert, an Adjunct professor at Michigan State University, was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Peter Grünberg.

    Today Michigan State University continues its research with facilities such as the Department of Energy -sponsored Plant Research Laboratory and a particle accelerator called the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory [below]. The Department of Energy Office of Science named Michigan State University as the site for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The $730 million facility will attract top researchers from around the world to conduct experiments in basic nuclear science, astrophysics, and applications of isotopes to other fields.

    Michigan State University FRIB [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams] .

    In 2004, scientists at the Cyclotron produced and observed a new isotope of the element germanium, called Ge-60 In that same year, Michigan State University, in consortium with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the government of Brazil, broke ground on the 4.1-meter Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) in the Andes Mountains of Chile.


    The consortium telescope will allow the Physics & Astronomy department to study galaxy formation and origins. Since 1999, MSU has been part of a consortium called the Michigan Life Sciences Corridor, which aims to develop biotechnology research in the State of Michigan. Finally, the College of Communication Arts and Sciences’ Quello Center researches issues of information and communication management.


    The Michigan State University Spartans compete in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference. Michigan State Spartans football won the Rose Bowl Game in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014, and the university claims a total of six national football championships. Spartans men’s basketball won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and has attained the Final Four eight times since the 1998–1999 season. Spartans ice hockey won NCAA national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007. The women’s cross country team was named Big Ten champions in 2019. In the fall of 2019, MSU student-athletes posted all-time highs for graduation success rates and federal graduation rates, according to NCAA statistics.

     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel
%d bloggers like this: