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  • richardmitnick 3:29 pm on December 19, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , Manu Garcia at IAC   

    From IAC via Manu: “IAC astronomers find one of the first stars formed in the Milky Way” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    Dec. 19, 2017
    Contact IAC:
    David Sánchez Aguado
    aguado@iac.es

    Jonay I. González Hernández
    jonay@iac.es

    Researchers at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) have identified, using the Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC) a star which is a key to the formation of the first chemical elements in the Galaxy. The results of this research are published today in the scientific journal The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

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    The study presents the discovery of one of the stars with the least content of “metals” (heavy elements). Known. Th estar is at 7,500 light years from Earth, in the halo of the Milky Way, and is along the line of sight to the constellation of the Lynx. The star is still on the Main Sequence, the stage at which most stars spend the major part of their lives. The source of energy of these stars is, as always, the fusión of hydrogen in their cores, and their surface temperaturas and luminosities are almost constant with time. Another of its properties is its low mass, around 0.7 times the mass of the Sun, although it has a surface temperatura 400 degrees hotter.

    This discovery was made using spectra obtained with OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging and low-intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectoscopy) on the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Garafía, La Palma).

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    OSIRIS on GTC

    Spectroscopy allows us to decompose the light of celestial objects to study their physical and chemical properties, and thanks to this we know that J0815+4729 has only a millionth part of the calcium and iron that the Sun contains, but it has a comparatively huge content of carbón, almost 15% of the solar abundance.

    “ We know of only a few stars (which can be counted on the fingers of a hand) of this type in the halo, where the oldest and most metal-poor stars in our Galaxy are found”, explains David Aguado, an FPI-SO (Severo Ochoa-Training of Research Personnel) research student at the IAC and the University of La Laguna (ULL) who si the first author of the article.

    “Theory predicts that these stars could form just after, and using material fom, the first supernovae, whose progenitors were the first massive stars in the Galaxy, around 300 million years after the Big Bang” says Jonay González Hernández, a Ramon y Cajal researcher at the IAC and one of the authors of the article. “In spite of its age, and of its distance away from us, we can still observe it” he adds.

    In fact this star was first identified from the SDASS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) data base within the BOSS (Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey) project, and it was later observed with the ISIS intermediate dispersion spectrograph on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) of the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes which is also at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory.

    SDSS Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, NM, USA, Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft)

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    ISIS intermediate dispersion spectrograph on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) of the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes

    Isaac Newton Group telescopes, at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma in the Canary Islands, Spain, at an altitude of 2400m


    ING 4 meter William Herschel Telescope at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma in the Canary Islands, 2,396 m (7,861 ft)

    “This star was tucked away in the data base of the BOSS project, among a million stellar spectra which we have analysed to identify it, which required a considerable observational and computational effort” stated Carlos Allende Prieto, another IAC researcher, and a coauthor of this article. “It needs high resolution spectroscopy on large telescopes to try to detect the verious chemical elements in the star which can help us to understand the first supernovae and their progenitors” he emphasized.

    In the near future the HORS high resolution spectrograph, at presently in a trial phse on the GTC, will be a key instrument for the chemical analysis of weak stars such as J0815+4729

    Rafael Rebolo, the director of the IAC and a coauthor of the paper, explains that “Detecting lithium gives us crucial information related to Big Bang nucleosynthesis. We are working on a spectrograph of high resolution and wide spectral range inorder to be able to measure (among other things) the detailed chemical composition of stars with unique properties such as J0815+4719”

    The Observatories of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS ( GTC) are part of the network of Singular Scientific and Technical Insfrastructure (ICTS) of Spain.

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Stem Education Coalition
    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

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  • richardmitnick 12:36 pm on December 3, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , IAA-Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia, , Manu Garcia at IAC, New progress in determining the lifetime of massive stars   

    From Manu at IAC: ” New progress in determining the lifetime of massive stars” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    25 October 2016

    The size of the core of the stars determines how much fuel is available and, therefore, how long will evolve and the lives of stars.

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    Determined the lifetime of massive stars. Credit: IAA.

    The stars draw their energy from fusion reactions taking place at its core, a region of extreme density and temperature. And in the nuclei of the most massive stars a phenomenon called “core overflow” which dramatically changes its evolutionary path, especially as regards their lifetime may occur. Now, a study led by the Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia (IAA-CSIC) has measured the intensity of this effect and established a clear dependence on the mass of the star.

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    To determine how long a star lives need to know the type of stellar nuclear boiler and the type of thermonuclear reactions that occur in it. Stars produce energy through the fusion of hydrogen into helium, but the conditions for this reaction only are present in the core so occurs that the size of this will determine how much fuel is available star and, by extension, how live. And the size of the nucleus of stars depends on how energy is transported to the outer regions.

    In stars with more than 1.3 times the mass of the sun the energy produced in the core moves outwards by convection, similar to bubbling of boiling water. Are convective cells which carry the energy and traditionally has resorted to estimate the size of the core by a criterion based on the acceleration of the same: when this is zero, the motion ceases, which would set the limit core.

    “However, by inertia, these cells can still go a greater way than dictated by this criterion, resulting in increased core. As a result there will be more fuel available, extending the life of the stars, among other details,” said Antonio Claret , IAA-CSIC researcher who has conducted research.

    We can find an analogy of this phenomenon, called “overflow core” (English core overshooting ), in a bonfire in the field: in principle, the stake will only take place where firewood is but due to thermal movements or wind, fire can reach the foliage in the vicinity of the fire.

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    Eclipsing binary star system. Credit: IAA.

    “Since the overflow of the core alters both evolution and the lifetime of massive stars, determining its intensity and its possible dependence on the mass of the star is one of the challenges of modern astrophysics, said Claret (IAA-CSIC). to do this we must have very accurate data we can compare with theoretical calculations. in the past there have been some attempts but no conclusive results have been obtained mainly due to the scarcity of reliable observational data. ”

    A recent study by Claret & Torres (2017), published in The Astrophysical Journal, has examined the magnitude of core overshooting (overflow convective core) and was able to determine how depends on the mass of the star. The research focused on the diffusive approximation. In this process the convective elements dissolve by a diffusion process and, therefore, the region is not fully mixed. Article completes the previous study by the same authors examined the prescription ” step-function “. This latest analysis is based on a sample of twenty eclipsing binary stars located in the solar neighborhood and in the Magellanic Clouds. The researchers were able to infer the overflow of the core of the two stars in the binary system.

    Claret and Torres found that the magnitude of this effect increases for stars with between 1.2 and 2 times the mass of the sun, and then remains approximately constant for the most massive stars to about 4.5 solar masses, the upper limit of your sample. Behavior beyond 4.5 solar masses is not yet known. The general trend in terms of the mass is qualitatively similar to that found in the previous study using the approach ” step-function “. This allowed them to establish a connection between the two mechanisms.

    The study also examined the influence of two different mixtures of chemicals (opacities) in intensity overflow core and its dependence on the mass, and found that lead to essentially identical results. Similarly, Claret and Torres found that the proportion of primordial helium enrichment galactic law, describing how the abundance of helium in stars depends on the content of heavy elements, has little or no impact. Together with the results of the previous study, these new findings indicate that dependence on the mass phenomenon does not appear to be greatly affected by the basic physics adopted in the theoretical models of stellar evolution. Furthermore, through an analytical model, it has also failed to explain the pattern of changes in the size of convective cells due to the ” core overshooting ” establishing a connection with the stellar mass, the type of nuclear reactions, opacities and the state equation.

    The study represents an important step in our understanding of the convective core overflow forward and provides a much needed to develop future models of stellar evolution empirical guide. This has potential implications for ages inferred from the stars, and other physical properties depending on the models.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 1:40 pm on December 2, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Manu Garcia at IAC, NGC 1097, Why is massive star formation quenched in galaxy centers?   

    From Manu Garcia at IAC: “Why is massive star formation quenched in galaxy centers?” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    27 November 2017.

    Tags: Galaxies
    Manu [Astrologus] Garcia

    Contact:

    Fatemeh Tabatabaei (English)
    ftaba@iac.es

    Almudena Prieto (Spanish/English)
    aprieto@iac.es

    1
    NGC 1097.
    Magnetic fields control the collapse of the molecular clouds in the nuclear ring of the galaxy NGC 1097. As a result, formation of massive stars is suppressed in zones of strong magnetic fields (contours). Credit: Gabriel Pérez, SMM (IAC).

    A study whose first author is a researcher at the IAC and published today in Nature Astronomy points to the role of the magnetic field responsible for decelerating the rate of formation of this type of stars in the center of galaxies, and without which question the current model of the “Big Bang”.

    The cosmological model we make reference to today to explain the universe, the model of the “Big Bang” is intended to describe all the phenomena we observe, including galaxies and their evolution from the earliest periods to the present day. One of the main problems facing is that predicts a rate of star formation born -Speed ​​the new star- too high, because at that pace all gas and galactic dust should have become stars when the universe was only a fraction of its current age, about 13,800 million years. More than half galaxies we see, mainly spirals, however are actively forming stars right now. This discordance between the theoretical prediction and observation has obliged to investigate more closely the processes that can slow the rate at which stars are born, processes known as “suppression of star formation.” Without them, the Big Bang model we take for valid fails.

    Have proposed several mechanisms that could “turn off” star formation, for example, the “feedback” of supernovae in massive star clusters that “breaks” forming molecular clouds of stars, but it is still essential to measure and verify other possible processes . One of them, gathered in an article published today in the journal Nature Astronomy and whose first author is a researcher at the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC) Fatemeh Tabatabaei, pointing to magnetic fields as responsible for the stars formed more slowly.

    To investigate in detail the parameters of star formation in the central region of the spiral galaxy NGC 1097, concluded that a relatively large magnetic field can slow the formation of new stars, as these fields “press” molecular clouds, slowing or stopping its tendency to collapse and create new stars. But the study results have been even more revealing because they have shown that this mechanism is happening around the center of NGC 1097. This could not have combined observations taken with Hubble (HST) in the visible Space Telescope with observations at radio with the Very Large Array (VLA) and submillimeter Array (SMA) to explore the effect of turbulence, and the magnetic stellar radiation for forming massive stars in the ring surrounding the core of the field galaxy.

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    NRAO/Karl V Jansky VLA, on the Plains of San Agustin fifty miles west of Socorro, NM, USA, at an elevation of 6970 ft (2124 m)

    CfA Submillimeter Array Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA,4,207 m (13,802 ft) above sea level

    This ring contains a distinct areas where stars are forming within huge and complex molecular clouds. The main finding was obtained an inverse relationship between the rate of star formation in a given molecular cloud and its magnetic field: the larger the magnetic field, the slower the rate of star formation.

    “To achieve this, we had to separate the magnetic field energy and other energy sources in the interstellar medium, which are thermal energy, and the general nonthermal but nonmagnetic” explains Fatemeh Tabatabaei. “Only by combining high-quality observations at different wavelengths we could do, and when we separate these energy sources the effect of the magnetic field was surprisingly clear.” In this sense, Almudena Prieto, also a researcher at the IAC and one of the authors of the research adds that “although I have been working in the central region of NGC 1097 in the optical and infrared for some time, only when we considered the magnetic field could realizing their relevance in decreasing the rate at which stars form. ”

    The consequences of their findings are significant and shed light on several “astrophysical puzzles” interrelated. First, as the magnetic field does not allow very large molecular clouds collapse and form stars, they could only emerge after the first break up into smaller clouds. This would mean that the stars formed in these circumstances are smaller than in other parts of galaxies. The trend of very massive galaxies to accommodate smaller stars at their centers is a recent discovery and, in a way, still controversial, but reinforced by this research. It is also interesting that the presence of supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei tend to enhance the magnetic field around, so that the quenching mechanism must be more effective in these central areas thereof.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 8:40 am on December 1, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: AAO AAT, , , , , Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, Magellanic Bridge, Manu Garcia at IAC   

    From AAO via Manu Garcia at IAC: ” The shooting stars of the Magellanic Clouds” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    AAO Australian Astronomical Observatory

    Australian Astronomical Observatory

    November 29, 2017
    Kirsten Banks
    Ángel López-Sánchez

    1
    The Magellanic Clouds over the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT, Siding Spring Observatory, Australia).
    Superimposed false color distribution of atomic gas shown in both dwarfs and Magellan bridge connecting the two. The black rectangle indicates the region of sky explored in AAT observations, enlargement shows the position of the “lost stars” of the SMC (identified as bright spots in image grayscale) found. Credits: Image of the Magellanic Clouds on AAT: Angel R. Lopez-Sanchez (AAO / MQU). Radio image showing the gas HI: M. Putman (Columbia, US) and Leiden / Argentine / Bonn (LAB) survey of Galactic H I (Kalberla & Haud 2015). Grayscale image: Digital Sky Survey (DSS). Image composition: Ricardo Carrera (IAC / INAF) and Angel R. Lopez-Sanchez (AAO / MQU).


    Using the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT), an international team of astrophysicists has confirmed the existence of stars in the Magellanic Bridge, a gaseous structure connecting the two Magellanic Clouds. These “lost stars” were stripped from the Small Magellanic Cloud by the gravitational pull of the Large Magellanic Cloud in a recent nearby encounter. The results of this research were recently published in the journal <a href="http://Using the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT), an international team of astrophysicists has confirmed the existence of stars in the Magellanic Bridge, a gaseous structure connecting the two Magellanic Clouds. These “lost stars” were stripped from the Small Magellanic Cloud by the gravitational pull of the Large Magellanic Cloud in a recent nearby encounter.Paper in MNRAS.

    Our galaxy, the Milky Way has two small galaxies “satellite” around: the Magellanic Clouds.

    Small Magellanic Cloud. NASA/ESA Hubble and ESO/Digitized Sky Survey 2

    Large Magellanic Cloud. Adrian Pingstone December 2003

    Only visible from the Southern Hemisphere, the Small and the Large Magellanic Cloud (SMC and LMC, respectively, for its acronym in English) look like two isolated objects, but in reality, both galaxies are linked by a structure of gas: Bridge Magallanes . The material of the bridge has been started Cloud Magellan as a result of interactions between them.

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    The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, their stellar halos and the RR Lyrae bridge: pale white veils and the narrow bridge between the Clouds represent the distribution of the RR Lyrae stars detected with the data from ESA’s Gaia satellite. Image credit: V. Belokurov / D. Erkal / A. Mellinger.

    ESA/GAIA satellite

    Using the 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT), located at Siding Spring Observatory (Coonabarabran, Australia) and managed by the Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO), an international team of astrophysicists has confirmed, for the first time, the detection of stars within the Magellanic Bridge.

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    2dF robot Anglo-Australian Telescope moving optical fibers which are illuminated in red. Credit: Angel R. Lopez-Sanchez (AAO / MQU), together with the AAOmega spectrograph to measure around 1500 stars in that region of the sky.

    ANU AAOmega spectrograph Anglo Australian Telescope

    The 2dF robot, a pioneer in the world, can simultaneously observe objects 400 in a region of sky whose diameter is equal to 4 moons. Thus it is possible to obtain high quality data from a large number of stars in just a few nights, “said Angel Lopez-Sanchez, PhD in Astrophysics from the University of La Laguna (ULL) and the IAC, an astrophysicist at the AAO and team member investigator.

    Access to AAT has been made possible by the OPTICON program framework of the European Union 7 program that allows access to facilities where a different source for researchers European country involved,” says Ricardo Carrera, a researcher at IAC and first author of the study.

    Observations with 2dF revealed that certain stars within the region of the sky where the bridge is Magallanes move differently than they do the stars of the Milky Way. However, their movement coincides with the Magellanic Bridge. The data were used to estimate the age of these “wandering stars” is between one thousand and ten billion years. However, the Puente de Magallanes was formed about 200 million years ago, much younger than the stars now detected in age, so really these stars had to be torn from one of the two galaxies (or perhaps both).

    The AAT observations revealed that some stars within the region where the Magellanic Bridge is located are not moving with the Milky Way. Instead, the movement of these stars agrees with that of the gas of the Magellanic Bridge.

    The researchers discovered that these “lost stars” are very old, born between 1 and 10 billion years ago.

    The Magellanic Bridge was only formed around 200 million years ago, much more recently than the stars associated with it, meaning that the “lost stars” were actually born within the LMC or the SMC and later stripped from the galaxies.

    Some dynamical models explaining the formation and evolution of the Magellanic Bridge already predicted that both stars and gas should be present. These new observations have confirmed, for the first time, that this is true.

    “Although preliminary studies suggested the existence of stars within the Magellanic Bridge, the data obtained with the AAT have definitively confirmed the existence of these old ‘lost stars’”, says Dr Carrera.

    “An important part of the gas and the stars in the Magellanic Clouds was “stripped” by effect of the gravitational forces. Comparing with dynamical models it is possible to estimate that this happened around 200 million years ago, when the two dwarf galaxies were very close. This was the origin of the Magellanic Bridge”, says Dr Noelia E. D. Noël, lecturer in Astrophysics at the University of Surrey in the UK.

    Furthermore, the spectroscopic data provided by the AAT have been also used to estimate the chemical composition of the “lost stars” found within the Magellanic Bridge.

    “Combining both the kinematics and the chemical composition of the stars, we can unequivocally conclude that these stars were actually born in the Small Magellanic Cloud”, says Dr Ricardo Carrera.

    Galaxy interactions and mergers were very common in the early Universe, and they are still happening today. Indeed, galaxy evolution is largely dominated by these encounters.

    “Galaxy interactions can distort or even drastically change the morphology of the galaxies. During these encounters there is an interchange of material between galaxies, new star-forming regions are created, and frequently the gas and stars are also stripped into the space between galaxies, called the intergalactic medium”, says Dr Ángel López-Sánchez.

    Dynamic models that explain the formation of Puente de Magallanes had already predicted that the gas should be accompanied by a stellar component, but these observations have been confirmed that for the first time, that this is so. “Although there were some indications of the existence of these stars, the data obtained with the AAT have allowed for the first time confirmed the existence of these” “much older than the Magellanic Bridge” wandering stars, says Carrera.

    “Much of the gas and stars in the Magellanic Clouds was ‘ripped off’ by tidal forces. Comparing with dynamic models can conclude that this occurred about 200 million years ago when two galaxies had a great approach including which the Puente de Magallanes was born, “says Noelia ED Noël, PhD in Astrophysics from the University of La Laguna (ULL) and the IAC and currently a researcher at the University of Surrey in the UK.

    The tidal forces acting on the galaxies are similar to those that cause tides in Earth’s oceans due to the gravitational pull of the moon, but the spectroscopic data obtained in the AAT have also served to determine the chemical composition of the detected stars within the Magellanic Bridge. “By combining information on the composition of these stars and their kinematics have determined unequivocally that these stars were created in the Small Magellanic Cloud,” says Carrera.

    Interactions and mergers between galaxies were very common in the early universe, but today are still frequent. So much so that the evolution of galaxies is dominated by these meetings. “The interactions between galaxies can distort and even radically alter the morphology of the systems involved. During these approaches there is exchange of material between them, creating regions where new stars are formed and starting often gas and stars, “said Lopez-Sanchez.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    AAO Anglo Australian Telescope Exterior
    AAO Anglo Australian Telescope Interior
    Anglo-Australian telescope

    The Australian Astronomical Observatory, a division of the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, operates the Anglo-Australian and UK Schmidt telescopes on behalf of the astronomical community of Australia. To this end the Observatory is part of and is funded by the Australian Government. Its function is to provide world-class observing facilities for Australian optical astronomers.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:52 am on October 19, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Manu Garcia at IAC, Stars from outside the Milky Way   

    From Manu Garcia for IAC: “Stars from outside the Milky Way” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    Discovered a new family of red giant stars with a strange chemical composition in the Milky Way.

    1
    Artistic representation of the chemical composition of the new population discovered traveling around the Milky Way in highly eccentric orbits (dashed white line) and the combined spectrum of APOGEE of atypical stars in a spectral window covering regions (shades of gray) around magnesium lines. Credit: JG Fernández-Trincado.

    The results of this research, published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters and which has participated IAC suggest an extragalactic origin outside the Milky Way, and help to understand how stars evolve and how the chemical elements inside are formed.

    Science, chance is a source of surprising discoveries. Open your eyes to the unknown. Even, sometimes, it changes the course of an investigation, a theory or a paradigm completely, what has happened in this discovery. While searching for fossil relics of early Milky Way, a scientific team stumbled upon an unexpected finding: a new family of giant stars with an unusual chemical composition according to the models of nucleosynthesis (nuclear fusion processes inside the stars where they originate new chemical elements). These stars are not only different from those of the Milky Way by its chemical composition, but also for its orbital properties, suggesting a possible extragalactic origin. Details of the discovery, which involved researchers from the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC), were recently published in the journal The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

    “It is an extremely interesting fact because just outside globular clusters in our galaxy contains stars with remarkably similar to the stellar population discovered chemical patterns, suggesting a possible relationship,” said Olga Zamora, Astronomer support of the Canarian Observatories and research IAC postdoctoral research has led, along with JG Fernández-Trincado, a researcher at the University of Concepción (Chile).

    The equipment used data from the second phase Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-2), usually used to map the chemical elements in the stars of the Milky Way (carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, aluminum and magnesium, among others), and giant observed 150,000 stars in the H band by high resolution spectrograph APOGEE, accessing regions obscured by the dust in the visible range.

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    Sloan Foundation 2.5 meter telescope at Apache Point, NM, USWA

    After processing the data, they found a chemically atypical stellar population compared to the stars of our galaxy or even any galactic globular cluster, cluster of stars known.

    Giant stars in question are very poor in magnesium unexpected considering its high levels of other elements such as nitrogen, aluminum and iron. “They could come from globular clusters dissociated in the past and whose distribution of elements not seen in any galactic globular cluster with similar chemical properties,” says IAC researcher and one of the authors of the article, Aníbal García-Hernández.

    “These stars may be born in a globular cluster with a history of different backgrounds and then have detached from it. If formed from a gas previously contaminated by a specific combination of massive stars, about 30 solar masses, and less massive stars, 4 to 8 solar masses, could explain its exceptional chemical “adds postdoc IAC and coauthor of work, Flavia Dell’Agli.

    These anomalous stars are ideal candidates living fossils from the early days of the Milky Way or even fossil relics of extragalactic globular clusters separated by tidal forces, the gravitational pull of the Milky Way.

    Now the team plans to use this finding to better understand the processes of nucleosynthesis and stellar evolution, and to find more giant stars with atypical chemical compositions, a key to improve our knowledge about the formation and evolution of our galaxy step.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 9:07 am on July 20, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Impressive Emissions Nebula IC 1396, Manu Garcia at IAC   

    From Manu Garcia at IAC: “IC 1396: Emission Nebula in Cepheus 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    1
    Credit and copyright: Cesar Blanco González

    The Impressive Emissions Nebula IC 1396 mixes the brilliant cosmic gas and dark dust clouds in the high and distant constellation of Cepheus. Energized by the brilliant central star you see here, this star-forming region extends over hundreds of light years, spanning more than three degrees in the sky, about 3.000 Light-years from planet earth. Among the intriguing dark forms within IC 1396, the elephant’s winding trunk nebula is located just below the center. The stars could still be forming within the dark shapes by gravitational collapse. But as the denser clouds are eroded by strong stellar winds and radiation, any star in formation will ultimately be cut off from the star reservoir. The magnificent color view is an image composition of narrow band filters, atomic oxygen emission mapping of the nebula, hydrogen and sulfur in blue, green and red tones.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 10:47 am on July 16, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , CALP (Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma), , High-energy astrophysics, , Manu Garcia at IAC, Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife) Canary Islands Astrophysics Institute, Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma)   

    From IAC via Manu Garcia: “The Instituo Astrophysics of the Canary Islands, the IAC” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    The IAC.

    The Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC) is an internationalized Spanish research center and selected by the Spanish government as “Severo Ochoa Center of Excellence”.

    It comprises:
    Headquartered in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Institute of Astrophysics is the headquarters of IAC and administrative basis of its International Observatories. Usual place of work of most of its staff, is a meeting place for the international astronomical community, research institute and technological development and training center for researchers, engineers and technicians. It is also a promoter of cultural diffusion core.

    Address:
    c / Milky Way s / n La Laguna on the island of Tenerife (Spain). The city of La Laguna is 9 km from the capital, Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the north of the island.

    INSTITUTO DE ASTROFÍSICA (headquarters) (La Laguna, TENERIFE)

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
    C/ Vía Láctea, s/n
    E38205 – La Laguna (Tenerife). España

    Google map

    General Register hours of opening: 9 to 14 h, Monday to Friday (except public holidays).

    Tel: 34 / 922 605 200
    Fax: 34 / 922 605 210
    E-mail addresses:

    CALP (Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma) (Breña Baja, LA PALMA)
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias

    Apdo. Correos 50
    C/ Cuesta de San José, s/n
    San Antonio
    38712 – Breña Baja (La Palma). España

    The Center for Astrophysics in La Palma (CALP).
    2
    CALP IAC.
    The Center for Astrophysics in La Palma (CALP) is another headquarters of the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC). Facilities include an area offices and offices for astronomers and staff running the management of telescope facilities, a library, meeting rooms and conference computer and telecommunication facilities. Workshops, laboratories and warehouses allow users to maintenance and development of scientific instrumentation.
    In the CALP, also they have their offices:
    The Gran Telescopio Canarias.
    The Magic Collaboration.

    3
    Supercomputer LaPalma, one of seven nodes of the Spanish Supercomputing Network (RES)
    The LaPalma supercomputer, one of the eight nodes belonging to the RES and financed by the Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN), is located in the “Centro de Astrofísica de La Palma (CALP)”, in Breña Baja. The LaPalma supercomputer, along with four other “brother nodes”, is formed from older processors derived from the MareNostrum which were relocated during its last upgrade, and the node is coordinated from the BSC-CNS. The installation of the supercomputer at LaPalma was a strategic step whose objective is to boost the observation activities in the Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos – above all through the incorporation of the Gran Telescope CANARIAS (GTC) – and in this way reinforce the telecommunication development on the island.

    4
    Observatorio del Teide.

    Location: Tenerife (Canary Islands / Spain)
    Extension: 50 hectares
    Altitude: 2,390 m.
    geographical coordinates:
    Length: 16º 30 ’35 “West
    Latitude: 28º 18′ 00 “North

    Astrophysics in the Canaries began (in the early sixties) in the Observatory, in the Izaña (Tenerife), 2,390 m above sea level in a place where presenting the towns of La Orotava, Fasnia and Güímar: the first telescope to study zodiacal light, light scattered by interplanetary matter, began operating in 1964.

    Its geographical location (between the solar observatories of East and West), combined with transparency and excellent astronomical quality of the sky, have contributed to the Observatorio del Teide is preferably reserve to study the Sun, concentrating on the best solar telescopes Europeans.

    Residence of the Observatorio del Teide, in operation since January 1990, has a number of facilities (day and night bedrooms, kitchen and dining room, reception, lounges and games, garages, transformer station, generator and park panels solar), in order to provide a service to all scientific and linked to the Observatory that required technical personnel.

    Among the outreach efforts made by the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands, for the astronomical knowledge to reach everyone, visits schools and organized groups Observatory. Teide Observatory already has a Visitor Center, resulting from the conversion of an empty dome, which is provided with elements for scientific publication. With a capacity of about forty people, it is used to explain to schoolchildren what constitutes an observatory, how telescopes and astronomy has importance for man work.

    Address:
    Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife), Canary Islands Astrophysics Institute
    C / Milky Way, s / n, 38200 – La Laguna (Tenerife). Spain

    5
    Observatory image Roque de los muchachos.

    Location: La Palma (Canary Islands / Spain)
    Extension: 189 hectares
    Altitude: 2,396 m.
    GTC geographical coordinates:
    Longitude: 17 ° 53 ’33 “West
    Latitude: 28 ° 45 ’25 “North

    In the Roque of the Boys (ORM) the edge of the National Park Caldera, 2,396 m. of altitude, in the municipality of Garafía (La Palma), you are one of the most comprehensive battery of telescopes world.

    While this observatory is ideal for night observation, it is also for Solar Physics. The Observatory also attracts high-energy astrophysics.

    Apart from scientific activities, the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands conducts numerous outreach efforts astronomical knowledge to reach all audiences. To do this, at certain times of the year, visits schools and groups organize their observatories, both the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory and the Observatorio del Teide.

    The ORM residence consists of a number of facilities (day and night bedrooms, kitchen and dining room, reception, lounges and games, etc.) in order to provide a service to all scientific and technical personnel linked to Observatory you need it.

    Address:
    Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma)
    PO 36
    38712 Brena Baja, Isla de la Palma. Spain

    Purpose of the IAC.
    The aims of IAC are astrophysical research, development of scientific instruments linked to astronomy, training of research staff, administration Observatorio del Teide and the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory and dissemination of science.

    The IAC is headquartered in La Laguna (Tenerife), which is the usual place of work of most of its scientific, technological and personnel support. Also in the headquarters facilities are concentrated to develop scientific instrumentation. The IAC also has another venue, the Center for Astrophysics in La Palma (CALP).

    Administratively, the IAC is a public consortium composed of the Spanish State Administration, Public Administration of the Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands, University of La Laguna and the Superior Council for Scientific Research (CSIC)

    The participation of institutions of various countries in the Observatories is done through an International Scientific Committee (ICC). A Commission for Time Allocation (CAT) delivers the observation time corresponding to Spain in each of the telescopes in the Observatories of the IAC.

    The exceptional quality of the sky of the Canaries for astronomical observation is protected by law. The IAC has a Technical Office for the Protection of Sky Quality (OTPC) which monitors the ongoing implementation of this law. It also has a scientific group that deals with continuous monitoring of the parameters that determine the quality of astronomical observatories IAC (Sky Quality Group).

    The IAC Research Program includes projects both astrophysical research and technological development. Among the activities of the IAC is also the training of researchers, university teaching and cultural diffusion. The IAC has devoted great efforts to the technological development for the design and construction of a large telescope 10.4 meters in diameter (Gran Telescopio Canarias, GTC), which is located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.

    The Results Transfer Office (TTO) of the IAC, created under the National R + D, has been a pioneer within the National Network OTRI office.

    To learn more about the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands visit IAC

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 7:40 am on July 11, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , GTC-Gran Telescopio Canarias, , Manu Garcia at IAC   

    From IAC via Manu Garcia: “A lens galaxy” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    1
    Lensing galaxy. IAC.

    Thanks to the amplified image produced by a gravitational lens and the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), a scientific team from the Polytechnic University of Cartagena and the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC) discovers one of the brightest galaxies to date when the Universe was 20% of its current age.

    Gravitational Lensing NASA/ESA

    According to the theory of General Relativity Einstein, when a ray of light passes near a massive object, the severity of that object attracts photons and deviates from its initial course. This phenomenon, called gravitational lens is the same producing lenses on light rays and acts as a magnifying glass, increasing the size of the object.

    Using this effect, a scientific team from the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC), led by researcher Anastasio Diaz-Sanchez, of the Polytechnic University of Cartagena (UPCT) has discovered a distant galaxy, about 10 billion years light and about 1,000 times brighter than the Milky Way. It is the brightest known submillimeter galaxies called strong emission present in the far infrared. In his characterization he has participated the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (Garafía, La Palma).

    “Thanks to the gravitational lens -said Anastasio Diaz Sánchez, researcher UPCT and first author of the study consists of a cluster of galaxies, which acts like a telescope, the galaxy is 11 times bigger and brighter than which it is actually and produce different images of the same on an arc centered on the mass of the cluster, known as “Einstein ring”. The advantage of this type of amplification is not distorted the spectral properties of light can be studied very distant objects as if they were closer. ”

    To find this galaxy, whose discovery was recently published in an article in Astrophysical Journal Letters, a search was realized across the sky combining databases of WISE (NASA) and Planck (ESA) satellites to identify brightest submillimeter galaxies.

    NASA/WISE Telescope

    ESA/Planck

    This light, amplified by a cluster of nearby galaxies that acts as a lens, gives an even greater apparent brightness of it actually has, and because of this effect might characterize their nature and properties spectroscopy using the GTC.

    2
    Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, Garafía, La Palma, Canary I slands, Spain.

    Forming stars at high speed.

    This galaxy stands out as having a high rate of star formation, ie, is generating stars whose total mass is about 1,000 times the mass of the sun. By way of comparison, the Milky Way form each year stars with a total mass of twice the Sun. In this regard, Susana Iglesias-Groth, astrophysics IAC and co-author, adds: “These types of objects are home to the most powerful star-forming regions known in the universe and the next step will be to study their molecular wealth”.

    The fact that the galaxy is so bright, is amplified and has multiple images will delve into its gut, something impossible to carry out otherwise in such remote galaxies.

    “In the future, we can do more detailed studies of stellar formation using interferometers as the Northern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA / IRAM) in France and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile,” says Helmut Dannerbahuer, researcher IAC has also contributed to this discovery.

    IRAM NOEMA interferometer, Located in the French Alpes on the wide and isolated Plateau de Bure at an elevation of 2550 meters

    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array in Chile in the Atacama at Chajnantor plateau, at 5,000 metres

    Science paper: Discovery of a very bright submillimeter galaxy at z = 2.0439 by Anastasio Diaz Sanchez, Susana Iglesias Groth, Rafael Rebolo and Helmut Dannerbauer, 2017, ApJ Letter.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 9:09 am on July 10, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Manu Garcia at IAC, ,   

    From Hubble via Manu: “Hubble unveils a galaxy in living colour” 31 May 2001 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    NASA Hubble Banner

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    31 May 2001
    Lars Lindberg Christensen
    Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre (Garching, Germany)
    Phone: +49-(0)89-3200-6306
    Cellular (24 hr): +49-(0)173-38-72-621
    lars@eso.org

    Dan Maoz
    School of Physics and Astronomy, and Wise Observatory Tel-Aviv University, Israel
    Temporary address:
    Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, USA Phone: +1-212-854-6899
    dani@astro.columbia.edu

    Ray Villard
    Office of Public Outreach, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA
    Phone: +001 410 338 4514
    villard@stsci.edu

    1
    An extensive, multi-wavelength study with the Hubble Space Telescope has shown the many faces of the galaxy NGC 1512. Hubble’s unique vantage point high above the atmosphere allows scientists to see objects over a broad range of wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the infrared.

    In this view of the centre of the magnificent barred spiral galaxy NGC 1512, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope’s broad spectral vision reveals the galaxy at all wavelengths from ultraviolet through to infrared. The colours (which indicate differences in light intensity) map where newly born star clusters exist in both ‘dusty’ and ‘clean’ regions of the galaxy.

    This colour composite image was created from seven images, taken with three different Hubble cameras, the Faint Object Camera (FOC), the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS).

    2
    NASA/ESA Hubble ESA/FOC

    NASA/Hubble WFPC2. No longer in service.

    NASA/Hubble NICMOS

    3
    Composite ultraviolet-visible-infrared image of NGC 1512. Credit: NASA, ESA, Dan Maoz (Tel-Aviv University, Israel, and Columbia University, USA)

    NGC 1512 is a barred spiral galaxy in the southern constellation of Horologium. Located 30 million light years away, relatively ‘nearby’ as galaxies go, it is bright enough to be seen with amateur telescopes. The galaxy spans 70 000 light years, nearly as much as our own Milky Way galaxy.

    The galaxy’s core is unique for its stunning 2400 light year wide circle of infant star clusters, called a ‘circumnuclear’ starburst ring. Starbursts are episodes of vigorous formation of new stars and are found in a variety of galaxy environments.

    Taking advantage of Hubble’s sharp vision, as well as its unique wavelength coverage, a team of Israeli and American astronomers performed one of the broadest and most detailed studies ever of such star-forming regions. The results, which will be published in the June issue of the Astronomical Journal, show that in NGC 1512 newly born star clusters exist in both dusty and clean environments. The clean clusters are readily seen in ultraviolet and visible light, appearing as bright, blue clumps in the image. However the dusty clusters are revealed only by the glow of the gas clouds in which they are hidden, as detected in red and infrared wavelengths by the Hubble cameras. This glow can be seen as red light permeating the dark, dusty lanes in the ring.

    ‘The dust obscuration of clusters appears to be an on-off phenomenon’ says Dan Maoz, who headed the collaboration. ‘The clusters are either completely hidden, enshrouded in their birth clouds, or almost completely exposed.’ The scientists believe that stellar winds and powerful radiation from the bright, newly born stars have cleared away the original natal dust cloud in a fast and efficient ‘cleansing’ process.

    Aaron Barth, a co-investigator on the team, adds: ‘It is remarkable how similar the properties of this starburst are to those of other nearby starbursts that have been studied in detail with Hubble.’ This similarity gives the astronomers the hope that, by understanding the processes occurring in nearby galaxies, they can better interpret observations of very distant and faint starburst galaxies. Such distant galaxies formed the first generations of stars, when the Universe was a fraction of its current age.

    Circumstellar star-forming rings are common in the Universe. Such rings within barred spiral galaxies may in fact comprise the most numerous class of nearby starburst regions. Astronomers generally believe that the giant bar funnels the gas to the inner ring, where massive stars are formed within numerous star clusters. Studies like this one emphasise the need to observe at many different wavelengths to get the full picture of the processes taking place.

    Notes

    Members of the group of scientists involved in these observations are: Dan Maoz (Tel-Aviv University, Israel and Columbia University, USA), Aaron J. Barth (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA), Luis C. Ho (The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, USA), Amiel Sternberg (Tel-Aviv University, Israel) and Alexei V. Filippenko (University of California, Berkeley, USA).

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), is a free-standing science center, located on the campus of The Johns Hopkins University and operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) for NASA, conducts Hubble science operations.

    ESA50 Logo large

    AURA Icon

    NASA image

     
  • richardmitnick 8:43 am on July 10, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , GALAXY NGC 2500, Manu Garcia at IAC,   

    From Manu Garcia: ” Just Like at Home” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    7.10.17

    1
    Discovered by British Astronomer William Herschel Over 200 years ago, the GALAXY NGC 2500 is about 30 million light-years away in the Northern Constellation of Lynx. As it shows this image of NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, NGC 2500 is a particular type of spiral galaxy known as a spiral, with its fine arms spinning from a bright and elongated nucleus.

    Spiral Galaxies are actually more common than ever before. About Two thirds of all spiral galaxies, including the milky way, exhibit these straight bars cutting through their centers. These cosmic structures act as bright nurseries for newly-Born Stars, and funnel material to the active core of a galaxy. NGC 2500 continues to actively form new stars, although this process seems to be happening in a very uneven way. The Upper Half of the galaxy where spiral arms are slightly better defined houses many more star formation regions than the lower half, as indicated by the bright and dotted islands of light.

    2
    http://www.jwinman.com/starcharts/NGC%202500%20chart.htm

    3

    There is another similarity between NGC 2500 and our galaxy of origin. Along with Andromeda, the triangle and many smaller natural satellites, the milky way is part of the local group of galaxies, a set of about 30 Galaxies United by gravity. NGC 2500 forms a similar group with some of its nearby neighbors, including NGC 2541, NGC 2552, NGC 2537, and the bright, Andromeda-as spiral NGC 2481 (collectively known as the NGC Group 2841).

    Credit:
    NASA/ESA Hubble

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

     
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