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  • richardmitnick 5:21 pm on January 18, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , Manu Garcia at IAC, The observation of a rare hypernova   

    From Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC: “The observation of a rare hypernova, complete the story of the death of the most massive stars. 

    IAC

    From Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    8/1/19
    Manu Astrónomus

    Contact:
    Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia (IAA-CSIC)
    Dissemination and Communication Unit
    Silbia Lopez de Lacalle – sll@iaa.es – 958230676
    https://www.iaa.csic.es
    https://divulgacion.iaa.csic.es

    [I have done my best to correct the translation.]

    1
    Explosion image obtained by the Gran Telescopio Canarias in the period of maximum brightness of the event.

    A study led by the Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia (IAA-CSIC) and published in Nature, studied in detail to the life of a star, which produces a gamma – ray burst (GRB) and a hypernovae.

    The end of the life of stars holds placid scenarios in the case of low-mass stars like the sun. Not so in the case of very massive stars, which undergo explosive events so intense that they can get to outshine all the galaxy that hosts. An international group of astronomers has studied in detail the end of a massive star that has been a gamma-ray burst (GRB) and hypernovae, which has detected a new component in this type of phenomena. The study, published in the journal Nature [above], provides the link to complete the story that links hypernovae with GRBs.

    “In 1998 the first hypernovae was detected, a version of the very energy supernovae, which followed a burst of gamma rays and which was the first evidence of the connection between the two phenomena” says Luca Izzo Institute investigator Andalusia Astrophysics (IAA-CSIC) headed the study.

    The proposed scenario to explain the phenomenon involved a star of more than twenty solar masses, to exhaust their fuel undergoes a process of core collapse. To collapse on itself, the core generates a black hole or neutron stars, while two polar jets of matter that cross the outer layers of the star and, emerging into the medium, produce gamma ray bursts occur ( GRBs). Hypernovae finally burst, which can be tens of times more intense than a supernova occurs.

    2
    Hypernovae artistic representation. The interaction of the jet
    with the outer layers of the star forms a sheath around
    the jet head and begins to spread laterally with respect
    to the jet direction. The jet is able to completely pierce the
    shell of the parent star, issue the issuance of a type of high – energy,
    responsible for GRB. Source: Anna Serena Esposito.

    But, even after twenty years of studying the relationship between GRBs and hypernovae seems clear, it is not met in the opposite direction, as they have detected several hypernovae not have associated gamma-ray bursts. “This work has allowed us to identify the missing link between these two subtypes hypernovae in the form of a new component: a kind of hot envelope is formed around the jet according propagates through the parent star -apunta Izzo (IAA CSIC) -. The jet transfers a significant part of its energy to the shell and, if it goes through the surface of the star will produce gamma ray emission we identify as GRB “.

    However, the jet may spoil within the star and not emerge to medium lacking sufficient energy, a circumstance occurs hypernovae but not a GRB. Thus, the casing detected in this investigation represents the link between the two subtypes hypernovae studied so far, and these “jets damped” (English choked-jets) naturally explain the differences.

    EVENT HISTORY

    On December 5 the GRB171205A outbreak was detected in a galaxy located just five hundred million light years from Earth, making it the fourth GRB nearest known. “Phenomena of this kind occur on average once every ten years, so immediately began an intense campaign observation with the Gran Telescopio Canarias to observe the emerging hypernovae from the early stages -apunta Christina Thöne, researcher at the Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia ( IAA-CSIC) participating in the hallazgo-. In fact, it is the earliest detection of a hypernovae to date, less than a day after the collapse of the star. ”

    And indeed, once the first evidence of the presence of a hypernovae were observed. “This was possible because the luminosity of the jets was much weaker than normal because usually outshine the emission of the supernova He points during the first week Antonio de Ugarte Postigo, researcher at the Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia (IAA-CSIC) participating in the hallazgo-. However, a peculiar hypernovae, was already showing very high growth rates and a different chemical abundances to those recorded in similar events “.

    This unique chemical composition and velocities associated fit the existence of a jet surrounded by an envelope that cuts on the surface of the star, which had been predicted earlier but had not yet observed. Sheath accompanying the jet during the first days drag material from the interior of the star, and in the case study allowed us to determine its chemical structure. After a few days, this comoponent disappeared and hypernovae evolved similarly to those observed previously.

    The total energy emitted by the envelope was higher than the GRB, which implies that the jet deposited much of its energy in it. But also it shows that the energy of GRB depends on the interaction of the jet with stellar material and this new component, the wrapper. And also highlights the need to review the model: “While the standard model supernovae core collapse leads to nearly spherical explosions, evidence of such energy emission produced by a sheath of this type suggests that the jet plays an important role in central collapse supernovae, and we need to take into account the role of the jet explosion models of supernovae, “says Izzo (IAA-CSIC).

    This study was coordinated by researchers from the group Phenomena Transients High Energy and Environment (High-Energy Transients and Their Hosts, HETH) of the IAA-CSIC. Christina headed by Thöne, studying the physics of transient astronomical phenomena, the environment in which they occur and the galaxies that host them.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.



    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 10:44 am on January 14, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A giant interstellar bubble being grown in the Andromeda Galaxy, , , ‘M31N 2008–12a’ a recurrent nova located in our neighbouring Andromeda Galaxy, , , , Manu Garcia at IAC,   

    From Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC via Manu Garcia: “A giant interstellar bubble being grown in the Andromeda Galaxy” 


    From Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    IAC

    From Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    Jan. 9, 2019
    Pablo Rodríguez-Gil
    prguez@iac.es

    An international team of astrophysicists that includes researchers at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the University of La Laguna (ULL) has uncovered an enormous bubble current being ‘blown’ by the regular eruptions from a binary star system within the Andromeda Galaxy. The results have been published today in Nature.

    1

    Observations with the Liverpool Telescope and Hubble Space Telescope, supported by spectroscopy from the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and the Hobby–Eberly Telescope (some of the largest astronomy facilities on Earth), discovered this enormous shell-like nebula surrounding ‘M31N 2008–12a’, a recurrent nova located in our neighbouring Andromeda Galaxy.

    2-metre Liverpool Telescope at La Palma in the Canary Islands,


    Liverpool Telescope at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, altitude 2,363 m (7,753 ft)

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    At almost 400 light years across ––and still growing, this shell is far bigger than a typical nova remnant (usually around a light year in size) and even larger than most supernova remnants.

    Lead author Dr Matt Darnley, Reader in Time Domain Astrophysics at Liverpool John Moores University’s (LJMU) Astrophysics Research Institute explains: “Each year ‘12a’ (as we lovingly refer to it) undergoes a thermonuclear eruption on the surface of its white dwarf. These are essentially hydrogen bombs, which eject material equivalent to about the mass of the Moon in all directions at a few 1000 kilometres per second. These ejecta act like a snow plough, piling the surrounding interstellar medium up to form the shell we observe ––the outer ‘skin’ of the bubble, or the ‘super-remnant’ as we have named it.”

    These new observations coupled with state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations (carried out at LJMU and the University of Manchester) have revealed that this vast shell is in fact the remains of not just one nova eruption but possibly millions ––all from the same system.

    Despite its uniqueness and staggering scale, the discovery of this super-remnant may have further significance. Dr Matt Darnley continued: “Studying 12a and its super-remnant could help us to understand how some white dwarfs grow to their critical upper mass and how they actually explode once they get there as a ‘type Ia supernova’. Type Ia supernovae are critical tools used to work out how the universe expands and grows.”

    Dr Rebekah Hounsell, second author of this study and a post-doctoral researcher at the University of Pennsylvania, was at the Space Telescope Science Institute when she took part in the research. She explains: “Type Ia supernovae are some of the largest explosions in the Universe and our most mature cosmological probes. The recurrent novae M31N 2008–12a is the most likely type Ia supernova progenitor to date and provides us with the unique opportunity to study such a system before its final demise. Lying within our nearest galactic spiral neighbour, Andromeda, the explosion of 12a would be one of the closest supernovae observed by telescopes. The last observed supernova within our own galaxy occurred in 1604.”

    “In a previous work we predicted that 12a will ultimately explode as a type Ia supernova in less than 20,000 years ––a very short time in cosmological terms. But, in the meantime, we will continue to monitor the next nova eruptions of this system”, explains Dr Pablo Rodríguez-Gil, co-author of the paper, researcher at the IAC, and associate professor at the ULL. “A missing piece of the puzzle is the nature of the companion star that provides the material to the white dwarf. It is extremely faint, but its detection is within the reach of the largest telescopes, such as GTC. This is a crucial next step toward our understanding and ultimate fate of this recurrent nova”.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.



    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 9:31 am on May 16, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Galaxy Arp 299-A, , Manu Garcia at IAC   

    From Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía IAA CSIC via Manu at IAC: “Gas flow generated by supernova explosions” 

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    IAC

    May 15, 2018

    Contact:
    Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia (IAA-CSIC)
    Dissemination and Communication Unit
    Silbia Lopez de Lacalle –
    sll@iaa.es – 958230532

    1
    Detected in the galaxy Arp 299-A, a giant gas flow generated by numerous supernova explosions.
    Credit: NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI / AURA) -ESA / Hubble Collaboration and A. Evans (University of Virginia, Charlottesville / NRAO / Stony Brook University)

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    NRAO/Karl V Jansky VLA, on the Plains of San Agustin fifty miles west of Socorro, NM, USA, at an elevation of 6970 ft (2124 m)

    Galaxy Arp 299-A , which is in the process of merging with another galaxy ( Arp299-B ), known for its intense starbursts and its high production rate of supernovas. New Radio observations have revealed a filamentous structure emanating from the core, which is interpreted as a stream of high velocity gas.

    An international group of astronomers, led by the Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia (IAA-CSIC) has detected thanks observations network of radio telescopes LOFAR, a huge flow of material emerging from the central regions of Arp 299-A , one galaxy fusion process.

    ASTRON LOFAR Radio Antenna Bank, Nethrlands

    ASTRON LOFAR Map

    “At the IAA I have spent years researching this galaxy, due to interaction with the companion galaxy is causing outbreaks of star formation,” says Naim Ramírez-Olivencia, a researcher at the IAA who led the study. It is therefore a very interesting environment because it allows us to study almost in real time how stars are born, they die and interact with the surrounding environment. ”

    In fact, one of the most interesting features of this galaxy is precisely its high rate of production of supernovas, resulting in the death of stars with more than eight times the mass of the Sun: if in a galaxy like the Milky Way is expected a supernova every fifty years, it is estimated that Arp 299-a occurs about one per year.

    2
    On the left image of the gas flow emerging from the central regions of Arp 299-A. Superimposed on the right graph indicates the position and orientation of the disk of the galaxy.

    AN UNEXPECTED DISCOVERY.
    However, the discovery of a material flow of enormous dimensions, which extends over nine thousand light years and releases a minimum of ten solar masses per year at a rate of between 370 and 890 kilometers per second, has been a surprise .

    The researchers worked with two possible mechanisms that could trigger a similar flow: the supermassive black hole at the core of the galaxy, which generates energy accumulating material in a disk around it, or the activity generated by the stars, especially supernova explosions.

    The calculations suggest this second mechanism, since activity totaling supernovae is a power ten times greater than that generated by the system consisting of the central supermassive black hole and its accretion disk, whose orientation does not fit with that observed in the material flow.

    “This is the first work led by Spanish researchers with the network of radio telescopes LOFAR, and is an achievement for the instrument as it is presented as a tool to study such structures, very difficult to observe in other wavelengths,” he concludes Nain Ramirez-Olivencia (IAA-CSIC).

    Reference:
    Ramirez-Olivencia N. et al. “Sub-arcsecond imaging of Arp 299-A at 150 MHz With LOFAR: Evidence for a starburst-driven outflow“. Astronomy & Astrophysics

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    stem

    Stem Education Coalition

    Welcome

    Welcome to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA). The IAA is an institute of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) in Granada – Andalucía. The activities of the IAA (CSIC) are related to research in the field of Astrophysics and the development of instruments for telescopes and space vehicles.

    These webpages are intended to present our activities as well as useful information both for other professional institutions devoted to astrophysics research as well as for those interested in learning something more about the IAA and astrophysics in general.

    From the front page on, an explanation is provided of the structure and organization of the IAA, followed by general information concerning our technological and scientific research in addition to all the activities we consider of general interest.

    The pages of each department provide basic information: the staff, research lines, projects under way and research results. The navigator will also find more specific and varied information on each of the individual pages of the IAA staff.
    Introduction

    The IAA has as its general scientific objective to help increase the bulk of knowledge about our universe, from the closest at hand, our solar system, to an overall scale of the entire universe, improving descriptions and analysing the physical processes that take place there. The nature of this aim demands a multi-disciplinary approach, requiring a combination of theory, observation and technology in different areas of physics and engineering. Although the IAA is a centre for pursuing basic science, we are aware of the role that astrophysics plays as a user and producer of new technologies.

    To achieve our overarching objective, different scientific programmes are being undertaken with specific aims and timetables, encompassing four large areas of astrophysics: the solar system; star formation, structure and evolution; galaxy structure and evolution; and cosmology. Basic science has been and continues to be the motor for training scientific and technical staff, as well as for stimulating the development of other disciplines. The history of the IAA clearly depicts the observational function of the centre.

    The telescopes installed in the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), reflect a scientific policy with the clear objective of ensuring continued access to observational means to undertake far-reaching scientific projects. This fact adds singularity to the centre and at the same time offers the challenge and incentive for research at the IAA. The design and construction of instruments for the OSN, as well as others to be carried in special space vehicles, not only serve as support for basic research by the different teams of the IAA, but also represent activity of prime importance for the appropriate combination of research and development.

    The Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia (Spanish: Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC) is a research institute funded by the High Council of Scientific Research of the Spanish government Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), and is located in Granada, Andalusia, Spain. IAA activities are related to research in the field of astrophysics, and instrument development both for ground-based telescopes and for space missions. Scientific research at the Institute covers the solar system, star formation, stellar structure and evolution, galaxy formation and evolution and cosmology. The IAA was created as a CSIC research institute in July 1975. Presently, the IAA operates the Sierra Nevada Observatory, and (jointly with the also the Max-Planck Institute of Heidelberg) the Calar Alto Observatory.

    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía is divided in the following departments, each with an (incomplete) outline of research avenues and groups:

    Department of Extragalactic Astronomy
    Violent Stellar Formation Group
    AMIGA Group (Analysis of the interstellar Medium of Isolated Galaxies)
    Department of Stellar Physics
    Department of Radio Astronomy and Galactic Structure
    Stellar Systems Group
    Department of Solar System

    The technological needs of IAA’s research groups are fulfilled by the Instrumental and Technological Developments Unit


    Calar Alto 3.5 meter Telescope, located in Almería province in Spain on Calar Alto, a 2,168-meter-high (7,113 ft) mountain in Sierra de Los Filabres

     
  • richardmitnick 7:29 pm on April 11, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Daniel Lopez / IAC, , Manu Garcia at IAC, The Seven Sisters- Pleiades   

    From IAC via Manu: “The splendor of the Seven Sisters” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    1
    Pleiades labeled. Credit: Daniel López.
    This image of star cluster of the Pleiades is the fifth photograph obtained with Astrograph of the Communication and Scientific Culture of the IAC, installed in the Obsevatorio del Teide, under the “Niépce: from negative to positive” Project and will be part of the exhibition “100 square Moons”

    Teide Observatory in Tenerife Spain, home of two 40 cm LCO,telescopes, Altitude 2,390 m (7,840 ft)

    “And it came to going by where the seven goats are, and God and my soul like me in my childhood went on my cabrerizo earth, and saw them, gave me a desire to entertain them for a while, that If you do not comply I think that burst “- Chapter XLI of the Second Part of Don Quixote in which Sancho describes the Pleiades, during his imaginary journey through the sky with Don Quixote astride Clavileño.

    The stars are not born alone, but families of hundreds, thousands or millions of members from a colossal cloud of gas and dust that are forming clumps of matter will eventually resulting in bodies of all sizes, from stars giants, dozens of times larger than the Sun, small asteroids or tiny clumps of dust, through all kinds of exoplanets.

    These groups are a critical clue to understanding the universe, as the star of a star cluster have the same chemical composition, the same age and a similar location among them being exceptional laboratory to confirm theories of stellar evolution, determine distances Cosmos and define with great precision many other physical properties.

    Stars are spheres of material (plasma) in balance between two opposing forces: the gravity (which is contracting) and nuclear fusion energy (that is expand). Throughout life, stars fuse light atoms (such as hydrogen) into heavier (helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen), producing a large amount of energy at high temperatures allows them to shine. But bigger stars burn their fuel at a much faster rate than smaller, so they die earlier. Thus, determine the mass of the larger star who still lives in a star cluster allows us to date his age.

    The Pleiades are one of the star groups or asterisms nearest and easily identifiable in the sky, located in the constellation Taurus. They are also known as “The Seven Sisters” or the Seven Sisters (M45, Messier 45) , because they are the seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione, converted by Zeus in pigeons and then into stars to escape the constant harassment of Orion as Greek mythology. Although this cluster owns more than a thousand stars of all sizes, we can only identify between seven and nine stars with the naked eye, depending on the visual sensitivity of each observer and sky light pollution. The Pleiades are about eight times higher than the sun and its brightness is a thousand times greater than our star. However, using telescopes we can see much fainter stars because of its proximity (about 440 light years away), and even objects to the boundary between what is a very small star and a giant planet. In 1995, it was confirmed for the first time since the Observatorio del Teide (Izaña, Tenerife) the existence of a brown dwarf star in this star cluster, which Teide-1 was called in recognition of the place where it was discovered. Today we believe that 25% of existing stars can share these features, but only represent 2% of the total mass of the stars.

    The mass of the biggest stars present in the star cluster Messier 45 indicate a relative young age, about 120 million years. When the triple, the cluster stars have left the nest where they were born, going to blend into the anonymity offered by the hundred billion stars that make up our galaxy, the Milky Way.

    Credit:
    Daniel Lopez / IAC.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    Roque de los Muchachos Observatory is an astronomical observatory located in the municipality of Garafía on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands, at an altitude of 2,396 m (7,861 ft)

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 12:07 pm on January 31, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Andromeda Galaxy Messier 31, , , , , , Manu Garcia at IAC   

    From IAC via Manu: “Messier 31, the Andromeda Galaxy by IAC.” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    1
    Andromeda Galaxy, the first image of the “cosmic Fotomatón”
    Identification of objects in the image of Messier 31. Credit: Daniel Lopez / IAC

    With this astrophotography, obtained under the “Niépce: from negative to positive” project, the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands opens his Instagram account.

    “Cosmic Fotomatón” remote astrograph of the Communication and Scientific Culture (UC3) of the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC), and fully operational at the Observatorio del Teide (Izaña, Tenerife). The first image of the object is obtained Messier 31 , the Andromeda galaxy, and with it the IAC opens its account on the social network Instagram ( https://www.instagram.com/iac_astrofisica/ ).

    Our neighboring galaxy, with nearly a trillion stars, is located 2.5 million light years away, so the photons recorded in the image left of it that long ago when hominids evolved in South Africa yet. These photons increasingly take less time to reach us since the galaxy is approaching us at a speed of 300 km / s and collide with the Milky Way shortly before the death of the Sun, at 5,000 million years.

    Andromeda is one of the three largest spiral galaxies in the Local Group, our galactic neighborhood, covering a large area of sky equivalent to seven Lunas placed one after another, although not perceptible to our eyes.

    Local Group. Andrew Z. Colvin 3 March 2011

    However, despite being the most distant object we can see the Cosmos naked eye from dark locations especially as the skies of the Observatories of the Canary Islands, this distance represents only 0.02% of the observable universe with telescopes and advanced instrumentation .

    Image a dwarf elliptical galaxy, Messier 110 which is orbiting is also appreciated Andromeda and which also belongs to the local group.

    “Cosmic Fotomatón” is an instrument of “Niépce: from negative to positive” project, a tribute of astronomy to photography, which aims to obtain astronomical images like this, wide-field and depth. With it will develop projects for different audiences, such as traveling educational exhibition “100 square LUNAS” designed to reach out to schools next October. It will also serve to train teachers of schools, cultural centers and museums, and the “Send us your piece of heaven” competition with amateur astronomers will take place.

    Under the Niépce project they are also getting other images with telescopes of the Canarian Observatories including the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) in order to expand the gallery of astronomical images for publicity purposes.

    Technical data of the image:
    Composition in RGB filters (18x total exposure 600s each) and Halfa (14x 1.800s) obtained with a telescope 10 cm in diameter and 380 mm focal together with a CCD camera 4k x 4k cooled to – 30 degrees. Images captured during moonless periods from the Observatorio del Teide are square and cover 10 Lunas on each side, just over five degrees of arc.

    On the Andromeda galaxy.

    2
    The Andromeda Galaxy.

    Andromeda is the nearest giant spiral galaxy to Earth. In fact, it may be located at first in skies without light pollution. Therefore, it is often portrayed by astrophotography. In this case it was Daniel López, IAC collaborator, the author of this snapshot chosen today, January 8, as Astronomy Picture of the Day by NASA.

    Our neighboring galaxy has a diameter of about 220,000 light years in which almost a trillion stars that are 2.5 million light years away meet. This means that the photons recorded in the image left of it when hominids evolved in South Africa yet. However, more and it takes less time to reach us since the Andromeda Galaxy is approaching the Milky Way at a speed of 300 km / s.

    In the image a reddish clouds that seem to be around the Andromeda Galaxy are also appreciated. However, formed of ionized hydrogen gas, these clouds take a close – up photography and, in fact, are located in the Milky Way. As it would happen when we see the moon through the clouds.

    At first glance, it may seem quite small because only the central part of the galaxy is bright enough to be appreciated by the human eye, but its actual diameter equivalent to seven full moons seen from Earth. This ratio means better knowing that the image selected as APOD today is one which will form part of the exhibition “100 Lunas²”, which have been captured portions of the sky with an area of 10 moons high by 10 moons full width. This exhibition is part of “Niépce: from negative to positive” project, a tribute of astronomy to photography.

    Credit:
    Daniel Lopez / IAC.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 3:29 pm on December 19, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , Manu Garcia at IAC   

    From IAC via Manu: “IAC astronomers find one of the first stars formed in the Milky Way” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    Dec. 19, 2017
    Contact IAC:
    David Sánchez Aguado
    aguado@iac.es

    Jonay I. González Hernández
    jonay@iac.es

    Researchers at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) have identified, using the Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC) a star which is a key to the formation of the first chemical elements in the Galaxy. The results of this research are published today in the scientific journal The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

    1

    The study presents the discovery of one of the stars with the least content of “metals” (heavy elements). Known. Th estar is at 7,500 light years from Earth, in the halo of the Milky Way, and is along the line of sight to the constellation of the Lynx. The star is still on the Main Sequence, the stage at which most stars spend the major part of their lives. The source of energy of these stars is, as always, the fusión of hydrogen in their cores, and their surface temperaturas and luminosities are almost constant with time. Another of its properties is its low mass, around 0.7 times the mass of the Sun, although it has a surface temperatura 400 degrees hotter.

    This discovery was made using spectra obtained with OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging and low-intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectoscopy) on the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Garafía, La Palma).

    1
    OSIRIS on GTC

    Spectroscopy allows us to decompose the light of celestial objects to study their physical and chemical properties, and thanks to this we know that J0815+4729 has only a millionth part of the calcium and iron that the Sun contains, but it has a comparatively huge content of carbón, almost 15% of the solar abundance.

    “ We know of only a few stars (which can be counted on the fingers of a hand) of this type in the halo, where the oldest and most metal-poor stars in our Galaxy are found”, explains David Aguado, an FPI-SO (Severo Ochoa-Training of Research Personnel) research student at the IAC and the University of La Laguna (ULL) who si the first author of the article.

    “Theory predicts that these stars could form just after, and using material fom, the first supernovae, whose progenitors were the first massive stars in the Galaxy, around 300 million years after the Big Bang” says Jonay González Hernández, a Ramon y Cajal researcher at the IAC and one of the authors of the article. “In spite of its age, and of its distance away from us, we can still observe it” he adds.

    In fact this star was first identified from the SDASS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) data base within the BOSS (Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey) project, and it was later observed with the ISIS intermediate dispersion spectrograph on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) of the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes which is also at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory.

    SDSS Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, NM, USA, Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft)

    1
    ISIS intermediate dispersion spectrograph on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) of the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes

    Isaac Newton Group telescopes, at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma in the Canary Islands, Spain, at an altitude of 2400m


    ING 4 meter William Herschel Telescope at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma in the Canary Islands, 2,396 m (7,861 ft)

    “This star was tucked away in the data base of the BOSS project, among a million stellar spectra which we have analysed to identify it, which required a considerable observational and computational effort” stated Carlos Allende Prieto, another IAC researcher, and a coauthor of this article. “It needs high resolution spectroscopy on large telescopes to try to detect the verious chemical elements in the star which can help us to understand the first supernovae and their progenitors” he emphasized.

    In the near future the HORS high resolution spectrograph, at presently in a trial phse on the GTC, will be a key instrument for the chemical analysis of weak stars such as J0815+4729

    Rafael Rebolo, the director of the IAC and a coauthor of the paper, explains that “Detecting lithium gives us crucial information related to Big Bang nucleosynthesis. We are working on a spectrograph of high resolution and wide spectral range inorder to be able to measure (among other things) the detailed chemical composition of stars with unique properties such as J0815+4719”

    The Observatories of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS ( GTC) are part of the network of Singular Scientific and Technical Insfrastructure (ICTS) of Spain.

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 12:36 pm on December 3, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , IAA-Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia, , Manu Garcia at IAC, New progress in determining the lifetime of massive stars   

    From Manu at IAC: ” New progress in determining the lifetime of massive stars” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    25 October 2016

    The size of the core of the stars determines how much fuel is available and, therefore, how long will evolve and the lives of stars.

    1
    Determined the lifetime of massive stars. Credit: IAA.

    The stars draw their energy from fusion reactions taking place at its core, a region of extreme density and temperature. And in the nuclei of the most massive stars a phenomenon called “core overflow” which dramatically changes its evolutionary path, especially as regards their lifetime may occur. Now, a study led by the Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia (IAA-CSIC) has measured the intensity of this effect and established a clear dependence on the mass of the star.

    2

    To determine how long a star lives need to know the type of stellar nuclear boiler and the type of thermonuclear reactions that occur in it. Stars produce energy through the fusion of hydrogen into helium, but the conditions for this reaction only are present in the core so occurs that the size of this will determine how much fuel is available star and, by extension, how live. And the size of the nucleus of stars depends on how energy is transported to the outer regions.

    In stars with more than 1.3 times the mass of the sun the energy produced in the core moves outwards by convection, similar to bubbling of boiling water. Are convective cells which carry the energy and traditionally has resorted to estimate the size of the core by a criterion based on the acceleration of the same: when this is zero, the motion ceases, which would set the limit core.

    “However, by inertia, these cells can still go a greater way than dictated by this criterion, resulting in increased core. As a result there will be more fuel available, extending the life of the stars, among other details,” said Antonio Claret , IAA-CSIC researcher who has conducted research.

    We can find an analogy of this phenomenon, called “overflow core” (English core overshooting ), in a bonfire in the field: in principle, the stake will only take place where firewood is but due to thermal movements or wind, fire can reach the foliage in the vicinity of the fire.

    3
    Eclipsing binary star system. Credit: IAA.

    “Since the overflow of the core alters both evolution and the lifetime of massive stars, determining its intensity and its possible dependence on the mass of the star is one of the challenges of modern astrophysics, said Claret (IAA-CSIC). to do this we must have very accurate data we can compare with theoretical calculations. in the past there have been some attempts but no conclusive results have been obtained mainly due to the scarcity of reliable observational data. ”

    A recent study by Claret & Torres (2017), published in The Astrophysical Journal, has examined the magnitude of core overshooting (overflow convective core) and was able to determine how depends on the mass of the star. The research focused on the diffusive approximation. In this process the convective elements dissolve by a diffusion process and, therefore, the region is not fully mixed. Article completes the previous study by the same authors examined the prescription ” step-function “. This latest analysis is based on a sample of twenty eclipsing binary stars located in the solar neighborhood and in the Magellanic Clouds. The researchers were able to infer the overflow of the core of the two stars in the binary system.

    Claret and Torres found that the magnitude of this effect increases for stars with between 1.2 and 2 times the mass of the sun, and then remains approximately constant for the most massive stars to about 4.5 solar masses, the upper limit of your sample. Behavior beyond 4.5 solar masses is not yet known. The general trend in terms of the mass is qualitatively similar to that found in the previous study using the approach ” step-function “. This allowed them to establish a connection between the two mechanisms.

    The study also examined the influence of two different mixtures of chemicals (opacities) in intensity overflow core and its dependence on the mass, and found that lead to essentially identical results. Similarly, Claret and Torres found that the proportion of primordial helium enrichment galactic law, describing how the abundance of helium in stars depends on the content of heavy elements, has little or no impact. Together with the results of the previous study, these new findings indicate that dependence on the mass phenomenon does not appear to be greatly affected by the basic physics adopted in the theoretical models of stellar evolution. Furthermore, through an analytical model, it has also failed to explain the pattern of changes in the size of convective cells due to the ” core overshooting ” establishing a connection with the stellar mass, the type of nuclear reactions, opacities and the state equation.

    The study represents an important step in our understanding of the convective core overflow forward and provides a much needed to develop future models of stellar evolution empirical guide. This has potential implications for ages inferred from the stars, and other physical properties depending on the models.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 1:40 pm on December 2, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Manu Garcia at IAC, NGC 1097, Why is massive star formation quenched in galaxy centers?   

    From Manu Garcia at IAC: “Why is massive star formation quenched in galaxy centers?” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    27 November 2017.

    Tags: Galaxies
    Manu [Astrologus] Garcia

    Contact:

    Fatemeh Tabatabaei (English)
    ftaba@iac.es

    Almudena Prieto (Spanish/English)
    aprieto@iac.es

    1
    NGC 1097.
    Magnetic fields control the collapse of the molecular clouds in the nuclear ring of the galaxy NGC 1097. As a result, formation of massive stars is suppressed in zones of strong magnetic fields (contours). Credit: Gabriel Pérez, SMM (IAC).

    A study whose first author is a researcher at the IAC and published today in Nature Astronomy points to the role of the magnetic field responsible for decelerating the rate of formation of this type of stars in the center of galaxies, and without which question the current model of the “Big Bang”.

    The cosmological model we make reference to today to explain the universe, the model of the “Big Bang” is intended to describe all the phenomena we observe, including galaxies and their evolution from the earliest periods to the present day. One of the main problems facing is that predicts a rate of star formation born -Speed ​​the new star- too high, because at that pace all gas and galactic dust should have become stars when the universe was only a fraction of its current age, about 13,800 million years. More than half galaxies we see, mainly spirals, however are actively forming stars right now. This discordance between the theoretical prediction and observation has obliged to investigate more closely the processes that can slow the rate at which stars are born, processes known as “suppression of star formation.” Without them, the Big Bang model we take for valid fails.

    Have proposed several mechanisms that could “turn off” star formation, for example, the “feedback” of supernovae in massive star clusters that “breaks” forming molecular clouds of stars, but it is still essential to measure and verify other possible processes . One of them, gathered in an article published today in the journal Nature Astronomy and whose first author is a researcher at the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC) Fatemeh Tabatabaei, pointing to magnetic fields as responsible for the stars formed more slowly.

    To investigate in detail the parameters of star formation in the central region of the spiral galaxy NGC 1097, concluded that a relatively large magnetic field can slow the formation of new stars, as these fields “press” molecular clouds, slowing or stopping its tendency to collapse and create new stars. But the study results have been even more revealing because they have shown that this mechanism is happening around the center of NGC 1097. This could not have combined observations taken with Hubble (HST) in the visible Space Telescope with observations at radio with the Very Large Array (VLA) and submillimeter Array (SMA) to explore the effect of turbulence, and the magnetic stellar radiation for forming massive stars in the ring surrounding the core of the field galaxy.

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    NRAO/Karl V Jansky VLA, on the Plains of San Agustin fifty miles west of Socorro, NM, USA, at an elevation of 6970 ft (2124 m)

    CfA Submillimeter Array Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA,4,207 m (13,802 ft) above sea level

    This ring contains a distinct areas where stars are forming within huge and complex molecular clouds. The main finding was obtained an inverse relationship between the rate of star formation in a given molecular cloud and its magnetic field: the larger the magnetic field, the slower the rate of star formation.

    “To achieve this, we had to separate the magnetic field energy and other energy sources in the interstellar medium, which are thermal energy, and the general nonthermal but nonmagnetic” explains Fatemeh Tabatabaei. “Only by combining high-quality observations at different wavelengths we could do, and when we separate these energy sources the effect of the magnetic field was surprisingly clear.” In this sense, Almudena Prieto, also a researcher at the IAC and one of the authors of the research adds that “although I have been working in the central region of NGC 1097 in the optical and infrared for some time, only when we considered the magnetic field could realizing their relevance in decreasing the rate at which stars form. ”

    The consequences of their findings are significant and shed light on several “astrophysical puzzles” interrelated. First, as the magnetic field does not allow very large molecular clouds collapse and form stars, they could only emerge after the first break up into smaller clouds. This would mean that the stars formed in these circumstances are smaller than in other parts of galaxies. The trend of very massive galaxies to accommodate smaller stars at their centers is a recent discovery and, in a way, still controversial, but reinforced by this research. It is also interesting that the presence of supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei tend to enhance the magnetic field around, so that the quenching mechanism must be more effective in these central areas thereof.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 8:40 am on December 1, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: AAO AAT, , , , , , , Manu Garcia at IAC   

    From AAO via Manu Garcia at IAC: ” The shooting stars of the Magellanic Clouds” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    AAO Australian Astronomical Observatory

    Australian Astronomical Observatory

    November 29, 2017
    Kirsten Banks
    Ángel López-Sánchez

    1
    The Magellanic Clouds over the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT, Siding Spring Observatory, Australia).
    Superimposed false color distribution of atomic gas shown in both dwarfs and Magellan bridge connecting the two. The black rectangle indicates the region of sky explored in AAT observations, enlargement shows the position of the “lost stars” of the SMC (identified as bright spots in image grayscale) found. Credits: Image of the Magellanic Clouds on AAT: Angel R. Lopez-Sanchez (AAO / MQU). Radio image showing the gas HI: M. Putman (Columbia, US) and Leiden / Argentine / Bonn (LAB) survey of Galactic H I (Kalberla & Haud 2015). Grayscale image: Digital Sky Survey (DSS). Image composition: Ricardo Carrera (IAC / INAF) and Angel R. Lopez-Sanchez (AAO / MQU).


    Using the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT), an international team of astrophysicists has confirmed the existence of stars in the Magellanic Bridge, a gaseous structure connecting the two Magellanic Clouds. These “lost stars” were stripped from the Small Magellanic Cloud by the gravitational pull of the Large Magellanic Cloud in a recent nearby encounter. The results of this research were recently published in the journal <a href="http://Using the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT), an international team of astrophysicists has confirmed the existence of stars in the Magellanic Bridge, a gaseous structure connecting the two Magellanic Clouds. These “lost stars” were stripped from the Small Magellanic Cloud by the gravitational pull of the Large Magellanic Cloud in a recent nearby encounter.Paper in MNRAS.

    Our galaxy, the Milky Way has two small galaxies “satellite” around: the Magellanic Clouds.

    Small Magellanic Cloud. NASA/ESA Hubble and ESO/Digitized Sky Survey 2

    Large Magellanic Cloud. Adrian Pingstone December 2003

    Only visible from the Southern Hemisphere, the Small and the Large Magellanic Cloud (SMC and LMC, respectively, for its acronym in English) look like two isolated objects, but in reality, both galaxies are linked by a structure of gas: Bridge Magallanes . The material of the bridge has been started Cloud Magellan as a result of interactions between them.

    3
    The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, their stellar halos and the RR Lyrae bridge: pale white veils and the narrow bridge between the Clouds represent the distribution of the RR Lyrae stars detected with the data from ESA’s Gaia satellite. Image credit: V. Belokurov / D. Erkal / A. Mellinger.

    ESA/GAIA satellite

    Using the 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT), located at Siding Spring Observatory (Coonabarabran, Australia) and managed by the Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO), an international team of astrophysicists has confirmed, for the first time, the detection of stars within the Magellanic Bridge.

    4
    2dF robot Anglo-Australian Telescope moving optical fibers which are illuminated in red. Credit: Angel R. Lopez-Sanchez (AAO / MQU), together with the AAOmega spectrograph to measure around 1500 stars in that region of the sky.

    ANU AAOmega spectrograph Anglo Australian Telescope

    The 2dF robot, a pioneer in the world, can simultaneously observe objects 400 in a region of sky whose diameter is equal to 4 moons. Thus it is possible to obtain high quality data from a large number of stars in just a few nights, “said Angel Lopez-Sanchez, PhD in Astrophysics from the University of La Laguna (ULL) and the IAC, an astrophysicist at the AAO and team member investigator.

    Access to AAT has been made possible by the OPTICON program framework of the European Union 7 program that allows access to facilities where a different source for researchers European country involved,” says Ricardo Carrera, a researcher at IAC and first author of the study.

    Observations with 2dF revealed that certain stars within the region of the sky where the bridge is Magallanes move differently than they do the stars of the Milky Way. However, their movement coincides with the Magellanic Bridge. The data were used to estimate the age of these “wandering stars” is between one thousand and ten billion years. However, the Puente de Magallanes was formed about 200 million years ago, much younger than the stars now detected in age, so really these stars had to be torn from one of the two galaxies (or perhaps both).

    The AAT observations revealed that some stars within the region where the Magellanic Bridge is located are not moving with the Milky Way. Instead, the movement of these stars agrees with that of the gas of the Magellanic Bridge.

    The researchers discovered that these “lost stars” are very old, born between 1 and 10 billion years ago.

    The Magellanic Bridge was only formed around 200 million years ago, much more recently than the stars associated with it, meaning that the “lost stars” were actually born within the LMC or the SMC and later stripped from the galaxies.

    Some dynamical models explaining the formation and evolution of the Magellanic Bridge already predicted that both stars and gas should be present. These new observations have confirmed, for the first time, that this is true.

    “Although preliminary studies suggested the existence of stars within the Magellanic Bridge, the data obtained with the AAT have definitively confirmed the existence of these old ‘lost stars’”, says Dr Carrera.

    “An important part of the gas and the stars in the Magellanic Clouds was “stripped” by effect of the gravitational forces. Comparing with dynamical models it is possible to estimate that this happened around 200 million years ago, when the two dwarf galaxies were very close. This was the origin of the Magellanic Bridge”, says Dr Noelia E. D. Noël, lecturer in Astrophysics at the University of Surrey in the UK.

    Furthermore, the spectroscopic data provided by the AAT have been also used to estimate the chemical composition of the “lost stars” found within the Magellanic Bridge.

    “Combining both the kinematics and the chemical composition of the stars, we can unequivocally conclude that these stars were actually born in the Small Magellanic Cloud”, says Dr Ricardo Carrera.

    Galaxy interactions and mergers were very common in the early Universe, and they are still happening today. Indeed, galaxy evolution is largely dominated by these encounters.

    “Galaxy interactions can distort or even drastically change the morphology of the galaxies. During these encounters there is an interchange of material between galaxies, new star-forming regions are created, and frequently the gas and stars are also stripped into the space between galaxies, called the intergalactic medium”, says Dr Ángel López-Sánchez.

    Dynamic models that explain the formation of Puente de Magallanes had already predicted that the gas should be accompanied by a stellar component, but these observations have been confirmed that for the first time, that this is so. “Although there were some indications of the existence of these stars, the data obtained with the AAT have allowed for the first time confirmed the existence of these” “much older than the Magellanic Bridge” wandering stars, says Carrera.

    “Much of the gas and stars in the Magellanic Clouds was ‘ripped off’ by tidal forces. Comparing with dynamic models can conclude that this occurred about 200 million years ago when two galaxies had a great approach including which the Puente de Magallanes was born, “says Noelia ED Noël, PhD in Astrophysics from the University of La Laguna (ULL) and the IAC and currently a researcher at the University of Surrey in the UK.

    The tidal forces acting on the galaxies are similar to those that cause tides in Earth’s oceans due to the gravitational pull of the moon, but the spectroscopic data obtained in the AAT have also served to determine the chemical composition of the detected stars within the Magellanic Bridge. “By combining information on the composition of these stars and their kinematics have determined unequivocally that these stars were created in the Small Magellanic Cloud,” says Carrera.

    Interactions and mergers between galaxies were very common in the early universe, but today are still frequent. So much so that the evolution of galaxies is dominated by these meetings. “The interactions between galaxies can distort and even radically alter the morphology of the systems involved. During these approaches there is exchange of material between them, creating regions where new stars are formed and starting often gas and stars, “said Lopez-Sanchez.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    AAO Anglo Australian Telescope Exterior
    AAO Anglo Australian Telescope Interior
    Anglo-Australian telescope

    The Australian Astronomical Observatory, a division of the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, operates the Anglo-Australian and UK Schmidt telescopes on behalf of the astronomical community of Australia. To this end the Observatory is part of and is funded by the Australian Government. Its function is to provide world-class observing facilities for Australian optical astronomers.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:52 am on October 19, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Manu Garcia at IAC, Stars from outside the Milky Way   

    From Manu Garcia for IAC: “Stars from outside the Milky Way” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    Discovered a new family of red giant stars with a strange chemical composition in the Milky Way.

    1
    Artistic representation of the chemical composition of the new population discovered traveling around the Milky Way in highly eccentric orbits (dashed white line) and the combined spectrum of APOGEE of atypical stars in a spectral window covering regions (shades of gray) around magnesium lines. Credit: JG Fernández-Trincado.

    The results of this research, published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters and which has participated IAC suggest an extragalactic origin outside the Milky Way, and help to understand how stars evolve and how the chemical elements inside are formed.

    Science, chance is a source of surprising discoveries. Open your eyes to the unknown. Even, sometimes, it changes the course of an investigation, a theory or a paradigm completely, what has happened in this discovery. While searching for fossil relics of early Milky Way, a scientific team stumbled upon an unexpected finding: a new family of giant stars with an unusual chemical composition according to the models of nucleosynthesis (nuclear fusion processes inside the stars where they originate new chemical elements). These stars are not only different from those of the Milky Way by its chemical composition, but also for its orbital properties, suggesting a possible extragalactic origin. Details of the discovery, which involved researchers from the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC), were recently published in the journal The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

    “It is an extremely interesting fact because just outside globular clusters in our galaxy contains stars with remarkably similar to the stellar population discovered chemical patterns, suggesting a possible relationship,” said Olga Zamora, Astronomer support of the Canarian Observatories and research IAC postdoctoral research has led, along with JG Fernández-Trincado, a researcher at the University of Concepción (Chile).

    The equipment used data from the second phase Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-2), usually used to map the chemical elements in the stars of the Milky Way (carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, aluminum and magnesium, among others), and giant observed 150,000 stars in the H band by high resolution spectrograph APOGEE, accessing regions obscured by the dust in the visible range.

    2
    Sloan Foundation 2.5 meter telescope at Apache Point, NM, USWA

    After processing the data, they found a chemically atypical stellar population compared to the stars of our galaxy or even any galactic globular cluster, cluster of stars known.

    Giant stars in question are very poor in magnesium unexpected considering its high levels of other elements such as nitrogen, aluminum and iron. “They could come from globular clusters dissociated in the past and whose distribution of elements not seen in any galactic globular cluster with similar chemical properties,” says IAC researcher and one of the authors of the article, Aníbal García-Hernández.

    “These stars may be born in a globular cluster with a history of different backgrounds and then have detached from it. If formed from a gas previously contaminated by a specific combination of massive stars, about 30 solar masses, and less massive stars, 4 to 8 solar masses, could explain its exceptional chemical “adds postdoc IAC and coauthor of work, Flavia Dell’Agli.

    These anomalous stars are ideal candidates living fossils from the early days of the Milky Way or even fossil relics of extragalactic globular clusters separated by tidal forces, the gravitational pull of the Milky Way.

    Now the team plans to use this finding to better understand the processes of nucleosynthesis and stellar evolution, and to find more giant stars with atypical chemical compositions, a key to improve our knowledge about the formation and evolution of our galaxy step.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
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