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  • richardmitnick 9:02 am on September 26, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Manu Garcia - a friend at IAC, View of the galactic center with Herschel   

    From European Space Agency via Manu: ” View of the galactic center with Herschel” 


    From Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    ESA Space For Europe Banner

    From European Space Agency

    1
    The center of the Milky Way. SIGHT OF GALACTIC CENTER HERSCHEL. Copyright ESA / NASA / JPL-Caltech / Hi-GAL.

    Today’s image shows a peculiar formation of gas and dust in the center of the Milky Way, captured by cameras aboard the far infrared space observatory Herschel ESA . The almost continuous line of dense cold clumps of material form an infinity symbol, or eight inclined, several hundred light years in length. In the image, line turns on its own axis in a movement about top left to bottom right.

    ESA/Herschel spacecraft active from 2009 to 2013

    2
    Herschel observatory in the laboratory. Credit: ESA.

    This figure’s endless loop, which is estimated to have 30 million solar masses, consists of dense gas and dust only 15 degrees above absolute zero. These materials, represented in yellow contrast with gas and less dense and hotter in the center of the Galaxy powder shown in blue within the loop. A cold gas around we see represented in reddish colors.

    The ring and its surroundings are home to a number of regions of star formation and young stars that stand out in bright blue. This area is part of the Central Molecular Zone, a region in the center of the Milky Way dotted with molecular clouds, suitable for star formation.

    The galactic center is about 30,000 light years from the sun, toward the constellation Sagittarius. It is a complex and dynamic place, with emission nebulae and supernova remnants, as well as molecular clouds of star formation surrounding the supermassive black hole at the center of the Galaxy. Dust and gas in this region is almost black when viewed by an optical telescope, but can be clearly seen with Herschel instruments.

    This image was captured by the infrared cameras PACS (camera and spectrometer detector arrays photoconductors) and SPIRE (receptor spectral imaging and photometric), and was first published in 2011. Obtained as part of Hi-GAL, the study Galactic Plane by Herschel infrared combines observations three wavelengths: 70 microns (blue), 160 microns (green) and 250 microns (red).

    Herschel space observatory ESA remained active between 2009 and 2013. At the time of its release, had the largest telescope ever sent into space.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The European Space Agency (ESA), established in 1975, is an intergovernmental organization dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 19 member states. Headquartered in Paris, ESA has a staff of more than 2,000. ESA’s space flight program includes human spaceflight, mainly through the participation in the International Space Station program, the launch and operations of unmanned exploration missions to other planets and the Moon, Earth observation, science, telecommunication as well as maintaining a major spaceport, the Guiana Space Centre at Kourou, French Guiana, and designing launch vehicles. ESA science missions are based at ESTEC in Noordwijk, Netherlands, Earth Observation missions at ESRIN in Frascati, Italy, ESA Mission Control (ESOC) is in Darmstadt, Germany, the European Astronaut Centre (EAC) that trains astronauts for future missions is situated in Cologne, Germany, and the European Space Astronomy Centre is located in Villanueva de la Cañada, Spain.

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  • richardmitnick 12:21 pm on September 20, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Analyzing white dwarf known planetary orbiting fragments, , , , , Manu Garcia - a friend at IAC, , White dwarf WD 1145 + 017   

    From Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC via Manu Garcia: “Analyzing white dwarf known planetary orbiting fragments.” 


    From Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    IAC

    From Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    20/9/18
    Paula Izquierdo
    paula.izquierdo@iac.es

    Planetesimal orbiting white dwarf WD 1145 + 017.
    1
    Artistic representation of a disk of dust and fragments planet around a star. Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech.

    The study, led by doctoral student of the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC) and the University of La Laguna (ULL) Paula Izquierdo, a deeper analysis of this particular white dwarf, which provides regular transits produced by remnants of planetary origin . It has been made from data obtained with the Gran Telescopio Canarias [see below] and the Liverpool Telescope.


    2-metre Liverpool Telescope at La Palma in the Canary Islands, Altitude 2,363 m (7,753 ft)

    Liverpool Telescope at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos

    An article recently published in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) confirms the evolution of transits produced by the remains of a planetesimal orbiting the white dwarf WD 1145 + 017 . These “debris” pass in front of the star every 4.5 hours hiding from the light that is emitted, and are in continuous interaction and fragmentation, which results in significant changes in the depth and shape of transits observed .

    Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Garafía, La Palma). Credit IAC.

    WD 1145 + 017 is a white dwarf: the remnant of a star that has exhausted all its nuclear fuel. Most white dwarfs have a smaller mass than the Sun and a similar size to Earth. Several studies indicate that 95% of all stars in the universe will end their lives turned into white dwarfs. Including our own sun.

    “Studying this system can provide information about the future of our Solar System , ” says Paula Izquierdo, lead author of the work. Why WD 1145 + 017 is special. It is the first white dwarf in which changes were detected in the amount of light that comes from it, which are because of the light from the star is hidden by the fragments in continuous disintegration of a rocky body orbiting .

    Although discovered in 2015, this system has attracted the attention of a large number of research teams. This latter work has, for the first time, spectroscopic data of Great Canary Telescope (10.4 m), photometric data obtained simultaneously with Liverpool Telescope (2 m), both installed in the Roque of the Boys (Garafía, La Palm).

    “Outside of traffic flow we assume 100%, since nothing gets in the way of the light emitted from the white dwarf,” says researcher IAC / ULL. “But when there is material in orbit that passes between us and the star, adds, what happens in transit, the amount of light we receive is lower. This decrease is 50% in transit deeper we observed: there are clouds of dust as a result of the fragmentation of the planetesimal that are able to hide half the light of the white dwarf. ”

    The study also confirms that transits in the visible range of the spectrum are gray. That is, there is no relationship between the depth of transit and the wavelength, so transits have the same depth in the five bands studied. The authors develop a new hypothesis where the flow would drop caused by an optically thick structure, at the expense of thin optically postulated above.

    “The deepest transit has a complex structure that we have managed to model with overlapping different clouds of dust, as if it were six equally spaced fragments from the planetesimal,” says Pablo Rodríguez-Gil, co-author, IAC researcher and professor ULL.

    Among other things, the team has also observed a decrease in the amount of absorption produced by iron during transit detected deeper. “Part of this absorption line says co-author Boris Gänsicke, a researcher at the University of Warwick (UK), does not originate in the atmosphere of the white dwarf, but in a disk of gas orbiting around this, so we show that the disc fragments and gas should be spatially correlated. ”

    Finally, using the distance measured by the Gaia mission system, the computer has determined the mass, radius, temperature and age WD 1145 + 017.

    ESA/GAIA satellite

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    Roque de los Muchachos Observatory is an astronomical observatory located in the municipality of Garafía on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands, at an altitude of 2,396 m (7,861 ft)

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.



    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 3:19 pm on September 10, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Manu Garcia - a friend at IAC, OTHELLO reveals a population of "ghost galaxies" in the Universe.   

    From IAC via Manu Garcia: “OTHELLO reveals a population of “ghost galaxies” in the Universe” 


    From Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    IAC

    From Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    1
    The census OTELO (OSIRIS Tunable Emission Line Object survey)

    Composite image of OTELO field. Field explored covers less than 50 arc minutes square -the that resembles a 13 times smaller area than the full Moon and enrolled in known as Extended Groth Strip, an area of ​​the sky between the constellations Osa Major and Bootes has been deeply observed by other telescopes and instruments in complementary branches of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the description of the image the color red is assigned to the integrated data OTELO using tunable filters of OSIRIS in the GTC, while the blue and green colors correspond to the bands graphic Canada-France-Hawaii, respectively. Credit: OTHELLO.


    CFHT Telescope, Maunakea, Hawaii, USA, at Maunakea, Hawaii, USA,4,207 m (13,802 ft) above sea level

    Thanks to the OSIRIS instrument, installed in the Gran Telescopio Canarias, has been conducting the census deeper galaxies to date (OTELO), the results could affect what we now know about the formation and evolution of galaxies.

    IAC Gran Telescopio Canarias OSIRIS spectrograph

    OTHELLO, which gets its name “OSIRIS Tunable Emission Line Object survey” is the census of galaxies with emission lines deeper than has been done until today. This record, which includes more than 11,000 of these objects, has been performed using the OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated-Intermediate-Spectroscopy) instrument installed in the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The GTC is the largest optical telescope and fully adjustable infrared world, because the collection capacity in light of its primary mirror 10.4 meters in diameter, so it is an excellent window into the depths of the Cosmos.

    “OSIRIS was designed to be able to detect a hypothetical population of galaxies which had hitherto remained hidden. These are objects that can not be seen in other surveys of galaxies, but appearing in images obtained with OSIRIS, through the use of its tunable filters, which make it unique among the instruments for telescopes class 8-10 meters ” explains Jordi Cepa, principal investigator of this census, the first results will be published shortly in the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics.

    OSIRIS tunable filters detect galaxies with emission lines, ie, galaxies possessing ionized gas (such as low consumption lamps that are in our homes). This gas can be ionized by a stellar star formation much larger than the sun, or by violent processes around supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies mass. Some of these galaxies, however, do not emit enough light to be detected with conventional filters, so have remained hidden until now. Without a complete census, you can not understand how they evolve the properties of galaxies, in the same way it would not be possible to study the evolution of humans being restricted only to persons over 50 years.

    3
    The Great Canary Telescope. Credit: IAC.

    Built in collaboration with IAC in Mexico, OSIRIS observed the sky in the optical range of the spectrum, ie, with the light of heaven that is capable of perceiving the human eye, but extended to the ultraviolet and infrared ends. From the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Garafía, La Palma), this instrument has been responsible for the discovery of this galactic population, whose analysis could change our current knowledge about the formation and evolution of galaxies.

    The OTELO project involves researchers from various institutions in Spain (Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia-CSIC, IFCA-University of Cantabria, Center for Astrobiology (INTA-CSIC), ISDEFE and Universidad Complutense de Madrid) and other countries (Mexico, ESO-Chile, Denmark, Canada and Australia).

    It has been funded by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) through projects AYA2013-46724-P, AYA2014-58861-C3-1-P, AYA2014-58861-C3-2-P, AYA2014-58861-C3-3- P, AYA2016-75808-R, AYA2016-75931-C2-2-P, AYA2017-88007-C3-1-P and AYA2017-88007-C3-2-P.

    Article: The OTELO survey: I. Presentation, multiwavelength data reduction and catalog, The OTELO survey: II. The impact of Tunable narrow band Filters in surveys,

    Contact the IAC: Jordi Cepa ( jcn@iac.es )

    Science article
    OTELO reveals a population of “ghost galaxies” in the Universe
    Sep. 10, 2018

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).


    Roque de los Muchachos Observatory is an astronomical observatory located in the municipality of Garafía on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands, at an altitude of 2,396 m (7,861 ft)

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.



    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 7:39 am on September 2, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Manu Garcia - a friend at IAC, , Mars Express for 15 years   

    From European Space Agency via Manu: ” From horizon to horizon, the Tharsis region.” 

    ESA Space For Europe Banner

    From European Space Agency

    via


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    2.9.18
    No ESA writer credits.

    Fifteen years of Mars Express at Mars.

    1
    Artist impression of Mars Express. The image is based on a real image of Mars taken by the High Resolution Stereo Camera spacecraft. Credit: ESA / Medialab ATG; Mars: ESA / DLR / FU Berlin, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO .

    4
    DLR HRSC – High Resolution Stereo Camera on ESA Mars Express

    1
    Mars from horizon to horizon.

    15 years ago, the Mars Express probe was launched ESA in order to investigate the Red Planet. To commemorate the date, here we have a spectacular view of Mars showing us, from horizon to horizon, one of the most enigmatic regions of the planet.

    Mars Express took off from Baikonur (Kazakhstan) A June 2, 2003 toward his journey exploring our neighboring planet. In these 15 years, it has become one of the most successful missions ever sent to Mars, as evidenced by this striking image of the Tharsis region.

    With giant volcanoes, deep canyons and fractured terrain, Tharsis is geologically one of the most interesting and explored the planet ‘s surface areas. In the past it was a very active area with volcanism and tectonic movements, so here we find most large volcanoes on the planet, the largest in the solar system.

    This view, captured by the High Resolution Stereo Camera on Mars Express in October 2017, shows the region in all its splendor.

    It extends from the upper horizon of the planet, marked by the blueness of the end of the image, through a network of pale fissures called Noctis Labyrinthus (a part of Valles Marineris extending to the upper left corner of the image), Ascraeus Mons and Pavonis Mons (two of the four great volcanoes of Tharsis, with over 20 km high) to reach the northern polar cap of the planet, in this view, is in the lower left.

    Located next to the Martian Ecuador, Tharsis occupies about a quarter of the planet’s surface and is believed played an important role in its history. Across the boundary between the southern highlands and the northern lowlands.

    Mars elevation is defined relative to where gravity is equal to the average in the Mars Ecuador. Thus, it is used as a ‘sea level’, although there is no seas as such.

    Most of the Tharsis region is above average, at an altitude of between 2 and 10 km. It is likely that the province be formed as columns of molten rock (magma) as mushroom were spread under the slimy surface, creating flows filtration, magma chambers and large rock regions as Tharsis, and contributing to volcanism from inside .

    Tharsis is also related to the formation of the famous Valles Marineris, which is about four times longer and deeper than the Grand Canyon (United States) and is the system discovered longest canyons in the Solar System. It can be seen forming part dark branches on the top left of the image.

    2

    Location of the Tharsis region on Mars. This map is based on data from the mission
    Viking NASA. Mars shows the portion captured by Stereo Camera
    High Resolution aboard the Mars Express spacecraft ESA to celebrate the 15th
    anniversary of the mission: the intriguing and active old province of Tharsis. This
    labeled view extensive canyon system Valles Marineris is included, the system
    type seamless network comprising Noctis Labyrinthus, four volcanoes and the cap
    polar north. This map was created by the Planetary Sciences Group and Remote
    Sensing at Freie Universität Berlin, Germany.
    Credit: NASA / Viking, FU Berlin.

    As the magma filled the basement of the Tharsis region, the tension caused certain areas and fracturasen be broken. Then the molten rock filled these fractures and destabilized and separated even more certain regions of the cortex, causing pits and wide cracks we see today in Valles Marineris and the intricate network of Noctis Labyrinthus, located at the western end canyon system.

    The new view shows volcanoes Pavonis Mons (top right), Ascraeus Mons (just below), Alba Mons (to the lower left corner) and a small fragment of Olympus Mons (at the bottom right, which continues offscreen) in brown tones; Here you can view a labeled view of the region. The location of this section of the Martian surface is also shown in a context map the planet and a topographical map.

    The latter view shows the highest and lowest in blue and green tones red areas, illustrating the difference in altitude between the north and south of Mars.

    Mars Express has 15 years showing the beauty and variety of Mars, and is still strong.

    This map is based on data context of the experiment Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission of NASA. Mars shows the portion captured by the High Resolution Stereo Camera on board Mars Express spacecraft ESA to celebrate the 15th anniversary of the mission: the intriguing and active old province of Tharsis.

    3
    Topography of the Tharsis region on Mars.
    Credit: NASA Science Team / MGS / MOLA, FU Berlin.

    Included in this labeled view is the extensive system of canyons of Valles Marineris, the fissure system in a network comprising Noctis Labyrinthus, two of the four volcanoes north pole and called Martian dichotomy: the altitude difference between north and the southern regions of Mars. The areas higher red are shown in orange shades, while the lower are shown in blue-green (as indicated by the scale at the bottom left).

    This map was created by the Planetary Sciences and Remote Sensing Group at Freie Universität Berlin, Germany.

    In addition to countless views as spectacular as this, the probe has produced global maps of geological activity, water, volcanism and minerals on the planet and has provided sufficient data to generate thousands of three-dimensional images of the surface. He studied volcanoes, canyons, icy poles and ancient impact craters; He has studied the ground radar; He has explored Mars atmosphere, detecting signs of ozone and methane ephemeral cloud layers and powerful dust storms. The ship has seen escaping charged particles into space and examined the Martian moons Phobos and Deimos. It has successfully identified dry river valleys, the remains of buried glaciers and catastrophic floods.

    The last 15 years of observations of Mars Express have contributed significantly to the new image of Mars as living in the past, with warmer and wetter periods that could have acted as an oasis for life on Mars planet. These findings have laid the foundations for missions detecting signs of life on the planet, as the two ExoMars missions of ESA and Roscosmos program.

    Meanwhile, aboard Mars Express, an innovative software update just ‘rejuvenate’ the ship.

    Once successfully activated the new software loaded on the ship on April 16 and passed the flight tests later, Mars Express science operations resumed on April 27. This software, developed by ESA, it was necessary to offset the potential wear age of six satellite gyroscopes, which measure how Mars Express tour on any of its three axes. Since 16 May, the ship is operating with virtually off gyroscopes. The precise adjustment of the new software will take place in the coming months.

    This implementation is an important operational milestone for the mission, because it extends the life of Mars Express, possibly until the mid-2020s.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The European Space Agency (ESA), established in 1975, is an intergovernmental organization dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 19 member states. Headquartered in Paris, ESA has a staff of more than 2,000. ESA’s space flight program includes human spaceflight, mainly through the participation in the International Space Station program, the launch and operations of unmanned exploration missions to other planets and the Moon, Earth observation, science, telecommunication as well as maintaining a major spaceport, the Guiana Space Centre at Kourou, French Guiana, and designing launch vehicles. ESA science missions are based at ESTEC in Noordwijk, Netherlands, Earth Observation missions at ESRIN in Frascati, Italy, ESA Mission Control (ESOC) is in Darmstadt, Germany, the European Astronaut Centre (EAC) that trains astronauts for future missions is situated in Cologne, Germany, and the European Space Astronomy Centre is located in Villanueva de la Cañada, Spain.

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  • richardmitnick 5:40 am on August 30, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Astronomers use Hubble to 'weigh' Dog Star's companion, , , , , Manu Garcia - a friend at IAC, , Red shift,   

    From Hubble via Manu: “Astronomers use Hubble to ‘weigh’ Dog Star’s companion” 


    From Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    NASA Hubble Banner

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    From NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    13 December 2005
    Martin Barstow
    University of Leicester, United Kingdom
    Tel: +44-11-44-116-252-3492
    Cell: +44-776-62-333-62
    E-mail: mab@star.le.ac.uk or

    Lars Lindberg Christensen
    Hubble/ESA, Garching, Germany
    Tel: +49-(0)89-3200-6306
    Cellular: +49-(0)173-3872-621
    E-mail: lars@eso.org

    Julia Maddock
    PPARC Press Office
    Tel +44-17-93-44-20-94
    Email: Julia.maddock@pparc.ac.uk

    Howard Bond
    Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA
    Tel: +1-410-338-4718
    E-mail: bond@stsci.edu

    Jay Holberg, Lunar Planetary Lab, Tucson, USA
    Tel: +1-520-621-4571
    E-mail: holberg@argus.lpl.arizona.edu

    1
    White dwarfs are important to theories of both stellar and cosmological evolution. New results published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society provide for the first time an accurate measurement of the weight of the nearest white dwarf, Sirius B, companion of the brightest star in the sky. It turns out that Sirius’s companion, despite being smaller than the Earth, has a mass that is 98% that of our own Sun.

    2
    This picture is an artist’s impression showing how the binary star system of Sirius A and its diminutive blue companion, Sirius B, might appear to an interstellar visitor. The large, bluish-white star Sirius A dominates the scene, while Sirius B is the small but very hot and blue white-dwarf star on the right. The two stars revolve around each other every 50 years. White dwarfs are the leftover remnants of stars similar to our Sun. The Sirius system, only 8.6 light-years from Earth, is the fifth closest stellar system known. Sirius B is faint because of its tiny size. Its diameter is only 7,500 miles (about 12 thousand kilometres), slightly smaller than the size of our Earth. The Sirius system is so close to Earth that most of the familiar constellations would have nearly the same appearance as in our own sky. In this rendition, we see in the background the three bright stars that make up the Summer Triangle: Altair, Deneb, and Vega. Altair is the white dot above Sirius A; Deneb is the dot to the upper right; and Vega lies below Sirius B. But there is one unfamiliar addition to the constellations: our own Sun is the second-magnitude star, shown as a small dot just below and to the right of Sirius A. Credit: NASA, ESA and G. Bacon (STScI)

    3
    Based on the Hubble measurements made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, an international team found that Sirius B has a mass that is 98 percent that of our own Sun. Despite this large mass Sirius B is only 12,000 kilometers in diameter, making it smaller than even the Earth and much denser. Sirius B’s powerful gravitational field is 350,000 times greater than Earth’s, meaning that a 68 kilogram person would weigh 25 million kilograms standing on its surface. Credit: NASA/ESA Hubble

    4
    This picture is an artist’s impression showing how the binary star system of Sirius A and its diminutive blue companion, Sirius B, might appear to an interstellar visitor. The large, bluish-white star Sirius A dominates the scene, while Sirius B is the small but very hot and blue white-dwarf star on the right. The two stars revolve around each other every 50 years. White dwarfs are the leftover remnants of stars similar to our Sun. The Sirius system, only 8.6 light-years from Earth, is the fifth closest stellar system known. Sirius B is faint because of its tiny size. Its diameter is only 7,500 miles (about 12 thousand kilometres), slightly smaller than the size of our Earth. The Sirius system is so close to Earth that most of the familiar constellations would have nearly the same appearance as in our own sky. In this rendition, we see in the background the three bright stars that make up the Summer Triangle: Altair, Deneb, and Vega. Altair is the white dot above Sirius A; Deneb is the dot to the upper right; and Vega lies below Sirius B. But there is one unfamiliar addition to the constellations: our own Sun is the second-magnitude star, shown as a small dot just below and to the right of Sirius A. Credit: NASA, ESA and G. Bacon (STScI)

    For astronomers, it’s always been a source of frustration that the nearest white-dwarf star is buried in the glow of the brightest star in the nighttime sky. This burned-out stellar remnant is a faint companion of the brilliant blue-white Dog Star, Sirius, located in the winter constellation Canis Major.

    Now, an international team of astronomers has used the keen eye of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to isolate the light from the white dwarf, called Sirius B. The new results allow them to measure precisely the white dwarf’s mass based on how its intense gravitational field alters the wavelengths of light emitted by the star.

    “Studying Sirius B has challenged astronomers for more than 140 years,” said Martin Barstow of the University of Leicester, U.K., who is the leader of the observing team. “Only with Hubble have we at last been able to obtain the observations we need, uncontaminated by the light from Sirius, in order to measure its change in wavelengths.”

    “Accurately determining the masses of white dwarfs is fundamentally important to understanding stellar evolution. Our Sun will eventually become a white dwarf. White dwarfs are also the source of Type Ia supernova explosions that are used to measure cosmological distances and the expansion rate of the universe.

    A white dwarf fed by a normal star reaches the critical mass and explodes as a type Ia supernova. Credit: NASA/CXC/M Weiss

    Measurements based on Type Ia supernovae are fundamental to understanding ‘dark energy,’ a dominant repulsive force stretching the universe apart.

    Dark energy depiction. Image: Volker Springle/Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics/SP)

    MPG Institute for Astrophysics

    Standard Candles to measure age and distance of the universe NASA

    Also, the method used to determine the white dwarf’s mass relies on one of the key predictions of Einstein’s theory of General Relativity; that light loses energy when it attempts to escape the gravity of a compact star.”

    Sirius B has a diameter of 12,000 kilometres, less than the size of Earth, but is much denser. Its powerful gravitational field is 350,000 times greater than Earth’s, meaning that a 68 kilogram person would weigh 25 million kilograms standing on its surface. Light from the surface of the hot white dwarf has to climb out of this gravitational field and is stretched to longer, redder wavelengths of light in the process. This effect, predicted by Einstein’s theory of General Relativity in 1916, is called gravitational redshift, and is most easily seen in dense, massive, and hence compact objects whose intense gravitational fields warp space near their surfaces.

    Universe map Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey

    Red shift and evidence for an expanding universe spiff.rit.edu

    Astronomical Red shift Imaging the Universe University of Iowa

    Red shift and wave length shift-The Earliest Stars And Galaxies In The Universe Science at ESA

    Based on the Hubble measurements of the redshift, made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, the team found that Sirius B has a mass that is 98 percent that of our own Sun. Sirius itself has a mass of two times that of the Sun and a diameter of 2.4 million kilometres.

    NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph

    White dwarfs are the leftover remnants of stars similar to our Sun. They have exhausted their nuclear fuel sources and have collapsed down to a very small size. Despite being the brightest white dwarf known, Sirius B is about 10,000 times fainter than Sirius itself, making it difficult to study with telescopes on the Earth’s surface because its light is swamped in the glare of its brighter companion. Astronomers have long relied on a fundamental theoretical relationship between the mass of a white dwarf and its diameter. The theory predicts that the more massive a white dwarf, the smaller its diameter. The precise measurement of Sirius B’s gravitational redshift allows an important observational test of this key relationship.

    The Hubble observations have also refined the measurement of Sirius B’s surface temperature to be 25,000 degrees C. Sirius itself has a surface temperature of 10,000 degrees C.

    At 8.6 light-years away, Sirius is one of the nearest known stars to Earth. Stargazers have watched Sirius since antiquity. Its diminutive companion, however, was not discovered until 1862, when it was first glimpsed by astronomers examining Sirius through one of the most powerful telescopes of that time.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), is a free-standing science center, located on the campus of The Johns Hopkins University and operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) for NASA, conducts Hubble science operations.

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  • richardmitnick 9:39 am on August 28, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , ESA/Mars Express Orbiter, Manu Garcia - a friend at IAC,   

    From European Space Agency via Manu: “Mars and water” 


    From Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    [I used Manu’s article and not ESA’s because ESA did not provide an article in English and Manu always has a language choice.]

    ESA Space For Europe Banner
    Mars Express detects water buried under the south pole of Mars

    1

    Mars Express ESA used radar signals bounced through permafrost for evidence of a water tank buried in the southern polar cap.

    ESA/Mars Express Orbiter

    Twenty-nine specific observations were made between 2012 and 2015 in the region of Planum Australe at the South Pole using the Mars Advanced Radar for radar subsoil and Ionosphere Sounding, MARSIS instrument. A new mode of operation established in this period allowed the recovery of higher quality data than before the mission.

    The study area of ​​200 square km shown in the image on the left and radar traces on the surface are shown in the middle image for multiple orbits. The background image grayscale is an image of System Thermal Emission Imaging Odyssey Mars from NASA and highlights the underlying topography: a plain featureless with escarpments ice cream on the bottom right (south).

    Traces are encoded by colors corresponding to the “power” of the radar signal reflected by subsurface features. The large blue area near the center corresponds to the bright main area of ​​the radar, detected in many overlapping orbits of the spacecraft.

    Subsurface radar profile is shown in the right panel for one of the orbits of Mars. The characteristic bright horizontally at the top represents the frozen surface of Mars in this region. Laminates deposits south pole, layers of ice and dust, are at a depth of about 1.5 km. Below is a base layer in some areas is even brighter than the surface reflections, highlighted in blue, while elsewhere is quite diffuse. The analysis of the details of the reflected signals from the base layer produces properties corresponding to liquid water.

    The bright reflections are centered around 193 ° E / 81 ° S in orbits intersect, delineating a well-defined area 20 km wide.

    1
    Context map copyright: NASA / Viking; THEMIS background: NASA / JPL-Caltech / Arizona State University; MARSIS data: ESA / NASA / JPL / ASI / Univ Rome. R. Orosei and other 2018

    NASA THEMIS satellite

    The radar data collected by Mars Express ESA indicate the existence of a mass of liquid water under layers of ice and dust in the southern polar region of Mars.

    The vast networks of dry river valleys and huge overflow channels probes photographed by circumnavigating the globe realize the aquatic past of Mars. These orbiters, along with Landers and rovers surface also discovered minerals that could only be formed in the presence of liquid water.

    However, the climate has changed significantly over the 4,600 million years of history of the planet, and today can no longer be liquid water on the surface, so scientists are searching underground. Preliminary results from Mars Express, which has spent 15 years in operation, have detected water ice at the poles and subsurface layers mixed with powder.

    It has long been suspected of the presence of liquid water at the base of the poles; After the, studies on Earth have amply demonstrated that the melting point dela gua decreases under the pressure of a glacier. Furthermore, the presence of salts on Mars could further reduce the melting point of the water and make to remain liquid even at freezing temperatures.

    However, testing of advanced radar to investigate the ionosphere and subsurface of Mars, MARSIS, which was the first probe to orbit another planet radar, they were inconclusive … so far.

    The insistence of the scientists working with this instrument has allowed to develop new techniques to gather the widest possible set of high-resolution data and confirm.

    3
    The Mars Express ESA used radar signals bounced through layers
    underground ice to identify a water tank buried below the surface.
    This image shows an example of radar profile for one of the 29 orbits in the region of
    study of 200 x 200 km in the south polar region of Mars. The characteristic bright horizontally
    at the top corresponds to the frozen surface of Mars. The layers of deposits
    in South pole layers – layers of ice and dust – are at a depth of
    about 1.5 km. Below is a base layer in some areas is even
    brighter than reflections from the surface, while in other places is rather blurred.
    The bright reflections of the base layer, near the center of the image, focus
    around 193 ° E / 81 ° S in all orbits intersect describing an anomaly
    well defined 20 km wide subsurface which is interpreted as a pool of
    liquid water. Credit: ESA / NASA / JPL / ASI / Univ Rome. R. Orosei and other 2018.

    This radar, which penetrates beneath the surface, sends pulses to the surface to measure what it takes to bounce back and return to the ship and its intensity. The material properties influence the recovered signal, which makes it possible to map the subsurface topography.

    Research shows that the radar region of Mars south pole is formed by several layers of ice and dust with a maximum depth of 1.5 km in area 200 km wide analyzed in this study. Within an area of ​​20 km in diameter it has identified a particularly bright reflection of radar under layers of deposits.

    In analyzing the properties of the reflected radar signals and to consider the composition of the layers of deposits and the temperature profile expected under the surface, scientists interpret this bright feature as the connection point between ice and a stable body of liquid water , which may be loaded with saturated saline sediments. For MARSIS has been able to detect it, you should have a minimum thickness of several tens of centimeters.

    “This anomaly beneath the surface of Mars has properties that indicate that it is water or water-rich sediments,” says Roberto Orosei, MARSIS experiment’s principal investigator and first author of the article published yesterday in Science. “The study area covers a small area, but it is exciting to think there might be more water pockets elsewhere, yet to be discovered.”

    “We’ve spent years seeing signs of underground phenomena of interest but could not reproduce the result of orbit to orbit, since the sampling frequencies and resolution of our data so far were too low” adds Andrea Cicchetti, chief operating officer of MARSIS and coauthor the new article.

    “We needed to find a new mode of operation that would avoid some processing on board and allow higher sampling frequency to improve resolution of our data: now we can identify things that we were not able to see before.”

    5
    Trace Gas Orbiter ExoMars captured this view of part of the South Pole ice cap on Mars on May 13, 2018.

    ESA/ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter

    The poles of Mars have huge layers of polar ice caps similar to Earth in Greenland and Antarctica ice . These caps are composed primarily of water ice and deposited in layers containing varying amounts of dust. They are known as Mars polar deposits layers (PLD). Thanks to the mass guns dissect layered deposits, orbiting spacecraft in orbit can see the internal layered structure. The imaging system stereo and color Orbiter ExoMars, cassis surface, saw this segment of 7 x 38 km deposits layers frost near the margin of the South PLD, extending as far north as 73 ° S. Here, CASSIS has images of remaining deposits within a crater in this range.

    ESA ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter CASSIS

    5
    CaSSIS flight model. Photo credit: University of Bern

    Fine variations in the color and brightness of the layers are visible through the color filters of the camera. It highlights the bright ice deposits redder sand to the top of the image. The ExoMars program is a joint effort between ESA and Roscosmos. Credit: ESA / Roscosmos / cassis, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO.

    The finding points to a certain extent to Lake Vostok, discovered about 4 km under the ice of Antarctica. It is known that certain forms of microbial life thrive in subglacial environments on Earth, but bags of saline groundwater and sediment-rich water of Mars may be a suitable habitat, or have guessed in the past? It is not yet known whether there was life on Mars at some point, a question to which they try to answer Mars missions, including the current Russian-European ExoMars orbiter and rover future.

    “The long duration of Mars Express and the huge effort made by the radar equipment to overcome all challenges related to analysis have made this long-awaited result, demonstrating that the mission and its payload still have great scientific potential “says Dmitri Titov, Mars Express project scientist at ESA.

    “This fantastic discovery is a milestone for planetology and help us to better understand the evolution of Mars, the history of water on the planet and its habitability.”

    Mars Express was launched on 2 June 2003 and 25 December this year will be 15 years in space.

    Notes to editors

    The article Radar evidence of subglacial liquid water on Mars by R. Orosei et al., Is published in the journal Science.

    The MARSIS instrument was funded by the Italian space agency ASI and NASA, and was developed by the University of Rome (Italy) in collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of NASA.

    From European Space Agency

    28/8/18
    For more information:
    Roberto Orosei
    MARSIS Principal Investigator
    INAF, Bologna, Italy
    Email: roberto.orosei@inaf.it

    Andrea Cicchetti
    MARSIS Operations Manager
    INAF, Rome, Italy
    Email: andrea.cicchetti@iaps.inaf.it

    Dmitri Titov
    ESA Mars Express Project Scientist
    Email: dmitri.titov@esa.int

    Markus Bauer
    ESA Science Communication Officer
    Tel: +31 71 565 6799
    Mob: +31 61 594 3 954
    Email: markus.bauer@esa.int

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The European Space Agency (ESA), established in 1975, is an intergovernmental organization dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 19 member states. Headquartered in Paris, ESA has a staff of more than 2,000. ESA’s space flight program includes human spaceflight, mainly through the participation in the International Space Station program, the launch and operations of unmanned exploration missions to other planets and the Moon, Earth observation, science, telecommunication as well as maintaining a major spaceport, the Guiana Space Centre at Kourou, French Guiana, and designing launch vehicles. ESA science missions are based at ESTEC in Noordwijk, Netherlands, Earth Observation missions at ESRIN in Frascati, Italy, ESA Mission Control (ESOC) is in Darmstadt, Germany, the European Astronaut Centre (EAC) that trains astronauts for future missions is situated in Cologne, Germany, and the European Space Astronomy Centre is located in Villanueva de la Cañada, Spain.

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  • richardmitnick 9:54 am on August 26, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Ants in space?, , , , , Manu Garcia - a friend at IAC,   

    From NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope via Manu: “Ants in space? – Tantalising detail in ant-shaped nebula illuminates last moments of Sun-like stars” 


    From Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    NASA Hubble Banner

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    From NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    1 February 2001
    Lars Lindberg Christensen
    Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre, Garching, Germany
    Phone: +49-(0)89-3200-6306
    Cellular (24 hr): +49-(0)173-38-72-621
    E-mail: lars@eso.org

    Raghvendra Sahai
    Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, USA
    Phone: +1-818-354-0452
    E-mail: sahai@bb8.jpl.nasa.gov

    Bruce Balick
    University of Washington, Seattle, USA
    Phone: +1-206-543-7683
    E-mail: balick@astro.washington.edu

    Vincent Icke
    Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Phone: +31-71-527-58-43
    E-mail: icke@strw.LeidenUniv.nl

    Howard Bond, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA
    Phone: +1-410-338-4718
    E-mail: bond@stsci.edu

    1
    Image credit: NASA, ESA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)
    Observed from ground-based telescopes, the so-called ‘ant nebula’ (Menzel 3, or Mz3) resembles the head and thorax of a common garden ant. This dramatic NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image, showing 10 times more detail, reveals the ‘ant’s body’ as a pair of fiery lobes protruding from a dying, Sun-like star.

    Hubble images directly challenge old ideas about planetary nebulae – the last stage in the life of Sun-like stars. This striking image has been assembled by the Hubble Heritage project and ESA from earlier images stored in the Hubble Archive. It is one of a series of images of planetary nebulae that have shown that our Sun’s fate will probably be more interesting, complex and striking than astronomers imagined even just a few years ago.

    In particular, the image of Mz3 reveals intriguing symmetrical patterns in the turbulent ejection of gas from the dying star at the centre of Mz3, unlike the chaotic patterns expected from an ordinary explosion. Scientists using Hubble try to understand how a spherical star can produce such prominent, non-spherical symmetries in the gas that it ejects.

    One possibility is that the central star of Mz3 has a closely orbiting companion that exerts strong gravitational tidal forces, which shape the outflowing gas. This model demands that the orbiting companion star be close to the dying star, at about the distance of the Earth from the Sun. At this distance, the orbiting companion star must be very close to the hugely bloated hulk of the dying star, or may even be orbiting inside it – a strange existence, not unlike that of the duck swallowed by the wolf in the old tale of ‘Peter and the Wolf’.

    A second possibility is that as the dying star spins, its strong magnetic fields are twirled into complex shapes like strands of spaghetti. The glowing gases in the nebula are forced to trace out these complex patterns, allowing astronomers to ‘see’ the usually invisible magnetic field. Winds of charged particles moving at speeds up to 3.5 million km/hour away from the star – much like those in our local ‘solar wind’, but millions of times denser – are able to follow the twisted magnetic field on their way out into space. These dense winds can be rendered visible by ultraviolet light from the hot central star or from collisions with the ambient gas that excites the material into florescence.

    No other planetary nebula observed by Hubble closely resembles Mz3. M2-9 is perhaps the most similar, but the outflow speeds in Mz3 are up to 10 times larger than those of M2-9. Interestingly, the very massive, young star, Eta Carinae, shows a very similar outflow pattern to that of Mz3.

    Astronomers Bruce Balick (University of Washington, USA) and Vincent Icke (Leiden University, The Netherlands) used Hubble to observe this planetary nebula, Mz3, with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 in July 1997.

    NASA/Hubble WFPC2. No longer in service.

    A year later, astronomers Raghvendra Sahai and John Trauger of the Jet Propulsion Lab in California snapped pictures of Mz3 using slightly different filters. The intriguing image shown here is a composite of three filters from these two datasets.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), is a free-standing science center, located on the campus of The Johns Hopkins University and operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) for NASA, conducts Hubble science operations.

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  • richardmitnick 10:04 am on August 22, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Manu Garcia - a friend at IAC, ,   

    From Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC via Manu Garcia: “Discover the causes of the apparent displacement of a supermassive black hole” 


    From Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    IAC

    From Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    Observing the core of Messier 87, HST-1 galaxy.

    1
    Messier 87 image with WFC3 HST (2016) with F814W filter. different knots are seen along the jet, including the first node HST-1. Credit: NASA/ESA Hubble.

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    NASA/ESA Hubble WFC3

    The study by two researchers from Instituto de Astrofísica reveals that the shift observed in the nucleus of the galaxy Messier 87 is not due to a shift of its massive black hole, but variations in light production in the center of the galaxy caused by bursts from a jet, a flow of material relativistic beam as the hole itself emits.

    Today it is assumed that all massive galaxies contain a supermassive black hole (SMBH, for its acronym in English) at its core. In recent years galaxies are looking for candidates to present a SMBHs displaced from its equilibrium position. Among the scenarios that can cause this displacement are merging two SMBHs or the existence of a binary system SMBHs, which gives information about galactic evolution and formation frequency and fusion of such objects.

    One of the galaxies candidates to present a displaced SMBHs is the giant elliptical Messier 87, containing one of the closest and best-studied active galaxy nuclei (AGN, for its acronym in English). Previous research SMBHs displacement of Messier 87 gave very different results, which was confusing. However, a new study by the student of the University of La Laguna (ULL), Elena López Navas has provided new data suggesting that the SMBHs of this galaxy is in its equilibrium position and shifts found must be variations in the production center or photocentric light caused by bursts from the relativistic jet, a flow of matter that the hole itself expelled outside at speeds near that of light.

    Research has been necessary to analyze a large number of high-resolution images of Messier 87 taken at different times and with different instruments installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Very Large Telescope (VLT).

    ESO VLT at Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert, •ANTU (UT1; The Sun ),
    •KUEYEN (UT2; The Moon ),
    •MELIPAL (UT3; The Southern Cross ), and
    •YEPUN (UT4; Venus – as evening star).
    elevation 2,635 m (8,645 ft) from above Credit J.L. Dauvergne & G. Hüdepohl atacama photo

    “Given these results, we realized that the images showed a shift in the center of the galaxy were taken at a time when M87 was a huge explosion that could be measured in all ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum,” adds Almudena Prieto , co-author and researcher at the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC). This outbreak took place between 2003 and 2007 at the node nearest the nucleus known as Messier 87 HST-1 jet. During the duration of the phenomenon, this knot increased its flow coming to shine even more than the core itself. “Temporal analysis of displacement of center of the galaxy shows that indeed the burst is related to the change of the position of photocentric – clarifies the astrophysics, however, after this phenomenon, and the core photocentric meet occupying the same place, so we deduce that the core and the black hole are always in the same location coinciding with the minimum of galactic potential. ”

    2
    Displacements found (in milli – arcseconds) against the date of
    observation of each analyzed image. An increase of displacement is observed
    around 2005, when the maximum emission occurred in the first
    knot jet, HST-1. Credit: Elena Lopez.

    “In our work we have found that the SMBHs is in a stable over the last 20 years position; On the contrary, what changes is the production center of light or Fotocentro “says Lopez, author of this study, as work Master’s Research in Astrophysics, which has just been published in the journal <em>Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society</em> (MNRAS).

    The new data have caused great interest among the astrophysics community, as the study SMBHs position of M87 is crucial to understanding the evolution of this galaxy and analysis of other AGN jets. “In addition, this research reminds us that we must be cautious when considering variables sources with irregularities such as, in this case, a huge jet,” says Lopez, who is currently conducting a training grant in astrophysical research at the IAC.

    Work Master Thesis: E. Lopez Navas (2018 ULL), “Measurement and analysis of the displacement between the Fotocentro and the supermassive black hole in M87“.

    Contact:
    Elena Lopez Navas, ULL student / IAC: eln_ext@iac.es
    Almudena Prieto Escudero, a researcher at the IAC: aprieto@iac.es

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    Roque de los Muchachos Observatory is an astronomical observatory located in the municipality of Garafía on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands, at an altitude of 2,396 m (7,861 ft)

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.



    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 12:13 pm on August 19, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Manu Garcia - a friend at IAC   

    From Manu Garcia at IAC: “Constellations” 


    From Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    1
    List of 88 constellations in the night sky is divided. It was adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1930.
    Image Shadowxfox – Own work, GFDL,
    https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3791072

    A constellation, in astronomy, is a conventional cluster of stars, whose position in the night sky is apparently unchanged. Peoples, ancient civilizations generally decided by imaginary lines linking, creating virtual silhouettes on the celestial sphere. In the vastness of space, however, the stars are not necessarily a constellation associated locally; and can be hundreds of light years away from each other. In addition, these groups are completely arbitrary, since different cultures have devised different constellations, including by linking the same stars.

    Some constellations were devised centuries ago by the people inhabiting the regions of the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Others, which are further south, received its name from the most recent Europeans to explore these places hitherto unknown for them times, although the peoples who inhabited the southern regions had already named their own constellations according to their beliefs.

    It is customary to separate the constellations into two groups, depending celestial Hemisphere where they are:

    northern constellations, located north of the celestial Ecuador
    southern constellations in the south.

    Since 1928, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) officially decided to regroup the celestial sphere in 88 constellations with precise boundaries, so that every point in the sky to stay within the limits of a figure. Before that year, they were recognized other minor constellations that then fell into oblivion; many, no longer remembered. The work of the constellations final delimitation was carried out mainly by the Belgian astronomer Eugène Joseph Delporte and published by the IAU in 1930.

    To learn more follow the link.

    2
    Constellations of the Northern Hemisphere. Screenshot made on the date and location in the lower frame of the image.

    The stars that can be seen on a clear night are certain figures we call “constellations” and they serve to more easily locate the position of the stars.

    In total, there are 88 groups of stars that appear on the celestial sphere and take their name from religious or mythological figures, animals or objects. This term also refers to defined areas of the celestial sphere comprising groups named stars.

    Drawings oldest known constellations show that the constellations had already been established 4000 BC The Sumerians gave the name to the constellation Aquarius, in honor of their god An, who pours the water of immortality on Earth. Babylonians had divided into 12 equal zodiac signs to 450 BC

    Current constellations of the northern hemisphere who knew little of the Chaldeans and the ancient Egyptians differ. Homer and Hesiod mentioned constellations and the Greek poet Aratus of Soli, gave a verse description of 44 constellations in their Phaenomena. Ptolemy, Greek astronomer and mathematician, in the Almagest, described 48 constellations, of which 47 are still know by the same name.

    Many other cultures grouped stars in constellations, although not always correspond to those of the West. However, some Chinese constellations resemble Western, which suggests the possibility of a common origin.

    In the late sixteenth century, the first European explorers of the South Seas drew maps of the southern hemisphere. The Dutch navigator Pieter Dirckz Keyser, who participated in the exploration of the East Indies in 1595 added new constellations. They were later added other southern constellations by German astronomer Johann Bayer, who published the first comprehensive atlas celestial hemisphere.

    Many others proposed new constellations, but astronomers finally agreed on a list of 88. However, the boundaries of the constellations topic of discussion remained until 1930, when the International Astronomical Union set such limits.

    3
    Constellations of the Southern Hemisphere. Screenshot made on the date and location in the lower frame of the image.

    Constellations 1

    Constellations II

    Constellations III

    Constellations IV

    Constellations V

    To designate the approximately 1,300 bright stars, the genitive of the name of constellations, preceded by a Greek letter used; This system was introduced by Johann Bayer. For example, the famous star Algol in the constellation Perseus, is called Beta Persei.

    Among the best known constellations are those found in the plane of the orbit of the Earth on the background of fixed stars. Are the constellations of the Zodiac. Besides these, some well-known Southern Cross are visible from the hemisferiosur, and Ursa Major, visible from the Northern Hemisphere. These and other constellations allow to locate the position of important reference points, for example, the celestial poles.

    Most constellation of the celestial sphere is the Hydra, containing 68 stars visible to the naked eye. Southern Cross, meanwhile, is the smallest constellation more information.

    The following table is organized alphabetically, according to the Latin nomenclature (general purpose). It also includes the abbreviation generally given to each constellation, the genitive and the Spanish name, link article.

    Screenshots made with Stellarium.
    To learn more about Stellarium follow the link: http://stellarium.org/es/

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    Roque de los Muchachos Observatory is an astronomical observatory located in the municipality of Garafía on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands, at an altitude of 2,396 m (7,861 ft)

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreach activities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 7:10 am on August 8, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Manu Garcia - a friend at IAC, The strange case of HuBi1 - a stellar corpse turned upside down   

    From Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC: “The strange case of HuBi1 – a stellar corpse turned upside down” 


    From Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    08/08/18
    More information:
    Martin Guerrero
    mar@iaa.es
    958230622

    Contact:
    Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia (IAA-CSIC)
    Dissemination and Communication Unit
    Silbia Lopez de Lacalle
    sll@iaa.es
    958230532
    http://www.iaa.es
    http://www-divulgacion.iaa.es

    1
    Material ejected in a thermal pulse late in A30, a planetary nebula with a born star (IAA-CSIC source and Chandra X-ray Center).

    The physical structure of a planetary nebula produced by the death of a sun-like star is opposite to the usual in these objects. An investigation led by the IAA-CSIC concludes that his mother is a born star.

    Planetary nebulae is one of the final stages in the life of stars low and intermediate mass as the sun. After exhausting the fuel, these stars shed their outer layers, forming an envelope of ionized gas around a star white dwarf type. In this envelope, the closer to the star, hotter, more ionization regions show that the most distant and cold. The exact opposite in HuBi1 , having a structure inverted ionization product of its peculiar evolution is a star reborn as completion of a study published today in the journal Nature Astronomy.

    HuBi1 appears to be a typical double planetary nebula, with wrap outer diffuse gas and a bright central shell, but this research has revealed its peculiarities: the casing outside gas is recombined, unprecedented in a planetary nebula, and star Central has been turned off in just fifty years (it was ten thousand times brighter in 1971 than in 2017).

    “The most surprising thing is the structure of the central bright shell ionization, which, colder than outer, inner region defies the most basic laws of thermodynamics and points to a peculiar episode in stellar evolution,” said Martin A. Guerrero , researcher at the Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia (IAA-CSIC) who led the work.

    This structure is indeed typical of shock waves produced by rapid expansion material through a surrounding medium which, together with the star does not emit sufficient ionizing photons, draws an unusual stage.

    “In some tens of thousands of years planetary dispersed in the interstellar medium and the central star is becoming extinct. The central star HuBi1 , instead of gradually extinguished, revived by a late thermal pulse that fused helium surface “said Marcelo M. Miller Bertolami, researcher at the Institute of Astrophysics of La Plata (Argentina) participating in the study.

    2
    HuBi1 image obtained in the telescope NOT (ORM, La Palma, Spain) and variation of the brightness of the helium layer during the thermal pulse. Image red represents broadcast Halpha and green-blue broadcast [N II].


    Nordic Optical telescope, at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma in the Canary Islands, Spain, Altitude 2,396 m (7,861 ft)

    HuBi1 has been captured at the time in which its central star has become a poor hydrogen-type star [WC]. The origin of these stars, present in 15% of planetary nebulae, had not been identified so far. In this process of expulsion of large quantities of gas at a rate higher than that of the primitive nebula, and the interaction of both types of material generated shocks and the double structure seen in the nebula.

    Researchers continue to study the evolution of HuBi1 , as it is one of the few examples of observed re – born stars. “Moreover, coming from a Sun – like parent star, the HuBi1 nebula is an example of a possible finale for our star , ” says Martin A. Guerrero (IAA-CSIC).

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    Roque de los Muchachos Observatory is an astronomical observatory located in the municipality of Garafía on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands, at an altitude of 2,396 m (7,861 ft)

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreach activities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
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