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  • richardmitnick 8:10 am on November 20, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Manu Garcia‎, , NGC 7822   

    From Manu Garcia: “NGC 7822” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    1

    The young stars are cleaning their nursery in NGC 7822. Within The Nebula, the bright edges and complex dust sculptures dominate this detailed deep image taken in infrared light by NASA’s wide field asteroid survey explorer.

    NASA/WISE Telescope

    NGC 7822 is located on the edge of a giant molecular cloud to the Northern Constellation Cepheus, a bright star formation region that is about 3.000 Light-years away. The atomic emission of light by the gas of the nebula is driven by the energy radiation of the hot stars, whose powerful winds and light also sculpt and erode the denser forms of the pillars. The Stars could still be forming within the pillars by the gravitational collapse, but as the pillars erode, any star that is formed will eventually isolate itself from its stellar matter reserve. This field covers about 40 Light-years at the estimated distance of NGC 7822.

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 8:35 am on November 13, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A gigantic cosmic bubble, , , , , , Manu Garcia‎   

    From ESO via Manu: “A gigantic cosmic bubble” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    ESO 50 Large

    European Southern Observatory

    1
    Measuring more than 300 000 light-years across, three times the diameter of the Milky Way, this colourful bubble of ionised gas is the biggest to ever have been discovered. The enormous bubble contains 10 individual galaxies and is situated in a particularly dense region of a galaxy group called COSMOS-Gr30, 6.5 billion light-years away from Earth. Targeted due to its high density of galaxies, this group is extremely varied — some galaxies are actively forming stars while others are passive; some are bright while others are dim; some are massive and others are tiny.

    This record-breaking bubble was discovered and studied in detail thanks to the incredible sensitivity of the MUSE instrument, mounted on ESO’s Very Large Telescope. Operating in visible wavelengths, MUSE combines the capabilities of an imaging device with the measuring capacity of a spectrograph, creating a unique and powerful tool that can shed light on cosmological objects that would otherwise remain in the dark.

    ESO MUSE on the VLT

    MUSE’s powerful eye on the sky has allowed astronomers to understand that this large pocket of gas is not pristine, but was expelled from galaxies either during violent interactions or by superwinds driven by active black holes and supernovae. They also studied how this magnificent bubble became ionised. It is believed that the gas in the upper area (shown in blue) was ionised by intense electromagnetic radiation from newborn stars and shock waves stemming from galactic activity. Astronomers suspect that the violent red active galactic nucleus towards the lower left of the image could have ripped the electrons from their atoms.

    Science paper:
    Ionised gas structure of 100 kpc in an over-dense region of the galaxy group COSMOS-Gr30 at z 0.7? Astronomy & Astrophysics

    See the full article here .

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    ESO is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world’s most productive ground-based astronomical observatory by far. It is supported by 16 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, along with the host state of Chile. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world’s most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and two survey telescopes. VISTA works in the infrared and is the world’s largest survey telescope and the VLT Survey Telescope is the largest telescope designed to exclusively survey the skies in visible light. ESO is a major partner in ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. And on Cerro Armazones, close to Paranal, ESO is building the 39-metre European Extremely Large Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become “the world’s biggest eye on the sky”.

    ESO LaSilla
    ESO/Cerro LaSilla 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    ESO VLT
    VLT at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level.

    ESO Vista Telescope
    ESO/Vista Telescope at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level.

    ESO NTT
    ESO/NTT at Cerro LaSilla 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    ESO VLT Survey telescope
    VLT Survey Telescope at Cerro Paranal with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level.

    ALMA Array
    ALMA on the Chajnantor plateau at 5,000 metres.

    ESO E-ELT
    ESO/E-ELT to be built at Cerro Armazones at 3,060 m.

    ESO APEX
    APEX Atacama Pathfinder 5,100 meters above sea level, at the Llano de Chajnantor Observatory in the Atacama desert.

    Leiden MASCARA instrument, La Silla, located in the southern Atacama Desert 600 kilometres (370 mi) north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2,400 metres (7,900 ft)

    Leiden MASCARA cabinet at ESO Cerro la Silla located in the southern Atacama Desert 600 kilometres (370 mi) north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2,400 metres (7,900 ft)

    ESO Next Generation Transit Survey at Cerro Paranel, 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    SPECULOOS four 1m-diameter robotic telescopes 2016 in the ESO Paranal Observatory, 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    ESO TAROT telescope at Paranal, 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

     
  • richardmitnick 6:34 pm on November 11, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Enceladus and its interior heat, , Manu Garcia‎,   

    From ESA via Manu: Enceladus and its interior heat” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    Thanks, Manu, ESA did not bother to put this up in English.

    11.7.17

    Gaël Choblet
    Université de Nantes, France
    Email: Gael.Choblet@univ-nantes.fr

    Gabriel Tobie
    Université de Nantes, France
    Email: gabriel.tobie@univ-nantes.fr

    Nicolas Altobelli
    ESA Cassini–Huygens Project Scientist



    Tel: +34 91 813 1201




    Email: nicolas.altobelli@esa.int

    Markus Bauer








    ESA Science Communication Officer









    Tel: +31 71 565 6799









    Mob: +31 61 594 3 954









    Email: markus.bauer@esa.int

    Oficina de Comunicación de ESAC
    Email: comunicacionesac@esa.int

    1
    Image Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / Space Science Institute; Inside: LPG-CNRS / U. Nantes / U. Angers. Graphic composition: ESA

    1. passive flow of cold water from the ocean salt to a porous rock core.
    2. The heated water rises in the core in tight tufts and interacts with rocks.
    3. Hotspots on the seabed.
    4. Transport of heat and rocky material across the ocean.
    5. Localized heating in the ocean-ice thins the ice.
    6. jets of water vapor and particles erupt through cracks.

    If the core of Enceladus was porous, tidal friction could generate enough to cause hydrothermal activity inside for thousands of millions of years heat, which would increase their chances of habitability.

    This is what emerges from a new study, published yesterday in Nature Astronomy, which has a first concept that would explain the key features of Enceladus, the Saturnian moon of 500 km diameter observed by the international Cassini spacecraft during its mission , completed last September.

    NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini-Huygens Spacecraft

    Encélado house a salty overall ocean under an ice layer having an average thickness of 20 to 25 km, which would only 1-5 km in the south polar region. There, through fissures in the ice jets water vapor and ice grains they are expelled. The composition of ejecta measured by Cassini, includes salts and silicon powder, suggesting that would be formed by the interaction of warm water at least 90 ° C, with the porous rock core.

    2
    Enceladus plumes.
    Credit: NASA / JPL / SSI.

    That would require a huge source of heat, a hundred times greater than that could generate natural decay of radioactive elements in rocks your core and medium focalizase activity at the South Pole.

    It is believed that the tidal effect on Saturn is responsible for the eruptions that deforms the ice Enceladus by movements of attraction and repulsion along its elliptical path around the giant planet. However, the energy produced by tidal friction on the ice would be too weak by itself to offset the heat loss from the ocean: the moon would have frozen after 30 million years. However, as Cassini has shown, the moon is still extremely active, suggesting that something else is happening.

    “Although it has never been clear what the source of that Enceladus gets the energy to stay active, we have now seen in more detail how the structure and composition of its rocky core could have a key role in generating the energy needed” says lead study author Gaël Choblet, University of Nantes (France).

    In the new simulations, the core is formed of deformable porous unconsolidated rock, water can readily permeate. Thus, the liquid cold ocean water can seep into the core and gradually heated as it penetrates due to tidal friction between moving rock fragments.

    Water circulates through the core and then rises again because it is hotter than the surrounding material. Ultimately, this process transfers heat to the ocean floor in thin columns that interact closely with rocks. On the ocean floor, these columns reach the colder ocean.

    3
    Last observation feathers Enceladus by Cassini .. Credit: NASA / JPL / SSI.

    It is estimated that one hot spot on the ocean floor up to 5 GW release energy equivalent to geothermal energy consumed annually in Iceland. These hot spots seafloor generated columns totaling several centimeters per second. Not only the columns make the icy crust there above is based, also transported for weeks and months, from the ocean floor, small particles which are then released into space in the form of icy jets.

    Also, computer models of the authors show that most of the water is expelled in the polar regions of the moon, with a chain process causing hot spots in localized areas and consequently, a smaller thickness in the ice fair over something that matches interpreted by Cassini.

    “Our simulations can explain both the existence of a global ocean due to heat transport large scale between the depths of the inside and the ice, and the concentration of activity in a region relatively small around the south pole, justifying the main phenomena observed by Cassini, “says study co-author Gabriel Tobie, also of the University of Nantes.

    Scientists say that efficient rock-water interactions in a porous core caused by tidal friction could generate up to 30 GW of heat over tens of millions or even thousands of millions of years.

    “Future missions able to analyze organic molecules columns Enceladus more accurately than Cassini would be able to confirm whether the maintenance of hydrothermal conditions could have permitted the emergence of life,” said Nicolas Altobelli, Cassini project scientist at ESA .

    A future mission equipped with a radar to penetrate the ice, may also limit the thickness of the ice and additional overpasses or orbiter improve models interior, also verifying the presence of active hydrothermal columns.

    “In the next decade, with the Juice mission Jovian moons send new generation instruments, including a ground penetrating radar.

    ESA/Juice spacecraft

    ESA /JUICE schematic

    This mission is specifically devoted to assess the potential for habitability of ocean worlds in the outer solar system, “adds Nicolas.

    Additional Information.
    The article “Powering prolonged hydrothermal activity inside Enceladus,” Choblet G. et al., Was published in Nature Astronomy on November 6, 2017, article online.

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project between NASA, ESA and the Italian space agency ASI.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:35 am on November 10, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: APOD, Astronomer Williamina Fleming, , , , , Fleming's Triangular Wisp, Manu Garcia‎   

    From Manu Amazing APOD: “Williamina Fleming’s Triangular Wisp” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    Astronomy Picture of the Day

    1

    Explanation: Chaotic in appearance, these tangled filaments of shocked, glowing gas are spread across planet Earth’s sky toward the constellation of Cygnus as part of the Veil Nebula. The Veil Nebula itself is a large supernova remnant, an expanding cloud born of the death explosion of a massive star. Light from the original supernova explosion likely reached Earth over 5,000 years ago. Blasted out in the cataclysmic event, the interstellar shock waves plow through space sweeping up and exciting interstellar material. The glowing filaments are really more like long ripples in a sheet seen almost edge on, remarkably well separated into the glow of ionized hydrogen atoms shown in red and oxygen in blue hues. Also known as the Cygnus Loop, the Veil Nebula now spans nearly 3 degrees or about 6 times the diameter of the full Moon. While that translates to over 70 light-years at its estimated distance of 1,500 light-years, this field of view spans less than one third that distance. Often identified as Pickering’s Triangle for a director of Harvard College Observatory, the the complex of filaments is cataloged as NGC 6979. It is also known for its discoverer, astronomer Williamina Fleming, as Fleming’s Triangular Wisp.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 8:39 am on November 9, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Manu Garcia‎, , The Dynamic Duo: Jupiter's Independently Pulsating X-ray Auroras   

    From Chandra via Manu: “The Dynamic Duo: Jupiter’s Independently Pulsating X-ray Auroras” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    NASA Chandra Banner
    NASA Chandra Telescope

    NASA Chandra

    1
    Credit X-ray: NASA/CXC/UCL/W.Dunn et al, Optical: South Pole: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS/Gerald Eichstädt /Seán Doran; North Pole: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS

    New X-ray observations show the auroras — northern or southern lights — on Jupiter behave differently at each pole.

    This makes Jupiter puzzling and unlike Saturn (no known auroras) or Earth (where north and south pole auroras mirror one another).

    These latest X-ray findings are challenging the current theoretical models that explain the Jovian auroras.

    Scientists hope to combine Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Juno data to learn more about the source of Jupiter’s auroras.

    ESA/XMM Newton X-ray telescope

    NASA/Juno

    Jupiter’s intense northern and southern lights, or auroras, behave independently of each other according to a new study using NASA’s Chandra X-ray and ESA’s XMM-Newton observatories.

    Using XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray observations from March 2007 and May and June 2016, a team of researchers produced maps of Jupiter’s X-ray emissions and identified an X-ray hot spot at each pole. Each hot spot can cover an area equal to about half the surface of the Earth.

    The team found that the hot spots had very different characteristics. The X-ray emission at Jupiter’s south pole consistently pulsed every 11 minutes, but the X-rays seen from the north pole were erratic, increasing and decreasing in brightness — seemingly independent of the emission from the south pole.

    This makes Jupiter particularly puzzling. X-ray auroras have never been detected from our Solar System’s other gas giants, including Saturn. Jupiter is also unlike Earth, where the auroras on our planet’s north and south poles generally mirror each other because the magnetic fields are similar.

    To understand how Jupiter produces its X-ray auroras, the team of researchers plans to combine new and upcoming X-ray data from Chandra and XMM-Newton with information from NASA’s Juno mission, which is currently in orbit around the planet. If scientists can connect the X-ray activity with physical changes observed simultaneously with Juno, they may be able to determine the process that generates the Jovian auroras and by association X-ray auroras at other planets.

    2
    Illustration of Jupiter’s magnetosphere.

    One theory that the X-ray and Juno observations may help to prove or disprove is that Jupiter’s X-ray auroras are caused by interactions at the boundary between Jupiter’s magnetic field, which is generated by electrical currents in the planet’s interior, and the solar wind, a high-speed flow of particles streaming from the Sun. The interactions between the solar wind and Jupiter’s magnetic field can cause the latter to vibrate and produce magnetic waves. Charged particles can surf these waves and gain energy. Collisions of these particles with Jupiter’s atmosphere produce the bright flashes of X-rays observed by Chandra and XMM. Within this theory the 11-minute interval would represent the time for a wave to travel along one of Jupiter’s magnetic field lines.

    The difference in behavior between the Jovian north and south poles may be caused by the difference in visibility of the two poles. Because the magnetic field of Jupiter is tilted, we are able to see much more of the northern aurora than the southern aurora. Therefore for the north pole we may be able to observe regions where the magnetic field connects to more than one location, with several different travel times, while for the south pole we can only observe regions where the magnetic field connects to one location. This would cause the behavior of the north pole to appear erratic compared to the south pole.

    A larger question is how does Jupiter give the particles in its magnetosphere (the realm controlled by Jupiter’s magnetic field) the huge energies needed to make X-rays? Some of the X-ray emission observed with Chandra can only be produced if Jupiter accelerates oxygen ions to such high energies that when they violently collide with the atmosphere all eight of their electrons are torn off. Scientists hope to determine what impact these particles, which crash into the planet’s poles at thousands of kilometers per second, have on the planet itself. Do these high-energy particles affect the Jovian weather and the chemical composition of its atmosphere? Can they explain the anomalously high temperatures found in certain places in Jupiter’s atmosphere? These are the questions that Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Juno may be able to help answer in the future.

    A paper describing these results appeared in the October 30th issue of Nature Astronomy, led by William Dunn of the University College London.

    See the full article here.

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    NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra’s science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:39 am on October 24, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Manu Garcia‎,   

    From Manu Garcia: “Our atoms” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    10/24/17
    Manu Astrologus

    Where do our atoms?
    1
    The hydrogen that is in your body, present in every molecule of water came from the Big Bang. No other significant sources of hydrogen in the universe. The carbon body formed by nuclear fusion within the stars, like oxygen. Much of the iron body formed during supernovae stars, stellar explosions that occurred long ago and far away. Gold in their jewelery was probably made of neutron stars during collisions that may have been visible as gamma-ray bursts short or events of gravitational waves. Elements such as phosphorus and copper are present in our bodies in small amounts but are essential for the functioning of all known life. It presented the periodic table is color-coded to indicate the best estimate of humanity in terms of nuclear origin of all known elements. Nuclear sites creating some elements, such as copper, are not well known and remain topics of observational and computational research.

    Image Credit & License: Wikipedia : Cmglee ; Data: Jennifer Johnson (OSU) .

    Posted in Astronomy Picture of the Day, APOD on 24 October 2017

    The periodic table.
    2
    Modern periodic table with 18 columns.

    Of Tximitx – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=52698867

    The periodic table is an arrangement of the chemical elements in a table, ordered by their atomic number (number of protons), its electron configuration and chemical properties. This arrangement shows periodic trends, as elements with similar behavior in the same column.

    In the words of Theodor Benfey, table and periodic law “are the heart of chemistry, comparable to the theory of evolution in biology (which happened to the concept of the Great Chain of Being), and the laws of thermodynamics in classical physics. ”

    The rows of the table are called periods and columns groups. Some groups have names. For example group 17 is the halogens and the group 18 of the noble gases. The table also is divided into four blocks with some similar chemical properties. Because the positions are ordered, the table can be used to obtain relationships between the properties of the elements, or predict properties of new elements yet discovered or synthesized. The periodic table provides a useful tool for analyzing the chemical behavior and is widely used in chemistry and other science framework.

    Dmitri Mendeléyev in 1869 published the first version of the periodic table was widely recognized. The developed to illustrate periodic trends in the properties of the then known elements, to sort the items based on its chemical properties, although Julius Lothar Meyer, working separately conducted an order from the physical properties of atoms . Mendeleev also predicted some properties of then unknown elements anticipated that occupy the empty places in your table. Subsequently it showed that most of his predictions were correct when the items in question were discovered.

    Mendeleev periodic table has since been expanded and enhanced with the discovery or synthesis of new elements and development of new theoretical models to explain the chemical behavior. The current structure was designed by Alfred Werner from the version of Mendeleev. There are also other newspapers arrangements according to different properties and use it as you want to give (didactics, geology, etc.).

    Have been discovered or synthesized all elements of atomic number 1 (hydrogen) to 118 (oganesón); IUPAC confirmed the elements 113, 115, 117 and 118 on December 30, 2015, and their names and official symbols were made public on November 28, 2016. The first 94 exist naturally, although some only found in small amounts and were synthesized in the laboratory before being found in nature. the elements with atomic numbers 95 to 118 only they have been synthesized in laboratories. There were also produced numerous synthetic radioisotopes of elements present in nature. Elements of 95-100 existed in nature in the past but is currently not. The research to find new elements for synthesis of higher atomic numbers continues.

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 8:52 am on October 22, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A galactic embrace, , , , , Manu Garcia‎   

    From ESO via Manu: “A galactic embrace” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    ESO 50 Large

    European Southern Observatory

    11 July 2011
    No writer credit

    1
    Capturing a fusion between galaxies.
    Two galaxies, about 50 million light years away are literally woven into a galactic embrace. Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1097 in the constellation Fornax (Furnace), seen in this photograph taken with VIMOS instrument on Very Large Telescope (VLT). A companion, and comparatively small elliptical galaxy NGC 1097A , is also visible in the upper right. There is evidence that NGC 1097 and NGC 1097A have been interacting in the recent past.
    Although NGC 1097 seems to be wrapping its companion in its spiral arms, this is no gentle motherly giant. The larger galaxy also has four faint jets — too extended and faint to be seen in this image — that emerge from its centre, forming an X-shaped pattern, and which are the longest visible-wavelength jets of any known galaxy. The jets are thought to be the remnants of a dwarf galaxy that was disrupted and cannibalised by the much larger NGC 1097 up to a few billion years ago.

    These unusual jets are not the galaxy’s only intriguing feature. As previously mentioned, NGC 1097 is a Seyfert galaxy, meaning that it contains a supermassive black hole in its centre. However, the core of NGC 1097 is relatively faint, suggesting that the central black hole is not currently swallowing large quantities of gas and stars. Instead, the most striking feature of the galaxy’s centre is the ring of bright knots surrounding the nucleus. These knots are thought to be large bubbles of glowing hydrogen gas about 750–2500 light-years across, ionised by the intense ultraviolet light of young stars, and they indicate that the ring is a site of vigorous star formation

    With this distinctive central star-forming ring, and the addition of numerous bluish clusters of hot, young stars dotted through its spiral arms, NGC 1097 makes a stunning visual object.

    The data were originally taken in 2004 (see eso0438) with the VIMOS instrument on the VLT, and additional colour information from an image taken by amateur astronomer Robert Gendler has been superimposed. The VLT data were taken through three visible-light filters: R (at a wavelength of 652 nanometres, and shown here in red), V (a wavelength of 540 nanometres, shown in green), and B (456 nanometres, shown in blue). The image covers a region of approximately 7.7 x 6.6 arcminutes on the sky.

    Credit:

    ESO/R. Gendler

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.
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    Visit ESO in Social Media-

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    ESO is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world’s most productive ground-based astronomical observatory by far. It is supported by 16 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, along with the host state of Chile. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world’s most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and two survey telescopes. VISTA works in the infrared and is the world’s largest survey telescope and the VLT Survey Telescope is the largest telescope designed to exclusively survey the skies in visible light. ESO is a major partner in ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. And on Cerro Armazones, close to Paranal, ESO is building the 39-metre European Extremely Large Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become “the world’s biggest eye on the sky”.

    ESO LaSilla
    ESO/Cerro LaSilla 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    ESO VLT
    VLT at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level.

    ESO Vista Telescope
    ESO/Vista Telescope at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level.

    ESO NTT
    ESO/NTT at Cerro LaSilla 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    ESO VLT Survey telescope
    VLT Survey Telescope at Cerro Paranal with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level.

    ALMA Array
    ALMA on the Chajnantor plateau at 5,000 metres.

    ESO E-ELT
    ESO/E-ELT to be built at Cerro Armazones at 3,060 m.

    ESO APEX
    APEX Atacama Pathfinder 5,100 meters above sea level, at the Llano de Chajnantor Observatory in the Atacama desert.

    Leiden MASCARA instrument, La Silla, located in the southern Atacama Desert 600 kilometres (370 mi) north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2,400 metres (7,900 ft)

    Leiden MASCARA cabinet at ESO Cerro la Silla located in the southern Atacama Desert 600 kilometres (370 mi) north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2,400 metres (7,900 ft)

    ESO Next Generation Transit Survey at Cerro Paranel, 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    SPECULOOS four 1m-diameter robotic telescopes 2016 in the ESO Paranal Observatory, 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    ESO TAROT telescope at Paranal, 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

     
  • richardmitnick 8:49 am on October 16, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Manu Garcia‎, , NASA's Great Observatories Provide a Detailed View of Kepler's Supernova Remnant   

    From JPL-Caltech and Spitzer via Manu: “NASA’s Great Observatories Provide a Detailed View of Kepler’s Supernova Remnant” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    NASA/Spitzer Telescope


    Spitzer

    NASA JPL Banner

    JPL-Caltech

    1

    10.06.04
    NASA’s Great Observatories Provide a Detailed View of Kepler’s Supernova Remnant.

    NASA’s three Great Observatories — the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory — joined forces to probe the expanding remains of a supernova, called Kepler’s supernova remnant, first seen 400 years ago by sky watchers, including famous astronomer Johannes Kepler.

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    NASA/Chandra Telescope

    The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust that is 14 light-years wide and is expanding at 4 million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second). Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova remnant, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material from the exploded star, surrounded by an expanding shock wave that is sweeping up interstellar gas and dust.

    Each color in this image represents a different region of the electromagnetic spectrum, from X-rays to infrared light. These diverse colors are shown in the panel of photographs below the composite image. The X-ray and infrared data cannot be seen with the human eye. By color-coding those data and combining them with Hubble’s visible-light view, astronomers are presenting a more complete picture of the supernova remnant.

    Visible-light images from the Hubble telescope’s Advanced Camera for Surveys [colored yellow] reveal where the supernova shock wave is slamming into the densest regions of surrounding gas.

    The bright glowing knots are dense clumps from instabilities that form behind the shock wave. The Hubble data also show thin filaments of gas that look like rippled sheets seen edge-on. These filaments reveal where the shock wave is encountering lower-density, more uniform interstellar material.

    The Spitzer telescope shows microscopic dust particles [colored red] that have been heated by the supernova shock wave. The dust re-radiates the shock wave’s energy as infrared light. The Spitzer data are brightest in the regions surrounding those seen in detail by the Hubble telescope.

    The Chandra X-ray data show regions of very hot gas, and extremely high-energy particles. The hottest gas (higher-energy X-rays, colored blue) is located primarily in the regions directly behind the shock front. These regions also show up in the Hubble observations, and also align with the faint rim of glowing material seen in the Spitzer data. The X-rays from the region on the lower left (colored blue) may be dominated by extremely high-energy electrons that were produced by the shock wave and are radiating at radio through X-ray wavelengths as they spiral in the intensified magnetic field behind the shock front. Cooler X-ray gas (lower-energy X-rays, colored green) resides in a thick interior shell and marks the location of heated material expelled from the exploded star.

    Kepler’s supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy, resides about 13,000 light-years away in the constellation Ophiuchus.

    The Chandra observations were taken in June 2000, the Hubble in August 2003; and the Spitzer in August 2004.

    See the full article here .

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    NASA JPL Campus

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center located in the San Gabriel Valley area of Los Angeles County, California, United States. Although the facility has a Pasadena postal address, it is actually headquartered in the city of La Cañada Flintridge [1], on the northwest border of Pasadena. JPL is managed by the nearby California Institute of Technology (Caltech) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Laboratory’s primary function is the construction and operation of robotic planetary spacecraft, though it also conducts Earth-orbit and astronomy missions. It is also responsible for operating NASA’s Deep Space Network.

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  • richardmitnick 8:33 am on October 16, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Manu Garcia‎, , NGC 2623,   

    From Sci-News via Manu: “Hubble Spots Twisted Cosmic Knot: NGC 2623” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    SciNews

    Oct 16, 2017
    No writer credit

    1
    NGC 2623 is in the late stages of the merging process, with the centers of the original galaxy pair now merged into one nucleus, but stretching out from the center are two tidal tails of young stars, a strong indicator that a merger has taken place. During such a collision, the dramatic exchange of mass and gases initiates star formation, seen here in both the tails. The prominent lower tail is richly populated with bright star clusters. These star clusters may have formed as part of a loop of stretched material associated with the northern tail, or they may have formed from debris falling back onto the nucleus. In addition to this active star-forming region, both galactic arms harbor very young stars in the early stages of their evolutionary journey. Image credit: NASA/ESA Hubble.

    A jaw-dropping new image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope captures what appears to be a strange galaxy with two ‘tails,’ but is actually the result of a pair of Milky Way-like spiral galaxies smashing together at high speeds.

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    NGC 2623, also known as Arp 243, LEDA 24288 and UGC 4509, lies approximately 264 million light-years distant toward the constellation Cancer.

    This object gained its unusual and distinctive shape as the result of a major collision and subsequent merger between two separate galaxies.

    This violent encounter caused clouds of gas within the two galaxies to become compressed and stirred up, in turn triggering a sharp spike of star formation.

    This active star formation is marked by speckled patches of bright blue; these can be seen clustered both in the center and along the trails of dust and gas forming NGC 2623’s sweeping curves (known as tidal tails).

    These tails extend for roughly 50,000 light-years from end to end.

    Many young, hot, newborn stars form in bright stellar clusters — at least 170 such clusters are known to exist within NGC 2623.

    According to astronomers, NGC 2623 is in a late stage of merging.

    It is thought that our Milky Way Galaxy will eventually resemble NGC 2623 when it collides with the Andromeda Galaxy in about 4 billion years.

    The newly released image of NGC 2623 was made from separate exposures taken in the visible and infrared regions of the spectrum with Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instruments.

    NASA/ESA Hubble ACS

    NASA/ESA Hubble WFC3

    It is based on data obtained through six filters. The color results from assigning different hues to each monochromatic image associated with an individual filter.

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 9:32 am on October 15, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A pair of distorted galaxies, , , , , Manu Garcia‎,   

    From Hubble via Manu: “A pair of distorted galaxies.” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    NASA Hubble Banner

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    20 March 2017.

    Defying cosmic convention
    1
    A galactic duo called NGC 3447. Credit: NASA/ESA Hubble

    Some galaxies are harder to classify than others. Here, wide field camera 3 (WFC3) Hubble has captured a stunning view of two interacting galaxies located about 60 million light – years away in the constellation Leo. The diffuse glow blue patch covering the right side of the frame is known as NGC 3447 , sometimes NGC 3447B to differentiate, you can be applied NGC 3447 for the duo. The smallest group in the upper left is known as NGC 3447A .

    2
    The Wide Field Camera 3, Hubble

    The problem with space is that it is really great. Astronomers have discovered and named for hundreds of years galaxies, stars, cosmic clouds and more. Unify and regulate the conventions and classifications for all that has been observed is very difficult, especially when such an ambiguous object is obtained as NGC 3447 that stubbornly defies current categories.

    In general, we know that NGC 3447 comprises a pair of interacting galaxies, but we are not sure what was seen each before they began to separate. They both sit so close that are heavily influenced and distorted by gravitational forces between them, making galaxies writhe in the unusual and unique shapes seen here. NGC 3447A shows the remains of a central bar structure and some interrupted spiral arms, both characteristic properties of certain spirals. Some identify the NGC 3447B as an old spiral galaxy, while others classify it as an irregular galaxy. It is already known, all in the eye, in this case telescope, with which you look.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Stem Education Coalition

    The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), is a free-standing science center, located on the campus of The Johns Hopkins University and operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) for NASA, conducts Hubble science operations.

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