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  • richardmitnick 12:33 pm on December 13, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Case Western Reserve University, Magneto-Optical Detector (MOD), Malaria, , This Device Could Revolutionize How Malaria Is Detected Around the World   

    From Smithsonian: “This Device Could Revolutionize How Malaria Is Detected Around the World” 

    smithsonian
    Smithsonian.com

    December 12, 2016
    Randy Rieland

    1
    The Magneto-Optical Detector (MOD) combines magnets and laser light to determine, in less than a minute, if a drop of blood contains malaria parasites.
    (Case Western Reserve University)

    It’s a medical breakthrough story that begins with a long line.

    Brian Grimberg was working at a clinic in Papua New Guinea, watching in frustration as the queue of people hoping to get tested for malaria stretched out the door. It took almost an hour to analyze each person’s blood. Clearly, they wouldn’t get to everyone.

    There had to be a better way, he thought.

    That led to conversations with Robert Brown, who, like Grimberg, is a researcher at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. Brown is a physics professor there, while Grimberg is an assistant professor of international health at Case Western’s School of Medicine, but they ended up collaborating on a research project that resulted in a device that could revolutionize how malaria is detected and treated around the world.

    “We tried a lot of ideas,” says Grimberg, “but the last one is both the cheapest and the most effective.”

    A few magnets and a laser

    What they and their team—including senior researcher Robert Deissler and mechanical designer Richard Bihary—invented is called a Magneto-Optical Detector (MOD), and it combines magnets and laser light to determine, in less than a minute, if a drop of blood contains malaria parasites.

    Grimberg knew that infected blood is more magnetic than healthy blood. As the parasites consume red blood cells, they leave behind a byproduct called hemozoin that contains iron particles. Could that, he wondered, be the key to helping scientists quickly and more accurately identify blood with malaria?

    So he started working with Brown, whose department has been researching magnetic fields for many years. That was back in 2009, and, as with much scientific research, they tested a number of approaches that didn’t pan out. Then, they discovered the missing component: laser light.

    Because of the iron in the parasites’ waste, the researchers could use magnets to manipulate the tiny crystals and rotate them. And when they were aligned a certain way, the blood absorbed a laser’s light, whereas the beam easily passed through a sample from a healthy person.

    The team continued to refine their invention and now have an instrument that’s not only much faster in detecting malaria than existing methods, but it’s also portable and very cheap—two crucial qualities when you’re working in remote villages. Each test costs only about a dollar, which is roughly 50 percent less than those relying on a microscope. The MOD itself, not much bigger than a shoebox, costs about $500 to make.

    “A long time ago, we came to the conclusion that if we create a device that could detect everything, but cost $100,000, it was basically useless,” Grimberg notes. “If you can’t move it around and go out and help people, nobody’s going to buy it. We wanted it to be great, but it also had to be realistic.”

    Still a killer

    While malaria is no longer a major public health threat in most developed countries, it remains a devastating disease in as many as 100 countries, with half the world’s population at risk. According to the World Health Organization, it’s responsible for more than 400,000 deaths a year, including many young children.

    Grimberg believes a big reason the disease remains so persistent is that the focus has been on eradicating mosquitoes that spread it, rather than on humans who have become infected. The pests aren’t born with the parasite. They simply transmit it from human carriers—many who don’t even know they’re sick—to other people.

    He points out that it has always been much easier to go after the mosquitoes by spraying pesticides over fields and swamps or inside houses, rather than identifying and treating all the human carriers. But the insects have largely adapted and now tend to stay outside sprayed houses, he says. To Grimberg, a more effective approach would be to test whole communities.

    “With the device we’ve developed we can, for the first time, go into villages and screen everybody and be able to tell people, ‘You have a little bit of malaria and we want to get you treated,” Grimberg says. “We’d be eliminating that reservoir of the disease, so you can have as many mosquitoes as you want and they wouldn’t be able to transmit malaria.”

    The MOD is already being tested in the field in Kenya and Peru, and beginning next month, it will be used to screen three entire villages in Kenya. All malaria carriers will be identified and treated, and the results will then be compared to similar villages where the device isn’t used.

    It’s hard to say when the device could be widely used to fight malaria. A big step was taken last spring when Hemex Health, an Oregon firm focused on global health issues, purchased the license for the technology. But there’s still much testing to be done, and Grimberg knows he will have to do a lot of demos in field clinics to convince health officials of its efficacy.

    “There’s always some resistance to a new approach,” he acknowledges. “But the speed of our device is really the key. If you want to eliminate malaria, you need to be able to find that last infected person. And that’s hard to do right now.”

    Their work on the MOD, however, has already earned notable public recognition. This fall, they received a Patents for Humanity Award from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, and in November were honored at a ceremony in the White House. The team has applied for a patent for the device.

    But the two lead researchers take as much satisfaction in how well their long collaboration has worked. Grimberg points out that Brown’s knowledge and background with magnetic fields allowed them to explore a number of different ideas before they had one concrete enough to apply for a grant. And Brown says the MOD project has led to research into new applications of magnetic crystals in other diseases.

    “It’s been a wonderful story about basic research in a university and its ability to apply it to a lot of things,” he says. “What’s great is that we sit here working on basic things and from time to time, they can be applied to solving big problems in society. That’s a wonderful thing for us.”

    See the full article here .

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    Smithsonian magazine and Smithsonian.com place a Smithsonian lens on the world, looking at the topics and subject matters researched, studied and exhibited by the Smithsonian Institution — science, history, art, popular culture and innovation — and chronicling them every day for our diverse readership.

     
  • richardmitnick 6:09 am on September 1, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Fight Malaria @ home, Malaria,   

    From COSMOS: “Mass drug hand-out curbed Liberian malaria during Ebola outbreak” 

    Cosmos Magazine bloc

    COSMOS

    01 September 2016
    Anthea Batsakis

    1
    Liberian capital Monrovia was hit hard by Ebola in 2014. But malaria is also endemic to the country, and the two diseases present similar symptoms. John Moore / Getty Images

    Almost 15,000 people dodged malaria while Ebola devastated West Africa in 2014, thanks to preventative drugs on an enormous scale doled out by Médecins Sans Frontières.

    The life-saving treatments targeted a 10th of Liberia’s population and saw the number of malaria cases plummet – even though most people didn’t take their medication.

    The analysis, published in PLOS One by an international team, shows large-scale drug treatments are promising ways to fight malaria.

    Malaria is curable and preventable – if suitable healthcare can be accessed. Almost half the world’s population is at risk of the disease, but according to the World Health Organisation, 90% of malaria deaths last year were in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    To complicate matters, malaria is often impossible to distinguish from Ebola without taking a blood sample to a laboratory. They share symptoms, such as high fever.

    So when the Ebola outbreak hit West Africa in 2014, malaria cases were misdiagnosed. Some people with malaria were put in the same hospitals as those with Ebola, dangerously exposing them to the virus and overcrowding hospitals.

    This is when Médecins Sans Frontières stepped in.

    From October to December 2014, they distributed vouchers entitling two rounds of the malaria medication to hundreds of thousands of people in Liberia’s capital city Monrovia. All in all, 1,259,699 courses were given out.

    The medication called ASAQ (artesunate/amodiaquine) is a standard treatment for uncomplicated malaria. It’s been widely used since 2003.

    “With malaria, we were certainly concerned about any intervention that may lead to drug resistance,” says study co-author Amanda Tiffany, an epidemiologist from Epicentre in Geneva, Switzerland.

    “In this case, however, ASAQ has been shown to be a very safe drug and was already well known by the community as it is the first-line malaria treatment in Liberia.”

    And it worked: self-reported fever dropped from 4.2% to 1.5% in only a month. In other words, the mass drug administration meant 14,821 fewer fever episodes in Monrovia.

    To top it off, mathematical modelling in early 2015 suggested that in future, if three rounds of the malaria prevention drugs were given to 70% of Liberia’s population, as many as 700,000 malaria cases could be avoided.

    The scientists write in this instance, though, the drugs weren’t always taken correctly. The majority of participants, if they felt healthy, held on to the drugs in case of any future malaria episodes rather than taking them as a preventative measure.

    And they note that for better results, mass drug administrations should be coupled with adequate healthcare and long-term interventions.

    So why haven’t malaria preventative treatments been distributed on this scale before?

    Tiffany says complicated logistics were the main problem. A massive portion of the community had to stop what they were doing to take part in education sessions which were part of the campaign.

    “For malaria, in particular, such campaigns are still novel and challenging as they involve the distribution of medication to predominately healthy people that is to be taken, unsupervised, over three days,” Tiffany says.

    And, she adds, mass drug distribution isn’t always the right intervention for every context.

    See the full article here .

    YOU CAN HELP IN THE BATTLE AGAINST MALARIA

    FightMalariaatHome

    Fight Malaria @ homeCrowd-sourcing antimalarial drug discovery

    Goal:

    To discover novel targets for antimalarial drugs.

    Context:

    Malaria kills a child every 45 seconds. The disease is most prevalent in poorer countries, where it infects 216 million people and kills 650,000 each year, mostly African children under 5 years old [WHO]. And Plasmodium falciparum continues to evolve resistance to available medication. We therefore urgently need to discover new drugs to replace existing drugs. Importantly, these new drugs need to target NEW proteins in the parasite. The FightMalaria@Home project is aimed at finding these new targets.

    Resources:

    The Plasmodium falciparum genome has been sequenced, the proteome has been mapped, and protein expression has been confirmed at various stages in this apicoplexan’s life cycle. Numerous crystal structures of target proteins are also available, and the remainder have been modelled using available structural templates. Excitingly, large research organisations (GSK, Novartis) have already tested millions of compounds and found nearly 19,000 hits that show promising activity against Plasmodium falciparum [MMV]. But they don’t know which target protein is inhibited by these compounds. Drug discovery and development will be significantly enhanced by knowing the target protein for each of these hits.

    Problem:

    We plan to dock each of the 18,924 hits into structures of each of the 5,363 proteins in the malaria parasite. The computational power needed is enormous.

    Solution:

    We aim to harness the donated computational power of the world’s personal computers. Most computers only use a fraction of their available CPU power for day-to-day computation. We have built a BOINC server that distributes the docking jobs to donated ‘client’ computers, which then do the work in the background. By connecting 1000s of computers this way, we’ll be able harness the equivalent power of large supercomputers.

    To join the project, visit BOINC, download and install the software, then attach to the project. While you are at BOINC, look over the other projects some of which you might find of interest.

    BOINCLarge

    BOINC WallPaper

    2

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  • richardmitnick 6:17 am on July 26, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Malaria,   

    From ANU: “ANU scientists exploit malaria’s Achilles’ heel” 

    ANU Australian National University Bloc

    Australian National University

    25 July 2016
    Will Wright
    +61 2 6125 7979
    media@anu.edu.au

    1
    Malaria is transmitted via mosquitoes.

    Malaria researchers at The Australian National University (ANU) have found one of the malaria parasite’s best weapons against drug treatments turns out to be an Achilles’ heel, which could be exploited to cure the deadly disease.

    The findings could prolong the use of several anti-malarial drugs, including the former wonder drug chloroquine, to treat the mosquito-borne disease which kills 600,000 people around the world each year.

    Lead researchers Dr Rowena Martin and PhD student Sashika Richards, from the ANU Research School of Biology, said changes in the protein that enable the parasite to evade several anti-malarial drugs – including chloroquine – make the parasite super-sensitive to other therapies.

    “Malaria is one of the biggest killers in the world, particularly for young children and pregnant women in Africa and the Pacific, and our research could help save countless lives in some of the world’s poorest countries,” Dr Martin said.

    Dr Martin said the interactions of the modified protein with certain drugs were so intense that it was unable to effectively perform its normal role, which was essential to the parasite’s survival.

    “We also found that the changes that allow the protein to move chloroquine away from its anti-malarial target simultaneously enable the protein to deliver other drugs to their anti-malarial targets,” she said.

    “The other important phenomenon we found is when the protein adapts itself to fend off one of these drugs, it is no longer able to deal with chloroquine and hence the parasite is re-sensitised to chloroquine.

    “Essentially, the parasite can’t have its cake and eat it too. So if chloroquine or a related drug is paired with a drug that is super-active against the modified protein, no matter what the parasite tries to do it’s checkmate for malaria.”

    Dr Martin said the super-sensitivity phenomenon also occurred in other drug-resistant pathogens, such as bacteria, and in cancer cells.

    Ms Richards said the findings would improve the cure rates for people with malaria, and could help stop the emergence and spread of drug-resistant malaria.

    “Health authorities could use our research to find ways to prolong the lifespan of anti-malarial drugs,” Ms Richards said.

    She said prolonging the use of existing drugs was crucial, as it would give scientists time to find the next anti-malarial drug.

    “The current frontline anti-malarial drug, artemisinin, is already failing in Asia and we don’t have anything to replace it,” she said.

    “It will be at least five years before the next new drug makes it to market. The low-hanging fruit is gone, and it’s now very costly and time consuming to develop new treatments for malaria.”

    The study was supported by National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) funding.

    It was published in the latest PLOS Pathogens journal.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    ANU Campus

    ANU is a world-leading university in Australia’s capital city, Canberra. Our location points to our unique history, ties to the Australian Government and special standing as a resource for the Australian people.

    Our focus on research as an asset, and an approach to education, ensures our graduates are in demand the world-over for their abilities to understand, and apply vision and creativity to addressing complex contemporary challenges.

     
  • richardmitnick 5:10 pm on March 29, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Malaria,   

    From UCR: “Scientists Unlock Genetic Secret that Could Help Fight Malaria” 

    UC Riverside bloc

    UC Riverside

    March 29, 2016
    Sean Nealon

    UC Riverside assistant professor is among researchers that isolated the gene believed to determine whether a mosquito is male

    1
    Researchers have unlocked a genetic mystery surrounding the Anopheles gambiae mosquito species. Photo credit: James Gathany, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Public Health Image Library

    A group of scientists, including one from the University of California, Riverside, have discovered a long-hypothesized male determining gene in the mosquito species that carries malaria, laying the groundwork for the development of strategies that could help control the disease.

    In many species, including mosquitoes, Y chromosomes control essential male functions, including sex determination and fertility. However, knowledge of Y chromosome genetic sequences is limited to a few organisms.

    The discovery of the putative male-determining gene, which was outlined in a paper published online Monday (March 28) in the journal Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences, provides researchers with a long-awaited foundation for studying male mosquito biology.

    This is significant because male mosquitoes offer the potential to develop novel vector control strategies to combat diseases, such as malaria and the zika and dengue viruses, because males do not feed on blood or transmit diseases. (The African malaria-carrying mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, is different than the mosquito that carries zika and dengue, but similar control strategies could be used to fight both species.)

    One vector control method under development involves genetic modification of the mosquito to bias the population sex ratio toward males, which do not bite, with the goal of reducing or eliminating the population. This and other control methods have received a lot of attention recently because of the spread of zika virus.

    Modeling has shown that the most efficient means for genetic modification of mosquitoes is engineering a driving Y chromosome. A molecular-level understanding of the Y-chromosome of the malaria mosquito, as described in the just-published paper, is important to inform and optimize such a strategy.

    The paper, “Radical remodeling of the Y chromosome in a recent radiation of malaria mosquitoes,” was co-authored by 28 scientists from four countries and four universities in the United States. Omar Akbari, an assistant professor of entomology at UC Riverside and a member of the university’s Institute for Integrative Genome Biology, is one of the authors.

    While the genome of Anopheles gambiae was sequenced 13 years ago, the Y chromosome portion of it was never successfully assembled.

    The researchers who published the paper in the Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences used multiple genome sequencing techniques, including single-molecule sequencing and Illumina-based sex-specific transcriptional profiling, as well as whole-genome sequencing, to identify an extensive dataset of Y chromosome sequences and explore their organization and evolution in Anopheles gambiae complex, a group of at least seven morphologically indistinguishable species of mosquitos in the genus Anopheles which contain some of the most important vectors of human malaria.

    They found only one gene, known as YG2, which is exclusive to the Y chromosome across the species complex, and thus is a possible male-determining gene.

    The science team:
    Authors

    Andrew Brantley Hall
    aThe Interdisciplinary PhD Program in Genetics, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061;
    Philippos-Aris Papathanos
    bSection of Genomics and Genetics, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, 06132 Perugia, Italy;
    cDepartment of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom;
    Atashi Sharma
    dDepartment of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061;
    Changde Cheng
    eEck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556;
    fDepartment of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556;
    Omar S. Akbari
    gDepartment of Entomology, Riverside Center for Disease Vector Research, Institute for Integrative Genome Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521;
    Lauren Assour
    hDepartment of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556;
    Nicholas H. Bergman
    iNational Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center, Frederick, MD 21702;
    Alessia Cagnetti
    bSection of Genomics and Genetics, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, 06132 Perugia, Italy;
    Andrea Crisanti
    bSection of Genomics and Genetics, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, 06132 Perugia, Italy;
    cDepartment of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom;
    Tania Dottorini
    cDepartment of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom;
    Elisa Fiorentini
    cDepartment of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom;
    Roberto Galizi
    cDepartment of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom;
    Jonathan Hnath
    iNational Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center, Frederick, MD 21702;
    Xiaofang Jiang
    aThe Interdisciplinary PhD Program in Genetics, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061;
    Sergey Koren
    jGenome Informatics Section, Computational and Statistical Genomics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892;
    Tony Nolan
    cDepartment of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom;
    Diane Radune
    iNational Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center, Frederick, MD 21702;
    Maria V. Sharakhova
    dDepartment of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061;
    kLaboratory of Evolutionary Cytogenetics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050, Russia;
    Aaron Steele
    hDepartment of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556;
    Vladimir A. Timoshevskiy
    dDepartment of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061;
    Nikolai Windbichler
    cDepartment of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom;
    Simo Zhang
    lSchool of Informatics and Computing, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405;
    Matthew W. Hahn
    lSchool of Informatics and Computing, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405;
    mDepartment of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405;

    View ORCID profile for Matthew W. Hahn
    Adam M. Phillippy
    jGenome Informatics Section, Computational and Statistical Genomics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892;

    View ORCID profile for Adam M. Phillippy
    Scott J. Emrich
    eEck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556;
    hDepartment of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556;
    Igor V. Sharakhov
    aThe Interdisciplinary PhD Program in Genetics, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061;
    dDepartment of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061;
    kLaboratory of Evolutionary Cytogenetics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050, Russia;
    Zhijian Jake Tu
    aThe Interdisciplinary PhD Program in Genetics, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061;
    nDepartment of Biochemistry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061
    Nora J. Besansky
    eEck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556;
    fDepartment of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556;

    See the full article here .

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    UC Riverside Campus

    The University of California, Riverside is one of 10 universities within the prestigious University of California system, and the only UC located in Inland Southern California.

    Widely recognized as one of the most ethnically diverse research universities in the nation, UCR’s current enrollment is more than 21,000 students, with a goal of 25,000 students by 2020. The campus is in the midst of a tremendous growth spurt with new and remodeled facilities coming on-line on a regular basis.

    We are located approximately 50 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. UCR is also within easy driving distance of dozens of major cultural and recreational sites, as well as desert, mountain and coastal destinations.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:29 am on September 27, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Malaria,   

    From New Scientist: “Invasive herb could hamper East Africa’s fight against malaria” 

    NewScientist

    New Scientist

    25 September 2015
    Geoffrey Kamadi

    1
    A female Anopheles probing famine weed flowers (Image: Robert Copeland/ICIPE)

    Gains made in the fight against malaria in East Africa could be set back, by an invasive plant species.

    American invader famine weed, or Santa Maria feverfew, (Parthenium hysterophorus) is spreading rapidly across East Africa. The weed secretes a highly poisonous substance known as parthenin, which can cause dermatitis, hay fever and asthma in people. The substance is also harmful to livestock, and can contaminate milk and the meat of animals that eat it.

    In recent years it has also become clear that famine weed’s flowers are attractive to the female Anopheles gambiae mosquito, which spreads malaria. But now it seems that the plant’s nectar could keep the insects alive when blood isn’t available.

    Baldwyn Torto at the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi, Kenya, and his colleagues took day-old mosquitoes and raised them in cages where they had access to one of three plants – famine weed, the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis) or Bidens pilosa, which is eaten as a vegetable in Kenya. Other mosquitoes had access to sugar water, or to distilled water.

    Blood substitute

    The mosquitoes raised on sugar water fared best – more than 60 per cent were still alive after 14 days. Those given just distilled water were all dead within a week. Of the insects that fed on the plants, survival rates after 14 days were about 45 per cent for the castor oil plant, about 30 per cent for famine weed and little more than 10 per cent for B. pilosa.

    This suggests that if famine weed continues to spread at the expense of B. pilosa, mosquitoes may find it easier to survive for longer periods between blood meals.

    Significantly, mosquitoes that fed on famine weed built up larger reserves of lipids than insects fed on either of the other plants. Lipids have high caloric value and are critical in a variety of functions in the insects, says Torto.

    “For instance, lipids have been implicated in the development of embryos in mosquitoes and therefore their ability to reproduce,” he says.

    Interestingly, the study showed that the effects of parthenin on the mosquitoes were not as drastic as those observed in humans and livestock. The researchers suggest that A. gambiae females are able to withstand parthenin and also possibly purge themselves of the compound.

    Malaria impact

    There are still questions to answer, says Charles Mbogo a malaria researcher at the Kenya Medical Research Institute in Nairobi, who was not involved in the study.

    Do mosquitoes feeding on the weed become more easily infected by the malaria parasites, he asks. And “does nectar from this weed increase biting frequency on humans and thus increase transmission?”

    Collins Ouma, a research scientist and leader of Health Challenges and Systems Program at the African Population & Health Research Center in Nairobi, agrees. Eradicating the weed should not be a priority at this time because “it would be critical to understand the dynamism of what happens when the mosquito is infected and fed on the weed extracts”, he says. “This is important since infection of the mosquito by the malaria parasite in itself can reduce its lifespan and survival.”

    And this is exactly what Torto and his colleagues are trying to find out. They are now evaluating the impact of parthenin on mosquitoes infected with the malaria parasite.

    Journal reference: PLoS One: DOI: 10.1371/ journal.pone.0137836

    See the full article here .

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