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  • richardmitnick 4:52 pm on September 14, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , LLNL, ,   

    From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: “World’s largest optical lens shipped to SLAC” 

    From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Sept. 12, 2019

    Stephen Wampler
    wampler1@llnl.gov
    925-423-3107

    1
    LLNL engineer Vincent Riot (left), who has worked on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) for more than a decade and has been the full camera project manager since 2017, and LLNL optical engineer Justin Wolfe, the LSST camera optics subsystems manager, stand in front of the LSST main lens assembly. Photo by Farrin Abbott/SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

    When the world’s newest telescope starts imaging the southern sky in 2023, it will take photos using optical assemblies designed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers and built by Lab industrial partners.

    A key feature of the camera’s optical assemblies for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), under construction in northern Chile, will be its three lenses, one of which at 1.57 meters (5.1 feet) in diameter is believed to be the world’s largest high-performance optical lens ever fabricated.

    The lens assembly, which includes the lens dubbed L-1, and its smaller companion lens (L-2), at 1.2 meters in diameter, was built over the past five years by Boulder, Colorado-based Ball Aerospace and its subcontractor, Tucson-based Arizona Optical Systems.

    Mounted together in a carbon fiber structure, the two lenses were shipped from Tucson, arriving intact after a 17-hour truck journey at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in Menlo Park.

    SLAC is managing the overall design and fabrication, as well as the subcomponent integration and final assembly of LSST’s $168 million, 3,200-megapixel digital camera, which is more than 90 percent complete and due to be finished by early 2021. In addition to SLAC and LLNL, the team building the camera includes an international collaboration of universities and labs, including the Paris-based Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Brookhaven National Laboratory.

    LSST the Vera C. Rubin Observatory

    LSST Camera, built at SLAC

    LSST telescope, currently under construction on the El Peñón peak at Cerro Pachón Chile, a 2,682-meter-high mountain in Coquimbo Region, in northern Chile, alongside the existing Gemini South and Southern Astrophysical Research Telescopes.

    LSST Data Journey, Illustration by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova

    “The success of the fabrication of this unique optical assembly is a testament to LLNL’s world-leading expertise in large optics, built on decades of experience in the construction of the world’s largest and most powerful laser systems,” said physicist Scot Olivier, who helped manage Livermore’s involvement in the LSST project for more than a decade.

    Olivier said without the dedicated and exceptional work of LLNL optical scientists Lynn Seppala and Brian Bauman and LLNL engineers Vincent Riot, Scott Winters and Justin Wolfe, spanning a period of nearly two decades, the LSST camera optics, including the world’s largest lens, would not be the reality they are today.

    “Riot’s contributions to LSST also go far beyond the camera optics — as the current overall project manager for the LSST camera, Riot is a principal figure in the successful development of this major scientific instrument that is poised to revolutionize the field of astronomy,” Olivier added.

    LSST Director Steven Kahn, a physicist at Stanford University and SLAC, noted that “Livermore has played a very significant technical role in the camera and a historically important role in the telescope design.”

    Livermore’s researchers made essential contributions to the optical design of LSST’s lenses and mirrors, the way LSST will survey the sky, how it compensates for atmospheric turbulence and gravity, and more.

    LLNL personnel led the procurement and delivery of the camera’s optical assemblies, which include the three lenses (the third lens, at 72 centimeters in diameter, will be delivered to SLAC within a month) and a set of filters covering six wavelength-bands, all in their final mechanical mount.

    Livermore focused on the design and then delegated fabrication to industry vendors, although the filters will be placed into the interface mounts at the Lab before being shipped to SLAC for final integration into the camera.

    The 8.4-meter LSST will take digital images of the entire visible southern sky every few nights, revealing unprecedented details of the universe and helping unravel some of its greatest mysteries. During a 10-year time frame, LSST will detect about 20 billion galaxies — the first time a telescope will observe more galaxies than there are people on Earth – and will create a time-lapse “movie” of the sky.

    This data will help researchers better understand dark matter and dark energy, which together make up 95 percent of the universe, but whose makeup remains unknown, as well as study the formation of galaxies, track potentially hazardous asteroids and observe exploding stars.

    The telescope’s camera — the size of a small car and weighing more than three tons — will capture full-sky images at such high resolution that it would take 1,500 high-definition television screens to display just one picture.

    Research scientists aren’t the only ones who will have access to the LSST data. Anyone with a computer will be able to fly through the universe, past objects 100 million times fainter than can be observed with the unaided eye. The LSST project will provide an engagement platform to enable both students and the public to participate in the process of scientific discovery.

    Riot, who started on the LSST project in 2008, initially managed the camera optics fabrication planning, became the LSST deputy camera manager in 2013 and the full camera project manager in 2017. For the past three years, he has worked at LLNL and at SLAC on special assignment.

    “There are important challenges getting everything together for the LSST camera. We’re receiving all of these expensive parts that people have been working on for years and they all have to fit together,” Riot said.

    Wolfe, an LLNL optical engineer and the LSST camera optics subsystems manager, and Riot are pleased that the world’s largest optical lens has overcome hurdles.

    “Any time you undertake an activity for the first time, there are bound to be challenges, and production of the LSST L-1 lens proved to be no different,” Wolfe said. “Every stage was crucial and carried great risk. You are working with a piece of glass more than five feet in diameter and only four inches thick. Any mishandling, shock or accident can result in damage to the lens. The lens is a work of craftsmanship and we are all rightly proud of it.

    “When I joined LLNL I had no idea that it would lead to the opportunity to deliver first-of-a-kind optics to a first-of-a-kind telescope,” Wolfe said. “From production of the largest precision lens known, to coating of the largest precision bandpass filters, the LSST optics have set a new standard.”

    Livermore involvement in LSST started around 2001, spurred by the scientific interest of LLNL astrophysicist Kem Cook, a member of the Lab team that previously led the search for galactic dark matter in the form of Massive Compact Halo Objects.

    However, LLNL participation in LSST quickly became centered on the Lab’s expertise in large optics, built over decades of developing the world’s largest laser systems. Starting in 2002, LLNL optical scientist Seppala, who helped design the National Ignition Facility, made a series of improvements to the optical design of LSST leading to the 2005 baseline design. This consisted of three mirrors, the two largest in the same plane so they could be fabricated from the same piece of glass, and three large lenses, as well as a set of six filters that define the color of the images recorded by the 3.2-gigapixel camera detector.

    Construction on LSST started in 2014 on El Peñon, a peak 8,800 feet high along the Cerro Pachón ridge in the Andes Mountains, located 220 miles north of Santiago, Chile.

    Financial support for LSST comes from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science, and private funding raised by the LSST Corporation. The NSF-funded LSST Project Office for construction was established as an operating center under management of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy. The DOE-funded effort to build the LSST camera is managed by the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

    The camera system for LSST, including the three lenses and six filters designed by LLNL researchers and built by Lab industrial partners, will be shipped from SLAC to the telescope site in Chile in early 2021

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    LLNL Campus

    Operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952. A Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), it is primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a partnership of the University of California, Bechtel, BWX Technologies, AECOM, and Battelle Memorial Institute in affiliation with the Texas A&M University System. In 2012, the laboratory had the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it.
    LLNL is self-described as “a premier research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security.” Its principal responsibility is ensuring the safety, security and reliability of the nation’s nuclear weapons through the application of advanced science, engineering and technology. The Laboratory also applies its special expertise and multidisciplinary capabilities to preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction, bolstering homeland security and solving other nationally important problems, including energy and environmental security, basic science and economic competitiveness.

    The Laboratory is located on a one-square-mile (2.6 km2) site at the eastern edge of Livermore. It also operates a 7,000 acres (28 km2) remote experimental test site, called Site 300, situated about 15 miles (24 km) southeast of the main lab site. LLNL has an annual budget of about $1.5 billion and a staff of roughly 5,800 employees.

    LLNL was established in 1952 as the University of California Radiation Laboratory at Livermore, an offshoot of the existing UC Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley. It was intended to spur innovation and provide competition to the nuclear weapon design laboratory at Los Alamos in New Mexico, home of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic weapons. Edward Teller and Ernest Lawrence,[2] director of the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley, are regarded as the co-founders of the Livermore facility.

    The new laboratory was sited at a former naval air station of World War II. It was already home to several UC Radiation Laboratory projects that were too large for its location in the Berkeley Hills above the UC campus, including one of the first experiments in the magnetic approach to confined thermonuclear reactions (i.e. fusion). About half an hour southeast of Berkeley, the Livermore site provided much greater security for classified projects than an urban university campus.

    Lawrence tapped 32-year-old Herbert York, a former graduate student of his, to run Livermore. Under York, the Lab had four main programs: Project Sherwood (the magnetic-fusion program), Project Whitney (the weapons-design program), diagnostic weapon experiments (both for the Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories), and a basic physics program. York and the new lab embraced the Lawrence “big science” approach, tackling challenging projects with physicists, chemists, engineers, and computational scientists working together in multidisciplinary teams. Lawrence died in August 1958 and shortly after, the university’s board of regents named both laboratories for him, as the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory.

    Historically, the Berkeley and Livermore laboratories have had very close relationships on research projects, business operations, and staff. The Livermore Lab was established initially as a branch of the Berkeley laboratory. The Livermore lab was not officially severed administratively from the Berkeley lab until 1971. To this day, in official planning documents and records, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is designated as Site 100, Lawrence Livermore National Lab as Site 200, and LLNL’s remote test location as Site 300.[3]

    The laboratory was renamed Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) in 1971. On October 1, 2007 LLNS assumed management of LLNL from the University of California, which had exclusively managed and operated the Laboratory since its inception 55 years before. The laboratory was honored in 2012 by having the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it. The LLNS takeover of the laboratory has been controversial. In May 2013, an Alameda County jury awarded over $2.7 million to five former laboratory employees who were among 430 employees LLNS laid off during 2008.[4] The jury found that LLNS breached a contractual obligation to terminate the employees only for “reasonable cause.”[5] The five plaintiffs also have pending age discrimination claims against LLNS, which will be heard by a different jury in a separate trial.[6] There are 125 co-plaintiffs awaiting trial on similar claims against LLNS.[7] The May 2008 layoff was the first layoff at the laboratory in nearly 40 years.[6]

    On March 14, 2011, the City of Livermore officially expanded the city’s boundaries to annex LLNL and move it within the city limits. The unanimous vote by the Livermore city council expanded Livermore’s southeastern boundaries to cover 15 land parcels covering 1,057 acres (4.28 km2) that comprise the LLNL site. The site was formerly an unincorporated area of Alameda County. The LLNL campus continues to be owned by the federal government.

    LLNL/NIF


    DOE Seal
    NNSA

     
  • richardmitnick 1:28 pm on July 30, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Study reveals new structure of gold at extremes", , , , Increase in pressure and temperature changes the crystalline structure to a new phase of gold., LLNL, ,   

    From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: “Study reveals new structure of gold at extremes” 

    From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    July 30, 2019
    Breanna Bishop
    bishop33@llnl.gov
    925-423-9802

    1
    Three of the images collected at Argonne National Laboratory’s Dynamic Compression Sector, highlighting diffracted signals recorded on the X-ray detector.

    Section 1 shows the starting face-centered cubic structure; Section 2 shows the new body-centered cubic structure at 220 GPa; and Section 3 shows the liquid gold at 330 GPa.

    Gold is an extremely important material for high-pressure experiments and is considered the “gold standard” for calculating pressure in static diamond anvil cell experiments. When compressed slowly at room temperature (on the order of seconds to minutes), gold prefers to be the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure at pressures up to three times the center of the Earth.

    However, researchers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Carnegie Institution for Science have found that when gold is compressed rapidly over nanoseconds (1 billionth of a second), the increase in pressure and temperature changes the crystalline structure to a new phase of gold.

    This well-known body-centered cubic (bcc) structure morphs to a more open crystal structure than the fcc structure. These results were published recently in Physical Review Letters.

    “We discovered a new structure in gold that exists at extreme states — two thirds of the pressure found at the center of Earth,” said lead author Richard Briggs, a postdoctoral researcher at LLNL. “The new structure actually has less efficient packing at higher pressures than the starting structure, which was surprising considering the vast amount of theoretical predictions that pointed to more tightlypacked structures that should exist.”

    The experiments were carried out at the Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory.

    ANL Advanced Photon Source

    DCS is the first synchrotron X-ray facility dedicated to dynamic compression science. These user experiments were some of the first conducted on hutch-C, the dedicated high energy laser station of DCS. Gold was the ideal subject to study due to its high-Z (providing a strong X-ray scattering signal) and relatively unexplored phase diagram at high temperatures.

    The team found that that the structure of gold began to change at a pressure of 220 GPa (2.2 million times Earth’s atmospheric pressure) and started to melt when compressed beyond 250 GPa.

    “The observation of liquid gold at 330 GPa is astonishing,” Briggs said. “This is the pressure at the center of the Earth and is more than 300 GPa higher than previous measurements of liquid gold at high pressure.”

    The transition from fcc to bcc structure is perhaps one of the most studied phase transitions due to its importance in the manufacturing of steel, where high temperatures or stress causes a change in structure between the two fcc/bcc structures. However, it is not known what phase transition mechanism is responsible. The research team’s results show that gold undergoes the same phase transition before it melts, as a consequence of both pressure and temperature, and future experiments focusing on the mechanism of the transition can help clarify key details of this important transition for manufacturing strong steels.

    “Many of the theoretical models of gold that are used to understand the high-pressure/high-temperature behavior did not predict the formation of a body-centered structure – only two out of more than 10 published works,” Briggs said. “Our results can help theorists improve their models of elements under extreme compression and look toward using those new models to examine the effects of chemical bonding to aid the development of new materials that can be formed at extreme states.”

    Briggs was joined on the publication by co-authors Federica Coppari, Martin Gorman, Ray Smith, Amy Coleman, Amalia Fernandez-Panella, Marius Millot, Jon Eggert and Dane Fratanduono from LLNL, and Sally Tracy from the Carnegie Institution of Washington’s Geophysical Laboratory.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    LLNL Campus

    Operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952. A Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), it is primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a partnership of the University of California, Bechtel, BWX Technologies, AECOM, and Battelle Memorial Institute in affiliation with the Texas A&M University System. In 2012, the laboratory had the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it.
    LLNL is self-described as “a premier research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security.” Its principal responsibility is ensuring the safety, security and reliability of the nation’s nuclear weapons through the application of advanced science, engineering and technology. The Laboratory also applies its special expertise and multidisciplinary capabilities to preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction, bolstering homeland security and solving other nationally important problems, including energy and environmental security, basic science and economic competitiveness.

    The Laboratory is located on a one-square-mile (2.6 km2) site at the eastern edge of Livermore. It also operates a 7,000 acres (28 km2) remote experimental test site, called Site 300, situated about 15 miles (24 km) southeast of the main lab site. LLNL has an annual budget of about $1.5 billion and a staff of roughly 5,800 employees.

    LLNL was established in 1952 as the University of California Radiation Laboratory at Livermore, an offshoot of the existing UC Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley. It was intended to spur innovation and provide competition to the nuclear weapon design laboratory at Los Alamos in New Mexico, home of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic weapons. Edward Teller and Ernest Lawrence,[2] director of the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley, are regarded as the co-founders of the Livermore facility.

    The new laboratory was sited at a former naval air station of World War II. It was already home to several UC Radiation Laboratory projects that were too large for its location in the Berkeley Hills above the UC campus, including one of the first experiments in the magnetic approach to confined thermonuclear reactions (i.e. fusion). About half an hour southeast of Berkeley, the Livermore site provided much greater security for classified projects than an urban university campus.

    Lawrence tapped 32-year-old Herbert York, a former graduate student of his, to run Livermore. Under York, the Lab had four main programs: Project Sherwood (the magnetic-fusion program), Project Whitney (the weapons-design program), diagnostic weapon experiments (both for the Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories), and a basic physics program. York and the new lab embraced the Lawrence “big science” approach, tackling challenging projects with physicists, chemists, engineers, and computational scientists working together in multidisciplinary teams. Lawrence died in August 1958 and shortly after, the university’s board of regents named both laboratories for him, as the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory.

    Historically, the Berkeley and Livermore laboratories have had very close relationships on research projects, business operations, and staff. The Livermore Lab was established initially as a branch of the Berkeley laboratory. The Livermore lab was not officially severed administratively from the Berkeley lab until 1971. To this day, in official planning documents and records, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is designated as Site 100, Lawrence Livermore National Lab as Site 200, and LLNL’s remote test location as Site 300.[3]

    The laboratory was renamed Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) in 1971. On October 1, 2007 LLNS assumed management of LLNL from the University of California, which had exclusively managed and operated the Laboratory since its inception 55 years before. The laboratory was honored in 2012 by having the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it. The LLNS takeover of the laboratory has been controversial. In May 2013, an Alameda County jury awarded over $2.7 million to five former laboratory employees who were among 430 employees LLNS laid off during 2008.[4] The jury found that LLNS breached a contractual obligation to terminate the employees only for “reasonable cause.”[5] The five plaintiffs also have pending age discrimination claims against LLNS, which will be heard by a different jury in a separate trial.[6] There are 125 co-plaintiffs awaiting trial on similar claims against LLNS.[7] The May 2008 layoff was the first layoff at the laboratory in nearly 40 years.[6]

    On March 14, 2011, the City of Livermore officially expanded the city’s boundaries to annex LLNL and move it within the city limits. The unanimous vote by the Livermore city council expanded Livermore’s southeastern boundaries to cover 15 land parcels covering 1,057 acres (4.28 km2) that comprise the LLNL site. The site was formerly an unincorporated area of Alameda County. The LLNL campus continues to be owned by the federal government.

    LLNL/NIF


    DOE Seal
    NNSA

     
  • richardmitnick 8:27 am on July 12, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , dDAC-dynamic diamond anvil cell, , LLNL, ,   

    From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: “Under pressure: New device’s 1.6 billion atmospheres per second assists impact studies” 

    From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    July 11, 2019

    Anne M Stark
    stark8@llnl.gov
    925-422-9799

    1
    The new dynamic diamond anvil cell (dDAC) at the Extreme Conditions Beamline (ECB) at DESY’s X-ray source PETRA III. Image courtesy of Hanns-Peter Liermann/DESY

    A new super-fast high-pressure device at DESY’s PETRA III X-ray light source allows scientists to simulate and study earthquakes and meteorite impacts more realistically in the lab.

    DESY Petra III

    The new-generation dynamic diamond anvil cell (dDAC), developed by scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Deutsches Elektronen-Synchroton (DESY), the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and the universities of Oxford, Bayreuth and Frankfurt/Main, compresses samples faster than any similar device before. The instrument can turn up the pressure at a record rate of 1.6 billion atmospheres per second and can be used for a wide range of dynamic high-pressure studies. The developers present their new device, that has already proved its capabilities in various materials experiments, in the journal Review of Scientific Instruments.

    “For more than half a century, the diamond anvil cell or DAC has been the primary tool to create static high pressures to study the physics and chemistry of materials under those extreme conditions — for example, to explore the physical properties of materials at the center of the Earth at 3.5 million atmospheres,” said lead author Zsolt Jenei from LLNL.

    To simulate fast dynamic processes like earthquakes and asteroid impacts more realistically with high compression rates in the lab, Jenei’s team, in collaboration with DESY scientists, developed a new generation of dynamically driven diamond anvil cell (dDAC), inspired by the pioneering original LLNL design, and coupled it with the new fast X-ray diffraction setup of the Extreme Conditions Beamline P02.2 at PETRA III.

    The new cell consists of two small modified brilliant diamonds that are pushed together by a powerful piezo electric drive. Thanks to improvements like the much stronger piezo actuators and fast, high peak current amplifiers, the new device is capable of rapidly compressing the tiny samples between the diamond anvils more than a thousand times faster than previous generation dynamic diamond anvil cells. “One unique aspect fo the dDAC technique is that it also allows us to characterize the response of a sample under well controlled fast decompression,” said co-author Earl O’Bannon from LLNL.

    To study the changes in physical properties of materials under high pressure, scientists shine X-rays on the small samples and record the way the X-rays are diffracted by the material. These diffraction patterns allow scientists to determine the structure of the material. However, to take snapshots of high-speed dynamic processes, the X-ray flash needs to be bright enough and the camera — the detector — must be fast enough.

    “For almost 10 years since the first invention of the dDAC at our Laboratory, it has been extremely difficult to conduct fast diffraction experiments because of the lack of photon flux and, more important, fast and highly sensitive high-energy X-ray diffraction detectors,” Jenei said. Only with the advent of the extremely bright third-generation X-ray sources, such as PETRA III, and the development of highly sensitive cameras, such as the gallium-arsenide (GaAs) Lambda detector, invented by the DESY detector group, did it become possible to collect diffraction images with the adequate short exposure times and temporal resolution.”

    The Extreme Conditions Beamline (ECB) at DESY has the world’s first two GaAs Lambda detectors. “By triggering them with a delay of 0.25 milliseconds, we are able to collect up to 4,000 frames per second,” said Hanns-Peter Liermann, the beamline scientist in charge of the ECB. The detectors were funded through a joint research project awarded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research BMBF to the Goethe University Frankfurt, where Björn Winkler is the principal investigator.

    Researchers working on the project have demonstrated the performance and versatility of the experimental setup with fast compression studies of heavy metals such as gold and bismuth, as well as light compounds such as ice (H2O) and planetary materials such as ferropericlase. While conducting fast diffraction experiments on gold, the team demonstrated an increase in pressure from 1,000 atmospheres to 1.4 million atmospheres in only 2.5 milliseconds (thousandth of a second), resulting in a maximum compression rate of 160 terapascals per second (a terapascal is a measure of pressure). During this extremely short time, the detectors collected eight diffraction patterns across the complete compression path.

    “We believe that with the existing setup we can improve the compression rates to maybe thousands of terapascals per second,” Liermann said. However, this will need even brighter X-ray flashes and still faster cameras such as the planned upgrade of PETRA III to a next-generation X-ray source PETRA IV and the High Energy Density experimental station (HED) at the European X-ray laser European XFEL, where DESY is participating in building a dDAC setup as part of the Helmholtz International Beamline for Extreme Fields (HIBEF) consortium.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    LLNL Campus

    Operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952. A Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), it is primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a partnership of the University of California, Bechtel, BWX Technologies, AECOM, and Battelle Memorial Institute in affiliation with the Texas A&M University System. In 2012, the laboratory had the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it.
    LLNL is self-described as “a premier research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security.” Its principal responsibility is ensuring the safety, security and reliability of the nation’s nuclear weapons through the application of advanced science, engineering and technology. The Laboratory also applies its special expertise and multidisciplinary capabilities to preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction, bolstering homeland security and solving other nationally important problems, including energy and environmental security, basic science and economic competitiveness.

    The Laboratory is located on a one-square-mile (2.6 km2) site at the eastern edge of Livermore. It also operates a 7,000 acres (28 km2) remote experimental test site, called Site 300, situated about 15 miles (24 km) southeast of the main lab site. LLNL has an annual budget of about $1.5 billion and a staff of roughly 5,800 employees.

    LLNL was established in 1952 as the University of California Radiation Laboratory at Livermore, an offshoot of the existing UC Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley. It was intended to spur innovation and provide competition to the nuclear weapon design laboratory at Los Alamos in New Mexico, home of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic weapons. Edward Teller and Ernest Lawrence,[2] director of the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley, are regarded as the co-founders of the Livermore facility.

    The new laboratory was sited at a former naval air station of World War II. It was already home to several UC Radiation Laboratory projects that were too large for its location in the Berkeley Hills above the UC campus, including one of the first experiments in the magnetic approach to confined thermonuclear reactions (i.e. fusion). About half an hour southeast of Berkeley, the Livermore site provided much greater security for classified projects than an urban university campus.

    Lawrence tapped 32-year-old Herbert York, a former graduate student of his, to run Livermore. Under York, the Lab had four main programs: Project Sherwood (the magnetic-fusion program), Project Whitney (the weapons-design program), diagnostic weapon experiments (both for the Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories), and a basic physics program. York and the new lab embraced the Lawrence “big science” approach, tackling challenging projects with physicists, chemists, engineers, and computational scientists working together in multidisciplinary teams. Lawrence died in August 1958 and shortly after, the university’s board of regents named both laboratories for him, as the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory.

    Historically, the Berkeley and Livermore laboratories have had very close relationships on research projects, business operations, and staff. The Livermore Lab was established initially as a branch of the Berkeley laboratory. The Livermore lab was not officially severed administratively from the Berkeley lab until 1971. To this day, in official planning documents and records, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is designated as Site 100, Lawrence Livermore National Lab as Site 200, and LLNL’s remote test location as Site 300.[3]

    The laboratory was renamed Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) in 1971. On October 1, 2007 LLNS assumed management of LLNL from the University of California, which had exclusively managed and operated the Laboratory since its inception 55 years before. The laboratory was honored in 2012 by having the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it. The LLNS takeover of the laboratory has been controversial. In May 2013, an Alameda County jury awarded over $2.7 million to five former laboratory employees who were among 430 employees LLNS laid off during 2008.[4] The jury found that LLNS breached a contractual obligation to terminate the employees only for “reasonable cause.”[5] The five plaintiffs also have pending age discrimination claims against LLNS, which will be heard by a different jury in a separate trial.[6] There are 125 co-plaintiffs awaiting trial on similar claims against LLNS.[7] The May 2008 layoff was the first layoff at the laboratory in nearly 40 years.[6]

    On March 14, 2011, the City of Livermore officially expanded the city’s boundaries to annex LLNL and move it within the city limits. The unanimous vote by the Livermore city council expanded Livermore’s southeastern boundaries to cover 15 land parcels covering 1,057 acres (4.28 km2) that comprise the LLNL site. The site was formerly an unincorporated area of Alameda County. The LLNL campus continues to be owned by the federal government.

    LLNL/NIF


    DOE Seal
    NNSA

     
  • richardmitnick 8:53 am on July 2, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A team of scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Russia that discovered five elements from 1989 to 2010., “Astrophysicists also are interested in these types of reactions because of NIF’s ability to duplicate the conditions at the interior of stars” Shaughnessy said., , LLNL, , , , Synthetic elements- flerovium (atomic number 114) moscovium (115) livermorium (116) tennessine (117) and oganesson (118)   

    From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Women in STEM- “Stellar reactions in a galaxy not so far, far away” Dawn Shaughnessy 

    From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    July 1, 2019
    Anne M Stark
    stark8@llnl.gov
    925-422-9799

    1
    Dawn Shaughnessy examines a sample plate used to collect the nuclear reaction products produced when neutrons from fusion during a NIF shot bombard research materials. Photo by Jason Laurea/LLNL

    Few people over the course of history have had a hand in discovering an atomic element. Yet nuclear chemist Dawn Shaughnessy joined a team of scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Russia that discovered five elements from 1989 to 2010.

    Now she leads the Nuclear and Radiochemistry Group of the Physics and Life Sciences Directorate at LLNL and uses the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to generate some of the most extreme conditions in our solar system for high energy density experiments.

    2

    Russian scientist Alexander Yeremin (left), Dawn Shaughnessy, and former LLNL scientist John Wild stand in front of a particle separator from the U400 cyclotron at Russia’s Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in 2003. The experiments by these researchers and their colleagues were used to investigate the nuclear properties of elements copernicium (atomic number 112) and flerovium (114). Courtesy of Dawn Shaughnessy

    “NIF is the brightest neutron source in the world, and we use it to produce nuclear reactions that are relevant to stockpile stewardship and nuclear forensics programs. The reactions cannot be done by using accelerators or other means,” said Shaughnessy, who also is serving a one-year appointment as scientific editor of the Laboratory’s Science & Technology Review.

    National Ignition Facility at LLNL

    Her first experience with NIF came before it was even operational. She joined a working group to determine whether nuclear science could be performed at NIF, and, if so, what types of diagnostics would be needed for making the measurements.

    “I was fascinated,” she said. “It was really cutting-edge stuff. You could make measurements in a plasma. No one else in the world was able to do that.”

    She began investigating how to make experimental platforms for studying the nuclear reactions of materials of interest, such as the elements nickel, yttrium and zirconium (see “Providing Data for Nuclear Detectives”). But only over the last couple of years did her team develop a technique capable of doping target capsules with these elements.

    Serving as the NIF target is a 2-millimeter-diameter capsule lined on the inner surface with extremely small amounts of the material (about 1016 atoms) and filled with deuterium and tritium (DT) gas. The neutrons produced by the DT fusion during the shot bombard the material and cause nuclear reactions to occur. The fusion energy blows the products of the reaction outward, and the resulting solid debris is collected by specialized diagnostic instruments so that important radiochemical characteristics, such as rates of reactions, can be evaluated back inside a laboratory.

    “Astrophysicists also are interested in these types of reactions because of NIF’s ability to duplicate the conditions at the interior of stars,” Shaughnessy said.

    By studying nuclear reactions within the star-like plasma generated by NIF, researchers can better explore nuclear synthesis, the stellar process that eventually creates heavier elements by fusing together lighter elements and particles. Sometimes this process, which is a progression of different nuclear reactions, must first create lighter elements before heavier ones can be created.

    One such nuclear reaction under investigation occurs inside a class of stars that have masses on the order of the sun. It has boron absorbing a proton to form beryllium and an alpha particle. This nuclear reaction illustrates the type of interactions between atoms and particles that interest nuclear chemists.

    As is true for so many of the projects at LLNL, the search for basic science understanding can yield big returns for other programs. Through the Discovery Science program, about 8 percent of NIF’s shots each year are dedicated to these types of experiments.

    “Everything we’ve done for Discovery Science ties exactly into the platforms that we are developing for the Stockpile Stewardship Program,” Shaughnessy said. “It has helped teach us how to dope capsules with materials, how to collect materials coming out of a shot and how to conduct various analyses.”

    But it is not just in the stellar cauldrons of stars in other galaxies where atomic concoctions are brewed. It happens right here in our solar system, without even having to escape Earth’s gravitational force. And from early on, this attracted Shaughnessy.

    “Einsteinium is my favorite element,” she said. “It doesn’t get enough credit because its chemistry is relatively ordinary. But I think it is really cool.”

    Her affinity toward einsteinium wells from her Ph.D. research at the University of California, Berkeley, into the fission of this synthetic, radioactive element. But after graduation, she turned in the opposite direction at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory by studying environmental factors of plutonium, which she feels is one of the most interesting elements because it has many oxidation states and forms, and neptunium, plutonium’s next-door neighbor on the periodic table.

    This radioactive background is what led Shaughnessy to join LLNL’s Stockpile Radiochemistry Group in 2002, which is the same year she began hunting for elements that had never been observed before. The five elements that the team discovered were forged in a particle accelerator at Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in Russia.

    “The heavy element program at the Lab was very small,” said Shaughnessy, who became the team’s principal investigator in 2005. “It was a team effort by people who were really dedicated to the science. Most of us had a background in it from somewhere else.”

    They filled out the bottom row of the periodic table by co-discovering the heavy elements flerovium (atomic number 114), moscovium (115), livermorium (116), tennessine (117) and oganesson (118) (see “Collaboration Expands the Periodic Table, One Element at a Time”).

    If any of these short-lived, synthetic elements have familiar sounding names, like livermorium, it might be because many elements that appear in the latter part of the periodic table are given names to honor people and places connected to important achievements in science.

    Periodic table Sept 2017. Wikipedia

    Shaughnessy recalls that the name davincium was tossed around during this period of discovery, and she hopes it will be used one day in commemoration of the early days of scientific investigation.

    It is hard not to envision Leonardo da Vinci, sketching his latest invention on a table while his Italian robe flowed around him. Shaughnessy, however, looked in a much more futuristic direction for her wardrobe inspiration: she owns a custom-made Jedi robe from a Jedi robe shop in England.

    “I am an enormous fan of ‘Star Wars,’” she said — no surprise to anyone who has worked with her. “I’ve been a fan since it first came out in 1977, when I saw it in a theater and connected with it at a young age. ‘Star Wars’ has always been a part of me. I still have my Star Wars figures. And now that we have new Star Wars movies again, I can get to share it with my daughter. I’ve probably seen the movies hundreds of times by this point.”

    Even at NIF, the force is strong with Shaughnessy. The influence runs deep. When trying to name a newly developed solid debris collecting diagnostic — which happens to look spaceship-like — she came up with Vast Area Detector for Experimental Radiochemistry, or VADER. She quickly points out, though, that she is of course aligned with the light side of the force — or, as in this case, the “laser light side.”

    Shaughnessy’s passion for this epic science fiction saga has helped propel her to transcend real-world boundaries, where science is fact and breakthroughs bring distant worlds much closer to home.

    —Dan Linehan

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    LLNL Campus

    Operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952. A Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), it is primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a partnership of the University of California, Bechtel, BWX Technologies, AECOM, and Battelle Memorial Institute in affiliation with the Texas A&M University System. In 2012, the laboratory had the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it.
    LLNL is self-described as “a premier research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security.” Its principal responsibility is ensuring the safety, security and reliability of the nation’s nuclear weapons through the application of advanced science, engineering and technology. The Laboratory also applies its special expertise and multidisciplinary capabilities to preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction, bolstering homeland security and solving other nationally important problems, including energy and environmental security, basic science and economic competitiveness.

    The Laboratory is located on a one-square-mile (2.6 km2) site at the eastern edge of Livermore. It also operates a 7,000 acres (28 km2) remote experimental test site, called Site 300, situated about 15 miles (24 km) southeast of the main lab site. LLNL has an annual budget of about $1.5 billion and a staff of roughly 5,800 employees.

    LLNL was established in 1952 as the University of California Radiation Laboratory at Livermore, an offshoot of the existing UC Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley. It was intended to spur innovation and provide competition to the nuclear weapon design laboratory at Los Alamos in New Mexico, home of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic weapons. Edward Teller and Ernest Lawrence,[2] director of the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley, are regarded as the co-founders of the Livermore facility.

    The new laboratory was sited at a former naval air station of World War II. It was already home to several UC Radiation Laboratory projects that were too large for its location in the Berkeley Hills above the UC campus, including one of the first experiments in the magnetic approach to confined thermonuclear reactions (i.e. fusion). About half an hour southeast of Berkeley, the Livermore site provided much greater security for classified projects than an urban university campus.

    Lawrence tapped 32-year-old Herbert York, a former graduate student of his, to run Livermore. Under York, the Lab had four main programs: Project Sherwood (the magnetic-fusion program), Project Whitney (the weapons-design program), diagnostic weapon experiments (both for the Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories), and a basic physics program. York and the new lab embraced the Lawrence “big science” approach, tackling challenging projects with physicists, chemists, engineers, and computational scientists working together in multidisciplinary teams. Lawrence died in August 1958 and shortly after, the university’s board of regents named both laboratories for him, as the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory.

    Historically, the Berkeley and Livermore laboratories have had very close relationships on research projects, business operations, and staff. The Livermore Lab was established initially as a branch of the Berkeley laboratory. The Livermore lab was not officially severed administratively from the Berkeley lab until 1971. To this day, in official planning documents and records, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is designated as Site 100, Lawrence Livermore National Lab as Site 200, and LLNL’s remote test location as Site 300.[3]

    The laboratory was renamed Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) in 1971. On October 1, 2007 LLNS assumed management of LLNL from the University of California, which had exclusively managed and operated the Laboratory since its inception 55 years before. The laboratory was honored in 2012 by having the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it. The LLNS takeover of the laboratory has been controversial. In May 2013, an Alameda County jury awarded over $2.7 million to five former laboratory employees who were among 430 employees LLNS laid off during 2008.[4] The jury found that LLNS breached a contractual obligation to terminate the employees only for “reasonable cause.”[5] The five plaintiffs also have pending age discrimination claims against LLNS, which will be heard by a different jury in a separate trial.[6] There are 125 co-plaintiffs awaiting trial on similar claims against LLNS.[7] The May 2008 layoff was the first layoff at the laboratory in nearly 40 years.[6]

    On March 14, 2011, the City of Livermore officially expanded the city’s boundaries to annex LLNL and move it within the city limits. The unanimous vote by the Livermore city council expanded Livermore’s southeastern boundaries to cover 15 land parcels covering 1,057 acres (4.28 km2) that comprise the LLNL site. The site was formerly an unincorporated area of Alameda County. The LLNL campus continues to be owned by the federal government.

    LLNL/NIF


    DOE Seal
    NNSA

     
  • richardmitnick 1:22 pm on June 26, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , LLNL, Switchgrass is used as a biomass crop for advanced biofuel production., Turning the switch on biofuels   

    From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: “Turning the switch on biofuels” 

    From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    June 17, 2019
    Anne M Stark
    stark8@llnl.gov
    925-422-9799

    1
    Switchgrass is used as a biomass crop for advanced biofuel production.

    Plant cell walls contain a renewable, nearly limitless supply of sugar that can be used in the production of chemicals and biofuels. However, retrieving these sugars isn’t all that easy.

    Imidazolium ionic liquid (IIL) solvents are one of the best sources for extracting sugars from plants. But the sugars from IIL-treated biomass are inevitably contaminated with residual IILs that inhibit growth in bacteria and yeast, blocking biochemical production by these organisms.

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists and collaborators at the Joint BioEnergy Institute have identified a molecular mechanism in bacteria that can be manipulated to promote IIL tolerance, and therefore overcome a key gap in biofuel and biochemical production processes. The research appears in the Journal of Bacteriology.

    “Ionic liquid toxicity is a critical roadblock in many industrial biosynthetic pathways,” said LLNL biologist Michael Thelen, lead author of the paper. “We were able to find microbes that are resistant to the cytotoxic effects.”

    The team used four bacillus strains that were isolated from compost (and a mutant E. coli bacterium) and found that two of the strains and the E. coli mutant can withstand high levels of two widely used IILs.

    Douglas Higgins, a postdoc working with Thelen at the time, dived into how exactly the bacteria do this. In each of the bacteria, he identified a membrane transporter, or pump, that is responsible for exporting the toxic IIL. He also found two cases in which the pump gene contained alterations in the RNA sequence of a regulatory guanidine riboswitch. Guanidine is a toxic byproduct of normal biological processes; however, cells need to get rid of it before it accumulates.

    The normal, unmodified riboswitch interacts with guanidine and undergoes a conformational change, causing the pump to switch on and make the bacterial cells resistant to IILs.

    “Our results demonstrate the critical roles that transporter genes and their genetic controls play in IIL tolerance in their native bacterial hosts,” Thelen said. “This is just another step in engineering IIL tolerance into industrial strains and overcoming this key gap in biofuel production.”

    The results could help identify genetic engineering strategies that improve conversion of cellulosic sugars into biofuels and biochemicals in processes where a low concentration of ionic liquids surpass bacterial tolerance.

    Scientists from Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory also contributed to this research.

    The work is funded by the Department of Energy’s Office of Science

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    LLNL Campus

    Operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952. A Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), it is primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a partnership of the University of California, Bechtel, BWX Technologies, AECOM, and Battelle Memorial Institute in affiliation with the Texas A&M University System. In 2012, the laboratory had the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it.
    LLNL is self-described as “a premier research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security.” Its principal responsibility is ensuring the safety, security and reliability of the nation’s nuclear weapons through the application of advanced science, engineering and technology. The Laboratory also applies its special expertise and multidisciplinary capabilities to preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction, bolstering homeland security and solving other nationally important problems, including energy and environmental security, basic science and economic competitiveness.

    The Laboratory is located on a one-square-mile (2.6 km2) site at the eastern edge of Livermore. It also operates a 7,000 acres (28 km2) remote experimental test site, called Site 300, situated about 15 miles (24 km) southeast of the main lab site. LLNL has an annual budget of about $1.5 billion and a staff of roughly 5,800 employees.

    LLNL was established in 1952 as the University of California Radiation Laboratory at Livermore, an offshoot of the existing UC Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley. It was intended to spur innovation and provide competition to the nuclear weapon design laboratory at Los Alamos in New Mexico, home of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic weapons. Edward Teller and Ernest Lawrence,[2] director of the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley, are regarded as the co-founders of the Livermore facility.

    The new laboratory was sited at a former naval air station of World War II. It was already home to several UC Radiation Laboratory projects that were too large for its location in the Berkeley Hills above the UC campus, including one of the first experiments in the magnetic approach to confined thermonuclear reactions (i.e. fusion). About half an hour southeast of Berkeley, the Livermore site provided much greater security for classified projects than an urban university campus.

    Lawrence tapped 32-year-old Herbert York, a former graduate student of his, to run Livermore. Under York, the Lab had four main programs: Project Sherwood (the magnetic-fusion program), Project Whitney (the weapons-design program), diagnostic weapon experiments (both for the Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories), and a basic physics program. York and the new lab embraced the Lawrence “big science” approach, tackling challenging projects with physicists, chemists, engineers, and computational scientists working together in multidisciplinary teams. Lawrence died in August 1958 and shortly after, the university’s board of regents named both laboratories for him, as the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory.

    Historically, the Berkeley and Livermore laboratories have had very close relationships on research projects, business operations, and staff. The Livermore Lab was established initially as a branch of the Berkeley laboratory. The Livermore lab was not officially severed administratively from the Berkeley lab until 1971. To this day, in official planning documents and records, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is designated as Site 100, Lawrence Livermore National Lab as Site 200, and LLNL’s remote test location as Site 300.[3]

    The laboratory was renamed Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) in 1971. On October 1, 2007 LLNS assumed management of LLNL from the University of California, which had exclusively managed and operated the Laboratory since its inception 55 years before. The laboratory was honored in 2012 by having the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it. The LLNS takeover of the laboratory has been controversial. In May 2013, an Alameda County jury awarded over $2.7 million to five former laboratory employees who were among 430 employees LLNS laid off during 2008.[4] The jury found that LLNS breached a contractual obligation to terminate the employees only for “reasonable cause.”[5] The five plaintiffs also have pending age discrimination claims against LLNS, which will be heard by a different jury in a separate trial.[6] There are 125 co-plaintiffs awaiting trial on similar claims against LLNS.[7] The May 2008 layoff was the first layoff at the laboratory in nearly 40 years.[6]

    On March 14, 2011, the City of Livermore officially expanded the city’s boundaries to annex LLNL and move it within the city limits. The unanimous vote by the Livermore city council expanded Livermore’s southeastern boundaries to cover 15 land parcels covering 1,057 acres (4.28 km2) that comprise the LLNL site. The site was formerly an unincorporated area of Alameda County. The LLNL campus continues to be owned by the federal government.

    LLNL/NIF


    DOE Seal
    NNSA

     
  • richardmitnick 11:17 am on June 19, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , LLNL, LLNL’s Lassen IBM NVIDIA supercomputer leaps to No. 10 on TOP500 list,   

    From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: “LLNL’s Lassen supercomputer leaps to No. 10 on TOP500 list, Sierra remains No. 2” 

    From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    June 18, 2019
    Jeremy Thomas
    thomas244@llnl.gov
    925-422-5539

    1
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s Lassen IBM NVIDIA supercomputer

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s Lassen joined its companion system Sierra in the top 10 of the TOP500 list of the world’s most powerful supercomputers, announced Monday at the 2019 International Supercomputing Conference (ISC19) in Frankfurt, Germany.

    Lassen, an unclassified, heterogenous IBM/NVIDIA system with the same architecture as Sierra but smaller, placed No. 10 on the list with a High Performance Linpack (HPL) benchmark score of 18.2 petaFLOPS (18.2 quadrillion point operations per second) boosting its original 15.4 petaFLOP performance from last November. Sierra, LLNL’s classified system that went into production earlier this year, remained unchanged in the second spot at 94.6 petaflops.

    “We are pleased with the results of the June 2019 TOP500 list, in which not only does Sierra continue to occupy the second position but also Lassen has risen to tenth,” said Bronis de Supinski, chief technical officer for Livermore Computing. “These successes demonstrate that LLNL’s strategy of both programmatic and institutional investments supports the complete range of applications required to meet our mission.”

    The improved HPL score for Lassen was attributed to an upgrade on the system, according to a TOP500 press release. LLNL’s IBM/Blue Gene system Sequoia, which had been the 10th most powerful computer in the world in the previous list and is expected to be retired later this year, dropped to 13th.

    LLNL Sequoia IBM Blue Gene Q petascale supercomputer

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Summit, also an IBM/NVIDIA supercomputer, maintained its top spot on the list and slightly improved its result from six months ago, delivering a record 148.6 petaFLOPS. Los Alamos National Laboratory’s Trinity, another Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration supercomputer, placed seventh at 20.2 petaFLOPS.

    ORNL IBM AC922 SUMMIT supercomputer, No.1 on the TOP500. Credit: Carlos Jones, Oak Ridge National Laboratory/U.S. Dept. of Energy

    The 53rd edition of the TOP500 marks a milestone. For the first time in the 26-year history of the list, all 500 systems on the list registered HCL benchmark scores of a petaFLOP or more. The benchmark reflects the performance of a dedicated system for solving a dense system of linear equations.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    LLNL Campus

    Operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952. A Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), it is primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a partnership of the University of California, Bechtel, BWX Technologies, AECOM, and Battelle Memorial Institute in affiliation with the Texas A&M University System. In 2012, the laboratory had the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it.
    LLNL is self-described as “a premier research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security.” Its principal responsibility is ensuring the safety, security and reliability of the nation’s nuclear weapons through the application of advanced science, engineering and technology. The Laboratory also applies its special expertise and multidisciplinary capabilities to preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction, bolstering homeland security and solving other nationally important problems, including energy and environmental security, basic science and economic competitiveness.

    The Laboratory is located on a one-square-mile (2.6 km2) site at the eastern edge of Livermore. It also operates a 7,000 acres (28 km2) remote experimental test site, called Site 300, situated about 15 miles (24 km) southeast of the main lab site. LLNL has an annual budget of about $1.5 billion and a staff of roughly 5,800 employees.

    LLNL was established in 1952 as the University of California Radiation Laboratory at Livermore, an offshoot of the existing UC Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley. It was intended to spur innovation and provide competition to the nuclear weapon design laboratory at Los Alamos in New Mexico, home of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic weapons. Edward Teller and Ernest Lawrence,[2] director of the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley, are regarded as the co-founders of the Livermore facility.

    The new laboratory was sited at a former naval air station of World War II. It was already home to several UC Radiation Laboratory projects that were too large for its location in the Berkeley Hills above the UC campus, including one of the first experiments in the magnetic approach to confined thermonuclear reactions (i.e. fusion). About half an hour southeast of Berkeley, the Livermore site provided much greater security for classified projects than an urban university campus.

    Lawrence tapped 32-year-old Herbert York, a former graduate student of his, to run Livermore. Under York, the Lab had four main programs: Project Sherwood (the magnetic-fusion program), Project Whitney (the weapons-design program), diagnostic weapon experiments (both for the Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories), and a basic physics program. York and the new lab embraced the Lawrence “big science” approach, tackling challenging projects with physicists, chemists, engineers, and computational scientists working together in multidisciplinary teams. Lawrence died in August 1958 and shortly after, the university’s board of regents named both laboratories for him, as the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory.

    Historically, the Berkeley and Livermore laboratories have had very close relationships on research projects, business operations, and staff. The Livermore Lab was established initially as a branch of the Berkeley laboratory. The Livermore lab was not officially severed administratively from the Berkeley lab until 1971. To this day, in official planning documents and records, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is designated as Site 100, Lawrence Livermore National Lab as Site 200, and LLNL’s remote test location as Site 300.[3]

    The laboratory was renamed Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) in 1971. On October 1, 2007 LLNS assumed management of LLNL from the University of California, which had exclusively managed and operated the Laboratory since its inception 55 years before. The laboratory was honored in 2012 by having the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it. The LLNS takeover of the laboratory has been controversial. In May 2013, an Alameda County jury awarded over $2.7 million to five former laboratory employees who were among 430 employees LLNS laid off during 2008.[4] The jury found that LLNS breached a contractual obligation to terminate the employees only for “reasonable cause.”[5] The five plaintiffs also have pending age discrimination claims against LLNS, which will be heard by a different jury in a separate trial.[6] There are 125 co-plaintiffs awaiting trial on similar claims against LLNS.[7] The May 2008 layoff was the first layoff at the laboratory in nearly 40 years.[6]

    On March 14, 2011, the City of Livermore officially expanded the city’s boundaries to annex LLNL and move it within the city limits. The unanimous vote by the Livermore city council expanded Livermore’s southeastern boundaries to cover 15 land parcels covering 1,057 acres (4.28 km2) that comprise the LLNL site. The site was formerly an unincorporated area of Alameda County. The LLNL campus continues to be owned by the federal government.

    LLNL/NIF


    DOE Seal
    NNSA

     
  • richardmitnick 7:43 am on May 21, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC), , , , LLNL, ,   

    From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: “ARC experiments exceed expectations” 

    From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    May 17, 2019
    Breanna Bishop
    bishop33@llnl.gov
    925-423-9802

    – Charlie Osolin

    1
    At left: A schematic of the National Ignition Facility’s (NIF) target chamber with 192 NIF long-pulse beams shown in blue and two of the NIF beams “picked off” for ARC shown in red (upper right). The two long-pulse beams are split to form two rectangular beamlets each, giving a total of four beamlets that are compressed to picosecond-pulse lengths. Lower right: The modeled ellipsoidal focal spot for one of the four beamlets at target chamber center.

    The first proton-acceleration experiments using the National Ignition Facility’s (NIF) Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) short-pulse laser have produced protons with energies about 10 times higher than previous experience would have predicted (see “A Powerful New Source of High-Energy Protons”).

    Beams of high-energy protons can be precisely targeted and are able to quickly heat materials before they can expand. Ultrafast heating of matter will enable opacity and equation-of-state measurements at unprecedented energy densities and could open the door to new ways of studying extreme states of matter, such as stellar and planetary interiors. Proton acceleration also promises to enable a variety of other applications in high energy density (HED) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research.

    In a recently published Physics of Plasmas paper, an international team of researchers reported that the maximum proton energies created in the February 2018 experiments — from 14 to 18 MeV (million electron volts) — are “indicative of (an)…electron acceleration mechanism that sustains acceleration over long (multi-picosecond) time-scales and allows for proton energies to be achieved far beyond what the well-established scalings of proton acceleration (at ARC-level intensities) would predict.

    “Coupled with the NIF,” the researchers said, “developing ARC laser-driven ion acceleration capabilities will enable multiple exciting applications. For example, the NIF can deliver 1.8 MJ (million joules) of laser light to drive an experiment and with an energetic proton beam, we could begin to diagnose electromagnetic fields in these experiments by using proton radiography.”

    LLNL engineering physicist Derek Mariscal, lead author of the paper, said the surprise results at ARC’s quasi-relativistic, or “modest” laser intensities — about a quintillion (1018) watts per square centimeter — “forced us to try to understand the source of these particles, and we ultimately found that a different mechanism for accelerating particles to MeV electrons was necessary to explain the results.

    “While we haven’t completely explained this mechanism,” he said, “we’ve been able to start discounting mechanisms that have been identified in previous short-pulse work to start honing in on how we could get such unexpected electron and subsequent proton energies.

    “These results are really encouraging not only for ARC-driven proton beams,” he added, “but for particle acceleration in what’s referred to as the quasi-relativistic laser regime.”

    ARC is a petawatt (quadrillion watt)-class short-pulse laser created by splitting two of NIF’s 192 long-pulse beams into four rectangular beamlets. Using a 2018 Nobel Prize-winning process called chirped-pulse amplification, the beamlets are stretched in time to reduce their peak intensity, then amplified at intensities below the optics damage threshold in the laser amplifiers and finally compressed to picosecond (trillionth of a second) pulse lengths and highest peak power in large compressor vessels, as shown in this video.

    In the experiments, which are supported by LLNL’s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) and NIF’s Discovery Science programs, two ARC shots were fired onto 1.5×1.5-millimeter-square, 33-micron-thick titanium foils. About 2.6 kilojoules of energy were delivered in a 9.6-picosecond pulse and 1.1 kJ were fired in a 1.6-ps pulse. A Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) field, first observed on LLNL’s Nova petawatt laser two decades ago, accelerated high-energy protons and ions from the contamination layer of proton-rich hydrocarbons and water coating the target’s surface.

    3
    Illustration of the titanium target foil, ARC beamlet pointing, and images of the proton-acceleration data captured by radiochromic film stacks placed at the front of the primary diagnostics, the NIF Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer (NEPPS) magnetic spectrometers.

    “We plan to take this platform in several directions,” Mariscal said. “One of the most obvious directions is for probing electromagnetic field structures generated during experiments driven by the NIF long-pulse beams, which has been a standard use for these proton beams since their discovery here at LLNL around 20 years ago on the Nova petawatt laser.

    “In addition to using proton beams as a diagnostic tool,” he said, “we plan to continue to use these beams to create high-energy-density conditions. Since we’re able to generate around 50 joules of proton beam energy, if we can deposit it over a 10-picosecond timescale we can generate plasmas at near solid density with temperatures over 100 eV, which is a truly exotic state of matter known as hot dense matter.”

    he researchers also are exploring new target designs that could enhance ARC’s laser intensity to achieve even higher proton energy, enabling probes of ICF experiments. And by varying the length of ARC pulses, they hope to create shaped short pulses using ARC laser beams.

    “Pulse shaping with nanosecond pulses allows for driving precision shocks in materials for studying material equations of state, but we plan to use this idea at the sub-picosecond level to manipulate particle acceleration physics,” Mariscal said. “We’ve tried this scheme on the OMEGA EP laser at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics and saw greatly enhanced laser coupling to high-energy particles over single short pulses.”
    Two-proton-beam experiments

    Additional NIF shots will use a 10-picosecond ARC beam to drive a beam of protons intended to rapidly heat a solid sample to more than 50 eV. Concurrently, a higher-intensity one-picosecond ARC beam will be used to generate a second proton beam that will probe the electromagnetic field structures of the heating experiment. “That will ultimately help us to understand how particles are being accelerated to MeV energies with a 10-picosecond pulse,” Mariscal said.

    Mariscal credited the “fantastic” suite of diagnostics at the ARC diagnostics table and modeling support from the NIF ARC laser team with enabling the researchers to learn “some very interesting fundamental short-pulse-driven particle acceleration physics in this new regime provided by ARC.

    “We’re given a new level of confidence in our interpretations due to the high-quality characterization of delivered ARC laser pulses,” he said. “This allows our physics team to accurately model the laser conditions of the experiment and maximize our understanding from the limited overall number of ARC laser experiments.”

    Joining Mariscal on the paper were LLNL colleagues Tammy Ma, Scott Wilks, Andreas Kemp, G. Jackson Williams, Pierre Michel, Hui Chen, Prav Patel, Bruce Remington, Mark Bowers, Lawrence Pelz, Mark Hermann, Warren Hsing, David Martinez, Ron Sigurdsson, Matt Prantil, Alan Conder, Janice Lawson, Matt Hamamoto, Pascal Di Nicola, Clay Widmayer, Doug Homoelle, Roger Lowe-Webb, Sandrine Herriot, Wade Williams, David Alessi, Dan Kalantar, Rich Zacharias, Constantin Haefner, Nathaniel Thompson, Thomas Zobrist, Dawn Lord, Nicholas Hash, Arthur Pak, Nuno Lemos and Max Tabak, along with collaborators from the University of California at San Diego, General Atomics, the University of Oxford and the Central Laser Facility at the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, the Institute of Laser Engineering at Osaka University in Japan and Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    LLNL Campus

    Operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952. A Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), it is primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a partnership of the University of California, Bechtel, BWX Technologies, AECOM, and Battelle Memorial Institute in affiliation with the Texas A&M University System. In 2012, the laboratory had the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it.
    LLNL is self-described as “a premier research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security.” Its principal responsibility is ensuring the safety, security and reliability of the nation’s nuclear weapons through the application of advanced science, engineering and technology. The Laboratory also applies its special expertise and multidisciplinary capabilities to preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction, bolstering homeland security and solving other nationally important problems, including energy and environmental security, basic science and economic competitiveness.

    The Laboratory is located on a one-square-mile (2.6 km2) site at the eastern edge of Livermore. It also operates a 7,000 acres (28 km2) remote experimental test site, called Site 300, situated about 15 miles (24 km) southeast of the main lab site. LLNL has an annual budget of about $1.5 billion and a staff of roughly 5,800 employees.

    LLNL was established in 1952 as the University of California Radiation Laboratory at Livermore, an offshoot of the existing UC Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley. It was intended to spur innovation and provide competition to the nuclear weapon design laboratory at Los Alamos in New Mexico, home of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic weapons. Edward Teller and Ernest Lawrence,[2] director of the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley, are regarded as the co-founders of the Livermore facility.

    The new laboratory was sited at a former naval air station of World War II. It was already home to several UC Radiation Laboratory projects that were too large for its location in the Berkeley Hills above the UC campus, including one of the first experiments in the magnetic approach to confined thermonuclear reactions (i.e. fusion). About half an hour southeast of Berkeley, the Livermore site provided much greater security for classified projects than an urban university campus.

    Lawrence tapped 32-year-old Herbert York, a former graduate student of his, to run Livermore. Under York, the Lab had four main programs: Project Sherwood (the magnetic-fusion program), Project Whitney (the weapons-design program), diagnostic weapon experiments (both for the Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories), and a basic physics program. York and the new lab embraced the Lawrence “big science” approach, tackling challenging projects with physicists, chemists, engineers, and computational scientists working together in multidisciplinary teams. Lawrence died in August 1958 and shortly after, the university’s board of regents named both laboratories for him, as the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory.

    Historically, the Berkeley and Livermore laboratories have had very close relationships on research projects, business operations, and staff. The Livermore Lab was established initially as a branch of the Berkeley laboratory. The Livermore lab was not officially severed administratively from the Berkeley lab until 1971. To this day, in official planning documents and records, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is designated as Site 100, Lawrence Livermore National Lab as Site 200, and LLNL’s remote test location as Site 300.[3]

    The laboratory was renamed Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) in 1971. On October 1, 2007 LLNS assumed management of LLNL from the University of California, which had exclusively managed and operated the Laboratory since its inception 55 years before. The laboratory was honored in 2012 by having the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it. The LLNS takeover of the laboratory has been controversial. In May 2013, an Alameda County jury awarded over $2.7 million to five former laboratory employees who were among 430 employees LLNS laid off during 2008.[4] The jury found that LLNS breached a contractual obligation to terminate the employees only for “reasonable cause.”[5] The five plaintiffs also have pending age discrimination claims against LLNS, which will be heard by a different jury in a separate trial.[6] There are 125 co-plaintiffs awaiting trial on similar claims against LLNS.[7] The May 2008 layoff was the first layoff at the laboratory in nearly 40 years.[6]

    On March 14, 2011, the City of Livermore officially expanded the city’s boundaries to annex LLNL and move it within the city limits. The unanimous vote by the Livermore city council expanded Livermore’s southeastern boundaries to cover 15 land parcels covering 1,057 acres (4.28 km2) that comprise the LLNL site. The site was formerly an unincorporated area of Alameda County. The LLNL campus continues to be owned by the federal government.

    LLNL/NIF


    DOE Seal
    NNSA

     
  • richardmitnick 9:25 am on March 20, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Solving a 50-year-old beta decay puzzle with advanced nuclear model simulations", , , LLNL, , , Synthesis of heavy elements, Technische Universität Darmstadt, The electroweak force, , When protons inside atomic nuclei convert into neutrons or vice versa   

    From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and ORNL: “Solving a 50-year-old beta decay puzzle with advanced nuclear model simulations” 

    i1

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    March 19, 2019

    Anne M Stark
    stark8@llnl.gov
    925-422-9799

    1
    First-principles calculations show that strong correlations and interactions between two nucleons slow down beta decays in atomic nuclei compared to what’s expected from the beta decays of free neutrons. This impacts the synthesis of heavy elements and the search for neutrinoless double beta decay. Image by Andy Sproles/Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

    For the first time, an international team including scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has found the answer to a 50-year-old puzzle that explains why beta decays of atomic nuclei are slower than expected.

    The findings fill a long-standing gap in physicists’ understanding of beta decay (converting a neutron into a proton and vice versa), a key process stars use to create heavier elements. The research appeared in the March 11 edition of the journal Nature Physics.

    Using advanced nuclear model simulations, the team, including LLNL nuclear physicists Kyle Wendt (a Lawrence fellow), Sofia Quaglioni and twice-summer intern Peter Gysbers (UBC/TRIUMF), found their results to be consistent with experimental data showing that beta decays of atomic nuclei are slower than what is expected, based on the beta decays of free neutrons.

    “For decades, physicists couldn’t quite explain nuclear beta decay, when protons inside atomic nuclei convert into neutrons or vice versa, forming the nuclei of other elements,” Wendt said. “Combining modern theoretical tools with advanced computation, we demonstrate it is possible to reconcile, for a considerable number of nuclei, this long-standing discrepancy between experimental measurements and theoretical calculations.”

    Historically, calculations of beta decay rates have been much faster than what is seen experimentally. Nuclear physicists have worked around this discrepancy by artificially scaling the interaction of single nucleons with the electroweak force, a process referred to as “quenching.” This allowed physicists to describe beta decay rates, but not predict them. While nuclei near each other in mass would have similar quenching factors, the factors could differ dramatically for nuclei well separated in mass.

    Predictive calculations of beta decay require not just accurate calculations of the structure of both the mother and daughter nuclei, but also of how nucleons (both individually and as correlated pairs) couple to the electroweak force that drives beta decay. These pairwise interactions of nucleons with the weak force represented an extreme computational hurdle due to the strong nuclear correlations in nuclei.

    The team simulated beta decays from light to heavy nuclei, up to tin-100 decaying into indium-100, demonstrating their approach works consistently across the nuclei where ab initio calculations are possible. This sets the path toward accurate predictions of beta decay rates for unstable nuclei in violent astrophysical environments, such as supernova explosions or neutron star mergers that are responsible for producing most elements heavier than iron.

    “The methodology in this work also may hold the key to accurate predictions of the elusive neutrinoless double-beta decay, a process that if seen would revolutionize our understanding of particle physics,” Quaglioni said.

    Other institutions include Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TRIUMF and the Technische Universität Darmstadt Germany.


    Technische Universität Darmstadt campus

    Technische Universität Darmstadt

    The work was funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    LLNL Campus

    Operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the National Nuclear Security Administration
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952. A Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), it is primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a partnership of the University of California, Bechtel, BWX Technologies, AECOM, and Battelle Memorial Institute in affiliation with the Texas A&M University System. In 2012, the laboratory had the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it.

    LLNL is self-described as “a premier research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security.” Its principal responsibility is ensuring the safety, security and reliability of the nation’s nuclear weapons through the application of advanced science, engineering and technology. The Laboratory also applies its special expertise and multidisciplinary capabilities to preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction, bolstering homeland security and solving other nationally important problems, including energy and environmental security, basic science and economic competitiveness.

    The Laboratory is located on a one-square-mile (2.6 km2) site at the eastern edge of Livermore. It also operates a 7,000 acres (28 km2) remote experimental test site, called Site 300, situated about 15 miles (24 km) southeast of the main lab site. LLNL has an annual budget of about $1.5 billion and a staff of roughly 5,800 employees.

    LLNL was established in 1952 as the University of California Radiation Laboratory at Livermore, an offshoot of the existing UC Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley. It was intended to spur innovation and provide competition to the nuclear weapon design laboratory at Los Alamos in New Mexico, home of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic weapons. Edward Teller and Ernest Lawrence,[2] director of the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley, are regarded as the co-founders of the Livermore facility.

    The new laboratory was sited at a former naval air station of World War II. It was already home to several UC Radiation Laboratory projects that were too large for its location in the Berkeley Hills above the UC campus, including one of the first experiments in the magnetic approach to confined thermonuclear reactions (i.e. fusion). About half an hour southeast of Berkeley, the Livermore site provided much greater security for classified projects than an urban university campus.

    Lawrence tapped 32-year-old Herbert York, a former graduate student of his, to run Livermore. Under York, the Lab had four main programs: Project Sherwood (the magnetic-fusion program), Project Whitney (the weapons-design program), diagnostic weapon experiments (both for the Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories), and a basic physics program. York and the new lab embraced the Lawrence “big science” approach, tackling challenging projects with physicists, chemists, engineers, and computational scientists working together in multidisciplinary teams. Lawrence died in August 1958 and shortly after, the university’s board of regents named both laboratories for him, as the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory.

    Historically, the Berkeley and Livermore laboratories have had very close relationships on research projects, business operations, and staff. The Livermore Lab was established initially as a branch of the Berkeley laboratory. The Livermore lab was not officially severed administratively from the Berkeley lab until 1971. To this day, in official planning documents and records, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is designated as Site 100, Lawrence Livermore National Lab as Site 200, and LLNL’s remote test location as Site 300.[3]

    The laboratory was renamed Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) in 1971. On October 1, 2007 LLNS assumed management of LLNL from the University of California, which had exclusively managed and operated the Laboratory since its inception 55 years before. The laboratory was honored in 2012 by having the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it. The LLNS takeover of the laboratory has been controversial. In May 2013, an Alameda County jury awarded over $2.7 million to five former laboratory employees who were among 430 employees LLNS laid off during 2008.[4] The jury found that LLNS breached a contractual obligation to terminate the employees only for “reasonable cause.”[5] The five plaintiffs also have pending age discrimination claims against LLNS, which will be heard by a different jury in a separate trial.[6] There are 125 co-plaintiffs awaiting trial on similar claims against LLNS.[7] The May 2008 layoff was the first layoff at the laboratory in nearly 40 years.[6]

    On March 14, 2011, the City of Livermore officially expanded the city’s boundaries to annex LLNL and move it within the city limits. The unanimous vote by the Livermore city council expanded Livermore’s southeastern boundaries to cover 15 land parcels covering 1,057 acres (4.28 km2) that comprise the LLNL site. The site was formerly an unincorporated area of Alameda County. The LLNL campus continues to be owned by the federal government.

    LLNL/NIF


    DOE Seal
    NNSA

     
  • richardmitnick 3:27 pm on March 15, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "ELI Beamlines now open for business", Another aim is to develop a compact proton accelerator as the basis for a potential cancer treatment system., ELI Beamlines the Czech arm of the project in Dolní Břežany near the capital Prague is the first of the three sites to begin real research work., Half went to Arthur Ashkin for his work on optical tweezers with the other half shared by Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland for their method of generating high-intensity ultrashort laser pulses., In October 2018 ELI Beamlines reported the "first light" achievement of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) with the facility's L1-Allegra laser., L3-HAPLS system, LLNL, Roman Hvězda said "During 2019 four out of the planned nine workstations will become available to external users., The 2018 nobel prize was of course shared between three laser physicists., The Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) project a trio of giant laser facilities across eastern Europe is officially up and running., The ten petawatt laser will be used mainly for astrophysics-related research.   

    From SPIE: “ELI Beamlines now open for business” 

    SPIE

    From SPIE

    15 March 2019
    Matthew Peach

    The various petawatt-class laser systems at the ELI Beamlines facility near Prague bring to fruition the Nobel-winning vision of Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland.

    1
    The “first shot” at ELI Beamlines was officially achieved in July 2018, on the L3-HAPLS system. Photo: ELI Beamlines.

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) project, a trio of giant laser facilities across eastern Europe, is officially up and running. Last year saw ELI pass several of its planned objectives on time and on budget as the sites become some of the world’s foremost high-power laser user facilities.

    The multi-sited endeavor comprises complementary facilities in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Romania, built to investigate light-matter interactions at the highest of intensities and the shortest of time scales currently possible. At its maximum output, the most powerful of the systems will be more than six orders of magnitude more intense than the prior state-of-the-art.

    ELI Beamlines, the Czech arm of the project in Dolní Břežany, near the capital Prague, is the first of the three sites to begin real research work. The end of 2018 marked a significant milestone in the implementation of a site that represents the Czech Republic’s largest single investment in a research and development facility. It also represents the culmination of work that began in earnest in August 2011, following a preparatory phase coordinated by 2018 physics Nobel laureate Gérard Mourou.

    The 2018 prize was of course shared between three laser physicists. Half went to Arthur Ashkin for his work on optical tweezers, with the other half shared by Mourou and Donna Strickland for their method of generating high-intensity, ultrashort laser pulses. While at the University of Rochester in the 1980s, the pair laid the foundations for ELI with their breakthrough innovation: chirped-pulsed amplification (CPA).

    As Allen Weeks, ELI’s director general, told Show Daily: “The Nobel Prize validates the vision Gérard Mourou had more than 15 years ago, [and] his vision is being realized at ELI with our petawatt-scale lasers. This particular development is opening up exotic new fields of science in the sub-atomic and nuclear realms, and exploration for decades to come.”

    Mourou and Strickland’s CPA technique stretches and amplifies low-intensity light, before compressing it back into incredibly short and hugely powerful pulses. Today’s petawatt-scale laser systems use the approach to generate pulses with a greater power than the combined output of every power station in the world – albeit for only a billionth of a billionth of one second. And it is the key technology that makes ELI possible.

    “Professor Mourou understood the potential of the discovery and has championed the possibilities of advanced laser science for decades,” continued Weeks. “That has ultimately led to Europe having some of the most advanced laser systems in the world, as well as [some] leading companies in the field.”

    Mourou himself first proposed ELI back in 2005, and coordinated the project as a bottom-up initiative of the European laser community. In 2010, he co-authored the ELI “White Book”, a blueprint of the key technical proposals and science case behind the project.

    2018 proved to be a pivotal year at ELI Beamlines, with the successful installation of three of its four laser systems. Known as “L1-Allegra”, “L3-HAPLS”, and “L4-Aton”, each represents a significant milestone in worldwide laser development. As of January 2019, more than 300 people are employed at the facility, combining their efforts with a broad and growing international collaboration of users.

    Collaborations and clients

    Those beamlines are now being put to serious research work. One example of the international collaboration is with Italy’s National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), demonstrated by the delivery of the “ELIMAIA-ELIMED” system for laser-based ion acceleration, and the launch of a high harmonic generation (HHG) source.

    ELIMED is said to represent a key technology at ELI Beamlines, enabling users to carry out pre-clinical research for future applications including cancer therapy. The short bursts of protons and ions accelerated by the L3-HAPLS beamline, which delivers petawatt blasts at an unprecedented rate of 10 Hz, can be used to experiment on biological systems in a way that has simply never been possible previously.

    2
    The “L3-HAPLS” beamline, which delivers petawatt-scale laser blasts at a rate of 10 Hz, was declared fully integrated and operational in July 2018. It was originally built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), before being packed up and shipped to the Czech Republic. Photo: LLNL.

    As part of the transition towards user operation, the ELI Beamlines team has delivered 1200 hours of activity to a range of external client users, on four experimental stations. That work has provided the facility with a solid foundation for its first call to the international scientific community.

    Weeks joined ELI in November 2017, and is now establishing a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (“ERIC”), in order to manage the three different facilities in three different countries as a single legal commercial entity.

    “ELI has achieved substantial developments in the past year,” Weeks said. “Notably, we have received $500 million in procurement. Europe, in particular, has really led the world in terms of high-intensity laser developments. We are aiming to reach a research-industry balance to be able to achieve scientific impact.”

    Turning to ELI Beamlines, the first active ELI facility, he added: “The Beamlines teams have started operations on time and it is certainly impressive. They have delivered almost exactly what they said they would, when they would, in their development plan six years ago.

    “Current users include French, German, and UK teams, and international groups, mainly from existing laser facilities. The [Beamlines] operations team under Georg Korn is very experienced and enabling the projects of the client groups to make the most of our facilities.”

    The four different beamlines available at the Czech facility give those users plenty of options. Aspiring to offer the world’s most intense laser system, the L4-Aton line will produce ultra-high peak powers of 10 petawatts and focused intensities up to 1024 W/cm2, at an unprecedented rate of one shot per minute – providing new and unique sources of radiation and particle beams of high utility. Indeed, each of the beamlines is designed to enable groundbreaking research in areas like material science, proton therapy, biomedicine, and laboratory-based astrophysics.

    Reliability

    Not that simply achieving record-breaking outputs like this is the aim, Weeks stresses. “One of the biggest issues in this field is that while a number of universities have big laser facilities, maintaining and operating these systems ‘on demand’ is very difficult, so availability is generally low – perhaps only half of the time, typically,” he said.

    “At ELI Beamlines we intend to be available 90-100 percent of the time, which is very hard to achieve. If a client arrives to conduct an experiment for which they are paying then they will not want to wait for it to begin. We are aiming to guarantee [them] a quick start.”

    ELI employs a team of experienced scientists to help with the design of client experiments, and one of the primary missions at the Beamlines site is using lasers to drive other physical systems such as accelerators. But in contrast to more established synchrotron facilities and their associated user programs, which have been in place for more than 20 years, the laser community is still developing new approaches to accelerator experiments.

    The major advantage offered by the powerful laser pulses available at ELI Beamlines is that acceleration can be achieved in a significantly smaller space than a stadium-sized synchrotron. And the arrangement should enable new medical applications, for example proton therapy, where the laser itself acts as the accelerator.

    3
    Inside the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics, where the CPA technique was invented by Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland. Here, current LLE student Sara Bucht is reflected in a large grating, shown next to the original, much smaller, grating built by Strickland for CPA while she was a graduate student at the same lab. University of Rochester LLE/Adam Fenster.

    U Rochester The main amplifiers at the OMEGA EP laser at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics


    U Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Weeks went on to explain the thinking behind the plan to establish ELI as an ERIC. “This would give us the flexibility to market our activities across Europe, and enable [ELI] to be used by private client companies,” he said. “However, our main aim is to benefit the ambitions of the main ELI group member countries’ national research initiatives.

    “I expect that most of the work to be conducted will be open research for the benefit of all members,” he added. “A typical experiment will run for 2-4 weeks. When up and running, the three ELI facilities in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Romania are together expecting around 1000 researchers to visit and work at the centers over a typical year. We want to continue upgrading over the coming years, so our model will be to develop the ELI technologies and find the partners who want us to help them with their developments. This is exactly what the Czech group is already doing now with our new petawatt lasers.”

    Looking at things more broadly, Weeks added: “What a lot of people are saying is, ultimately, we want to consider lasers not so much as a tool of research but as a commonplace scientific instrument. One example here would be the laser’s capability of driving acceleration.”

    He also expects to see the ELI approach mimicked elsewhere, and senses an opportunity to drive down the cost of laser-accelerator technology. “I believe we will soon see similar facilities to ELI emerging in the US and in China,” Weeks said. “Furthermore, we will see a faster trickle-down benefit.” Currently the biggest factor restricting greater proliferation is the sheer cost and limited availability of the key components needed to build such high-power systems.

    “Building an accelerator for around $300 million is currently the norm, but if we could achieve it for $5 million or so then it would really make a big difference to the potential of this sector,” Weeks said. “At ELI we are aiming to achieve a $5 million source that is effectively an economical, portable accelerator.”

    Installations done; experiments begin

    In October 2018, ELI Beamlines reported the “first light” achievement of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) with the facility’s L1-Allegra laser. This represented the successful culmination of a year-long installation process.

    In the first integrated test experiment, the Allegra laser’s front-end output was propagated through the whole system and compressed in a vacuum by chirped mirrors. The resulting laser output parameters included a pulse energy of 1.4 mJ, pulse duration of 14 femtoseconds, a central wavelength of 830 nm, and a repetition rate of 1 kHz.

    The laser pulses were then directed though a vacuum transport and delivered to the HHG beamline. It was characterized and focused into a 20 mm-long gas cell, showing good pointing stability, a crucial feature for pump-probe experiments with tight focusing.

    4
    ELI Beamlines is working with partners at the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) on a laser ion accelerator, for applications including medical research. Photo: ELI Beamlines.

    Roman Hvězda, project manager at ELI Beamlines, told Show Daily, “We are now completing the second phase of implementation at the facility, and we are moving into our operational phase. So we have now commissioned three lasers out of the planned four. Our main aim is to serve the needs of the client-users by obtaining the radiation and particle sources that they are expecting for a range of experiments – in different areas including physics and astrophysics, chemistry, biology, material science, and medicine.”

    He continued, “During 2019, four out of the planned nine workstations will become available to external users. The others will be gradually commissioned, along with a complex commissioning scheme using several petawatt-class [lasers], including state-of-the-art ten petawatt lasers and the combination of beamlines delivering X-rays, electrons, and ions.

    “Our ten petawatt laser will be used mainly for astrophysics-related research. For example, it will enable researchers to make fundamental observations of ultra-high-intensity interactions, mimicking interactions inside stars.

    “Another aim is to develop a compact proton accelerator as the basis for a potential cancer treatment system. With our partners from INFN, we are already working with hospitals to optimize our solution, and to achieve a cost-effective result. We aim to complete this ion beamline in 2019, so that it can be used for medical research or treatment development.”

    Hvězda added that in mid-2018 he had met Gérard Mourou during the Nobel laureate’s visit to ELI Beamlines with his colleagues from École Polytechnique in Paris, to discuss future involvement and development – as well as the opportunities presented by the newly raised profile of the CPA technique and the extraordinarily high-power lasers now becoming available to users.

    “We are highlighting his receiving the Nobel prize alongside Donna Strickland to promote our organization, and we hope to attract more government support and activity from across Europe, as well as overseas,” Hvězda said.

    Mourou has since paid a visit to the Hungarian wing of ELI (ELI-ALPS), where the focus is on attosecond science. While there, he said: “To see the continual progress that is being made here each and every day in laser research and to have a part of the complex commemorated in honor of this year’s Nobel Prize is truly rewarding.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

     
  • richardmitnick 3:23 pm on December 4, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Adaptive Optics laser guide star, , , , , LLNL,   

    From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: “Guide star leads to sharper astronomical images” 

    From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Dec. 4, 2018
    Breanna Bishop
    bishop33@llnl.gov
    925-423-9802

    The laser guide star revolutionized astronomy by revealing large swaths of the sky that had previously been unseen from Earth due to atmospheric distortions. Now astronomy is on the verge of another great leap forward. The Extremely Large Telescope, which is expected to see first light in 2024, will have a 39-meter-diameter primary mirror — more than three times the size of today’s largest ground-based telescopes.

    Glistening against the awesome backdrop of the night sky above ESO_s Paranal Observatory, four laser beams project out into the darkness from Unit Telescope 4 UT4 of the VLT.

    ESO/E-ELT,to be on top of Cerro Armazones in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. located at the summit of the mountain at an altitude of 3,060 metres (10,040 ft).

    These next-generation telescopes require even more advanced optics to continue delivering clear images of distant stars, planets and interstellar space. To help answer that call, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) National Ignition Facility and Photon Science (NIF&PS) directorate has delivered a first-of-its-kind, high-power, fiber-based sodium laser guide star to the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC).

    3
    The Lick Observatory’s Laser Guide Star at the Shane telescope forms a beam of glowing atmospheric sodium ions. This helps astronomers account for distortions caused by the Earth’s atmosphere so they can see farther and more clearly into space. Credit: Laurie Hatch/lauriehatch.com

    “This fiber-based sodium laser guide star is a significant advance for adaptive optics,” said Daren Dillon, a development engineer at UCSC. “We expect it to operate five to 10 times more efficiently than the state-of-the-art dye-based sodium laser guide stars we use at our observatories now. This will enable our adaptive optics to produce much sharper images.”

    Adapting fiber laser to a guide star

    The project has roots in LLNL’s long history of laser development. Claire Max, a UCSC astronomy professor and director of UC observatories, was a physicist at LLNL from 1974 to 2004. She co-authored the original paper proposing sodium guide star lasers for wavefront correction. In the early 1990s, she demonstrated the first high-power sodium laser guide star from technology developed in LLNL’s Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation program. Max was the driving force for integrating sodium guide star laser systems into the astronomical community worldwide.

    To the naked eye, stars appear to twinkle. This is not through any action on the part of the celestial objects, but rather due to atmospheric turbulence — the turbulent mixing of Earth’s atmosphere — that the light rays pass through on their long journey to the eyes of night watchers.

    The sodium laser guide star creates an artificial star by shooting a laser into the sodium layer of the atmosphere, about 90 kilometers up. At a wavelength of 589 nanometers (billionths of a meter), the laser excites the sodium, which fluoresces in return. An artificial star is born.

    This star provides a reference point for an advanced optics system, which uses it to inform a computer-controlled deformable mirror that cancels out the effects of atmospheric turbulence to create a sharp image.

    The first generation of sodium laser guide stars, deployed at the Lick Observatory in Northern California and the Keck Observatory in Hawaii, were dye lasers that served the astronomy community for more than 15 years.

    UCO Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics

    Their size, weight and power and cooling requirements, however, made them difficult to incorporate with the telescopes, and they utilized flammable materials, which also are undesirable in an observatory setting.

    About 15 years ago, Max made a request of her LLNL colleagues.

    Efficient, compact and rugged

    “She asked us for a solid-state guide star laser that was compact and reliable,” explained Dee Pennington, one of the principal investigators on the project. “We considered several options and settled on a fiber laser because they are efficient, compact and rugged.”

    A fiber laser typically is constructed with an optical fiber doped with rare-earth elements such as erbium, ytterbium and neodymium. These lasers have unmatched beam quality, efficiency, thermal management and reliability as well as lower cost of ownership.

    The project was first funded by Livermore’s Laboratory Directed Research and Development program and later by grants from the National Science Foundation Center for Adaptive Optics, which Max directed, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy and the European Southern Observatory.

    At the project’s inception more than 15 years ago, fiber lasers were still an emerging technology. None existed at the 589-nanometer (nm) wavelength needed to interrogate the sodium layer.

    Developing this fiber laser with UCSC meant the researchers had to invent technology. “We had to learn how to cool a fiber laser,” said LLNL materials scientist Steve Payne, another researcher on the project. “If you’re first out of the box, you have to figure everything out on your own.”

    3
    Graham Allen (LLNL), Don Gavel (UCSC), Jay Dawson (LLNL) and Daren Dillon (UCSC) celebrate a milestone: the fiber-based sodium laser guide star achieved 10 watts of power at LLNL, making it ready for UC Santa Cruz.

    The team achieved 589 nm by combining a 938-nm laser and a 1,583-nm laser within a nonlinear crystal. Power scaling proved to be an even bigger challenge.
    “We were trying to scale two lasers to provide 10 watts of power, the minimum necessary to get enough feedback to inform adaptive optics,” said Jay Dawson, the principal investigator in the later years of this project. Dawson has continued working on fiber laser technology in his current role as the NIF&PS acting deputy program director for DoD Technologies.

    Because of the laser’s specialized application, custom optical fibers needed to be developed. LLNL did this in collaboration with existing specialty optical fiber companies.

    A new fabrication capability

    “However, industry was slow to manufacture the fiber we needed,” Dawson said. “They had little motivation, since few R&D fibers turn into significant commercial sales. We realized that if we wanted to advance fiber laser technology for a wide array of applications, LLNL would need its own fabrication capability.”

    As a result, LLNL built its own 8.2-meter fiber draw tower to fabricate the needed specialized fibers. In addition to meeting this need, the draw tower has been the key to success on other important projects. It enabled development of fiber-optic acoustic sensing fibers and the E-band fiber-optic amplifier, two technologies that are revolutionizing laser sensing and communication.

    Since commissioning the fiber draw tower, LLNL has applied NIF optics cleaning techniques to microstructured optical fibers to improve strength, loss and reliability. LLNL also has developed consolidation and grinding processes to further open the design space for new optical fibers.

    To correct ground-based telescopes with primary mirrors in the 30-meter-diameter range, laser guide stars will be essential. “However, a single guide star laser only can interrogate part of the telescope aperture,” Pennington said. “With the huge apertures we anticipate, it will take multiple guide stars to inform adaptive optics for everything the telescope collects.” But discriminating the feedback from each individual beam creates a challenge.

    “One answer is to use pulsed laser guide stars, which allows discrimination by time,” Pennington said. This was the focus of the LLNL fiber guide star laser program.

    Next stop, Lick Observatory

    UCSC astronomers plan to install the fiber-based sodium laser guide star at the Lick Observatory in the spring of 2019. It will be run alongside the existing dye-based sodium laser guide star.

    “We are pretty excited to see what happens when we integrate this fiber-based sodium laser guide star into our adaptive optics system at Lick,” Dillon said. “We think it will produce more detailed images that allow more precise measurements.”

    This technology transfer to UCSC has been a long time in the making. That journey also reflects the advances in fiber laser technology. “As a community, the progress we’ve made is amazing,” Pennington said.

    -Patricia Koning

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    LLNL Campus

    Operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952. A Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), it is primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a partnership of the University of California, Bechtel, BWX Technologies, AECOM, and Battelle Memorial Institute in affiliation with the Texas A&M University System. In 2012, the laboratory had the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it.

    LLNL is self-described as “a premier research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security.” Its principal responsibility is ensuring the safety, security and reliability of the nation’s nuclear weapons through the application of advanced science, engineering and technology. The Laboratory also applies its special expertise and multidisciplinary capabilities to preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction, bolstering homeland security and solving other nationally important problems, including energy and environmental security, basic science and economic competitiveness.

    The Laboratory is located on a one-square-mile (2.6 km2) site at the eastern edge of Livermore. It also operates a 7,000 acres (28 km2) remote experimental test site, called Site 300, situated about 15 miles (24 km) southeast of the main lab site. LLNL has an annual budget of about $1.5 billion and a staff of roughly 5,800 employees.

    LLNL was established in 1952 as the University of California Radiation Laboratory at Livermore, an offshoot of the existing UC Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley. It was intended to spur innovation and provide competition to the nuclear weapon design laboratory at Los Alamos in New Mexico, home of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic weapons. Edward Teller and Ernest Lawrence,[2] director of the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley, are regarded as the co-founders of the Livermore facility.

    The new laboratory was sited at a former naval air station of World War II. It was already home to several UC Radiation Laboratory projects that were too large for its location in the Berkeley Hills above the UC campus, including one of the first experiments in the magnetic approach to confined thermonuclear reactions (i.e. fusion). About half an hour southeast of Berkeley, the Livermore site provided much greater security for classified projects than an urban university campus.

    Lawrence tapped 32-year-old Herbert York, a former graduate student of his, to run Livermore. Under York, the Lab had four main programs: Project Sherwood (the magnetic-fusion program), Project Whitney (the weapons-design program), diagnostic weapon experiments (both for the Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories), and a basic physics program. York and the new lab embraced the Lawrence “big science” approach, tackling challenging projects with physicists, chemists, engineers, and computational scientists working together in multidisciplinary teams. Lawrence died in August 1958 and shortly after, the university’s board of regents named both laboratories for him, as the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory.

    Historically, the Berkeley and Livermore laboratories have had very close relationships on research projects, business operations, and staff. The Livermore Lab was established initially as a branch of the Berkeley laboratory. The Livermore lab was not officially severed administratively from the Berkeley lab until 1971. To this day, in official planning documents and records, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is designated as Site 100, Lawrence Livermore National Lab as Site 200, and LLNL’s remote test location as Site 300.[3]

    The laboratory was renamed Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) in 1971. On October 1, 2007 LLNS assumed management of LLNL from the University of California, which had exclusively managed and operated the Laboratory since its inception 55 years before. The laboratory was honored in 2012 by having the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it. The LLNS takeover of the laboratory has been controversial. In May 2013, an Alameda County jury awarded over $2.7 million to five former laboratory employees who were among 430 employees LLNS laid off during 2008.[4] The jury found that LLNS breached a contractual obligation to terminate the employees only for “reasonable cause.”[5] The five plaintiffs also have pending age discrimination claims against LLNS, which will be heard by a different jury in a separate trial.[6] There are 125 co-plaintiffs awaiting trial on similar claims against LLNS.[7] The May 2008 layoff was the first layoff at the laboratory in nearly 40 years.[6]

    On March 14, 2011, the City of Livermore officially expanded the city’s boundaries to annex LLNL and move it within the city limits. The unanimous vote by the Livermore city council expanded Livermore’s southeastern boundaries to cover 15 land parcels covering 1,057 acres (4.28 km2) that comprise the LLNL site. The site was formerly an unincorporated area of Alameda County. The LLNL campus continues to be owned by the federal government.

    LLNL/NIF


    DOE Seal
    NNSA

     
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