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  • richardmitnick 6:01 pm on February 9, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "UK scientists build core components of global neutrino experiment", , LBNF/DUNE, STFC - Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK),   

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory: “UK scientists build core components of global neutrino experiment” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    February 9, 2021
    Becky Parker-Ellis

    Engineers and technicians in the UK have started production of key piece of equipment for a major international science experiment.

    The UK government has invested $89 million (£65 million) in the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, a particle physics experiment being built by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermilab at locations in both Illinois and South Dakota.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    DUNE will study elusive particles called neutrinos in a bid to advance our understanding of the origin and structure of the universe.

    DUNE will measure the so-called oscillations of the neutrinos as they travel at nearly the speed of light. An upgraded particle accelerator at Fermilab (outside Chicago) will accelerate subatomic particles and smash them into a target, forming a beam of neutrinos that will be fired 800 miles through the Earth’s crust to a specialized detector being built deep underground in Lead, South Dakota.

    FNAL new superconducting accelerator Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II).

    As part of this investment, the UK is delivering a series of vital detector components built at the Science and Technology Facilities Council’s Daresbury Laboratory, located at Sci-Tech Daresbury in the Liverpool City Region.

    2
    This winding head, designed by engineers at Daresbury Laboratory, is shown in action winding a wire around the end of an anode plane array for a DUNE detector prototype. Photo: STFC.

    STFC Daresbury Laboratory at Sci-Tech Daresbury in the Liverpool City Region.

    Fermilab and DUNE are funded and managed by the Department of Energy Office of Science.

    A big contribution

    Scientists will capture the neutrinos in a detector containing 70,000 tons of liquified argon gas held at ultralow temperature.

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF.

    The tiny electrical signals of neutrino interactions will be read out by anode plane assemblies known as APAs – huge rectangular planes covered with thousands of copper-beryllium wires, about the width of a human hair.

    Each APA stands at an impressive 2.3 by 6.3 meters, making them the largest individual components for DUNE, and they have to be built with millimeter precision.

    Daresbury Laboratory – with its university partners in the UK – will ultimately produce 150 APAs for DUNE.

    To meet this need, a large purpose-built APA factory was created at Daresbury inside a former accelerator hall, and 20 specific jobs were created for this task.

    Making excellent progress

    3
    Once the wires are wound around the APA frame, the wires are carefully soldered and cut. Credit: STFC.

    The Daresbury team has now started the production of the first APA for one of the ProtoDUNE detectors, a prototype in which researchers test the technology that will be used in DUNE’s detectors.

    Cern ProtoDune.

    The high-precision APAs will first undergo full testing in the ProtoDUNE-II detector at CERN before the full set of APAs for DUNE are built, a process that will take several years to complete.

    “It is impressive that the project team continues to made excellent progress in such a challenging year,” said Executive Chair of STFC Mark Thomson, professor at the University of Cambridge. “This development means that 2021 should be the year of the Final Design Review and beginning of mass production of APAs at Daresbury – a huge milestone for everyone involved and a major step towards the construction of this incredibly exciting neutrino experiment. I am deeply proud of the team at Daresbury for how hard they have continued to work in difficult circumstances.”

    United Kingdom collaboration

    DUNE is the first large international particle physics experiment to be hosted in the United States. UK physicists from the Universities of Liverpool and Manchester contribute to the scientific leadership of the project.

    U Manchester bloc

    “These detector components will play a key role in unraveling the mystery of neutrinos and their role in the formation of the Universe,” said DUNE spokesperson Professor Stefan Söldner-Rembold, of the University of Manchester.

    Excavation of the underground facilities in South Dakota have recently started.

    SURF DUNE LBNF Caverns at Sanford Lab.

    “The international team of neutrino physicists working on DUNE is excited to welcome the first of the large detector components built by the UK — the biggest non-U.S. contributor to this global experiment,” Söldner-Rembold said.

    UK involvement with the DUNE collaboration is through STFC and 14 universities: Birmingham, Bristol, Cambridge, Durham, Edinburgh, Imperial, Lancaster, Liverpool, UCL, Manchester, Oxford, Sheffield, Sussex and Warwick.

    U Cambridge bloc

    Durham U bloc

    U Oxford bloc

    See the full here.


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    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:40 am on May 12, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Why DUNE? Searching for the origin of matter", , , LBNF/DUNE, ,   

    From Sanford Underground Research Facility: “Why DUNE? Searching for the origin of matter” 

    SURF logo

    From Sanford Underground Research Facility


    Homestake Mining Company

    May 11, 2020
    Erin Lorraine Broberg

    1
    DUNE science goal icon: Origin of matter.Credit: Fermilab

    Why does matter exist? It may seem like a strange question, but according to current models of the early universe, matter shouldn’t exist.

    “According to what we know about the laws of physics, the amount of matter in the universe should be, effectively, zero,” said André de Gouvêa, a theoretical physicist with the DUNE collaboration and professor at Northwestern University.

    In physics, the discrepancy between what we see—a universe filled with galaxies and a planet teeming with life—and what models predict we should see—absolutely nothing—is called the “matter-antimatter asymmetry problem.” The international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, or DUNE, hosted by the Department of Energy’s Fermilab and to be built at Fermilab and Sanford Lab, seeks to solve this problem, which has dogged physicists for nearly a century.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment will measure neutrino oscillations by studying a neutrino that will be sent from Fermilab to the DUNE detectors at the Sanford Underground Neutrino Facility. The experiment will use a muon neutrino beam created at Fermilab’s Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility and send it 800 miles/1300 kilometers straight through the earth to South Dakota. By the time the neutrinos arrive in South Dakota, only a small fraction of neutrinos will be detected as muon neutrinos. Most neutrinos will interact as electron and tau neutrinos. Graphic courtesy Fermilab

    A universe-sized problem

    Despite what the models predict, we find ourselves amidst a universe replete with matter. Everything we see around us is made from just a few types of fundamental particles. Combined, they form protons and neutrons which join up with electrons to form atoms, which in turn bind to make molecules, building ever larger.

    But these key ingredients are only half the story.

    In the 1930s, physicists discovered “antiparticles” that mirror the fundamental particles. Identical in nearly every way, except with reversed charge, these equal yet opposite particles are called antimatter. Just like matter particles, antimatter particles could combine to build bigger and bigger units of antimatter—if they ever survived long enough do to so.

    Although matter and antimatter particles are nearly indistinguishable, the two forms do not coexist peacefully. When antimatter comes into contact with regular matter, particles and antiparticles immediately annihilate, leaving leaving pure energy in their wake.

    This complete, mutual annihilation is the impetus of the matter-antimatter asymmetry problem. Our current models dictate that the Big Bang created equal parts matter and antimatter. Within a second, all the matter and antimatter should have met and annihilated, leaving behind a universe with nothing but energy in the form of light.

    2
    Identical in nearly every way, except with reversed charge, these equal yet opposite particles are called antimatter. Graphic courtesy Fermilab

    “The problem is, if we take our favorite model and calculate the evolution of the universe, we get a prediction that is completely off,” de Gouvêa said. “There should not be any matter in the universe we live in today.”

    We know, of course, that this didn’t happen. We live in a matter-dominated universe with swirling galaxies, innumerable stars and at least one life-sustaining planet. Somehow, about one billionth of the total amount of matter created in the Big Bang managed to evade annihilation and fill the universe with the matter we see today. Thus, the matter-antimatter asymmetry problem.

    Physicists believe there is an undiscovered mechanism, hidden in the wrinkles of nature’s laws, that gave matter an initial advantage over antimatter. And for nearly a century, they’ve been trying to pinpoint it.

    A crack in nature’s symmetry

    Because matter and antimatter are mirror images of each other, physicists assumed that the laws of nature applied to both matter particles and antimatter particles in the exact same way. In physics, this type of equality is called a “symmetry.”

    According to this idea, weak and strong forces should bind particles and antiparticles without discrimination. Gravity should pull on antimatter with the same force it exerts on matter. Magnets should attract oppositely charged particles and antiparticles with the same gusto. In fact, an entire universe made of antimatter should look identical to the one we live in today.

    This assumption of a perfect symmetry among the fundamental building blocks of the universe held true until the 1960s, when James Cronin and Val Fitch made the shocking discovery that, in a very specific case, the universe treats matter slightly different than antimatter.

    Their Nobel Prize-winning experiment examined the way that quarks (fundamental particles that make up protons and neutrons) and antiquarks (their corresponding antiparticles) interacted with the weak force. Rather than treating quarks and antiquarks the same way, the weak force favored quarks in an infamous violation of what is called the Charge Parity (CP) symmetry.

    In other words, the universe had revealed a slight preference for matter over antimatter.

    3
    CP violation experiment: In 1963, a beam from BNL’s Alternating Gradient Synchrotron and the pictured detectors salvaged from the Cosmotron were used to prove the violation of conjugation (C) and parity (P) – winning the Nobel Prize in physics for Princeton University physicists James Cronin and Val Fitch. Photo courtesy Brookhaven National Laboratory.

    This discovery stunned the particle physics community. In the decades that followed, researchers continued to make precision measurements of these decays, combing their data for new physics that might be lurking within this phenomenon. Thirty years after Cronin and Fitch’s discovery, Elizabeth Worcester was making such measurements at Fermilab’s Tevatron with the KTeV experiment.

    “In the 1990s, we were studying the same decays in which CP violation was first observed,” said Worcester, who is now a DUNE physcis co-coordinator and physicist at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

    This glitch in the laws of nature specifically caught the attention of physicists studying the imbalance of matter and antimatter in the universe. Was this violation of CP symmetry the mechanism that allowed some matter to escape annihilation after the Big Bang?

    Subsequent experiments combined with more and more sophisticated calculations demonstrated that nature’s unequal treatment of quarks and antiquarks is not quite big enough to account for the gaping discrepancy we see today.

    However, scientists think the existence of CP violation is a major clue.

    “This violation could mean there is something very fundamental about the laws of nature that we are missing,” de Gouvêa said.

    As soon as Cronin and Fitch made their discovery, physicists began to wonder if other fundamental particles broke the same symmetry. Perhaps multiple sources of CP violation, when combined, could explain how so much matter escaped annihilation in the early universe.

    By finding another, even bigger crack in this symmetry, physicists aim to prove that the universe has an overarching preference for matter, making our current universe possible.

    A ghost-like candidate

    If quarks didn’t provide enough CP violation in the early universe, could another category of elementary particles known as neutrinos have provided another way to favor matter over antimatter?

    “If you look at everything that we’ve learned about neutrinos so far, it indicates that CP could be violated in the neutrino sector,” de Gouvêa said. “There is no specific reason to expect it not to be violated.”

    Neutrinos are extremely challenging to work with. Trillions of these particles pass through you each second. Their miniscule mass and neutral charge make them almost impossible to detect. Building an experiment to test whether these ghost-like particles violate the CP symmetry is even more ambitious.

    “The reason we don’t know if neutrinos violate CP symmetry is purely an experimental issue,” said Ryan Patterson, DUNE physics co-coordinator and professor of physics at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). “Neutrinos could violate CP a lot, but we don’t know yet because the experiments up to this point haven’t been sensitive enough.”

    One peculiar property of neutrinos, however, makes the DUNE experiment possible. As neutrinos speed through the universe just under the speed of light, they alternate between three different types, or flavors. This process is called oscillation.

    4
    As neutrinos speed through the universe just under the speed of light, they alternate between three different types, or flavors. This process is called oscillation. Graphic courtesy Fermilab

    “In regard to neutrinos, we only have one realistic way of measuring CP violation: it will show itself in the way neutrinos oscillate between flavors,” de Gouvêa said.

    In principle, the measurement is quite simple, according to de Gouvêa.

    “You simply compare a matter process with an antimatter process, and then you ask if they agree,” de Gouvêa said. To measure the CP violation, researchers must compare the oscillations of neutrinos with the oscillations of antineutrinos. If there is a discrepancy in the way they oscillate over a distance, then neutrinos break the symmetry.

    The difficult part of the experiment is that neutrino oscillations occur over hundreds of miles. To measure a deviation or discrepancy, researchers would need… well, they would need to build a long-baseline neutrino facility.

    Are neutrinos the reason we exist?

    The particulars of this universe-sized mystery have guided the design of the aptly named Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), which will house the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. Stretching across the Midwest, with infrastructure located at Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois and at Sanford Lab in Lead, South Dakota, the facility allows researchers to measure just how neutrinos and antineutrinos oscillate over long distances.

    It works like this: a particle accelerator will generate intense beams of neutrinos and antineutrinos at Fermilab. The beams will travel 800 miles straight through rock and earth – no tunnel needed – to enormous particle detectors located deep underground at Sanford Underground Research Facility (Sanford Lab), where 4,850 feet of rock overburden shield the detectors from unwanted background signals.

    During their trip through the Earth’s crust—which takes just four milliseconds—the neutrinos and antineutrinos will oscillate, changing from one flavor into another. Conveniently, the distance between Fermilab and Sanford Lab is ideal for this measurement; by the time the particles arrive at Sanford Lab, their oscillations will be at their peak.

    “To get the best measurement, we put the detectors right where we expect the oscillation to be maximal,” Patterson said.

    When the beam reaches Sanford Lab, some of the neutrinos and antineutrinos will collide with argon atoms inside the detectors. These collisions result in unique signals. By measuring and comparing hundreds of these signals, researchers will be able to tell if neutrinos and antineutrinos oscillate in different ways – the sure-tell sign of CP symmetry violation – and if so, by how much.

    “I think what the neutrinos are going to tell us could change our understanding of nature in a very interesting way,” de Gouvêa said.

    So, why DUNE? In a nutshell, it could help scientists answer one of the big unsolved questions in science and give all of us an answer to the reason we—and everything else in the universe—exists.

    That, however, is only part of the story. Stay tuned for part II of our series of stories about the science of DUNE.

    See the full article here .


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    About us.
    The Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota, advances our understanding of the universe by providing laboratory space deep underground, where sensitive physics experiments can be shielded from cosmic radiation. Researchers at the Sanford Lab explore some of the most challenging questions facing 21st century physics, such as the origin of matter, the nature of dark matter and the properties of neutrinos. The facility also hosts experiments in other disciplines—including geology, biology and engineering.

    The Sanford Lab is located at the former Homestake gold mine, which was a physics landmark long before being converted into a dedicated science facility. Nuclear chemist Ray Davis earned a share of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2002 for a solar neutrino experiment he installed 4,850 feet underground in the mine.

    Homestake closed in 2003, but the company donated the property to South Dakota in 2006 for use as an underground laboratory. That same year, philanthropist T. Denny Sanford donated $70 million to the project. The South Dakota Legislature also created the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to operate the lab. The state Legislature has committed more than $40 million in state funds to the project, and South Dakota also obtained a $10 million Community Development Block Grant to help rehabilitate the facility.

    In 2007, after the National Science Foundation named Homestake as the preferred site for a proposed national Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) began reopening the former gold mine.

    In December 2010, the National Science Board decided not to fund further design of DUSEL. However, in 2011 the Department of Energy, through the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, agreed to support ongoing science operations at Sanford Lab, while investigating how to use the underground research facility for other longer-term experiments. The SDSTA, which owns Sanford Lab, continues to operate the facility under that agreement with Berkeley Lab.

    The first two major physics experiments at the Sanford Lab are 4,850 feet underground in an area called the Davis Campus, named for the late Ray Davis. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is housed in the same cavern excavated for Ray Davis’s experiment in the 1960s.

    LBNL LZ project at SURF, Lead, SD, USA, will replace LUX at SURF

    In October 2013, after an initial run of 80 days, LUX was determined to be the most sensitive detector yet to search for dark matter—a mysterious, yet-to-be-detected substance thought to be the most prevalent matter in the universe. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment, also on the 4850 Level, is searching for a rare phenomenon called “neutrinoless double-beta decay” that could reveal whether subatomic particles called neutrinos can be their own antiparticle. Detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay could help determine why matter prevailed over antimatter. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment is adjacent to the original Davis cavern.

    LUX’s mission was to scour the universe for WIMPs, vetoing all other signatures. It would continue to do just that for another three years before it was decommissioned in 2016.

    In the midst of the excitement over first results, the LUX collaboration was already casting its gaze forward. Planning for a next-generation dark matter experiment at Sanford Lab was already under way. Named LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ), the next-generation experiment would increase the sensitivity of LUX 100 times.

    SLAC physicist Tom Shutt, a previous co-spokesperson for LUX, said one goal of the experiment was to figure out how to build an even larger detector.
    “LZ will be a thousand times more sensitive than the LUX detector,” Shutt said. “It will just begin to see an irreducible background of neutrinos that may ultimately set the limit to our ability to measure dark matter.”
    We celebrate five years of LUX, and look into the steps being taken toward the much larger and far more sensitive experiment.

    Another major experiment, the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE)—a collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and Sanford Lab, is in the preliminary design stages. The project got a major boost last year when Congress approved and the president signed an Omnibus Appropriations bill that will fund LBNE operations through FY 2014. Called the “next frontier of particle physics,” LBNE will follow neutrinos as they travel 800 miles through the earth, from FermiLab in Batavia, Ill., to Sanford Lab.

    FNAL LBNE/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    LBNE

    U Washington Majorana Demonstrator Experiment at SURF

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will contain 40 kg of germanium; up to 30 kg will be enriched to 86% in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will be deployed deep underground in an ultra-low-background shielded environment in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. The goal of the DEMONSTRATOR is to determine whether a future 1-tonne experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a 4-keV region of interest around the 76Ge 0νββ Q-value at 2039 keV. MAJORANA plans to collaborate with GERDA for a future tonne-scale 76Ge 0νββ search.

    CASPAR at SURF


    CASPAR is a low-energy particle accelerator that allows researchers to study processes that take place inside collapsing stars.

    The scientists are using space in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, to work on a project called the Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR). CASPAR uses a low-energy particle accelerator that will allow researchers to mimic nuclear fusion reactions in stars. If successful, their findings could help complete our picture of how the elements in our universe are built. “Nuclear astrophysics is about what goes on inside the star, not outside of it,” said Dan Robertson, a Notre Dame assistant research professor of astrophysics working on CASPAR. “It is not observational, but experimental. The idea is to reproduce the stellar environment, to reproduce the reactions within a star.”

     
  • richardmitnick 1:53 pm on May 4, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Data onslaught, , LBNF/DUNE, ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “DUNE prepares for data onslaught” 

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    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    May 4, 2020
    Jim Daley

    The international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, hosted by Fermilab, will be one of the most ambitious attempts ever made at understanding some of the most fundamental questions about our universe.

    LBNF/DUNE

    SURF-Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    SURF DUNE LBNF Caverns at Sanford Lab


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    Currently under construction at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota, DUNE will provide a massive target for neutrinos. When it’s operational, DUNE will comprise around 70,000 tons of liquid argon — more than enough to fill a dozen Olympic-sized swimming pools — contained in cryogenic tanks nearly a mile underground.

    Neutrinos are ubiquitous. They were formed in the first seconds after the Big Bang, even before atoms could form, and they are constantly being produced by nuclear reactions in stars. When massive stars explode and become supernovae, the vast majority of the energy given off in the blast is released as a burst of neutrinos.

    In the laboratory, scientists use particle accelerators to make neutrinos. In DUNE’s case, Fermilab accelerators will generate the world’s most powerful high-energy neutrino beam, aiming it at the DUNE neutrino detector 800 miles (1,300 kilometers) away in South Dakota.

    When any of these neutrinos — star-born or terrestrial — strikes one of the argon atoms in the DUNE detector, a cascade of particles results. Every time this happens, billions of detector digits are generated, which must be saved and analyzed further by collaborators over the world. The resulting data that will be churned out by the detector will be immense. So, while construction continues in South Dakota, scientists around the world are hard at work developing the computing infrastructure necessary to handle the massive volumes of data the experiment will produce.

    3
    The goal of the DUNE Computing Consortium is to establish a global computing network that can handle the massive data dumps DUNE will produce by distributing them across the grid. Photo: Reidar Hahn, Fermilab

    The first step is ensuring that DUNE is connected to Fermilab with the kind of bandwidth that can carry tens of gigabits of data per second, said Liz Sexton-Kennedy, Fermilab’s chief information officer. As with other aspects of the collaboration, it requires “a well-integrated partnership,” she said. Each neutrino collision in the detector will produce an array of information to be analyzed.

    “When there’s a quantum interaction at the center of the detector, that event is physically separate from the next one that happens,” Sexton-Kennedy said. “And those two events can be processed in parallel. So, there has to be something that creates more independence in the computing workflow that can split up the work.”

    Sharing the load

    One way to approach this challenge is by distributing the workflow around the world. Mike Kirby of Fermilab and Andrew McNab of the University of Manchester in the UK are the technical leads of the DUNE Computing Consortium, a collective effort by members of the DUNE collaboration and computing experts at partner institutions. Their goal is to establish a global computing network that can handle the massive data dumps DUNE will produce by distributing them across the grid.

    “We’re trying to work out a roadmap for DUNE computing in the next 20 years that can do two things,” Kirby said. “One is an event data model,” which means figuring out how to handle the data the detector produces when a neutrino collision occurs, “and the second is coming up with a computing model that can use the conglomerations of computing resources around the world that are being contributed by different institutions, universities and national labs.”

    It’s no small task. The consortium includes dozens of institutions, and the challenge is ensuring the computers and servers at each are orchestrated together so that everyone on the project can carry out their analyses of the data. A basic challenge, for example, is making sure a computer in Switzerland or Brazil recognizes a login from a computer at Fermilab.

    Coordinating computing resources across a distributed grid has been done before, most notably by the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, which federates the United States’ Open Science Grid and others around the world. But this is the first time an experiment at this scale led by Fermilab has used this distributed approach.

    “Much of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid design assumes data originates at CERN and that meetings will default to CERN, but as DUNE now has an associate membership of WLCG things are evolving,” said Andrew McNab, DUNE’s international technical lead for computing. “One of the first steps was hosting the monthly WLCG Grid Deployment Board town hall at Fermilab last September, and DUNE computing people are increasingly participating in WLCG’s task forces and working groups.”

    “We’re trying to build on a lot of the infrastructure and software that’s already been developed in conjunction with those two efforts and extend it a little bit for our specific needs,” Kirby said. “It’s a great challenge to coordinate all of the computing around the world. In some sense, we’re kind of blazing a new trail, but in many ways, we are very much reliant on a lot of the tools that were already developed.”

    Supernovae signals

    Another challenge is that DUNE has to organize the data it collects differently from particle accelerator physics experiments.

    “For us, a typical neutrino event from the accelerator beam is going to generate something on the order of six gigabytes of data,” Kirby said. “But if we get a supernova neutrino alert,” in which a neutrino burst from a supernova arrives, signaling the cosmic explosion before light from it arrives at Earth, “a single supernova burst record could be as much as 100 terabytes of data.”

    One terabyte equals one trillion bytes, an amount of data equal to about 330 hours of Netflix movies. Created in a few seconds, that amount of data is a huge challenge because of the computer processing time needed to handle it. DUNE researchers must begin recording data soon after a neutrino alert is triggered, and it adds up quickly. But it will also offer an opportunity to learn about neutrino interactions that take place inside supernovae while they’re exploding.

    McNab said DUNE’s computing requirements are also slightly different because the size of each of the events it will capture is typically 100 times larger than the LHC experiments like ATLAS or CMS.

    “So, the computers need more memory — not 100 times more, because we can be clever about how we use it, but we’re pushing the envelope certainly,” McNab said. “And that’s before we even start talking about the huge events if we see a supernova.”

    Georgia Karagiorgi, a physicist at Columbia University who leads data selection efforts for the DUNE Data Acquisition Consortium, said a nearby supernova will generate up to thousands of interactions in the DUNE detector.

    “That will allow us to answer questions we have about supernova dynamics and about the properties of neutrinos themselves,” she said.

    To do so, DUNE scientists will have to combine data on the timing of neutrino arrival, their abundance and what kinds of neutrinos are present.

    “If neutrinos have weird, new types of interactions as they’re propagating through the supernova during the explosion, we might expect modifications to the energy distribution of those neutrinos as a function of time” as they are picked up by the detector, Karagiorgi said. “That goes hand-in-hand with very detailed, and also quite computationally intensive, simulations, with different theoretical assumptions going into them, to actually be able to extract our science. We need both the theoretical simulations and the actual data to make progress.”

    Gathering that data is a huge endeavor. When a supernova event occurs, “we read out our far-detector modules for about 100 seconds continuously,” Kirby said.

    Because the scientists don’t know when a supernova will happen, they have to start collecting data as soon as an alert occurs and could be waiting for 30 seconds or longer for the neutrino burst to conclude. All the while, data could be piling up.

    To prevent too much buildup, Kirby said, the experiment will use an approach called a circular buffer, in which memory that doesn’t include neutrino hits is reused, not unlike rewinding and recording over the tape in a video cassette.

    McNab said the supernovae aspect of DUNE is also presenting new opportunities for computing collaboration.

    “I’m a particle physicist by training, and one of my favorite aspects about working on this project is that way that it connects to other scientific disciplines, particularly astronomy,” he said. In the UK, particle physics and astronomy computing are collectively providing support for DUNE, the Vera C. Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time, and the Square Kilometer Array radio telescopes on the same computers. “And then we have the science aspect that, if we do see a supernova, then we will hopefully be viewing it with multiple wavelengths using these different instruments. DUNE provides an excellent pathfinder for the computing, because we already have real data coming from DUNE’s prototype detectors that needs to be processed.”

    Kirby said that the computing effort is leading to exciting new developments in applications on novel architectures, artificial intelligence and machine learning on diverse computer platforms.

    “In the past, we’ve focused on doing all of our data processing and analysis on CPUs and standard Intel and PC processors,” he said. “But with the rise of GPUs [graphics processing units] and other computing hardware accelerators such as FPGAs [field-programmable gate arrays] and ASICs [application-specific integrated circuits], software has been written specifically for those accelerators. That really has changed what’s possible in terms of event identification algorithms.”

    These technologies are already in use for the on-site data acquisition system in reducing the terabytes per second generated by the detectors down to the gigabytes per second transferred offline. The challenge that remains for offline is figuring out how to centrally manage these applications across the entire collaboration and get answers back from distributed centers across the grid.

    “How do we stitch all of that together to make a cohesive computing model that gets us to physics as fast as possible?” Kirby said. “That’s a really incredible challenge.”

    This work is supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science.

    Fermilab is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit energy.gov/science.

    See the full here.


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    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 5:49 pm on June 20, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL and Spain, , LBNF/DUNE, ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “The enduring collaboration between Spain and Fermilab” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    June 20, 2019
    Caitlyn Buongiorno

    In 2015, 700 scientists from around the world came together and established a collaboration on neutrino research that has grown to include more than 1,000 scientists from over 30 countries. And Spain was involved from the beginning.

    “It was an exciting time,” said Inés Gil-Botella, member of Fermilab’s Physics Advisory Committee and senior scientist at Spain’s Center for Energy, Environment and Technology Research (CIEMAT). “It was a huge step toward a neutrino-based partnership between Fermilab and Spain, and the rest of the world.”

    The early collaboration meetings set the stage for what would quickly become the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, a name Gil-Botella remembers the early collaboration voting on. Already involved in the development of similar technology at the European laboratory CERN, Spanish institutions brought technical expertise of photon detectors and liquid-argon cryostats to the collaboration.

    “Spanish scientists and institutions have a long history of working with Fermilab and have made countless important contributions over the years,” said Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer. “Projects such as the development of the photon detection system are critical to the success of DUNE, and we benefit from the expertise of our colleagues from Spain.”

    1
    A CIEMAT technician installs the photon detection system in one of the ProtoDUNE detectors. Photo: Enrique Calvo, CIEMAT

    Currently, Spain is developing a photon detection system for DUNE’s giant particle detector. This is key to identifying and recreating a particle interaction. The system will allow scientists to understand when an interaction took place inside the detector and to determine the energy of that interaction. Knowing this information helps scientists narrow down when and where the neutrinos came from – a supernova for instance. The system is currently being tested in one of the aptly named ProtoDUNE detectors at CERN. Scientists from Spain are also working on controls and instrumentation for the DUNE detector that let researchers adjust voltages and monitor temperatures, for example.

    Well before DUNE was even an idea, Spain was participating in research at Fermilab – most notably with the CDF collaboration, which, along with the DZero collaboration, discovered the top quark in 1995 using the Tevatron particle collider.

    FNAL/Tevatron map

    FNAL/Tevatron CDF detector

    FNAL/Tevatron DZero detector

    During this era, Spanish institutions contributed the expertise they gained at CERN in collider physics to Fermilab experiments. One link between the Tevatron era and the current DUNE era was scientist Mario Martinez of the Spanish Institute for High Energy Physics in Barcelona. A leader in the CDF experiment, he also previously served as a representative for Spain in the early days of LBNF/DUNE.

    2
    Collaborators at the Institute of Corpuscular Physics in Valencia, Spain, constructed this 25-foot thermometer for one of the ProtoDUNE detectors at CERN. Photo: CERN

    Today, more than 60 scientists at 15 Spanish institutions contribute their expertise to more than a dozen experiments at Fermilab. In addition to their research at the Large Hadron Collider, Spanish scientists bring knowledge about neutrino physics, liquid-argon cryostats, computing, cosmology and more to the Fermilab research program. CIEMAT and the University of Granada, for example, are helping build the Short-Baseline Near Detector, which is part of Fermilab’s Short-Baseline Neutrino Program and relies on the liquid-argon detector technology that is also used by DUNE.

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    Neutrinos have three “flavors,” or types: muon, electron and tau. The SBN program will measure how the neutrinos’ flavors change as they go through the three detectors, which allows scientists to look for the existence of a fourth type of neutrino. The Short-Baseline Near Detector, the SBN detector closest to the neutrino production point, will record over a million neutrino interactions per year, providing scientists with an enormous treasure trove of data for analysis.

    Spain is contributing to the simulation-side of the photon detection system of SBND. The two institutions hope to expand their involvement when the SBN program begins taking data.

    “We are open to help with what they need,” said Gil-Botella. “Physics is the goal, and I think the world has a lot to gain.”

    3
    CIEMAT collaborators mount the fibers of one of the ProtoDUNE light calibration system. Photo: Enrique Calvo, CIEMAT

    Spain also collaborates with Fermilab on theoretical physics. Scientists are searching for ways experiments like DUNE can go beyond the Standard Model of physics, the framework that describes nature’s fundamental forces and particles at the subatomic scale. Scientists from the Institute of Corpuscular Physics (IFIC) in Valencia, the Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM) and the Institute for High Energy Physics in Barcelona are frequent collaborators with Fermilab’s theoretical physics group. Fermilab has also established formal staff and student exchange programs with both IFIC and UAM and plans to establish a similar program with the University of Barcelona. Every year the Fermilab Theoretical Physics Department receives many students, postdocs and scientists from Spanish institutions who come to Fermilab for several weeks to perform their theoretical work and interact with Fermilab theorists and experimentalists.

    “If you are a neutrino physicist, Fermilab is the laboratory of reference,” said Michel Sorel, a scientist at IFIC who has been involved in Fermilab neutrino experiments for the past 20 years. “It is the neutrino capital of the world.”

    Groups at the Institute of Space Sciences, the Institute for High Energy Physics and CIEMAT also participate in the Fermilab-hosted Dark Energy Survey, which completed its sixth and final year of data-taking earlier this year.

    This survey is an international collaboration that mapped a 5,000-square-degree area of the sky, recording information from 300 million galaxies.

    The contributions go both ways. For example, Fermilab scientists are working on NEXT, the Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC. Located at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in Spain, NEXT seeks to determine whether or not neutrinos are their own antiparticles.

    “We are collaborating on a day-to-day basis,” Sorel said. “It is a very close relationship both for the institutions and the individual scientists.”

    For more information on Spain’s contributions at Fermilab, look at some of the previously published articles.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:11 pm on May 30, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , LBNF/DUNE,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility pre-excavation work is in full swing” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    May 2, 2019
    Kurt Riesselmann

    Unlocking the mysteries of neutrinos in order to get a clearer picture of the universe and understand why we are here at all, is a monumental undertaking. However, before the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, hosted by the Department of Energy’s Fermilab, can start solving those mysteries, a massive construction project is required to provide the necessary infrastructure, named the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility.

    The LBNF construction in Lead, South Dakota is under way, and a fleet of yellow pickup trucks has become the talk of the town and evidence of the beehive of construction activity that Fermilab is managing at the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

    These trucks are owned by the company Kiewit, part of the Kiewit-Alberici Joint Venture, who are preparing the construction site at Sanford Lab for the excavation of about 800,000 tons of rock to create the huge caverns for the South Dakota-portion of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility. (Prep work for the Illinois-portion of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility, to be built at Fermilab, will start early next year.)

    2
    The excavation of LBNF/DUNE caverns requires the transport of about 800,000 tons of rock from a mile underground to the surface, and then transporting it to its final resting place in a former mining area known as the Open Cut. Credit: Fermilab

    The excavation will create the three LBNF caverns that vary in length between 500 and 625 feet long, up to 70 feet wide and 95 feet tall. These caverns will house DUNE’s massive particle detectors and the necessary utilities.

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    Excavating such an enormous amount of rock a mile underground, bringing it to the surface, and then transporting it to its final resting place is a huge job. And creating the infrastructure for that job is a huge amount of work by itself—and is going on right now. Fortunately, the mile-deep shaft that workers will use to bring rock to the surface—known as the Ross Shaft—already exists and the seven-year-long shaft renovation project will soon wrap up. But other pre-excavation work remains to be done. The main tasks are (see photo gallery):

    Renovating the area at the bottom of the mile-deep Ross Shaft, where rock will be loaded into large buckets, called skips, that will travel up the shaft;
    Strengthening the Ross headframe—the structure that holds and operates the hoist that conveys the skips filled with rock to the surface;
    Refurbishing the three-story-tall rock crushing system next to the Ross headframe; it was last used in 2001 when the Ross Shaft was still used by the Homestake gold mine.
    Building and installing the three-quarter-mile-long conveyor system that will transport the crushed rock to the Open Cut, an open pit mining area excavated by the Homestake mining company in the 1980s. Despite the massive amount of rock to be excavated for the LBNF caverns, the deposited rock will fill less than one percent of the Open Cut.
    Rehabbing the existing tramway tunnel to prepare it for the installation of the conveyor system;
    Establishing the power infrastructure for operating the LBNF/DUNE experiment, which will include 70,000 tons of liquid argon cooled to minus 300 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 184 degrees Celsius).

    And remember, this massive construction project will enable some truly groundbreaking science. DUNE, hosted by Fermilab, will be the world’s most advanced experiment dedicated to studying the properties of mysterious subatomic particles called neutrinos.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    The DUNE detectors will enable scientists to study a neutrino beam generated at Fermilab. The DUNE collaboration includes more than 1,000 scientists from more than 30 countries around the world. A large prototype detector for the experiment, constructed at the European research center CERN, successfully began recording particle tracks in September.

    CERN Proto Dune

    For more information on LBNF/DUNE, see http://www.fnal.gov/dune.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

    FNAL MINERvA front face Photo Reidar Hahn

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL MINOS Far Detector in the Soudan Mine in northern Minnesota

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 5:54 pm on May 17, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Five (more) fascinating facts about DUNE, , , LBNF/DUNE, , ,   

    From Symmetry: “Five (more) fascinating facts about DUNE” 

    Symmetry Mag
    From Symmetry

    05/17/18
    Lauren Biron

    Engineering the incredible, dependable, shrinkable Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, designed to solve mysteries about tiny particles called neutrinos, is growing by the day. More than 1000 scientists from over 30 countries are now collaborating on the project. Construction of prototype detectors is well underway.

    Engineers are getting ready to carve out space for the mammoth particle detector a mile below ground.

    The international project is hosted by the Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory outside of Chicago—and it has people cracking engineering puzzles all around the globe. Here are five incredible engineering and design feats related to building the biggest liquid-argon neutrino experiment in the world.

    1. The DUNE detector modules can (and will) shrink by about half a foot (16.5 centimeters) when filled with liquid argon.
    2
    Artwork by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova

    Each of the large DUNE detector modules in South Dakota will be about 175 feet (58 meters) long, but everything has to be able to comfortably shrink when chilled to negative 300 degrees Fahrenheit (negative 184 degrees Celsius). The exterior box that holds all of cold material and detector components, also known as the cryostat, will survive thanks to something akin to origami. It will be made of square panels with folds on all sides, creating raised bumps or corrugations around each square. As DUNE cools by hundreds of degrees to liquid argon temperatures, the vessel can actually stay the same size because of those folds; the corrugation provides extra material that can spread out as the flat areas shrink. But inside, the components will be on the move. Many of the major detector components within the cryostat will be attached to the ceiling with a dynamic suspension system that allows them to move up to half a foot as they chill.

    2. Researchers must engineer a new kind of target to withstand the barrage of particles it will take to make the world’s most intense high-energy neutrino beam for DUNE.

    3
    Artwork by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova
    Targets are the material that a proton beam interacts with to produce neutrinos. The Fermilab accelerator complex is being upgraded with a new superconducting linear collider at the start of the accelerator chain to produce an even more powerful proton beam for DUNE—and that means engineers need a more robust target that can stand up to the intense onslaught of particles. Current neutrino beamlines at Fermilab use different targets—one with meter-long rows of water-cooled graphite tiles called fins, another with air-cooled beryllium. But engineers are working on a new helium-gas-cooled cylindrical rod target to meet the higher intensity. How intense is it? The new accelerator chain’s beam power will be delivered in short pulses with an instantaneous power of about 150 gigawatts, equivalent to powering 15 billion 100-watt lightbulbs at the same time for a fraction of a second.

    3. A single DUNE test detector component requires almost 15 miles of wire.
    4
    Artwork by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova
    Before scientists start building the liquid-argon neutrino detectors a mile under the surface in South Dakota, they want to be sure their technology is going to work as expected. In a ProtoDUNE test detector being constructed at CERN, they are testing pieces called “anode plane assemblies.”

    ProtoDune

    CERN Proto DUNE Maximillian Brice

    ProtoDune

    Each of these panels is made of almost 15 miles (24 kilometers) of precisely tensioned wire that has to lay flat—within a few millimeters. The wire is a mere 150 microns thick—about the width of two hairs. This panel of wires will attract and detect particles produced when neutrinos interact with the liquid argon in the detector—and hundreds will be needed for DUNE.

    4. DUNE will be the highest voltage liquid-argon experiment in the world.

    6
    Artwork by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova

    The four DUNE far detector modules, which will sit a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota, will use electrical components called field cages. These will capture particle tracks set in motion by a neutrino interaction. The different modules will feature different field cage designs, one of which has a target voltage of around 180,000 volts—about 1500 times as much voltage as you’d find in your kitchen toaster—while the other design is planning for 600,000 volts. This is much more than was produced by previous liquid-argon experiments like MicroBooNE and ICARUS (now both part of Fermilab’s short-baseline neutrino program), which typically operate between 70,000 and 80,000 volts. Building such a high-voltage experiment requires design creativity. Even “simple” things, from protecting against power surges and designing feedthroughs—the fancy plugs that bring this high voltage from the power supply to the detector—have to be carefully considered and, in some cases, built from scratch.

    5. Researchers expect DUNE’s data system to catch about 10 neutrinos per day—but must be able to catch thousands in seconds if a star goes supernova nearby.

    6
    Artwork by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova

    A supernova is a giant explosion that occurs when a star collapses in on itself. Most people imagine the dramatic burst of light and heat, but much of the energy (around 99 percent) is carried away by neutrinos that can then be recorded here on Earth in neutrino detectors. On an average day, DUNE will typically see a handful of neutrinos coming from the world’s most intense high-energy neutrino beam—around 10 per day at the start of the experiment. Because neutrinos interact very rarely with other matter; scientists must send trillions to their distant detectors to catch even a few. But so many neutrinos are released by a supernova that the detector could see several thousand neutrinos within seconds if a star explodes in our Milky Way galaxy. A dedicated group within DUNE is working on how best to rapidly record the enormous amount of data from a supernova, which will be about 50 terabytes in ten seconds.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    stem

    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
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