Tagged: Kavli Institute Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • richardmitnick 12:42 pm on January 18, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Kavli Institute   

    From Kavli: “Crowdsourcing the Universe: How Citizen Scientists are Driving Discovery” 

    KavliFoundation

    The Kavli Foundation

    1.18.16
    Winter 2016
    Adam Hadhazy

    Legions of volunteer, amateur astronomers are turning their eyes to the sky thanks to online image portals and doing extraordinary science.

    ASTRONOMERS ARE INCREASINGLY enlisting volunteer “citizen scientists” to help them examine a seemingly endless stream of images and measurements of the universe. These volunteers’ combined efforts are having a powerful impact on the study of the cosmos.

    1
    A collage of the 29 new gravitational lensing candidates discovered by citizen scientists using Space Warps. (Credit: Space Warps, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey)

    Just last November, a citizen science project called Space Warps announced the discovery of 29 new gravitational lenses, regions in the universe where massive objects bend the paths of photons (from galaxies and other light sources) as they travel toward Earth. As cosmic phenomena go, the lenses are highly prized by scientists because they offer tantalizing glimpses of objects too distant, and dim, to be seen through existing telescopes, as well as key information on the lensing objects themselves.

    The Space Warps’ haul of lenses is all the more impressive because of how it was obtained. During an eight-month period, about 37,000 volunteers combed through more than 430,000 digital images in a huge, online photo library of deep space. Automated computer programs have identified most of the 500 gravitational lenses on astronomer’s books. However, computers failed to flag the 29 lenses the Space Warps volunteers spotted, speaking to unique skills we humans possess.

    The Kavli Foundation spoke with three researchers, all co-authors of two papers published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society describing the Space Warps findings. In our roundtable, the researchers discussed the findings and the critical role citizen science is playing in furthering astronomical discovery.

    The participants were:

    Anupreeta More – is a project researcher at the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU) at the University of Tokyo. More is a co-principal investigator for Space Warps, a citizen project dedicated to identifying gravitational lenses.
    Aprajita Verma – is a senior researcher in the department of physics at the University of Oxford. Verma is also a co-principal investigator for Space Warps.
    Chris Lintott – is a professor of astrophysics and the citizen science lead at the University of Oxford. Lintott is a co-founder of Galaxy Zoo, a citizen science project in which volunteers classify types of galaxies, and the principal investigator for the Zooniverse citizen science web portal.

    The following is an edited transcript of the roundtable discussion. The participants have been provided the opportunity to amend or edit their remarks.

    The Kavli Foundation: Anupreeta and Aprajita, where did you get the idea — along with your co-principal investigator Phil Marshall of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology (KIPAC) at Stanford University — to put volunteers to work on identifying gravitational lenses starting back in 2013?

    ANUPREETA MORE: A few years ago, Chris Lintott gave a talk on citizen science at the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics in Chicago, where I was working at the time. It got me thinking about a lens search by citizen scientists.

    APRAJITA VERMA: For Phil Marshall and I, Space Warps grew out of Galaxy Zoo. Soon after Galaxy Zoo launched, I started to look at some of the galaxies that were being posted on the Galaxy Zoo user forum that had potential lensed features surrounding them. This was a great by product of the core Galaxy Zoo project. However, we realized that to find these incredibly rare sources, which are often confused with other objects, we really needed a tailored interface to efficiently find lenses. This grew into Space Warps.

    TKF: Chris, Galaxy Zoo itself was inspired by Stardust@home [a project running on BOINC software from UC Berkeley], the first astronomy-based citizen science project in which people played an active role. Until then, citizen scientists were often computer owners who offered up free processing power on their devices to aid in machine-driven data analysis. Were you concerned when you started Galaxy Zoo in 2007 that it would be hard to attract volunteers?

    CHRIS LINTOTT: Since Stardust@home involved people looking at images of a comet’s dust grains brought back by NASA’s Stardust space probe, we thought “Well, if people are willing to look at dust grains, then surely they’d be happy to look at our galaxies!”

    NASA Stardust spacecraft
    NASA/Stardust

    But that turned out to be almost beside the point. As we’ve done many of these citizen science projects over the years, we’ve discovered it’s not the quality of the images that matter. After all, our galaxies aren’t typically beautiful. They are not the Hubble Space Telescope shots that you’d expect to find on the front page of the New York Times.

    NASA Hubble Telescope
    NASA/ESA Hubble

    Our galaxies are often fuzzy, little, enigmatic blobs. The Space Warps images are pretty, but again they’re not the kind of thing you would sell as a poster in the gift shop at the Kennedy Space Center.

    It’s actually the ideas that get people excited. I think Space Warps and Galaxy Zoo have been successful because they have done a great job of explaining to people why we need their help. We’re saying to them: “Look, if you do this simple task, it allows us to do science.” This idea is best shown by Planet Hunters, a citizen science project that searches for exoplanets in data from NASA’s Kepler spacecraft.

    NASA Kepler Telescope
    NASA/Kepler

    Users are looking at graphs for fun. But because the idea is the discovery of exoplanets, people will put up with looking at data.

    TKF: What sort of unique science is made possible because of Space Warps?

    VERMA: Gravitational lenses allow us to look at objects, such as very distant galaxies, that are fainter and in much more detail than with the telescopes we have now. It’s enabling the kind of science we’ll be routinely doing with extremely large telescopes in the future.

    MORE: That’s right. Something unique about gravitational lensing is that it acts like a natural telescope and allows us to study some really faint, distant galaxies which we wouldn’t get to study otherwise. We’re seeing these distant galaxies in the early stages of their life cycle, which helps us understand how galaxies evolve over time.

    Also, in a gravitational lens system, it’s possible for us to study the properties of the foreground galaxies or galaxy groups that are gravitationally lensing the background sources. For example, we can measure the mass of these foreground galaxies and also study how mass is distributed in them.

    2
    Anupreeta More’s research specialty is gravitational lensing and its applications in measuring the mass distributions of matter and dark matter in galaxies, galaxy clusters and the universe as a whole. (Credit: Anupreeta More)

    TKF: Space Warps and other citizen science projects flourish because computer programs sometimes struggle at identifying features in data. Why do computers have trouble spotting the characteristic arc or blobby shapes of gravitational lenses that humans can?

    MORE: The problem is that these arc-like images of distant galaxies can have very different shapes and profiles. The process of lensing magnifies these galaxies’ images and can distort them. Also, these distant galaxies emit light at different wavelengths and can appear to have different colors. Furthermore, there are structures in these galaxies that can change the shape of the arcs.

    VERMA: Also, lots of spiral galaxies have bluish spiral arms that can look like lenses. We call these objects “lens impostors” and we find many more of these false positives compared to rare, true gravitational lenses.

    MORE: All these differences make it difficult to automate the process for finding lenses. But human beings are very good at pattern recognition. The dynamic range that our eyes and our brains offer is much greater than a computer algorithm.

    LINTOTT: Another thing to bear in mind in astronomy, particularly in Space Warps, is that we’re often looking for rare objects. A computer’s performance depends very strongly on how many examples you have to “train” it with. When you’re dealing with rare things, that’s often very difficult to do. We can’t assemble large collections of hundreds of thousands of examples of gravitational lenses because we don’t have them yet.

    Also, people — unlike computers — check beyond what we are telling them to look for when they review images. One of the great Space Warps examples is the discovery of a “red ring” gravitational lens. All the example lenses on the Space Warps site are blue in color. But because we have human classifiers, they had no trouble noticing this red thing that looks a little like these blue things they’ve been taught to keep an eye out for. Humans have an ability to make intuitive leaps like that, and that’s very important.

    VERMA: I echo the point that it’s very difficult to program diversity and adaptability into any computer algorithm, whereas we kind of get it for free from the citizen scientists! [Laughter]

    3
    Aprajita Verma researches galaxy formation and evolution, and is particularly interested in understanding the nature of galaxies at high redshift. She is also involved with two major next generation astronomy telescopes, the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). (Credit: Aprajita Verma)

    ESO E-ELT
    ESO E-ELT Interior
    ESO/E-ELT

    LSST Exterior
    LSST Interior
    LSST Camera
    LSST, building which will house it in Chile, and the camera, being built at SLAC

    KF: Aprajita and Anupreeta, what’s the importance of the red ring object Chris just mentioned that the Space Warps community discovered in 2014 and has nicknamed 9io9?

    VERMA: This object was a really exciting find, and it’s a classic example of something we hadn’t seen before that citizen scientists quickly found. We think that inside the background galaxy there’s both an active black hole, which is producing radio wave emissions, as well as regions of star-formation. They’re both stretched by the lensing into these spectacular arcs. It’s just a really nice example of what lensing can do. We’re still putting in further observations to try and really understand what this object is like.

    MORE: In this particular case with 9io9, there is the usual, main lensing galaxy, but then there is also another, small, satellite galaxy, whose mass and gravity are also contributing to the lensing. The satellite galaxy produces visible effects on the lensed images and we can use this to study its mass distribution. There are no other methods besides gravitational lensing which can provide as accurate a mass estimate for galaxies at such great distances.

    TKF: Besides 9io9, citizen astrophysicists have turned up other bizarre, previously unknown phenomena. One example is Hanny’s Voorwerp, a galaxy-size gas cloud discovered in 2007 in Galaxy Zoo. More recently, in 2015, Planet Hunters spotted huge decreases in the starlight coming from a star called KIC 8462. The cause could be an eclipsing swarm of comets; another, albeit unlikely, possibility that has set off rampant speculation on the Internet is that an alien megastructure is blocking light from the star. Why does citizen science seemingly work so well at making completely unexpected discoveries?

    LINTOTT: I often talk about the human ability to be distracted as a good thing. If we’re doing a routine task and something unusual comes along, we stop to pay attention to it. That’s rather hard to develop with automated computer systems. They can look for anomalies, but in astronomy, most anomalies are boring, such as satellites crossing in front of the telescope, or the telescope’s camera malfunctions.

    However, humans are really good at spotting interesting anomalies like Hanny’s Voorwerp, which looks like either an amorphous green blob or an evil Kermit the Frog, depending on how you squint at it. [Laughter] The point is, it’s something you want to pay attention to.

    The other great thing about citizen science is that the volunteers who find these unusual things start to investigate and become advocates for them. Citizen scientists will jump up and down and tell us professional scientists we should pay attention to something. The great Zooniverse discoveries have always been from that combination of somebody who’s distracted and then asks questions about what he or she has found.

    TKF: Aprajita and Chris, you are both working on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). It will conduct the largest-ever scan of the sky starting in 2022 and should turn up tons of new gravitational lenses. Do you envision a Space Warps-style citizen science project for LSST?

    VERMA: Citizens will play a huge role in the LSST, which is a game-changer for lensing. We know of about 500 lenses currently. LSST will find on the order of tens to hundreds of thousands of lenses. We will potentially require the skill that citizen scientists have in looking for exotic and challenging objects.

    Also, LSST’s dataset will have a time dimension. We’re really going to make a movie of the universe, and this will turn up a number of surprises. I can see citizen scientists being instrumental in a lot of the discoveries LSST will make.

    LINTOTT: One thing that’s challenging about LSST is the sheer size of the dataset. If you were a citizen scientist, say, who had subscribed to receive text message alerts for when objects change in the sky as LSST makes its movie of the universe, then you would end up with a couple of billion text messages a night. Obviously that would not work. So that means we need to filter the data. We’ll dynamically decide whether to assign a task to a machine or to a citizen scientist, or indeed to a professional scientist.

    4
    Chris Lintott develops a range of citizen science projects, with a particular focus on galaxy formation. (Credit: Chris Lintott)

    TKF: Chris, that comment reminds me of something you said to TIME magazine in 2008: “In many parts of science, we’re not constrained by what data we can get, we’re constrained by what we can do with the data we have. Citizen science is a very powerful way of solving that problem.” In this era of big data, how important do you all see citizen science being moving forward, given that computers will surely get better at visual recognition tasks?

    LINTOTT: In astronomy, if you’re looking at things that are routine, like a spiral galaxy or a common type of supernova, I think the machines will take over. They will do so having been trained on the large datasets that citizen scientists will provide. But I think there will be citizen involvement for a long while and it will become more interesting as we use machines to do more of the routine work and filter the data. The tasks for citizen scientists will involve more varied things — more of the unusual, Hanny’s Voorwerp-type of discoveries. Plus, a lot of unusual discoveries will need to be followed up, and I’d like to see citizen scientists get further into the process of analysis. Without them, I think we’re going to end up with a pile of interesting objects which professional scientists just don’t have time to deal with.

    VERMA: We have already seen a huge commitment from citizen scientists, particularly those who’ve spent a long time on Galaxy Zoo and Space Warps. For example, on Space Warps, we have a group of people who are interested in doing gravitational lens modeling, which has long been the domain of the professional astronomer. So we know that there’s an appetite there to do further analysis with the objects they’ve found. I think in the future, the citizen science community will work hand-in-hand with professional astronomers.

    TKF: Are there new citizen astrophysicist opportunities on the horizon related to your projects?

    LINTOTT: Galaxy Zoo has a new lease on life, actually. We just added in new galaxies from a telescope in Chile. These galaxies are relatively close and their images are beautiful. It’s our first proper look at the southern sky, so we have an all-new part of the universe to explore. It gives users a chance to be the first to see galaxies — if they get over to Galaxy Zoo quickly!

    VERMA: For Space Warps, we are expecting new data and new projects to be online next year.

    MORE: Here in Japan, we are leading an imaging survey called the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey and it’s going to be much larger and deeper than what we have been looking at so far. We expect to find more than an order of magnitude increase in the number of lenses. Currently, we are preparing images of the candidates from the HSC survey and hope to start a new lens search with Space Warps soon.

    5
    Arguably the most famous citizen astrophysicist discovery, Hanny’s Voorwerp—Dutch for Hanny’s Object—is seen here by the Hubble Space Telescope in 2011. The Voorwerp is a gas cloud the size of galaxy and appears green due to glowing oxygen. A Dutch schoolteacher, Hanny van Arkel, spotted the object while volunteering for Galaxy Zoo. Credit: NASA, ESA, W. Keel (University of Alabama), and the Galaxy Zoo Team)

    TKF: Is it the thrill of discovery that entices most citizen scientist volunteers? Some of the images in Galaxy Zoo have never been seen before because they were taken by a robotic telescope and stored away. Volunteers therefore have the chance to see something no one else ever has.

    MORE: That discovery aspect is personal. I think it’s always exciting for anyone.

    LINTOTT: When we set up Galaxy Zoo, we thought it would be a huge motivation to see something that’s yours and be the first human to lay eyes on a galaxy. Exploring space in that way is something that until Galaxy Zoo only happened on “Star Trek.” [Laughter]

    In the years since, we’ve also come to realize that citizen science is a collective endeavor. The people who’ve been through 10,000 images without finding anything have contributed to the discovery of something like the red ring galaxy just as much as the person who happens to stumble across it. You need to get rid of the empty data as well. I’ve been surprised by how much our volunteers believe that. It’s a far cry from the traditional, public view of scientific discovery in which the lone genius makes the discovery and gets all the credit.

    VERMA: We set out with Space Warps for citizen scientists to be part of our collaboration and they’ve really enabled us to produce important findings. They’ve inspired us with their dedication and productivity. We’ve learned from our analysis that basically anyone who joins Space Warps has an impact on the results. We are also especially grateful for a very dedicated, diligent group that has made most of the lens classifications. We look forward to welcoming everyone back in our future projects!

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Kavli Foundation, based in Oxnard, California, is dedicated to the goals of advancing science for the benefit of humanity and promoting increased public understanding and support for scientists and their work.

    The Foundation’s mission is implemented through an international program of research institutes, professorships, and symposia in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, neuroscience, and theoretical physics as well as prizes in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:27 pm on January 6, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Detecting magnetic fields inside stars, Kavli Institute   

    From Kavli: “Stellar Revelations” 

    KavliFoundation

    The Kavli Foundation

    Temp 1
    Internal magnetic fields of red giants are up to 10 million times stronger than the Earth’s. No image credit foound

    Using a recently developed technique to detect magnetic fields inside stars, a group of astronomers — including Matteo Cantiello and Lars Bildsten from UC Santa Barbara’s Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics (KITP) — has discovered that strong magnetic fields are very common in stars. The group’s findings appear in the journal Nature.

    “We have applied a novel theoretical idea that we developed just a few months ago to thousands of stars and the results are just extraordinary,” said Cantiello, a specialist in stellar astrophysics at KITP.

    Previously, only a very small percentage of stars were known to have strong magnetic fields. Therefore, current scientific models of how stars evolve do not include magnetic fields as a fundamental component.

    “Such fields have simply been regarded as insignificant for our general understanding of stellar evolution,” said lead author Dennis Stello, an astrophysicist at the University of Sydney in Australia. “Our result clearly shows this assumption needs to be revisited because we found that up to 60 percent of stars host strong fields.”

    2
    Jim Fuller, Matteo Cantiello and Lars Bildsten (Credit: Bill Wolf)

    Until now, astronomers have been unable to detect these magnetic fields because such fields hide deep in the stellar interior, out of sight from conventional observation methods that measure only the surface properties of stars. The research team turned to asteroseismology, a technique that probes beyond the stellar surface, to determine the presence of very strong magnetic fields near the stellar core.

    “The stellar core is the region where the star produces most of its energy through thermonuclear reactions,” Cantiello explained. “So the field is likely to have important effects on how stars evolve since it can alter the physical processes that take place in the core.”

    Most stars — like the sun — are subject to continuous oscillations. “Their interior is essentially ringing like a bell,” noted co-author Jim Fuller, a postdoctoral scholar from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. “And like a bell or a musical instrument, the sound produced reveals physical properties, such as size, temperature and what they are made of.”

    The researchers used very precise data from NASA’s Kepler space telescope to measure tiny brightness variations caused by the ringing sound inside thousands of stars.

    NASA Kepler Telescope
    NASA/Kepler

    They found that certain oscillation frequencies were missing in 60 percent of the stars due to suppression by strong magnetic fields in the stellar cores.

    “It’s like having a trumpet that doesn’t sound normal because something is hiding inside it, altering the sound it produces,” Stello said.

    This magnetic suppression effect had previously been seen in only a few dozen stars. However, the new analysis of the full data set from Kepler revealed that this effect is prevalent in stars that are only slightly more massive than the sun.

    According to Cantiello, such intermediate mass stars are hotter and more luminous, and their cores are stirred by convection. “We believe that the magnetic field is created by this ‘boiling’ sequence and stored inside the star for the remaining evolutionary phase. Astrophysicists previously have suggested this but it was very speculative; now it seems clear that this is the case,” he said.

    “This is a very important result that will enable scientists to test more directly current theories for how magnetic fields form and evolve in stellar interiors,” said co-author Bildsten, the director of KITP. “When a star dies, the presence of strong magnetic fields can have a profound impact, possibly resulting in some of the brightest explosions in the universe.”

    This research could potentially lead to a better general understanding of stellar magnetic dynamos, including the one controlling the sun’s 11-year sunspot cycle, which is known to affect communication systems and cloud cover on Earth.

    “So far, the study of stellar magnetic dynamos principally relied on computer simulations, which now can be tested using these new exciting observations,” said Fuller.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Kavli Foundation, based in Oxnard, California, is dedicated to the goals of advancing science for the benefit of humanity and promoting increased public understanding and support for scientists and their work.

    The Foundation’s mission is implemented through an international program of research institutes, professorships, and symposia in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, neuroscience, and theoretical physics as well as prizes in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:43 pm on October 15, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Kavli Institute   

    From Kavli: “US Neuroscientists Call for Creation of ‘Brain Observatories'” 

    KavliFoundation

    The Kavli Foundation

    10/15/2015
    Originally published by Cell Press

    1

    What is the future of the BRAIN Initiative? This national White House Grand Challenge involving more than 100 laboratories in the United States has already made progress in establishing large-scale neuroscience goals and developing shared tools. And now in an Opinion paper publishing October 15 in Neuron, leading American neuroscientists call for the next step: a coordinated national network of neurotechnology centers or “brain observatories.”

    “It is our view that the technological challenges that must be surmounted are sufficiently complex that they are beyond the reach of single-investigator efforts; we believe they can only be surmounted through highly coordinated, multi-investigator, cross-disciplinary efforts,” the authors write. “These centers could be similar to existing astronomical observatories, where large-scale technology development and deployment is carried out in a centralized fashion, and where facilities are then shared by the entire community.”

    The six authors include Rafael Yuste, co-director of the Kavli Institute for Brain Science at Columbia University, Michael Roukes of Caltech, Ralph Greenspan of the Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind, George Church of the Wyss Institute and Harvard Medical School, Miyoung Chun of The Kavli Foundation, and A. Paul Alivisatos of the University of California, Berkeley and the Kavli Energy NanoSciences Institute.

    They outline four primary areas of the BRAIN initiative that are critically dependent on new technology that would be unlikely to be quickly realized outside of a center-based framework. These include connectomics – the systematic reconstruction of neural circuits – neural nanoprobe systems, new resonance imaging technologies, and computational data mining. Each of these requires platforms that are expensive to acquire, implement, and maintain, and, if only hosted in one lab, would affect scientific reproducibility and robustness.

    “We believe that the early stage of the BRAIN initiative has laid the groundwork for the next critical stages: enabling the development of integrated neurotechnology systems and, subsequently, the broad dissemination of newly created tools,” the authors write. “There is tremendous opportunity for rapid progress in the four areas mentioned above if the BRAIN Initiative expands beyond its current portfolio of single- and few-investigator projects. These centers would unite and synergize the hundreds of individual laboratories now funded by the BRAIN Initiative.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Kavli Foundation, based in Oxnard, California, is dedicated to the goals of advancing science for the benefit of humanity and promoting increased public understanding and support for scientists and their work.

    The Foundation’s mission is implemented through an international program of research institutes, professorships, and symposia in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, neuroscience, and theoretical physics as well as prizes in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:53 am on October 1, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Kavli Institute   

    From Kavli: “The Kavli Foundation and University Partners Commit $100 Million to Brain Research” 

    KavliFoundation

    The Kavli Foundation

    10/01/2015
    James Cohen
    Director of Communications
    The Kavli Foundation
    (805) 278-7495

    Funds to strengthen public/private BRAIN Initiative; establish new neuroscience institutes at Johns Hopkins University, The Rockefeller University and the University of California, San Francisco.

    The Kavli Foundation and its university partners announced today the commitment of more than $100 million in new funds to enable research aimed at deepening our understanding of the brain and brain-related disorders, such as traumatic brain injuries (TBI), Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.

    “We are delighted to announce this major commitment to promoting a sustained interdisciplinary effort to solve the mysteries of the brain,” said Rockell N. Hankin, Chairman of the Board of Directors at The Kavli Foundation. “By transcending the traditional boundaries of research, the new neuroscience institutes will make breakthrough discoveries possible.”

    The majority of the funds will establish three new Kavli neuroscience institutes at the Johns Hopkins University (JHU), The Rockefeller University and the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). These institutes will become part of an international network of seven Kavli Institutes carrying out fundamental research in neuroscience, and a broader network of 20 Kavli Institutes dedicated to astrophysics, nanoscience, neuroscience and theoretical physics.

    The new funding will support research that moves forward the national Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative, a public and private collaboration launched by President Obama in April 2013. At the time of the President’s announcement, The Kavli Foundation publicly pledged to spend $40 million in support of basic neuroscience research. “With this announcement, the Foundation more than meets this commitment,” said Robert W. Conn, President and CEO of The Kavli Foundation. “The establishment of three new institutes, along with the added investment in our existing neuroscience institutes, will further empower great scientists to help write the next chapter in neuroscience.”

    2

    The BRAIN Initiative is supported by federal agencies, including the National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and private partners such as The Kavli Foundation.

    “The President launched the BRAIN Initiative to help unlock the mysteries of the brain, to improve our treatment of conditions like Alzheimer’s and autism, and to deepen our understanding of how we think, learn, and remember. The Kavli Foundation is responding to the President’s call to action by making investments to advance the goals of the BRAIN Initiative. I hope this spurs other private, philanthropic, and academic institutions to support this important initiative,” said John P. Holdren, PhD, assistant to the President for Science and Technology, and director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.

    The three new institutes are the Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute at JHU, the Kavli Neural Systems Institute at The Rockefeller University and the Kavli Institute for Fundamental Neuroscience at UCSF. Each of the Institutes will receive a $20 million endowment supported equally by their universities and the Foundation, along with start-up funding. The Foundation is also partnering with four other universities to build their Kavli Institute endowments further. These Institutes are at Columbia University, the University of California, San Diego, Yale University and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

    The BRAIN Initiative calls specifically for establishing new interdisciplinary collaborations aimed at creating novel new technologies for visualizing the brain at work.

    “The cultivation of diverse partnerships, with government, big and small business, non-profits and academia, is a critical step on the path to unravel the mysteries of the brain,” National Science Foundation Director France Córdova, PhD, said. “Only through continued investments in collaborative, fundamental research will we develop the innovative tools and technologies needed to help us understand the brain, which is the ultimate goal of the BRAIN Initiative. Progress in this area will bolster America’s health, economy and security.”

    In the spirit of the interdisciplinary charge of the BRAIN Initiative, the new Kavli Institutes each work across their universities and with outside partners:

    The mission of the new Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute (Kavli NDI) at JHU is to bring together neuroscientists, engineers and data scientists to investigate neural development, neuronal plasticity, perception and cognition. “The challenges of tomorrow will not be confined to distinct disciplines, and neither will be the solutions we create,” said Johns Hopkins University President Ronald J. Daniels. “The Kavli Foundation award is a tremendous honor, because it allows Johns Hopkins to build on our history of pioneering neuroscience and catalyze new partnerships with engineers and data scienctists that will be essential to building a unified understanding of brain function.”
    At The Rockefeller University, the Kavli Neural Systems Institute (Kavli NSI) will also promote interdisciplinary research and learning to tackle the biggest questions in neuroscience through high-risk, high-reward projects and the development of new research technologies. “Kavli’s investment in neuroscience at Rockefeller will enable us to create and share new research approaches and laboratory technologies to capture the possibilities of neuroscience from the micro to the macro level,” said Rockefeller President Marc Tessier-Lavigne, PhD. “For example, Rockefeller scientists are currently developing a number of tools to push neuroscience forward, including advanced neuronal recording capabilities, sophisticated three-dimensional imaging, and non-invasive activation of neural circuits, among others.”
    The Kavli Institute for Fundamental Neuroscience (Kavli IFN) at UCSF will focus initially on understanding brain plasticity, the remarkable capacity of the brain to modify its structure and function. The Kavli IFN will partner with engineers at two San Francisco Bay-area national laboratories to develop new tools and approaches to brain research. “UCSF scientists have made some of the seminal discoveries in modern neuroscience,” said UCSF Chancellor Sam Hawgood, MBBS. “The Kavli Institute will sustain this rich tradition into the 21st Century.”

    “While private funding should never supplant federal funding,” said Conn, “the scientific enterprise also depends on philanthropic giving to catalyze pioneering new directions and discoveries.”

    “Understanding the complex language of brain circuits—and how they function in both health and disease—is one of the greatest challenges in science. This effort will be made possible by cooperation across disciplines to build the advanced tools necessary to probe the brain in fine detail. The commitment of both public and private organizations brings much needed firepower and interdisciplinary expertise to this endeavor,” said Walter Koroshetz, MD, director of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the co-chair of the NIH BRAIN Initiative.

    ABOUT THE NEW KAVLI INSTITUTES

    The Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute at Johns Hopkins University

    The Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute (Kavli NDI) is designed to integrate neuroscience, engineering and data science — three fields in which JHU has traditionally excelled — to understand the relationship between the brain and behavior.

    In the past 25 years, rapid progress in neuroscience has yielded a wealth of new data about brain structure and function at different scales, from the level of single cells to the whole brain. But neuroscientists need to find ways to connect their knowledge of the brain across these scales. Kavli NDI plans to bring together biologists, engineers and data scientists to acquire large data sets that span spatial and temporal scales, create new technologies for measuring and manipulating neural activity, and develop theoretical models of brain function.

    “Neuroscience is inherently interdisciplinary. You can study the biochemistry of the brain, but how does that relate to circuits and behavior? It’s tough to answer that in a single laboratory. It necessitates interaction and collaboration, and with Kavli NDI, we’re trying to take that to a new level to understand the brain,” said the Institute’s inaugural director, Richard L. Huganir, PhD, professor and director of the Department of Neuroscience at The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.

    The 45 initial members of Kavli NDI, including Huganir and co-director Michael I. Miller, PhD, professor of biomedical engineering, are drawn from 14 different departments in The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Engineering, Arts and Sciences, Public Health and the Applied Physics Laboratory. The leadership of Kavli NDI consists of an equally multidisciplinary executive board and steering committee.

    JHU is home to one of the first neuroscience departments in the country, which Huganir has overseen since 2006. His research focuses on the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the function of synapses, the connections between neurons. Biomedical engineering as a discipline also began at JHU and its program is ranked first in the country. Kavli NDI’s co-director, Miller, develops mathematical and computational techniques to extract meaning from neuroimaging data. He is also director of the Center for Imaging Science at JHU.

    New experimental tools in neuroscience are yielding larger and more complex data sets than ever before. But the ability of neuroscientists to manage and mine these data sets to maximal effect has lagged behind, as has their ability to model the behavior of cells and circuits in the brain. Kavli NDI aims to change that by drawing on the university’s expertise in “big data” analytics, stemming in part from its involvement in the university’s Sloan Digital Sky Survey astronomy project. The new institute’s emphasis on data science — both the creation of data analysis and management tools and the emphasis on rigorous modeling, simulation and theory — sets it apart, said Miller.

    “Our ability to collect cellular neural data is growing at a Moore’s Law kind of doubling rate. At the same time, our ability to image the brain at different scales is producing massive data sets. One of the fundamental problems we all face now is how to connect the information that is being represented across scales. With this deluge of data, mathematical, algorithmic and computational models become perhaps more important today in neuroscience than ever before,” he said.

    The Kavli Neural Systems Institute at The Rockefeller University

    The Kavli Neural Systems Institute (Kavli NSI) aims to draw on The Rockefeller University’s culture of creativity and excellence to solve the most challenging problems in neuroscience, such as: how the astonishing array of cell types in the brain arise from a single fertilized egg; how the brain processes information so rapidly; and how the brain and nervous system control complex behaviors. The long-term goal is to reach an integrated understanding of the brain as a neural system that supports complex, higher cognitive functions.

    Thirty-six Rockefeller faculty members, or Heads of Laboratories, will join Kavli NSI. Among these will be faculty in the early stages of the careers and members of the Center for Studies in Physics and Biology, which was founded by neuroscientist Torsten N. Wiesel, president emeritus of The Rockefeller University, to unite physicists and biologists around common biomedical problems, particularly those of neuroscience.

    “We’re reaching a phase where many of the tools we need to make new discoveries in neuroscience are coming from the physical sciences into biology — these include the hard tools, or technologies, but also conceptual tools. Rockefeller’s neuroscience labs are in the vanguard of this change, and the new Kavli Institute will help us codify this culture,” said Cori Bargmann, PhD, Torsten N. Wiesel Professor at The Rockefeller University and head of the Lulu and Anthony Wang Laboratory of Neural Circuits and Behavior.

    Bargmann will serve as co-director of Kavli NSI with Jeffrey M. Friedman, MD, PhD, Marilyn M. Simpson Professor and head of the Laboratory of Molecular Genetics. Bargmann studies the relationship between genes, neural circuits and behavior in the worm C. elegans, a model organism in neuroscience. She served as co-chair of the National Institutes of Health working group for the BRAIN Initiative, which outlined a 12-year scientific vision for the project. In 2012, she was one of three scientists who were awarded the Kavli Prize in Neuroscience “for elucidating basic neuronal mechanisms underlying perception and decision.” Friedman’s research focuses on the molecular mechanisms that regulate food intake and body weight. He has received Lasker and Gairdner Awards for his discovery of leptin, a hormone that interacts with receptors in the brain to regulate food intake and energy expenditure. Kavli NSI’s associate director will be Leslie B. Vosshall, PhD, Robin Chemers Neustein Professor and head of the Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behavior. She studies fruit flies and mosquitoes to understand how the nervous system processes and perceives odors.

    The convergence of neuroscience with such fields as bioengineering, nanoscience, and computer science, as well as mathematics and theoretical and experimental physics, will accelerate in the coming decades. The impact of this scientific convergence is evident in The Rockefeller University’s neuroscience laboratories, which are seeded with investigators trained in physics, engineering, and computer science.

    The Kavli NSI will enable Rockefeller scientists to fast-track their collaborations with individuals outside of the life sciences. It will also provide much-needed seed funding that will allow Rockefeller investigators to launch high-risk, high-reward research initiatives.

    “Our focus is on developing a deeper understanding of the configuration and function of the mind and brain,” says Tessier-Lavigne, Carson Family Professor and head of the Laboratory of Brain Development and Repair. “The success of the Kavli Neural Systems Institute at Rockefeller will be measured by how far we have departed from our current neuroscience research portfolio 20 years from now.”

    The Kavli Institute for Fundamental Neuroscience at the University of California, San Francisco

    The brain is dynamic, constantly changing in response to cues from an ever-changing environment. Despite this state of flux, it maintains the abilities we’ve learned and the memories we’ve made over a lifetime. The question is how is that plasticity and stability established and maintained? Members of the Kavli Institute for Fundamental Neuroscience (Kavli IFN) will seek the answers by bringing together the diverse expertise of neuroscientists, engineers and computational scientists—on campus and beyond.

    “How does the brain maintain function despite the fact that it’s constantly changing? The study of plasticity, changes in the brain, at all levels is an area where UCSF has been a leader for many, many years. At Kavli IFN, we’re going to take a problem that we’re experts in and try to unite that with the computational and technological abilities of other groups to make what we hope will be very fundamental progress,” said Loren Frank, PhD, a professor of physiology at UCSF, who will serve as the Institute’s inaugural co-director along with Roger Nicoll, MD, professor of cellular and molecular pharmacology and of physiology.

    Frank is a newly named Howard Hughes Medical Investigator who studies the neural basis of learning, memory and decision-making. His expertise spans neuroscience, statistics, engineering and computer science, and he has ongoing projects to develop new tools for monitoring and manipulating neural activity in rodents. Nicoll studies the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie neural plasticity. He has been a primary investigator for more than 40 years and is the recipient of numerous neuroscience awards.

    Kavli IFN’s initial 36 members are drawn from more than one dozen departments around the university and outside institutions, namely two San Francisco-area national labs, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The goal of these partnerships is to create new and innovative technologies for brain research and to bring an engineering approach to solving problems in neuroscience.

    Kavli IFN will also establish a link with the California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences based at UCSF, where researchers use the tools of mathematics, physics, computer science and engineering to make sense of the complexity of cell biology. This relatively new approach, known as systems biology, may prove valuable to neuroscientists seeking to understand the complexities of the brain.

    “I think new scientists are going to need the skills to think about complex, interacting systems such as the billions of neurons that make up the human brain. The Kavli Institute is positioned to train them in these system-building, system-identification and system-understanding tools, both with a connection to the engineers and the connection to the computational scientists,” said Frank.

    Key initiatives of Kavli IFN will be: a technology core for the development of new brain research tools; a pilot grant program to support projects that bring together neuroscientists, computer scientists, computational biologists and engineers; start-up funds for newly hired computational and theoretical neuroscientists; and mentoring and support programs for the next generation of neuroscientists.

    Kavli IFN will be overseen by an executive committee that draws its members from UCSF and the national labs, including Paul Alivisatos, a nanoscientist at LBNL and co-director of the Kavli Energy NanoSciences Institute at the University of California, Berkeley.

    “UCSF enjoys great strengths in fundamental neuroscience on our own campus, but we are also fortunate to be located in a region that fosters innovation and collaboration,” said Hawgood. “By forging partnerships with engineers, nanoscientists, and computer scientists at our local national laboratories through the Kavli IFN we can design and build the tools that will propel neuroscience research to new frontiers.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Kavli Foundation, based in Oxnard, California, is dedicated to the goals of advancing science for the benefit of humanity and promoting increased public understanding and support for scientists and their work.

    The Foundation’s mission is implemented through an international program of research institutes, professorships, and symposia in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, neuroscience, and theoretical physics as well as prizes in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:54 am on September 26, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Kavli Institute   

    From Kavli IPMU: “Discovery of potential gravitational lenses shows citizen science value” 

    KavliFoundation

    The Kavli Foundation

    Kavli IPMU
    Kavli IMPU

    September 24, 2015
    Press Contact

    Motoko Kakubayashi
    Press officer, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe
    E: press@ipmu.jp
    T: +81-4-7136-5980
    F: +81-4-7136-4941

    Research Contact

    Anupreeta More
    Project Researcher, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe
    E: anupreeta.more@ipmu.jp

    1
    Figure 1: 29 gravitational lens candidates found through Space Warps (credit: Space Warps, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey)

    Around 37,000 citizen scientists combed through 430,000 images to help an international team of researchers to discover 29 new gravitational lens candidates through SpaceWarps, an online classification system which guides citizen scientists to become lens hunters.

    Gravitational lens systems are massive galaxies that act like special lenses through their gravity, bending the light coming from a distant galaxy in the background and distorting its image. Dark matter around these massive galaxies also contributes to this lensing effect, and so studying these gravitational lenses gives scientists a way to study this exotic matter that emits no light.

    Since gravitational lenses are rare, only about 500 of them have been discovered to date, and the universe is enormous, it made sense for researchers to call on an extra pair of eyes to help scour through the mountain of images taken from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope [CFHT] Legacy Survey (CFHTLS).

    CFHT
    CFHT nterior
    CFHT

    Details of the discoveries will be published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

    “Computer algorithms have been somewhat successful in identifying gravitational lenses, but they can miss lensed images that appear similar to other features commonly found in galaxies, for example the blue spiral arms of a spiral galaxy,” said Anupreeta More, co-principal investigator of Space Warps and project researcher at the University of Tokyo’s Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe.

    “All that was needed was the ability to recognise patterns of shapes and colours,” said citizen scientist and paper co-author Christine Macmillan from Scotland. “It was fascinating to look at galaxies so far away, and realize that there is another behind it, even further away, whose light gets distorted in an arc.”

    Not only did this project give the public a chance to make scientific discoveries, it also gave them a chance to develop as researchers themselves. “I benefited from this project with an increase of my knowledge and some experience on making models of lenses,” said citizen scientist and paper co-author Claude Cornen from France.

    More, and two other collaborators, Phil Marshall at the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, and Aprajita Verma at the Department of Physics, University of Oxford, are co-principal investigators of Space Warps, which taps into the unique strength of humans in analysing visual information essential for finding gravitational lenses.

    The team will now move onto studying some of the interesting gravitational lens candidates by observing them with telescopes to uncover some of the mysteries related to dark matter. They are keen to work together with more volunteers in the near future as they are preparing new images from other ongoing imaging surveys to discover many more lenses.

    2
    Figure 2: How one galaxy’s image appears distorted due to another galaxy (credit: Kavli IPMU)

    Paper details

    Journal: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS)

    Title: Space Warps II. New Gravitational Lens Candidates from the CFHTLS Discovered through Citizen Science

    To download preprint, click here.
    Useful Links

    All images can be downloaded from this page: http://web.ipmu.jp/press/20150903-SpaceWarps

    Full list of citizens who took part: http://spacewarps.org/#/projects/CFHTLS/contributors

    To download preprint of another paper also accepted to MNRAS journal that describes the details of Space Warps, click here.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Kavli IPMU (Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe) is an international research institute with English as its official language. The goal of the institute is to discover the fundamental laws of nature and to understand the Universe from the synergistic perspectives of mathematics, astronomy, and theoretical and experimental physics. The Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU) was established in October 2007 under the World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI) of the Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan with the University of Tokyo as the host institution. IPMU was designated as the first research institute within the University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS) in January 2011. It received an endowment from The Kavli Foundation and was renamed the “Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe” in April 2012. Kavli IPMU is located on the Kashiwa campus of the University of Tokyo, and more than half of its full-time scientific members come from outside Japan. http://www.ipmu.jp/

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Kavli Foundation, based in Oxnard, California, is dedicated to the goals of advancing science for the benefit of humanity and promoting increased public understanding and support for scientists and their work.

    The Foundation’s mission is implemented through an international program of research institutes, professorships, and symposia in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, neuroscience, and theoretical physics as well as prizes in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience.

     
  • richardmitnick 6:21 am on February 10, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Kavli Institute, Optical antennae   

    From Kavli: “Rediscovering Spontaneous Light Emission” 

    KavliFoundation

    The Kavli Foundation

    02/05/2015

    Media Contact

    James Cohen
    Director of Communications
    The Kavli Foundation
    (805) 278-7495
    cohen@kavlifoundation.org

    1
    Spontaneous light emissions from LEDs can be substantially enhanced when coupled to the right optical antenna, making them comparable to the stimulated emissions from lasers. (Image from Wikipedia)

    Berkeley Lab researchers have developed a nano-sized optical antenna that can greatly enhance the spontaneous emission of light from atoms, molecules and semiconductor quantum dots. This advance opens the door to light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that can replace lasers for short-range optical communications, including optical interconnects for microchips, plus a host of other potential applications.

    “Since the invention of the laser, spontaneous light emission has been looked down upon in favor of stimulated light emission,” says Eli Yablonovitch, an electrical engineer with Berkeley Lab’s Materials Sciences Division. “However, with the proper optical antenna, spontaneous emission can actually be faster than stimulated emission.”

    Yablonovitch, who also holds a faculty appointment with the University of California (UC) Berkeley where he directs the NSF Center for Energy Efficient Electronics Science (E3S), and is a member of the Kavli Energy NanoSciences Institute at Berkeley (Kavli ENSI), led a team that used an external antenna made from gold to effectively boost the spontaneous light emission of a nanorod made from Indium Gallium Arsenide Phosphide (InGaAsP) by 115 times. This is approaching the 200-fold increase that is considered the landmark in speed difference between stimulated and spontaneous emissions. When a 200-fold increase is reached, spontaneous emission rates will exceed those of stimulated emissions.

    2
    Eli YablonovitchEli Yablonovitch is an award-winning electrical engineer with Berkeley Lab, UC Berkeley and Kavli ENSI (photo by Roy Kaltschmidt)

    “With optical antennas, we believe that spontaneous emission rate enhancements of better than 2,500 times are possible while still maintaining light emission efficiency greater than 50-percent,” Yablonovitch says. “Replacing wires on microchips with antenna -enhanced LEDs would allow for faster interconnectivity and greater computational power.”

    The results of this study are reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) in a paper titled Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission. Yablonovitch and UC Berkeley’s Ming Wu are the corresponding authors. Other authors are Michael Eggleston, Kevin Messer and Liming Zhang.

    In the world of high technology lasers are ubiquitous, the reigning workhorse for high-speed optical communications. Lasers, however, have downsides for communications over short distances, i.e., one meter or less – they consume too much power and typically take up too much space. LEDs would be a much more efficient alternative but have been limited by their spontaneous emission rates.

    “Spontaneous emission from molecular-sized radiators is slowed by many orders of magnitude because molecules are too small to act as their own antennas,” Yablonovitch says. “The key to speeding up these spontaneous emissions is to couple the radiating molecule to a half-wavelength antenna. Even though we’ve had antennas in radio for 120 years, somehow we’ve overlooked antennas in optics. Sometimes the great discoveries are looking right at us and waiting.”

    4
    Optical AntannaeCoupling a gold antenna to a InGaAsP nanorod, isolated by TiO2 and embedded in epoxy, greatly enhanced the spontaneous light emission of the InGaAsP

    For their optical antenna, Yablonovitch and his colleagues used an arch antenna configuration. The surface of a square-shaped InGaAsP nanorod was coated with a layer of titanium dioxide to provide isolation between the nanorod and a gold wire that was deposited perpendicularly over the nanorod to create the antenna. The InGaAsP semiconductor that served as the spontaneous light-emitting material is a material already in wide use for infrared laser communication and photo-detectors.

    In addition to short distance communication applications, LEDs equipped with optical antennas could also find important use in photodetectors. Optical antennas could also be applied to imaging, bio-sensing and data storage applications.

    This research was supported by E3S, the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Kavli Foundation, based in Oxnard, California, is dedicated to the goals of advancing science for the benefit of humanity and promoting increased public understanding and support for scientists and their work.

    The Foundation’s mission is implemented through an international program of research institutes, professorships, and symposia in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, neuroscience, and theoretical physics as well as prizes in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:25 am on January 29, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Kavli Institute   

    From Kavli Foundation: “Bubbles From the Center of Our Galaxy: A Key to Understanding Dark Matter and the Milky Way’s Past?” 

    KavliFoundation

    The Kavli Foundation

    Winter 2014
    Kelen Tuttle

    Three astrophysicists who discovered two enormous and unexpected structures radiating from the center of our galaxy discuss what these mysterious bubbles can tell us about the history of the Milky Way and how they could help in the search for dark matter.

    1
    From end to end, the newly discovered gamma-ray bubbles (magenta) extend 50,000 light-years, or roughly half of the Milky Way’s diameter. (Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center)

    COMPARED TO OTHER GALAXIES, the Milky Way is a peaceful place. But it hasn’t always been so sleepy. In 2010, a team of scientists working at the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics discovered a pair of “Fermi bubbles” extending tens of thousands of light-years above and below the Milky Way’s disk.

    NASA Fermi Telescope
    NASA/Fermi

    These structures are enormous balloons of energetic gamma rays emanating from the center of our galaxy. They hint at a powerful event that took place millions of years ago, likely when the black hole at the center of our galaxy feasted on an enormous amount of gas and dust – perhaps several hundreds or even thousands of times the mass of the sun. But exactly how the bubbles formed, and the exact story they can tell us about the history of our galaxy, remains a mystery.

    Fresh from giving the January 6 Rossi Prize lecture at the Winter American Astronomical Society conference, three astrophysicists who discovered the Fermi bubbles spoke with The Kavli Foundation about ongoing attempts to understand the cause and implications of these unexpected and strange structures, as well as ways in which they may help in the hunt for dark matter.

    7
    Douglas Finkbeiner(Credit: Erin Cram)
    DOUGLAS FINKBEINER is a professor of astronomy and of physics at Harvard University and a member of the Institute for Theory and Computation at the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. He was part of a collaboration that first discovered a gamma ray “haze” near the center of the Milky Way.

    9
    Tracy SlatyerTracy Slatyer(Credit: Heather Williams/MIT School of Science)
    TRACY SLATYER is an assistant professor of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and an Affiliated Faculty member at the MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research. Working with Finkbeiner and Su, she showed that the gamma ray haze is in fact emission from two hot bubbles of plasma emanating from the galactic center.

    0
    Meng SuMeng Su (Credit: Yuqi Qin)
    MENG SU is a Pappalardo Fellow and an Einstein Fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research. He developed the first maps that showed the exact shape of the Fermi bubbles.

    The following is an edited transcript of their roundtable discussion. The participants have been provided the opportunity to amend or edit their remarks.

    THE KAVLI FOUNDATION: When the three of you discovered Fermi bubbles in 2010, they were a complete surprise. No one anticipated the existence of such structures. What were your first thoughts when you saw these huge bubbles – which span more than half of the visible sky – emerge from the data?

    DOUGLAS FINKBEINER: How about crushing disappointment? There seems to be a popular misconception that scientists know what they’re looking for and when they find it, they know it. In reality, that’s often not how it works. In this case, we were on a quest to find dark matter, and we found something completely different. So at first I was puzzled, baffled, disappointed and confused.

    We had been looking for evidence of dark matter in the inner galaxy, which would have shown up as gamma rays. And we did find an excess of gamma rays, so for a little while we thought this might be a dark matter signal. But as we did a better analysis and added more data, we started to see the edges of this structure. It looked like a big figure 8 with a balloon above and below the plane of the galaxy. Dark matter probably wouldn’t do that. At the time, I made the tongue-in-cheek comment that we had double bubble trouble. Instead of a nice spherical halo like we would see with dark matter, we were finding these two bubbles.

    TRACY SLATYER: I called a talk on the Fermi bubbles “Double Bubble Trouble” – it has such a nice ring to it.

    FINKBEINER: It does. After my first thought – “Oh darn, it’s not dark matter” – my second thought was, “Oh, it’s still something very interesting, so now let’s go find out what it is.”

    SLATYER: At the time, Doug, you told me something along the lines of “Scientific discoveries are more often heralded by ‘Huh, that looks funny’ than by ‘Eureka!’” When we first started seeing the edge of these bubbles emerge, I remember looking at the maps with Doug, who was pointing out where he thought there were edges, and not seeing them at all myself. And then more data started coming in and they became clearer and clearer – though it may have been Isaac Asimov who said it first.

    So my first reaction was more like “Huh, that looks really strange.” But I wouldn’t call myself disappointed. It was a puzzle that we needed to figure out.

    FINKBEINER: Maybe befuddled is a better descriptor than disappointed.

    MENG SU: I agree. We already knew of other bubble-like structures in the universe, but this was still quite a big shock. Finding these bubbles in the Milky Way wasn’t anticipated by any theories. When Doug first showed us the picture where you could start to see the bubbles, I immediately started to think about what could possibly produce this type of structure besides dark matter. I personally was less puzzled by the structure itself and more puzzled by how the Milky Way could have produced it.

    SLATYER: But of course it’s also true that the structures we see in other galaxies have never been seen in gamma rays. As far as I know, beyond the question of whether the Milky Way could make a structure like this, there had never been an expectation that we would see a bright signal in gamma rays.

    SU: That’s right. This discovery is still unique and, to me, punishing.

    TKF: Why were such bubbles not expected in the Milky Way, if they are seen in other galaxies?

    FINKBEINER: It’s a good question. On the one hand we’re saying that these aren’t uncommon in other galaxies, while on the other hand we’re saying they were totally unexpected in the Milky Way. One of the reasons it was unexpected is that while every galaxy has a supermassive black hole at the center, in the Milky Way that black hole is about 4 million times the mass of the sun while in the galaxies in which we had previously observed bubbles, the black holes tend to be 100 or 1,000 times more massive than our black hole. And because we think it’s the black hole sucking in nearby matter that’s making most of these bubbles, you wouldn’t have expected a small black hole like the one we have in the Milky Way to be capable of this.

    SU: For that reason, no one expected to see bubbles in our galaxy. We thought the black hole at the center of the Milky Way was a boring one that just sat there quietly. But more and more evidence is suggesting that it was very active a long time ago. It now seems that, in the past, our black hole could have been tens of millions of times more active than it is currently. Before the discovery of Fermi bubbles, people were discussing that possibility, but there was no single piece of evidence showing that our black hole could be that active. The Fermi bubble discovery changed the picture.

    SLATYER: Exactly. Other galaxies that have similar looking structures are in fact quite different galactic environments. It’s not clear that bubbles we see in other galaxies with fairly similar shapes to the ones we see in the Milky Way are necessarily coming from the same physical processes. Due to the sensitivity of the instruments, we have no way to look at the gamma rays associated with these bubbles in other Milky Way-like galaxies – if they release gamma rays at all. The Fermi bubbles are really our first chance to look at anything like this close up and in gamma rays, and we just don’t know if many of the very puzzling features of the Fermi bubbles are present in other galaxies. It’s quite unclear at the moment the degree to which the Fermi bubbles are the same phenomenon as what we see in similarly shaped structures at other wavelengths in other galaxies.

    SU: I think it’s actually very lucky that our galaxy has these structures. We get to look at them very clearly and with great sensitivity, allowing us to study them in detail.

    SLATYER: Something like this could be present in other galaxies, and we would never know.

    SU: Yes – and the opposite is true, too. It’s completely possible that the Fermi bubbles are from something we’ve never seen before.

    FINKBEINER: Exactly. And, for example, the X-rays we do see coming from bubbles in other galaxies, those photons have a factor of a million times less energy than the gamma rays we see streaming from the Fermi bubbles. So we should not jump to conclusions that they come from the same physical processes.

    SU: And, here in our own galaxy, I think more people are asking questions about the implications of the Milky Way’s black hole being so active. I think the picture and the questions are different now. Discovering this structure has very important implications to many key questions about the Milky Way, galaxy formation and black hole growth.
    “More and more evidence points to the story that the supermassive black hole in the center of our Milky Way was very active a long time ago. Before the discovery of Fermi bubbles, people were discussing the possibility, but there was no single piece of evidence showing that our black hole could be that active. The Fermi bubble discovery changed the picture.” —Meng Su

    TKF: Doug and Meng, in a Scientific American article you coauthored with Dmitry Malyshev, you said that Fermi bubbles “promise to reveal deep secrets about the structure and history of our galaxy.” Will you tell us more about what type of secrets these might be?

    SU: There are at least two key questions we’re trying to answer about the supermassive black holes in the center of each galaxy: How does the black hole itself form and grow? And, as the black hole grows, what’s the interaction between the black hole and the host galaxy?

    I think that how the Milky Way fits into this big picture is still a mystery. We don’t know why the mass of the black hole in the center of the Milky Way is so small relative to other supermassive black holes, or how the interaction between this relatively small black hole and the Milky Way galaxy works. The bubbles provide a unique link for both how the black hole grew and how the energy injection from the black hole accretion process impacted the Milky Way as a whole.

    FINKBEINER: Some of our colleagues at the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics conduct simulations where they can see how supernova explosions and black hole accretion events heat gas and drive it out of a galaxy. You can see in some of these simulations that things are going along just fine and stars are forming and the galaxy is rotating and everything is progressing, and then the black hole reaches some critical size. Suddenly, when more matter falls into the black hole, it makes such a big flash that it basically pushes most of the gas right out of the galaxy. After that, there’s no more star formation – you’re kind of done. That feedback process is key to galaxy formation.

    SU: If the bubbles – like the ones we found – form episodically, that could help us understand how the energy outflow from the black hole changes the halo of the gas in the Milky Way dark matter halo. When this gas cools, the Milky Way forms stars. So the whole system will be changed because of the bubble story; the bubbles are closely linked to the history of our galaxy.

    TKF: What additional experimental data or simulations are needed to really understand what’s going on with these bubbles?

    SU: Right now, we’re focused on two things. First, from multi-wavelength observations, we’re looking to understand the current status of the bubbles – how fast they expand, how much energy is released through them, and how high-energy particles within the bubbles are accelerated either close to the black hole or inside the bubbles themselves. Those details we want to understand as much as possible through observations. Second, we want to understand the physics. For example, we want to understand just how the bubbles formed in the first place. Could a burst of star formation very close to the black hole help form the outflow that powers the bubbles? This can help us understand what kind of process forms these types of bubbles.

    FINKBEINER: Any type of work that can give you the amount of energy released over specific timescales is really important to figuring out what’s going on.

    SU: Truthfully, I think it’s amazing how many of the conclusions we drew from the very first observations of the bubbles still hold true today. The energy, the velocity, the age of the bubbles – all of these are consistent with today’s observations. All of the observations point to the same story, which allows us to ask more detailed questions.

    TKF: That doesn’t often happen in astrophysics, where your initial observations are so spot-on.

    FINKBEINER: This doesn’t always happen, it’s true. But we also weren’t very precise. Our paper says that the bubbles are somewhere between 1 and 10 million years old, and now we think they’re about 3 million years old, which is logarithmically right between 1 and 10 million. So, we’re pretty happy. But it’s not like we said it would be 3.76 million and were right.

    TKF: What are the other remaining mysteries about these bubbles? What more do you hope to learn that we haven’t discussed already?

    FINKBEINER: We have an age. I’m done. [laughter]

    TKF: Ha! Now that does not sound like astrophysics.

    SU: No, actually, we expect to learn many new things from future observations. We’ll have additional satellites launching in the coming years that will offer better measurements of the bubbles. One surprising thing we’ve found is that the bubbles have a high-energy cut off. Basically, the bubbles stop shining in high-energy gamma rays at a certain energy. Above that, we don’t see any gamma rays and we don’t know why. So we hope to take better measurements that can tell us why this cutoff is happening. This can be done with future gamma-ray energy satellites, including one called Dark Matter Particle Explorer that will launch later this year. Although the satellite is focused on looking for signatures of dark matter, it will also be able to detect these high-energy gamma rays, even higher than the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, the telescope we used to discover the Fermi bubbles. That’s where the name of the structure came from.

    4
    Hints of the Fermi bubbles’ edges were first observed in X-rays (blue) by ROSAT, which operated in the 1990s. The gamma rays mapped by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (magenta) extend much farther from the galaxy’s plane. (Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center)

    NASA ROSAT satellite
    NASA/ROSAT

    Likewise, we’re also interested in the lower energy gamma rays. There are some limitations with the Fermi satellite we’re currently using – the spatial resolution is not nearly as good for low-energy gamma rays. So we hope to launch another satellite in the future that can view the bubbles in low-energy gamma rays. I’m actually part of a team proposing to build this satellite, and I’m glad to find a good name for it: PANGU. It’s still in the early stages, but hopefully we can get the data within 10 years. From this, we hope to learn more about the processes within the bubbles that lead to the emission of gamma rays. We need more data to understand this.

    We’d also like to learn more about the bubbles in X-rays, which also hold key information. For example, X-rays could tell us how the bubbles affect the gas in the Milky Way’s halo. The bubbles presumably heat up the gas as they expand into the halo. We’d like to measure how much the energy from the bubbles is dumped into the gas halo. That’s key to understanding the black hole’s impact on star formation. A new German-Russian satellite called eRosita, planned to launch in 2016, could help with this. We hope its data will help us learn details about all the pieces of the bubble and how they interact with the gas around them.

    FINKBEINER: I completely agree with what Meng just said. That’s going to be a very important data set.

    SLATYER: Figuring out the exact origin of the bubbles is something I’m looking forward to. For example, if you make some basic assumptions, it looks like the gamma-ray signal has some very strange features. Particularly, the fact that the bubbles look so uniform all the way across is surprising. You wouldn’t expect the physics processes we think are taking place inside the bubbles to produce this uniformity. Are there multiple processes at work here? Does the radiation field within the bubbles look very different than what we expect? Is there an odd cancellation going on between the electron density and radiation field? These are just some of the questions we still have, questions that more observations – like the ones Meng was talking about – should shed light on.

    FINKBEINER: In other words, we’re still looking in detail and saying, “That looks funny.”
    “Other galaxies that have similar looking structures are in fact quite different galactic environments. It’s not clear that bubbles that we see in other galaxies that have fairly similar shapes to the ones we see in the Milky Way are necessarily coming from the same physical processes.” —Tracy Slatyer

    TKF: It sounds like there are still many more observations that need to be made before we can fully understand the Fermi bubbles. But from what we do know already, is there anything that could fire up the galactic core again, causing it to create more such bubbles?

    FINKBEINER: Well, if we’re right that the bubbles come from the black hole sucking up a lot of matter, just drop a bunch of gas on the black hole and you’ll see fireworks.

    TKF: Is there a lot of matter near our black hole that could naturally set off these fireworks?

    FINKBEINER: Oh sure! I don’t think it’ll happen in our lifetimes, but if you wait maybe 10 million years, I wouldn’t be surprised at all.

    SU: There are smaller bits of matter, like a cloud of gas called G2 that people estimate has as much mass as perhaps three Earths, that will likely be pulled into the black hole in just a few years. That will probably not produce something like the Fermi bubbles, but it will tell us something about the environment around the black hole and the physics of this process. Those observations might help us learn how much mass it would have taken to create the Fermi bubbles and what types of physics played out in that process.

    FINKBEINER: It’s true, we might learn something interesting from this G2 cloud. But this might be a bit of a red herring, since no reasonable model indicates it will produce gamma rays. It would take a gas cloud something like 100,000,000 times larger to produce a Fermi bubble.

    SU: There’s a lot of evidence that the galactic center was a very different environment several million years ago. But it’s hard to deduce the overall story of exactly how things were in the past and what’s happened in the intervening time. I think the Fermi bubbles might provide a unique, direct piece of evidence that there was once much richer surrounding gas and dust that fed the central black hole than there is today.

    TKF: The Fermi bubbles certainly remain an exciting area of research. So does dark matter, which is what you were originally looking for when you discovered the Fermi bubbles. How is that original dark matter hunt going?

    6
    Data from the Fermi Telescope shows the bubbles (in red and yellow) against other sources of gamma rays. The plane of the galaxy (mostly black and white) stretches horizontally across the middle of the image, and the bubbles extend up and down from the center. (Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center)

    FINKBEINER: We’ve really come full circle. If one of the most talked about types of theoretical dark matter particles, the Weakly Interacting Dark Matter Particle, or WIMP, exists, it should give off some sort of gamma-ray signal. It’s just a question of whether that signal is at a level that we can detect. So if you ever want to see this signal in the inner galaxy, you have to understand all the other things that make gamma rays. We thought we understood them all, and then along came the Fermi bubbles. Now we really need to thoroughly understand these bubbles before we can go back to looking for WIMPs in the center of the galaxy. Once we understand them well, we can confidently subtract the Fermi bubble gamma rays from the overall gamma-ray signal and look for any excess of gamma rays remaining that might come from dark matter.

    Putting together quotations from Richard Feynman and Valentine Telegdi, “Yesterday’s sensation is today’s calibration is tomorrow’s background.” The Fermi bubbles are certainly very interesting in their own right, and they’ll keep people busy for many years trying to figure out what they are. But they’re also a background or a foreground for any dark matter searches, and need to be understood for that reason too.
    “It would be a supreme irony if we found the Fermi bubbles while looking for dark matter and then while studying the Fermi bubbles we discovered dark matter.”
    —Douglas Finkbeiner

    SLATYER: This is what I’m working on in my research these days. And the first question to what Doug just said is often, “Well, why don’t you just look for evidence of dark matter somewhere other than the inner galaxy?” But in WIMP models of dark matter, we expect the signals from the galactic center to be significantly brighter than anywhere else in the sky. So just giving up on the galactic center is not generally a good option.

    Looking at the Fermi bubbles near the galactic center, we have found a promising signal that could potentially be associated with dark matter. It extends a significant distance from the galactic center, and has a lot of the properties that you would expect from a dark matter signal – including appearing outside the bubbles as well.

    This is a very concrete case where studies of the Fermi bubbles uncovered something that may be related to dark matter – which is what we were looking for in the first place. It also emphasizes the importance of understanding what exactly is going on in the bubbles, so that we can get a better understanding of this very interesting region of the sky.

    FINKBEINER: It would be a supreme irony if we found the Fermi bubbles while looking for dark matter and then while studying the Fermi bubbles we discovered dark matter.

    See the full article here..

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Kavli Foundation, based in Oxnard, California, is dedicated to the goals of advancing science for the benefit of humanity and promoting increased public understanding and support for scientists and their work.

    The Foundation’s mission is implemented through an international program of research institutes, professorships, and symposia in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, neuroscience, and theoretical physics as well as prizes in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:02 pm on December 12, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Kavli Institute   

    From Kavli: “Is an Understanding of Dark Matter around the Corner? Experimentalists Unsure” 

    KavliFoundation

    The Kavli Foundation

    December 12, 2014

    Media Contact

    James Cohen
    Director of Communications
    The Kavli Foundation
    (805) 278-7495
    cohen@kavlifoundation.org

    Scientists have long known that dark matter is out there, silently orchestrating the universe’s movement and structure. But what exactly is dark matter made of? And what does a dark matter particle look like? That remains a mystery, with experiment after experiment coming up empty handed in the quest to detect these elusive particles.

    With some luck, that may be about to change. With ten times the sensitivity of previous detectors, three recently funded dark matter experiments have scientists crossing their fingers that they may finally glimpse these long-sought particles. In recent conversations with The Kavli Foundation, scientists working on these new experiments expressed hope that they would catch dark matter, but also agreed that, in the end, their success or failure is up to nature to decide.

    “Nature is being coy,” said Enectali Figueroa-Feliciano, an associate professor of physics at the MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research who works on one of the three new experiments. “There’s something we just don’t understand about the internal structure of how the universe works. When theorists write down all the ways dark matter might interact with our particles, they find, for the simplest models, that we should have seen it already. So even though we haven’t found it yet, there’s a message there, one that we’re trying to decode now.”

    The first of the new experiments, called the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment, searches for a theoretical type of dark matter particle called the axion. ADMX seeks evidence of this extremely lightweight particle converting into a photon in the experiment’s high magnetic field. By slowly varying the magnetic field, the detector hunts for one axion mass at a time.

    ADMX Axion Dark Matter Experiment
    ADMX at U Washington

    “We’ve demonstrated that we have the tools necessary to see axions,” said Gray Rybka, research assistant professor of physics at the University of Washington who co-leads the ADMX Gen 2 experiment. “With Gen2, we’re buying a very, very powerful refrigerator that will arrive very shortly. Once it arrives, we’ll be able to scan very, very quickly and we feel we’ll have a much better chance of finding axions – if they’re out there.”

    The two other new experiments look for a different type of theoretical dark matter called the WIMP. Short for Weakly Interacting Massive Particle, the WIMP interacts with our world very weakly and very rarely. The Large Underground Xenon, or LUX, experiment, which began in 2009, is now getting an upgrade to increase its sensitivity to heavier WIMPs. Meanwhile, the Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search collaboration, which has looked for the signal of a lightweight WIMP barreling through its detector since 2013, is in the process of finalizing the design for a new experiment to be located in Canada.

    LUX Dark matter
    LUX

    LBL SuperCDMS
    Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    “In a way it’s like looking for gold,” said Figueroa-Feliciano, a member of the SuperCDMS experiment. “Harry has his pan and he’s looking for gold in a deep pond, and we’re looking in a slightly shallower pond, and Gray’s a little upstream, looking in his own spot. We don’t know who’s going to find gold because we don’t know where it is.”

    Rybka agreed, but added the more optimistic perspective that it’s also possible that all three experiments will find dark matter. “There’s nothing that would require dark matter to be made of just one type of particle except us hoping that it’s that simple,” he said. “Dark matter could be one-third axions, one-third heavy WIMPs and one-third light WIMPs. That would be perfectly allowable from everything we’ve seen.”

    Yet the nugget of gold for which all three experiments search is a very valuable one. And even though the search is difficult, all three scientists agreed that it’s worthwhile because glimpsing dark matter would reveal insight into a large portion of the universe.

    “We’re all looking and somewhere, maybe even now, there’s a little bit of data that will cause someone to have an ‘Ah ha!’ moment,” said Harry Nelson, professor of physics at the University of California, Santa Barbara and science lead for the LUX upgrade, called LUX-ZEPLIN. “This idea that there’s something out there that we can’t sense yet is one of those things that sends chills down my spine.”

    More about the hunt for dark matter is available at:

    New Dark Matter Experiments Prepare to Hunt the Unknown: A Conversation with Enectali Figueroa-Feliciano, Harry Nelson and Gray Rybka
    Spotlight Live: Dark Matter at Long Last? Three New Experiments Ramp Up (Transcript)

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Kavli Foundation, based in Oxnard, California, is dedicated to the goals of advancing science for the benefit of humanity and promoting increased public understanding and support for scientists and their work.

    The Foundation’s mission is implemented through an international program of research institutes, professorships, and symposia in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, neuroscience, and theoretical physics as well as prizes in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:00 pm on October 24, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Charles Munger, Kavli Institute, ,   

    From NYT: “Charles Munger, Warren Buffett’s Longtime Business Partner, Makes $65 Million Gift” 

    New York Times

    The New York Times

    October 24, 2014
    Michael J. de la Merced

    Charles T. Munger has been known for many things over his decades-long career, including longtime business partner of Warren E. Buffett; successful investor and lawyer; and plain-spoken commentator with a wide following.

    cm

    Now Mr. Munger, 90, can add another title to that list: deep-pocketed benefactor to the field of theoretical physics.

    He was expected to announce on Friday that he has donated $65 million to the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The gift — the largest in the school’s history — will go toward building a 61-bed residence for visitors to the institute, which brings together physicists for weeks at a time to exchange ideas.

    “U.C.S.B. has by far the most important program for visiting physicists in the world,” Mr. Munger said in a telephone interview. “Leading physicists routinely are coming to the school to talk to one another, create new stuff, cross-fertilize ideas.”

    ucsb
    UC Santa Barbara Campus

    The donation is the latest gift by Mr. Munger, a billionaire who has not been shy in giving away the wealth he has accumulated as vice chairman of Mr. Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway to charitable causes.

    Though perhaps not as prominent a donor as his business partner, who cocreated the Giving Pledge campaign for the world’s richest people to commit their wealth to philanthropy, Mr. Munger has frequently donated big sums to schools like Stanford and the Harvard-Westlake School. (He has not signed on to the Giving Pledge campaign.)

    The biggest beneficiary of his largess thus far has been the University of Michigan, his alma mater. Last year alone, he gave $110 million worth of Berkshire shares — one of the biggest gifts in the university’s history — to create a new residence intended to help graduate students from different areas of study mingle and share ideas.

    That same idea of intellectual cross-pollination underpins the Kavli Institute, which over 35 years has established itself as a haven for theoretical physicists from around the world to meet and discuss potential new developments in their field.

    Funded primarily by the National Science Foundation, the institute has produced advances in the understanding of white dwarf stars, string theory and quantum computing.

    A former director of the institute, David J. Gross, shared in the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics for work that shed new light on the fundamental force that binds together the atomic nucleus.

    “Away from day-to-day responsibilities, they are in a different mental state,” Lars Bildsten, the institute’s current director, said of the center’s visitors. “They’re more willing to wander intellectually.”

    To Mr. Munger, such interactions are crucial for the advancement of physics. He cited international conferences attended by the likes of [Albert]Einstein and Marie Curie.

    Mr. Munger himself did not study physics for very long, having taken a class at the California Institute of Technology while in the Army during World War II. But as an avid reader of scientific biography, he came to appreciate the importance of the field.

    And he praised the rise of the University of California, Santa Barbara, as a leading haven for physics, particularly given its status as a relatively young research institution.

    But while the Kavli Institute conducts various programs throughout the year for visiting scientists, it has long lacked a way for physicists to spend time outside of work hours during their stays. A permanent residence hall would allow them to mingle even more, in the hope of fostering additional eureka moments.

    “We want to make their hardest choice, ‘Which barbecue to go to?’ ” Mr. Bildsten joked.

    Though Mr. Munger has some ties to the University of California, Santa Barbara — a grandson is an alumnus — he was first introduced to the Kavli Institute through a friend who lives in Santa Barbara.

    During one of the pair’s numerous fishing trips, that friend, Glen Mitchel, asked the Berkshire vice chairman to help finance construction of a new residence. The university had already reserved a plot of land for the dormitory in case the institute raised the requisite funds.

    “It wasn’t a hard sell,” Mr. Munger said.

    “Physics is vitally important,” he added. “Everyone knows that.”

    See the full article here.

    ScienceSprings relies on technology from

    MAINGEAR computers

    Lenovo
    Lenovo

    Dell
    Dell

     
  • richardmitnick 7:28 pm on October 6, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Kavli Institute   

    From Kavli: ” A Warm Dark Matter Search Using XMASS “ 

    KavliFoundation

    The Kavli Foundation

    10/06/2014
    Yoichiro Suzuki
    Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo
    E-mail: yoichiro.suzuki_at_ipmu.jp 

    The XMASS collaboration, led by Yoichiro Suzuki at the Kavli IPMU, has reported its latest results on the search for warm dark matter. Their results rule out the possibility that super-weakly interacting massive bosonic particles (bosonic super-WIMPs) constitute all dark matter in the universe. This result was published in the September 19th issue of the Physical Review Letters as an Editors’ Suggestion.

    xmass
    XMASS DetectorConstruction of XMASS-Ⅰ detector (2010/Feb./25) (C) Kamioka Observatory, ICRR(Institute for Cosmic Ray Research), The University of Tokyo

    The universe is considered to be filled with dark matter, which cannot be observed by ordinary light. Although much evidence supports the existence of dark matter, it has yet to be directly detected and its nature is not understood.

    Various theoretical models have been proposed to explain the nature of dark matter. Some models extend the standard model of particle physics, such as super-symmetry, and suggest that weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are dark matter candidates. These models have motivated most experimental research on dark matter. In discussions on the large-scale structure formation of the universe, these WIMPs fit the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm.

    Supersymmetry standard model
    Standard Model of Supersymmetry

    On the other hand, some simulations based on the CDM scenario predict a much richer structure of the universe on galactic scales than those observed. Furthermore, high-energy collider experiments have yet to provide evidence of super-symmetric particles. These facts have increased the interest in lighter and further weakly interacting particles such as bosonic super-WIMPs as dark matter. Super-WIMPs with masses greater than a twentieth of an electron (more than 3 keV) do not conflict with the structure formation of the universe.

    “Bosonic super-WIMPs are experimentally attractive since if they are absorbed in ordinary material, they would deposit energy essentially equivalent to the super-WIMP’s rest mass,” Suzuki says. “And only ultra-low background detectors like XMASS can detect the signal.”

    The XMASS experiment was conducted to directly search for such bosonic super-WIMPS, especially in the mass range between a tenth and a third that of an electron (between 40 and 120 keV). XMASS is a cryogenic detector using about 1 ton of liquid xenon as the target material. Using 165.9 days of data, a significant excess above the background is not observed in the fiducial mass of 41 kg. The absence of such a signal excludes the possibility that bosonic super-WIMPs constitute all dark matter in the universe.

    “Light super-WIMPs are a good candidate of dark matter on galactic scales,” Professor Naoki Yoshida, a cosmologist at the School of Science, the University of Tokyo and a Project Professor at the Kavli IPMU says. “The XMASS team derived an important constraint on the possibility of such light dark models for a broad range of particle masses.”

    See the full article here.

    The Kavli Foundation, based in Oxnard, California, is dedicated to the goals of advancing science for the benefit of humanity and promoting increased public understanding and support for scientists and their work.

    The Foundation’s mission is implemented through an international program of research institutes, professorships, and symposia in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, neuroscience, and theoretical physics as well as prizes in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience.

    ScienceSprings relies on technology from

    MAINGEAR computers

    Lenovo
    Lenovo

    Dell
    Dell

     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel
Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 536 other followers

%d bloggers like this: