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  • richardmitnick 12:50 pm on April 28, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, , , , Thermodynamics   

    From Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe: “Study Finds Way to Use Quantum Entanglement to Study Black Holes” 

    KavliFoundation

    The Kavli Foundation

    Kavli IPMU
    Kavli IMPU

    April 23, 2018

    A team of researchers has found a relationship between quantum physics, the study of very tiny phenomena, to thermodynamics, the study of very large phenomena, reports a new study this week in Nature Communications.

    “Our function can describe a variety of systems from quantum states in electrons to, in principle, black holes,” says study author Masataka Watanabe.

    Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon fundamental to quantum mechanics, where two separated regions share the same information. It is invaluable to a variety of applications including being used as a resource in quantum computation, or quantifying the amount of information stored in a black hole.

    Quantum mechanics is known to preserve information, while thermal equilibrium seems to lose some part of it, and so understanding the relationship between these microscopic and macroscopic concepts is important. So a group of graduate students and a researcher at the University of Tokyo, including the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, investigated the role of the quantum entanglement in thermal equilibrium in an isolated quantum system.

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    Figure 1: Graph showing quantum entanglement and spatial distribution. When separating matter A and B, the vertical axis shows how much quantum entanglement there is, while the horizontal axis shows the length of matter A. (Credit: Nakagawa et al.)

    “A pure quantum state stabilizing into thermal equilibrium can be compared to water being poured into a cup. In a quantum-mechanical system, the colliding water molecules create quantum entanglements, and these quantum entanglements will eventually lead a cup of water to thermal equilibrium. However, it has been a challenge to develop a theory which predicts how much quantum entanglement was inside because lots of quantum entanglements are created in complicated manners at thermal equilibrium,” says Watanabe.

    In their study, the team identified a function predicting the spatial distribution of information stored in an equilibrated system, and they revealed that it was determined by thermodynamic entropy alone. Also, by carrying out computer simulations, they found that the spatial distribution remained the same regardless of what systems were used and regardless of how they reached thermal equilibrium.

    See the full article here .

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    Kavli IPMU (Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe) is an international research institute with English as its official language. The goal of the institute is to discover the fundamental laws of nature and to understand the Universe from the synergistic perspectives of mathematics, astronomy, and theoretical and experimental physics. The Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU) was established in October 2007 under the World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI) of the Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan with the University of Tokyo as the host institution. IPMU was designated as the first research institute within the University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS) in January 2011. It received an endowment from The Kavli Foundation and was renamed the “Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe” in April 2012. Kavli IPMU is located on the Kashiwa campus of the University of Tokyo, and more than half of its full-time scientific members come from outside Japan. http://www.ipmu.jp/
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    The Kavli Foundation, based in Oxnard, California, is dedicated to the goals of advancing science for the benefit of humanity and promoting increased public understanding and support for scientists and their work.

    The Foundation’s mission is implemented through an international program of research institutes, professorships, and symposia in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, neuroscience, and theoretical physics as well as prizes in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:00 pm on November 10, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Hyper-Kamiokande project, , , Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, MEXT, NNSO-Next-generation Neutrino Science Organization   

    From Interactions.org: “Inauguration of Next-generation Neutrino Science Organization for the Hyper-Kamiokande Nucleon Decay and Neutrino Experiment” 

    Interactions.org

    10 November 2017
    Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe

    Date Issued:
    November 10th, 2017
    Source:
    Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe
    Content:
    Press Release
    Contact:

    John Amari
    Public Relations Office
    The University of Tokyo International Institute for Advanced Studies
    Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe
    E-mail: press@ipmu.jp
    Tel: 04-7136-5977

    The Hyper-Kamiokande project aims to address the mysteries of the origin and evolution of the Universe’s matter as well as to confront theories of elementary particle unification.

    Hyper-Kamiokande, a neutrino physics laboratory located underground in the Mozumi Mine of the Kamioka Mining and Smelting Co. near the Kamioka section of the city of Hida in Gifu Prefecture, Japan.

    To realize these goals it will combine a high intensity neutrino beam from J-PARC with a new detector based upon precision neutrino experimental techniques developed in Japan and built to be approximately 10 times larger than the running Super-Kamiokande.

    Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex J-PARC, located in Tokai village, Ibaraki prefecture, on the east coast of Japan

    On October 1st, 2017, The University of Tokyo launched its “Next-generation Neutrino Science Organization (NNSO),” in cooperation with the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research (ICRR), the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU), and the University of Tokyo’s School of Science. The NNSO is a means of pioneering the future of neutrino physics through the development of neutrino research techniques and detector technologies. In particular, it aims to advance what will become its flagship facility, the Hyper-Kamiokande project. To mark the occasion, an inaugural ceremony was held on November 8th, 2017, at the Kamioka Observatory in Japan.

    Professor Takaaki Kajita, director of NNSO and a Nobel laureate for the discovery of neutrino oscillations demonstrating that neutrinos have mass, started the ceremony with opening remarks: “Understanding the neutrino, whose mass is extremely small, is not only important to particle physics, but is also thought to have deep connections to the origins of matter. Indeed, by observing neutrinos created with the high intensity proton accelerator J-PARC at Hyper-Kamiokande and testing whether or not neutrino and antineutrino oscillations are the same, we expect to close in on the mysteries of our matter-dominated universe. Further, we would like to discover the decay of the proton and thereby verify the unification of the three forces that act between elementary particles. Through the research represented by these goals, I would like to greatly expand our knowledge of elementary particles and the universe.”

    Professor Masashi Haneda, Executive Vice President of The University of Tokyo and Director of The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, greeted attendees with these words: “Through the cooperation of these three important institutions, I’m sure that a world-class center for neutrino research will be established. Further, it will contribute much to cultivate talented young researchers. Succeeding Kamiokande and Super-Kamiokande, the Hyper-Kamiokande project will lead the world’s neutrino research. I would like to underline that the University of Tokyo will do our best to support this newly established organization.”

    Professor Hiroyuki Takeda, Dean of the School of Science, also gave an address: “The School of Science has a long and intimate relationship to the research in Kamioka, because Professor Koshiba started the original Kamiokande experiment when he was a faculty member of the School of Science. It is our great pleasure that we can further deepen the relationship with ICRR and Kavli IPMU through this organization to promote neutrino physics and the Hyper-Kamiokande project.”

    Professor Hitoshi Murayama, director of the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, delivered this message: “I firmly believe that the Hyper-Kamiokande experiment will be one of the most important experiments in the foreseeable future to study the Universe. Kavli IPMU would like to contribute to the Hyper-Kamiokande experiment with experimental expertise, theoretical support, and international networking. I’m very excited. Let’s make the Hyper-Kamiokande experiment happen!”

    Tomonori Nishii, Director of Scientific Research Institutes Division, Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan, presented congratulations: “In July of this year, the MEXT Roadmap 2017, which outlines the basic plan for pursuing large-scale projects, has been compiled by the Council for Science and Technology. It made the implementation priority of such projects clear. “Nucleon Decay and Neutrino Oscillation Experiment with a Large Advanced Detector”, that is Hyper-Kamiokande, is highly evaluated and listed in the roadmap with six other projects. MEXT, together with you, looks forward to seeing this new organization thrive as an international collaborative research hub and produce excellent scientific research achievements.”

    The ceremony was attended by about 100 people from MEXT, the University of Tokyo, KEK, local government and community, the Kamioka Mining and Smelting Company, and collaborating scientists. At the end, all attendees got together to take a group photo and celebrated the start of the new organization for promotion of neutrino physics and the Hyper-Kamiokande project.

    ABOUT THE HYPER-KAMIOKANDE

    Hyper-Kamiokande, or Hyper-K, is a straightforward extension of the successful water Cherenkov detector experiment Super-Kamiokande.

    Super-Kamiokande Detector, located under Mount Ikeno near the city of Hida, Gifu Prefecture, Japan

    It employs well-proven and high-performance water Cherenkov detector technology with established capabilities of neutrino oscillation studies by accelerator and atmospheric neutrinos, proton decay searches, and precision measurements of solar and supernova neutrinos. Hyper-Kamiokande will provide major new capabilities to make new discoveries in particle and astroparticle physics thanks to an order of magnitude increase in detector mass and improvements in photon detection, along with the envisioned J-PARC Megawatt-class neutrino beam.

    An international Hyper-Kamiokande proto-collaboration has been formed to carry out the experiment; it consists of about 300 researchers from 15 countries as of April 2017. The Hyper-Kamiokande member states are Armenia, Brazil, Canada, Ecuador, France, Italy, Japan, Korea, Poland, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, UK, Ukraine, and USA. The Institute for Cosmic Ray Research of the University of Tokyo and the Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK have signed a MoU affirming cooperation in the Hyper-K project to review and develop the program.

    Hyper-K is to be built as a tank with a 187 kiloton fiducial volume containing about 40,000 50-cm photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs), providing 40% photo cathode coverage. The proto-collaboration has succeeded in developing new PMTs with double the single-photon-sensitivity of those in Super-K.

    The Hyper-K and J-PARC neutrino beam measurement of neutrino oscillation is more likely to provide a 5-sigma discovery of CP violation than any other existing or proposed experiment. Hyper-K will also be the world leader for nucleon decays. The sensitivity to the partial lifetime of protons for the decay modes of p→e+π0 is expected to exceed 1035 years. This is the only known, realistic detector option capable of reaching such a sensitivity for the p→e+π0 mode. Finally, the astrophysical neutrino program involves precision measurement of solar neutrinos and their matter effects, as well as high-statistics supernova burst and supernova relic neutrinos.

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 8:20 am on October 2, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Kyoto University, , , University of Tübingen, University of Texas at Austin,   

    From Science: “Sloshing, supersonic gas may have built the baby universe’s biggest black holes” 

    AAAS
    Science

    Sep. 28, 2017
    Joshua Sokol

    1
    Supermassive black holes a billion times heavier than the sun are too big to have formed conventionally. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    A central mystery surrounds the supermassive black holes that haunt the cores of galaxies: How did they get so big so fast? Now, a new, computer simulation–based study suggests that these giants were formed and fed by massive clouds of gas sloshing around in the aftermath of the big bang.

    “This really is a new pathway,” says Volker Bromm, an astrophysicist at the University of Texas in Austin who was not part of the research team. “But it’s not … the one and only pathway.”

    Astronomers know that, when the universe was just a billion years old, some supermassive black holes were already a billion times heavier than the sun. That’s much too big for them to have been built up through the slow mergers of small black holes formed in the conventional way, from collapsed stars a few dozen times the mass of the sun. Instead, the prevailing idea is that these behemoths had a head start. They could have condensed directly out of seed clouds of hydrogen gas weighing tens of thousands of solar masses, and grown from there by gravitationally swallowing up more gas. But the list of plausible ways for these “direct-collapse” scenarios to happen is short, and each option requires a perfect storm of circumstances.

    For theorists tinkering with computer models, the trouble lies in getting a massive amount of gas to pile up long enough to collapse all at once, into a vortex that feeds a nascent black hole like water down a sink drain. If any parts of the gas cloud cool down or clump up early, they will fragment and coalesce into stars instead. Once formed, radiation from the stars would blow away the rest of the gas cloud.

    2
    Computer models show how supersonic streams of gas coalesce around nuggets of dark matter—forming the seed of a supermassive black hole. Shingo Hirano

    One option, pioneered by Bromm and others, is to bathe a gas cloud in ultraviolet light, perhaps from stars in a next-door galaxy, and keep it warm enough to resist clumping. But having a galaxy close enough to provide that service would be quite the coincidence.

    The new study proposes a different origin. Both the early universe and the current one are composed of familiar matter like hydrogen, plus unseen clumps of dark matter.

    Dark Matter Research

    Universe map Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey

    Scientists studying the cosmic microwave background hope to learn about more than just how the universe grew—it could also offer insight into dark matter, dark energy and the mass of the neutrino.

    Dark matter cosmic web and the large-scale structure it forms The Millenium Simulation, V. Springel et al

    Dark Matter Particle Explorer China

    DEAP Dark Matter detector, The DEAP-3600, suspended in the SNOLAB deep in Sudbury’s Creighton Mine

    LUX Dark matter Experiment at SURF, Lead, SD, USA

    ADMX Axion Dark Matter Experiment, U Uashington

    Today, these two components move in sync. But very early on, normal matter may have sloshed back and forth at supersonic speeds across a skeleton provided by colder, more sluggish dark matter. In the study, published today in Science, simulations show that where these surges were strong, and crossed the path of heavy clumps of dark matter, the gas resisted premature collapse into stars and instead flowed into the seed of a supermassive black hole. These scenarios would be rare, but would still roughly match the number of supermassive black holes seen today, says Shingo Hirano, an astrophysicist at the University of Texas and lead author of the study.

    Priya Natarajan, an astrophysicist at Yale University, says the new simulation represents important computational progress. But because it would have taken place at a very distant, early moment in the history of the universe, it will be difficult to verify. “I think the mechanism itself in detail is not going to be testable,” she says. “We will never see the gas actually sloshing and falling in.”

    But Bromm is more optimistic, especially if such direct-collapse black hole seeds also formed slightly later in the history of the universe. He, Natarajan, and other astronomers have been looking for these kinds baby black holes, hoping to confirm that they do, indeed, exist and then trying to work out their origins from the downstream consequences.

    In 2016, they found several candidates, which seem to have formed through direct collapse and are now accreting matter from clouds of gas. And earlier this year, astronomers showed that the early, distant universe is missing the glow of x-ray light that would be expected from a multitude of small black holes—another sign favoring the sudden birth of big seeds that go on to be supermassive black holes. Bromm is hopeful that upcoming observations will provide more definite evidence, along with opportunities to evaluate the different origin theories. “We have these predictions, we have the signatures, and then we see what we find,” he says. “So the game is on.”

    See the full article here .

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