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  • richardmitnick 12:07 pm on January 25, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Precision Cosmology", , , , , , , Kavli Institute for Cosmology Cambridge (UK)   

    From Kavli Institute for Cosmology- Cambridge (UK): “Precision Cosmology” 

    KavliFoundation

    The Kavli Foundation

    From Kavli Institute for Cosmology, Cambridge (UK)

    12/21/2020 [Just now in social media.]
    Adam Hadhazy

    1
    Researchers continue to make refinements to the measurements and observations that are revealing the universe’s constituent substances and their interactions. Artist impression of Euclid spacecraft, Credit: ESA/ATG medialab (spacecraft); NASA, ESA, CXC, C. Ma, H. Ebeling and E. Barrett (University of Hawaii/IfA), et al. and STScI (background).

    As a science, cosmology is as big as it gets. Ambitiously, the field concerns itself with the entire universe, as well as all of time. When dealing with these sorts of colossal spans, “precision” would appear to be unachievable, or even almost beside the point; merely ballparking why and how things are the way they are might seem explanatorily satisfying.

    The approach of so-called precision cosmology belies this notion, however. Precision cosmology is premised on continuing to nail down the various parameters that have worked in concert to determine the structure of the universe over its eons of existence—along with all the eons to come.

    This is the essence of one of the research themes at the Kavli Institute for Cosmology, Cambridge (KICC), “Large Scale Structure and Precision Cosmology.” The theme emerges from ever-advancing work detailing the interplay of three entities, namely matter, dark matter, and dark energy. These entities have determined the look, shape, and evolution of the cosmos, based on physical laws and their large-scale manifestations.

    Of the trio, matter is the one we’re deeply familiar, though it only evidently makes up about five percent of the whole cosmic kit ‘n kaboodle. Dark Matter has haunted cosmologists for decades, lurking as an unseeable, but indirectly detectable sort of gravitational glue that holds individual galaxies and vast, galaxy-studded cosmic structures together. It’s reckoned to compose a quarter of the universe’s total substance. The last of the three entities, dark energy, comprises the cosmic lion’s share, about 70 percent. Remarkably, Dark Energy was only discovered in the late 1990s, revealed through supernovae explosions of stars that appeared far too faint, given their expected distance. These observations startlingly revealed that the universe’s documented expansion is accelerating.

    “This discovery marked a paradigm shift: the density of the Universe was dominated by a new component—dark energy—in addition to dark matter,” says George Efstathiou, former director and current member of KICC, as well as Professor of Astrophysics (1909) at the University of Cambridge. “However, we didn’t know the densities of these components to any great precision.”

    Efstathiou is one of the researchers involved in the Large Scale Structure and Precision Cosmology theme at KICC. His work, alongside that of colleagues, has continued to constrain the properties of dark matter and dark energy, figuring out how they interact with all the aspects of the universe we can readily observe. The above-mentioned figures of 25 and 70 percent for dark matter and dark energy, respectively, stem directly from these field-wide efforts.

    “In the 20 years since this discovery [of dark energy], principally from observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation, large galaxy surveys and distant supernovae, the densities of these components has been measured accurately,” says Efstathiou.

    Cosmic Background Radiation per ESA/Planck

    The cosmic microwave background, or CMB, is often described as the oldest light in the universe.

    CMB per ESA/Planck.

    Delicate, yet detectable signals imprinted upon this light speak to the proportions of matter, dark matter, and dark energy, and how they’ve driven the universe’s evolution from the Big Bang to present day, 13.8 billion years later. The Planck spacecraft, which operated from 2009 to 2013, delivered the most precise CMB measurements to date.

    ESA/Planck 2009 to 2013

    But various observatories are continuing to delve further into this sky-wide glow, peeling back layers and delivering fresh insights.

    Large galaxy surveys, meanwhile, have likewise continued apace, through numerous projects, some with Kavli Institute involvement. Examples include the Dark Energy Survey, the Legacy Survey of Space and Time to be performed by the Vera C. Rubin observatory, and the galaxy-distance-measuring Euclid spacecraft slated for next decade.

    NOIRLab Vera C. Rubin Observatory Telescope currently under construction on the El Peñón peak at Cerro Pachón Chile, a 2,682-meter-high mountain in Coquimbo Region, in northern Chile, alongside the existing Gemini South and Southern Astrophysical Research Telescopes, altitude 2,715 m (8,907 ft).

    “Euclid will produce a very deep imaging survey,” says Efstathiou. “Euclid should also lead to precise measurements of the equation of state of dark energy.”

    Identifying and accounting for inevitable sources of error in measurements from necessarily imperfect instruments will be a significant challenge as researchers forge ahead into still-more-precise precision cosmology. So, too, will the increasingly pertinent nuances of the phenomena under study. “The main problem for the future will be dealing with systematic errors and astrophysical complexities,” says Efstathiou.

    Bit by bit, the whole picture of the cosmos is coming together, though entirely new physics may yet need to be invoked for it all to come into sharp focus. Precision is indeed possible, even on the grandest of scales. ​

    Dark Matter Background
    Fritz Zwicky discovered Dark Matter in the 1930s when observing the movement of the Coma Cluster., Vera Rubin a Woman in STEM denied the Nobel, some 30 years later, did most of the work on Dark Matter.

    Fritz Zwicky from http:// palomarskies.blogspot.com.


    Coma cluster via NASA/ESA Hubble.


    In modern times, it was astronomer Fritz Zwicky, in the 1930s, who made the first observations of what we now call dark matter. His 1933 observations of the Coma Cluster of galaxies seemed to indicated it has a mass 500 times more than that previously calculated by Edwin Hubble. Furthermore, this extra mass seemed to be completely invisible. Although Zwicky’s observations were initially met with much skepticism, they were later confirmed by other groups of astronomers.
    Thirty years later, astronomer Vera Rubin provided a huge piece of evidence for the existence of dark matter. She discovered that the centers of galaxies rotate at the same speed as their extremities, whereas, of course, they should rotate faster. Think of a vinyl LP on a record deck: its center rotates faster than its edge. That’s what logic dictates we should see in galaxies too. But we do not. The only way to explain this is if the whole galaxy is only the center of some much larger structure, as if it is only the label on the LP so to speak, causing the galaxy to have a consistent rotation speed from center to edge.
    Vera Rubin, following Zwicky, postulated that the missing structure in galaxies is dark matter. Her ideas were met with much resistance from the astronomical community, but her observations have been confirmed and are seen today as pivotal proof of the existence of dark matter.

    Astronomer Vera Rubin at the Lowell Observatory in 1965, worked on Dark Matter (The Carnegie Institution for Science).


    Vera Rubin measuring spectra, worked on Dark Matter (Emilio Segre Visual Archives AIP SPL).


    Vera Rubin, with Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM) image tube spectrograph attached to the Kitt Peak 84-inch telescope, 1970. https://home.dtm.ciw.edu.

    Dark Energy Survey


    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL


    NOIRLab NOAO/CTIO Victor M Blanco 4m Telescope which houses the DECam at Cerro Tololo, Chile, housing DECam at an altitude of 7200 feet

    Timeline of the Inflationary Universe WMAP

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is an international, collaborative effort to map hundreds of millions of galaxies, detect thousands of supernovae, and find patterns of cosmic structure that will reveal the nature of the mysterious dark energy that is accelerating the expansion of our Universe. DES began searching the Southern skies on August 31, 2013.

    According to Einstein’s theory of General Relativity, gravity should lead to a slowing of the cosmic expansion. Yet, in 1998, two teams of astronomers studying distant supernovae made the remarkable discovery that the expansion of the universe is speeding up. To explain cosmic acceleration, cosmologists are faced with two possibilities: either 70% of the universe exists in an exotic form, now called dark energy, that exhibits a gravitational force opposite to the attractive gravity of ordinary matter, or General Relativity must be replaced by a new theory of gravity on cosmic scales.

    DES is designed to probe the origin of the accelerating universe and help uncover the nature of dark energy by measuring the 14-billion-year history of cosmic expansion with high precision. More than 400 scientists from over 25 institutions in the United States, Spain, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Germany, Switzerland, and Australia are working on the project. The collaboration built and is using an extremely sensitive 570-Megapixel digital camera, DECam, mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, high in the Chilean Andes, to carry out the project.

    Over six years (2013-2019), the DES collaboration used 758 nights of observation to carry out a deep, wide-area survey to record information from 300 million galaxies that are billions of light-years from Earth. The survey imaged 5000 square degrees of the southern sky in five optical filters to obtain detailed information about each galaxy. A fraction of the survey time is used to observe smaller patches of sky roughly once a week to discover and study thousands of supernovae and other astrophysical transients.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Kavli Institute for Cosmology, Cambridge (UK)

    For centuries, the University of Cambridge (UK) has been pushing back the frontiers of knowledge about the Universe. Joining this rich tradition of inquiry is the Kavli Institute for Cosmology, founded in 2006 as the first member of the Kavli network in the UK.

    Cambridge’s long history as a center for astronomy and cosmology includes Isaac Newton’s discovery of the law of gravitation and, in modern times, the discovery of pulsars and crucial contributions to the development of the Big Bang model of the Universe. The Kavli Institute is helping to continue this work by creating a single site at which the University’s cosmologists and astrophysicists from different academic departments can share knowledge and work together on major projects. In particular, KICC brings together scientists from the University’s Institute of Astronomy, the Cavendish Laboratory (the Department of Physics) and the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics.

    The Institute started operations in 2008, thanks to an endowment from the Kavli Foundation, and now has about 50 researchers working on the following themes:

    Cosmic Microwave Background and the Early Universe
    Large Scale Structures and Precision Cosmology
    Epoch of Cosmic Reionization
    Formation and Evolution of Galaxies and Supermassive Black Holes
    Evolution of the Intergalactic Medium
    Gravitational Waves
    The institute offers these scientists the benefit of close interaction as well as advanced technologies, including access to giant telescopes and space satellites. Meanwhile, the Institute’s fellowships program host promising scholars from around the globe for stays of up to five years. They are free to pursue their own independent research as well as taking part in the world-class flagship projects led by distinguished Cambridge scientists.

    The Kavli Foundation, based in Oxnard, California, is dedicated to the goals of advancing science for the benefit of humanity and promoting increased public understanding and support for scientists and their work.

    The Foundation’s mission is implemented through an international program of research institutes, professorships, and symposia in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, neuroscience, and theoretical physics as well as prizes in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:45 pm on January 13, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Quantum projects launched to solve universe’s mysteries", , , , Determination of Absolute Neutrino Mass using Quantum Technologies will be led by UCL., Kavli Institute for Cosmology Cambridge (UK), Quantum Simulators for Fundamental Physics project led by the University of Nottingham., Researchers from the University of Cambridge have been awarded funding on four of the seven projects., STFC Quantum Technologies for Fundamental Physics programme, The programme is part of the National Quantum Technologies Programme., The Quantum Sensors for the Hidden Sector (QSHS) project led by the University of Sheffield has been awarded £4.8 million in funding., UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) is supporting seven projects with a £31 million investment to demonstrate how quantum technologies could solve some of the greatest mysteries in fundamental physics.   

    From Kavli Institute for Cosmology Cambridge (UK): “Quantum projects launched to solve universe’s mysteries” 

    KavliFoundation

    The Kavli Foundation

    From Kavli Institute for Cosmology, Cambridge (UK)

    Jan 13, 2021
    Sarah Collins
    sarah.collins@admin.cam.ac.uk
    Communications team

    Researchers will use cutting-edge quantum technologies to transform our understanding of the universe and answer key questions such as the nature of dark matter and black holes.

    1
    New Simulation Sheds Light on Spiraling Supermassive Black Holes. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

    UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) is supporting seven projects with a £31 million investment to demonstrate how quantum technologies could solve some of the greatest mysteries in fundamental physics. Researchers from the University of Cambridge have been awarded funding on four of the seven projects.

    Just as quantum computing promises to revolutionise traditional computing, technologies such as quantum sensors have the potential to radically change our approach to understanding our universe.

    The projects are supported through the Quantum Technologies for Fundamental Physics programme, delivered by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) as part of UKRI’s Strategic Priorities Fund. The programme is part of the National Quantum Technologies Programme.

    AION: A UK Atom Interferometer Observatory and Network has been awarded £7.2 million in funding and will be led by Imperial College London. The project will develop and use technology based on quantum interference between atoms to detect ultra-light dark matter and sources of gravitational waves, such as collisions between massive black holes far away in the universe and violent processes in the very early universe. The team will design a 10m atom interferometer, preparing the construction of the instrument in Oxford and paving the way for larger-scale future experiments to be located in the UK. Members of the AION consortium will also contribute to MAGIS, a partner experiment in the US.

    The Cambridge team on AION is led by Professor Valerie Gibson and Dr Ulrich Schneider from the Cavendish Laboratory, alongside researchers from the Kavli Institute for Cosmology, the Institute of Astronomy and the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics. Dr Tiffany Harte will co-lead the development of the cold atom transport and final cooling sequences for AION, and Dr Jeremy Mitchell will co-lead the data readout and network capabilities for AION and MAGIS, and undertake data analysis and theoretical interpretation.

    “This announcement from STFC to fund the AION project, which alongside some seed funding from the Kavli Foundation, will allow us to target key open questions in fundamental physics and bring new interdisciplinary research to the University for the foreseeable future,” said Gibson.

    “Every physical effect, known or unknown, leaves its fingerprint on the phase evolution of a coherent quantum system such as cold atoms; it only requires sufficiently sensitive detectors,” said Schneider. “We are excited to contribute our cold-atom technology to this interdisciplinary endeavour and to develop atom interferometry into a powerful detector for fundamental physics.”

    The Quantum Sensors for the Hidden Sector (QSHS) project, led by the University of Sheffield, has been awarded £4.8 million in funding. The project aims to contribute to the search for axions, low-mass ‘hidden’ particles that are candidates to solve the mystery of dark matter. They will develop new quantum measurement technology for inclusion in the US ADMX experiment, which can then be used to search for axions in parts of our galaxy’s dark matter halo that have never been explored before.

    “The team will develop new electronic technology to a high level of sophistication and deploy it to search for the lowest-mass particles detected to date,” said Professor Stafford Withington from the Cavendish Laboratory, Co-Investigator and Senior Project Scientist on QSHS. “These particles are predicted to exist theoretically, but have not yet been discovered experimentally. Our ability to probe the particulate nature of the physical world with sensitivities that push at the limits imposed by quantum uncertainty will open up a new frontier in physics.

    “This new window will allow physicists to explore the nature of physical reality at the most fundamental level, and it is extremely exciting that the UK will be playing a major international role in this new generation of science.”

    Professor Withington is also involved in the Determination of Absolute Neutrino Mass using Quantum Technologies, which will be led by UCL. The project aims to harness recent breakthroughs in quantum technologies to solve one of the most important outstanding challenges in particle physics – determining the absolute mass of neutrinos. One of the universe’s most abundant particles neutrinos are a by-product of nuclear fusion within stars, therefore being key to our understanding of the processes within stars and the makeup of the universe. Moreover, knowing the value of the neutrino mass is critical to our understanding of the origin of matter and evolution of the universe. They are poorly understood however, and the researchers aim to develop pioneering new spectroscopy technology capable to precisely measure the mass of this elusive but important particle.

    Professor Zoran Hadzibabic has received funding as part of the Quantum Simulators for Fundamental Physics project, led by the University of Nottingham. The project aims to develop quantum simulators capable of providing insights into the physics of the very early universe and black holes. The goals include simulating aspects of quantum black holes and testing theories of the quantum vacuum that underpin ideas on the origin of the universe.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Kavli Institute for Cosmology, Cambridge (UK)

    For centuries, the University of Cambridge (UK) has been pushing back the frontiers of knowledge about the Universe. Joining this rich tradition of inquiry is the Kavli Institute for Cosmology, founded in 2006 as the first member of the Kavli network in the UK.

    Cambridge’s long history as a center for astronomy and cosmology includes Isaac Newton’s discovery of the law of gravitation and, in modern times, the discovery of pulsars and crucial contributions to the development of the Big Bang model of the Universe. The Kavli Institute is helping to continue this work by creating a single site at which the University’s cosmologists and astrophysicists from different academic departments can share knowledge and work together on major projects. In particular, KICC brings together scientists from the University’s Institute of Astronomy, the Cavendish Laboratory (the Department of Physics) and the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics.

    The Institute started operations in 2008, thanks to an endowment from the Kavli Foundation, and now has about 50 researchers working on the following themes:

    Cosmic Microwave Background and the Early Universe
    Large Scale Structures and Precision Cosmology
    Epoch of Cosmic Reionization
    Formation and Evolution of Galaxies and Supermassive Black Holes
    Evolution of the Intergalactic Medium
    Gravitational Waves
    The institute offers these scientists the benefit of close interaction as well as advanced technologies, including access to giant telescopes and space satellites. Meanwhile, the Institute’s fellowships program host promising scholars from around the globe for stays of up to five years. They are free to pursue their own independent research as well as taking part in the world-class flagship projects led by distinguished Cambridge scientists.

    The Kavli Foundation, based in Oxnard, California, is dedicated to the goals of advancing science for the benefit of humanity and promoting increased public understanding and support for scientists and their work.

    The Foundation’s mission is implemented through an international program of research institutes, professorships, and symposia in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, neuroscience, and theoretical physics as well as prizes in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience.

     
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