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  • richardmitnick 2:18 pm on October 26, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Jill Tarter, Searching for Extraterrestrial Contact   

    From AAAS: “Searching for Extraterrestrial Contact” 



    21 September 2016
    Nathan Gilles

    Dr.Jill Taeter, SETI Institute

    Growing up in New York City, 8-year-old Jill Tarter had never experienced dark like it. She was in Florida. She had traveled to the Sunshine State only to experience a true absence of light, but the sky wasn’t dark at all. It was filled with bright, shining stars. As she walked along the beach with her father, the specks of flickering illumination feeding her imagination, Tarter experienced an insight that would define the rest of her life.

    Gazing upward, she asked herself: What if, revolving around one of those stars, was a planet much like Earth? And what if, on that planet there was a beach where a young creature walked with her father, watching the stars from her own galactic neighborhood? And what if, as this creature gazed and wondered, she glimpsed the light of a distant star around which a small planet revolved on which there was a beach where Tarter walked with her father, looking up and wondered: What if we’re not alone?

    “That became my worldview; that was just my mindset for as long as I can remember,” Tarter reflected.

    An AAAS Fellow since 2002, Tarter has spent the majority of her career in astronomy transmuting the wonder she felt on that beach into a systematic search for intelligent life elsewhere in our galaxy as head of the research arm of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, better known as the SETI Institute.

    Beloved by many and disliked by others, the SETI Institute has for decades aimed radio telescopes at the sky in an effort to tease out potential signals of extraterrestrial origin from the cosmic noise of space. What became the SETI Institute began as independent scientific searches, eventually falling under a series of NASA programs until, in the mid-1990s, U.S. lawmakers cut the programs’ funding.

    However, the search endured. Tarter and other researchers associated with NASA’s SETI work created the nonprofit SETI Institute a decade earlier as a way to continue their search if public funding dissolved. When it did, Tarter and the Institute turned to private donations, mostly from Silicon Valley luminaries, such as Bill Hewlett and David Packard of Hewlett-Packard. During this time, Tarter became the most recognizable face of SETI, pitching the project’s science and philosophy to private philanthropists while honing SETI’s search techniques through overseeing the construction of new hardware and new computer algorithms. Her tenacity even earned her a place in pop culture history, when in 1981, her friend and colleague Carl Sagan based the protagonist of his science fiction novel Contact on her. The book was later made into a movie in 1997 staring Jodie Foster.

    “When Carl sent me a pre-publication copy of the book, I was flummoxed. There was so much in that character that was in common with my life,” said Tarter.

    A look at Tarter’s career shows the accolade from the iconoclastic Sagan was well-deserved.

    While her childhood experience on that Florida beach stuck with her into early adulthood, Tarter nonetheless began her career in science with an aspiration that was a little closer to home: “I wanted to go to the moon,” said Tarter.

    However, in the early 1960s, when she started her undergraduate program in engineering, science and engineering, let alone becoming an astronaut, were culturally off-limits for most women. So much so that Tarter found herself in the awkward position of being the only woman in a class of some 300 students. Nonetheless she excelled, and soon she began to stretch beyond engineering to astronomy, eventually earning her Ph.D. in the subject. It was around this time that she first waded into scientific controversy.

    In the mid-1970s, it was believed that there existed approximately 10 percent more mass in the Milky Way than could be accounted for by observations. Tarter proposed that some of this missing mass was due to a type of star that hadn’t yet been found. She believed these stars would not be massive enough to fuse hydrogen into helium, as our sun does. This meant they would be cool and, for all practical purposes, invisible to our instruments. She called these strange stars Brown Dwarfs.

    When she first proposed Brown Dwarfs, Tarter had a hard time convincing scientific publications that these small, cool stars existed. Meanwhile, the amount of missing mass grew in calculations, eventually being pinned largely on mysterious dark matter. Nonetheless, the idea of Brown Dwarfs caught on, and the first of what would be many Brown Dwarfs was discovered in the mid-1990s. Tarter was vindicated.

    “That was a lot of fun. That was a very enjoyable time,” said Tarter of the discovery.

    Tarter has yet to be vindicated in her search for extraterrestrial intelligence, but she hasn’t given up hope. Since SETI investigations began in the 1960s, only a miniscule portion of the night sky has been surveyed—the equivalent, by Tarter’s calculations, of taking a single glass of water from the world’s oceans. What’s more, as Tarter knows, searching for signals in space is complicated. Space as viewed through a radio telescope is a noisy place. Then there’s the fact that information-laden signals tend to look like noise at first glance. Add to this the multiple frequencies that could be used for broadcasting, the fact that all the sources of broadcast are in constant motion, and, most important, time—the time it takes for complex life to evolve, technological civilizations to develop, and the cosmic speed limit that is the speed of light—and you find yourself with a complex engineering problem.

    “After millennia of asking priests and philosophers what we should believe, suddenly we engineers and scientists have tools, telescopes and computers, to actually figure out what is,” said Tarter.

    Tarter’s first opportunity to apply her skills to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence came in the late 1970s. A colleague of hers wanted to do a search by piggybacking on a radio telescope, and he needed a computer programmer. Tarter just happened to be one of the few people who could program the computer he was using. The researchers’ plan was simple: Take recordings from the radio telescope using magnetic tape, then search the recordings using a computer algorithm programmed by Tarter. This is essentially how SETI still works.

    “Only we’ve now gone from 100 channels to 100 million channels. That’s been the progress that computing power has allowed us to achieve,” said Tarter.

    SETI, like other data-heavy endeavors, has benefited from the recent explosion in computing. This has allowed SETI to search for more complex and seemingly noisier signals. SETI’s hardware has also significantly improved, most notably on projects like the Allen Telescope Array, named after funder and Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen.

    Still, Tarter is realistic. Even with the best hardware and software there could be a lot of searching before we get pinged with a message from the stars, if one shows up at all. That’s because for two civilizations to talk they not only need to be close enough in space to discover one another but also close enough in the long history of our galaxy to overlap. But if they do overlap, that raises the possibility that technological civilizations might be sustainable in cosmic time, raising the further possibility that young civilization like ours could one day overcome the ecological and social upheavals our technologies have produced. This, says Tarter, as much as answering the question she first asked walking along that Florida beach is what should feed our collective imaginations.

    “If technologies pop up around the universe frequently, but in very short time they do themselves in or turn themselves off, then you are never going to get two technological civilizations that are coeval. But, if we know someone else has succeeded, that could be the motivation we need to help us find the solution to the problems that we’re facing,” said Tarter.

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 5:35 pm on January 21, 2016 Permalink | Reply
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    From GIZMODO: “How Should We Look For Aliens?” 

    GIZMODO bloc


    Mika McKinnon

    The search for extraterrestrial life is the ultimate hybrid of creativity and science, the quest to discover something we can’t even describe yet. Jill Tarter embodies that creativity in her work with the SETI Institute, and is the subject of a special video released today.

    WeTransfer’s Creative Class is an online series highlighting creative people doing cool things in the world. This season, the series features SETI Institute astronomer Jill Tarter, the real-life inspiration for Carl Sagan’s Dr. Ellie Arroway in Contact.

    Tarter chatted with Gizmodo about the role of creativity in the search for intelligent aliens, exclaiming, “You have to try to think creative[ly]about how do you discover what you really can’t imagine!”

    SETI Jill Tarter
    Jill Tarter, real-life alien-hunting astronomer

    “I like to say we’re looking for photons, but maybe it’s zeta rays that the advanced technologies of the universe are using to communicate,” Tarter offered as an analogy. “I don’t know what a zeta ray is because we haven’t invented it yet. We don’t understand that physics yet. Maybe that’s in our future.”

    We haven’t found aliens yet, so we need to keep expanding the very way that we search. “How do you look at the universe in new ways that will allow you to find things you that you didn’t imagine?” Tarter said. “[Astronomer Martin Harwit] made this case for essentially venture investing in the astronomical sciences because every time you open up a new observation space, we found something we didn’t expect!”

    Astronomy is full of such examples. Tarter recounts the iconic discovery of pulsars that started in 1965-66, when a team of graduate students built a new type of radio telescope:

    Jocelyn Bell and her colleagues spent the summer nailing up kilometers of wire and fence posts to make a low-frequency detector. They made it for a very scientific goal, but yet when Jocelyn was looking at the data, she found these little bits scruff. She was curious enough and systematic enough to follow up on them.

    Suddenly, wow! There are radio beacons out there more precise than any clock we’ve built. There are entire stars, neutron stars, that are spinning around several times a second. Unbelievable! They found it because they had a new tool. They had a different way of looking at the universe.

    This happens again and again and again. Every time we invent a new tool, discoveries follow. “I think being creative, building new ways to look at the universe, can lead to amazing results.” Tarter said. “You don’t do that if you think, ‘Well, I’m going to do today what I did yesterday.’”

    Our conversation with Tarter was so interesting and so long that we couldn’t transcribe it all in just one night. Instead, check out her Creative Class special here.

    See the full article here .

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    “We come from the future.”

    GIZMOGO pictorial

  • richardmitnick 3:54 pm on September 17, 2015 Permalink | Reply
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    From SETI Institute: “Jill Tarter Elected President of California Academy of Sciences” 

    SETI Institute

    No Writer Credit

    Jill Tarter

    She’s a renowned SETI researcher, and member of the SETI Institute’s Board of Trustees. And now Jill Tarter has been selected to be the new president of San Francisco’s prestigious California Academy of Sciences.

    Jill was pivotal to the creation of the SETI Institute in 1984; The NASA SETI program of which she was a part became the Institute’s first project. In 1998, she was appointed to the Bernard M. Oliver Chair for SETI Research, and more recently Tarter became officially affiliated with the California Academy’s Board of Trustees.

    “In the eight years that I’ve been a Scientist Trustee at the Academy, I’ve found a number of different ways that that organization and the SETI Institute could help each other on projects,” Tarter says. “After all, we have overlapping interests regarding life, both here on Earth and beyond. And both organizations have a passion for sharing what they know with the world.”

    Tarter’s efforts in the SETI enterprise are legendary, and include the initiative for constructing the Allen Telescope Array [ATA], the only radio telescope deliberately designed for searching for signals due to extraterrestrial transmitters.

    Allen Telescope Array

    An informed and energetic champion of the search for company in the cosmos, she can be frequently seen explaining the science behind this enterprise on television and in print. She has also been identified as the prototype for the Ellie Arroway character in the Carl Sagan novel, Contact.

    A winner of many awards, including a Lifetime Achievement Award from Women in Aerospace, Tarter has a long-standing interest in education and in promoting a better understanding of science by the public. She gives several dozen talks each year.

    “As I assume the role of President of the Academy and continue my service on the SETI Institute Board of Trustees, I look forward to finding or creating many more ways we can work together,” Tarter notes.

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 2:16 pm on December 9, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From SKA: “SKA talk – Jill Tarter – The SKA in the world of 2050” 

    SKA Square Kilometer Array


    Live from Jodrell Bank Observatory, Dr. Jill Tarter from SETI is the final keynote speaker concluding a day-long workshop on the wider benefits of the SKA in society. Dr. Tarter will present her vision of the SKA’s impact and role in tomorrow’s society, in 2050.

    Jill Tarter holds the Bernard M. Oliver Chair for SETI Research at the SETI Institute in Mountain View, California and serves as a member of the Board of Trustees for that institution. Tarter received her Bachelor of Engineering Physics Degree with Distinction from Cornell University and her Master’s Degree and a Ph.D. in Astronomy from the University of California, Berkeley.

    She has spent the majority of her professional career attempting to answer the old human question “Are we alone?” by searching for evidence of technological civilizations beyond Earth. She served as Project Scientist for NASA’s SETI program, the High Resolution Microwave Survey and has conducted numerous observational programs at radio observatories worldwide.

    She is a Fellow of the AAAS, the California Academy of Sciences, and the Explorers Club, she was named one of the Time 100 Most Influential People in the World in 2004, and one of the Time 25 in Space in 2012, received a TED prize in 2009, two public service awards from NASA, multiple awards for communicating science to the public, and has been honored as a woman in technology.

    She is an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at USC, Asteroid 74824 Tarter (1999 TJ16) has been named in her honor. She is the Jansky Lecturer in 2014.
    Since the termination of funding for NASA’s SETI program in 1993, she has served in a leadership role to design and build the Allen Telescope Array and to secure private funding to continue the exploratory science of SETI. Many people are now familiar with her work as portrayed by Jodie Foster in the movie Contact.

    See the full article here.

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    About SKA

    The Square Kilometre Array will be the world’s largest and most sensitive radio telescope. The total collecting area will be approximately one square kilometre giving 50 times the sensitivity, and 10 000 times the survey speed, of the best current-day telescopes. The SKA will be built in Southern Africa and in Australia. Thousands of receptors will extend to distances of 3 000 km from the central regions. The SKA will address fundamental unanswered questions about our Universe including how the first stars and galaxies formed after the Big Bang, how dark energy is accelerating the expansion of the Universe, the role of magnetism in the cosmos, the nature of gravity, and the search for life beyond Earth. Construction of phase one of the SKA is scheduled to start in 2016. The SKA Organisation, with its headquarters at Jodrell Bank Observatory, near Manchester, UK, was established in December 2011 as a not-for-profit company in order to formalise relationships between the international partners and centralise the leadership of the project.

  • richardmitnick 4:15 pm on July 10, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    Jill Tarter of SETI Institute at TED 2009 

    SETI Institute

    Jill Tarter at TED 2009. ‘Nuff said.

    SETI Institute – 189 Bernardo Ave., Suite 100
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  • richardmitnick 6:02 am on July 2, 2011 Permalink | Reply
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    From SETI Institute: Meet Dr Jill Tarter 

    Jill Tarter is my candidate for Miss Universe.


    “Astronomer Dr. Jill Tarter is Director of the Institute’s Center for SETI Research, and also holder of the Bernard M. Oliver Chair for SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence). She is one of the few researchers to have devoted her career to hunting for signs of sentient beings elsewhere, and there are few aspects of this field that have not been affected by her work. Jill was the lead for Project Phoenix, a decade-long SETI scrutiny of about 750 nearby star systems, using telescopes in Australia, West Virginia and Puerto Rico. While no clearly extraterrestrial signal was found, this was the most comprehensive targeted search for artificially generated cosmic signals ever undertaken. Among her numerous distinguished awards and recognitions, Jill received the 2009 TED Prize, which will empower Jill and her team to take SETI research to an entirely new and broader level.

    Being as much of an icon of SETI as Jill is, perhaps it is not surprising that the Jodie Foster character in the movie Contact is largely inspired by this real-life researcher.”

    Now, the above is from Jill’s bio interview page at the SETI Institute web site. There is much more, so you should go there and read it.

    I went looking for more just plain facts. Usually, Wikipedia is a sure bet. Not this time. Short and sweet. Not even much of Jill’s CV. But, at SETI Institute, there is a really good listing of Jill’s accomplishments. Check it out.

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    Copyright © 2011, SETI Institute.
    Unless otherwise indicated, the documents and graphics stored on this Web server, http://www.seti.org, are copyrighted.
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    No copies may be made without permission.

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