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  • richardmitnick 10:50 am on October 25, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Interactions.org, , ,   

    From Interactions.org: ““Unshakable conviction” of scientific case of the International Linear Collider” 

    From Interactions.org

    ILC schematic, being planned for the Kitakami highland, in the Iwate prefecture of northern Japan

    Scientists gathering in Arlington, Texas, U.S.A., for the International Workshop on Future Linear Colliders (LCWS2018), a scientific conference about future international particle physics projects, issued a statement (the ‘Texas statement’) expressing their strong commitment to do whatever necessary for the realisation of the International Linear Collider (ILC) in Japan. Having stressed the scientific case and the technological merits of the ILC through the statements issued during a scientific workshop in Tokyo in 2015, and in Fukuoka in May 2018, participants of LCWS2018 on behalf of the global Linear Collider Collaboration (LCC) express their unshakable conviction about the ILC and their determination to bring it to its fruition.

    “The Texas Statement” – Statement on the ILC Higgs Factory
    Scientists from all over the world are now gathering together at the International Workshop on Future Linear Colliders (LCWS2018) held in Arlington, Texas, with a firm determination to make the ILC a reality. Together with colleagues around the world, we hereby issue this ‘Texas Statement’ with unshakable conviction on its scientific case and to express our strong commitment to do whatever necessary for its success.

    The ILC is the right new experimental facility to advance our understanding of the Universe. The ILC project has been developed by an international collaboration over three decades. We conceived it as the machine to lead the era of particle physics at the Terascale with the Higgs particle as the centerpiece. The discovery of the Higgs particle by the LHC fixed the needed energy, and we now have a concrete plan for the ILC Higgs factory. Subsequent measurements at the LHC further reinforced the importance of the precision Higgs studies. If scientifically justified by the findings of the precision Higgs study, the collision energy of the ILC can be easily upgraded. Throughout the period of ILC development, our original motivation has become increasingly clearer and stronger.

    The ILC is a source of new innovative technologies. We also pride ourselves in the technology for the ILC. Global collaboration has made enormous progress in the development of the superconducting acceleration technology, improving its performance by quantum leaps. This technology, developed for the ILC, is now essential, for example, for the current state-of-the-art X-ray and neutron facilities. More innovations broadly benefitting science and society are in store as we proceed along our path.
    Now is the time to move forward. The international community represented by the participants of LCWS2018 is committed to bring the ILC to its fruition. Once the expression of intention to host the ILC is issued by the Japanese government, we will greatly expand our own efforts and work with our respective governments ever more intensively to help achieve the necessary international agreements. We eagerly await the signal to proceed and, when the ILC starts in earnest, we will be ready to carry through on its promise.

    Scientists attending LCWS2018
    on behalf of the global Linear Collider Collaboration
    Background information:
    The International Linear Collider is a proposed particle accelerator whose mission is to carry out research about the fundamental particles and forces that govern the Universe. It would complement the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, where the Higgs boson was discovered in 2012, and shed more light on the discoveries scientists have made and are likely to make there in the coming years. The ILC will be one of the world’s largest and most sophisticated scientific endeavours. The realisation of the ILC will require truly global participation.
    The Linear Collider Collaboration consists of scientists and engineers working on the Compact Linear Collider Study (CLIC) and the International Linear Collider (ILC). It is headed by former LHC Project Director Lyn Evans and coordinates the world-wide research and development for accelerators and detectors.

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  • richardmitnick 12:54 pm on October 24, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Interactions.org, , , Solar Neutrinos   

    From Interactions.org: “Over 10 Years of Scientific Successes: Thanks to Borexino Today We Know The Sun With Unprecedented Detail” 

    From Interactions.org

    October 24th, 2018

    Antonella Varaschin
    INFN Communications Office
    antonella.varaschin@presid.infn.it
    +39 06 6868162
    fax +39 06 68307944
    Comunicazione@presid.infn.it

    After more than ten years from the beginning of its scientific activity focused on the internal structure of the Sun, which gave an understanding of the power mechanism of our star with unprecedented detail, the Borexino experiment at the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratories publishes on October 25th on Nature the compendium of its results on solar neutrinos. With this publication, Borexino crowns a long history of measurements and experimental investigations, which led the experiment, on the one hand, to investigate in detail the mechanism of energy production in the Sun and, on the other, to study in the region of low energy (from a few MeV down to less than 1 MeV) the so-called neutrinos oscillation phenomenon, i.e. the transformation of neutrinos from one type (flavor) into another.

    Borexino Solar Neutrino detector

    Gran Sasso LABORATORI NAZIONALI del GRAN SASSO, located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy

    “The results published today – comments Gianpaolo Bellini, of the INFN Division of Milan and professor emeritus at the University of Milan, among the fathers of the experiment – are the pinnacle of a thirty-year history started in the late 80s, when Borexino was conceived in the context of the scientific debate triggered by the then-unresolved Solar Neutrino Problem.” “The results have gone far beyond even the most optimistic initial predictions,” Bellini concludes.

    Immersed in the cosmic silence of the underground Gran Sasso Laboratories, one of the lowest radioactivity sites in the world, from the moment of the data taking start-up, in May 2007, Borexino has been so radio pure that it conquered straightaway a unique and unmatched position within the many existing low background experiments. This peculiarity is the basis of the multiple results accumulated in more than a decade of operation, which go far beyond the initially set objectives, when the experiment was devised. In fact, designed to measure only the flow of neutrinos from 7Be (beryllium 7) among those produced along the proton-proton chain (pp chain, i.e. the sequence of nuclear reactions in the solar nucleus initiated by the fusion of two protons), Borexino has gradually widened its experimental sensitivity, to cover the entire range of neutrinos from the whole sequence.

    The unique characteristics of the measures carried out by Borexino, namely the real-time and low-threshold spectroscopic detection of the neutrino flux from the Sun, are all reported in the publication of Nature, with in addition a novelty: in this last result, the different neutrino components were measured simultaneously, and not separately as it happened for the previous analyses, and with considerably greater precisions.

    The precise and concurrent measurement in a single experiment of the neutrinos fluxes pp (7Be, pep and 8B – boron 8), as well as the limit on the minuscule flow of higher energy neutrinos (hep), altogether coming from the pp chain, allows Borexino to depict with absolute clarity on the experimental side the framework of the operation of our star, putting a definitive end to the secular question about the mechanism that makes it shine for the billions of years of its life.

    At the same time, through the comparison of these experimental data of very high quality and accuracy with the forecasts of the Standard Solar Model, Borexino demonstrates incontrovertibly the existence in the low energy region of the oscillation between neutrinos of different flavor by the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect. In particular, Borexino emphasizes in a completely autonomous way, using only its own data and without having to resort to results of other experiments, the peculiar transition between the two regimes of “vacuum” and “matter”, that represents the signature of the MSW effect.

    “With the simultaneous and high precision measurement of the fluxes of solar neutrinos from the pp-chain by the same detector – explains Gioacchino Ranucci, INFN researcher and co-spokesperson of the experiment-Borexino is the only detector that alone succeeds at the same time to shed full light on what supplies the engine of the Sun (and therefore the stars) and on the phenomenon of oscillation of neutrinos”.

    “With the measures of Borexino – underlines Marco Pallavicini, INFN researcher and professor at the University of Genoa and co-spokesperson of Borexino-the hypothesis of the functioning of the Sun through the nuclear reactions of the pp chain, suggested in the 30’s, finds its definitive experimental consecration”.

    Borexino, stemmed from the intense cooperation among Italy, Germany, France, Poland, The United States and Russia, has been built exploiting cutting-edge techniques internationally recognized of absolute and unmatched excellence, especially in the field of materials radiopurity and low background.

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  • richardmitnick 9:10 am on September 18, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Interactions.org, , ,   

    From Interactions.org: “First particle tracks seen in prototype for international neutrino experiment” 

    From Interactions.org

    CERN and Fermilab announce big step in Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment.

    18 September 2018 – The largest liquid-argon neutrino detector in the world has just recorded its first particle tracks, signaling the start of a new chapter in the story of the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE).

    5
    DUNE collaboration

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    DUNE’s scientific mission is dedicated to unlocking the mysteries of neutrinos, the most abundant (and most mysterious) matter particles in the universe. Neutrinos are all around us, but we know very little about them. Scientists on the DUNE collaboration think that neutrinos may help answer one of the most pressing questions in physics: why we live in a universe dominated by matter. In other words, why we are here at all.

    The enormous ProtoDUNE detector – the size of a three-story house and the shape of a gigantic cube – was built at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, as the first of two prototypes for what will be a much, much larger detector for the DUNE project, hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in the United States. When the first DUNE detector modules record data in 2026, they will each be 20 times larger than these prototypes.

    CERN Proto Dune

    ProtoDune


    Cern ProtoDune

    It is the first time CERN is investing in infrastructure and detector development for a particle physics project in the United States.

    The first ProtoDUNE detector took two years to build and eight weeks to fill with 800 tons of liquid argon, which needs to be kept at temperatures below -184 degrees Celsius (-300 degrees Fahrenheit). The detector records traces of particles in that argon, from both cosmic rays and a beam created at CERN’s accelerator complex. Now that the first tracks have been seen, scientists will operate the detector over the next several months to test the technology in depth.

    “Only two years ago we completed the new building at CERN to house two large-scale prototype detectors that form the building blocks for DUNE,” said Marzio Nessi, head of the Neutrino Platform at CERN. “Now we have the first detector taking beautiful data, and the second detector, which uses a different approach to liquid-argon technology, will be online in a few months.”

    The technology of the first ProtoDUNE detector will be the same to be used for the first of the DUNE detector modules in the United States, which will be built a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota. More than 1,000 scientists and engineers from 32 countries spanning five continents – Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America – are working on the development, design and construction of the DUNE detectors. The groundbreaking ceremony for the caverns that will house the experiment was held in July of 2017.

    “Seeing the first particle tracks is a major success for the entire DUNE collaboration,” said DUNE co-spokesperson Stefan Soldner-Rembold of the University of Manchester, UK. “DUNE is the largest collaboration of scientists working on neutrino research in the world, with the intention of creating a cutting-edge experiment that could change the way we see the universe.”

    When neutrinos enter the detectors and smash into the argon nuclei, they produce charged particles. Those particles leave ionization traces in the liquid, which can be seen by sophisticated tracking systems able to create three-dimensional pictures of otherwise invisible subatomic processes. (An animation of how the DUNE and ProtoDUNE detectors work, along with other videos about DUNE, is available here: https://www.fnal.gov/pub/science/lbnf-dune/photos-videos.html.)

    “CERN is proud of the success of the Neutrino Platform and enthusiastic about being a partner in DUNE, together with Institutions and Universities from its Member States and beyond” said Fabiola Gianotti, Director-General of CERN. “These first results from ProtoDUNE are a nice example of what can be achieved when laboratories across the world collaborate. Research with DUNE is complementary to research carried out by the LHC and other experiments at CERN; together they hold great potential to answer some of the outstanding questions in particle physics today.”

    DUNE will not only study neutrinos, but their antimatter counterparts as well. Scientists will look for differences in behavior between neutrinos and antineutrinos, which could give us clues as to why the visible universe is dominated by matter. DUNE will also watch for neutrinos produced when a star explodes, which could reveal the formation of neutron stars and black holes, and will investigate whether protons live forever or eventually decay. Observing proton decay would bring us closer to fulfilling Einstein’s dream of a grand unified theory.

    “DUNE is the future of neutrino research,” said Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer. “Fermilab is excited to host an international experiment with such vast potential for new discoveries, and to continue our long partnership with CERN, both on the DUNE project and on the Large Hadron Collider.”

    To learn more about the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility that will house the experiment, and the PIP-II particle accelerator project at Fermilab that will power the neutrino beam for the experiment, visit http://www.fnal.gov/dune.

    Footnotes:
    DUNE comprises 175 institutions from 32 countries: Armenia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Greece, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Madagascar, Mexico, Netherlands, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and United States. The DUNE interim design report provides a detailed description of the technologies that will be used for the DUNE detectors. More information is at dunescience.org.
    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is one of the world’s leading laboratories for particle physics. The Organization is located on the French-Swiss border, with its headquarters in Geneva. Its Member States are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. Cyprus, Serbia and Slovenia are Associate Member States in the pre-stage to Membership. India, Lithuania, Pakistan, Turkey and Ukraine are Associate Member States. The European Union, Japan, JINR, the Russian Federation, UNESCO and the United States of America currently have Observer status.

    Fermilab is America’s premier national laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research. A U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science laboratory, Fermilab is located near Chicago, Illinois, and operated under contract by the Fermi Research Alliance LLC, a joint partnership between the University of Chicago and the Universities Research Association, Inc. Visit Fermilab’s website at http://www.fnal.gov and follow us on Twitter at @Fermilab.

    DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit science.energy.gov

    See the Fermilab article here .
    See the Symmetry article here.
    See the Berkeley lab article here .
    See the CERN article here .

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  • richardmitnick 2:01 pm on August 29, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , AWAKE achieves first ever acceleration of electrons in a proton-driven plasma wave, , , , Interactions.org, , ,   

    From CERN via Interactions.org: “AWAKE achieves first ever acceleration of electrons in a proton-driven plasma wave” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    From CERN

    via

    Interactions.org

    AWAKE

    AWAKE explores the use of plasma to accelerate particles to high energies over short distances

    29 August 2018. In a paper published today in the journal Nature, the AWAKE collaboration at CERN reports the first ever successful acceleration of electrons using a wave generated by protons zipping through a plasma. The acceleration obtained over a given distance is already several times higher than that of conventional technologies currently available for particle accelerators. First proposed in the 1970s, the use of plasma waves (or so-called wakefields) has the potential to drastically reduce the size of accelerators in the next several decades.

    1

    The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) is an accelerator R&D project based at CERN. It is a proof-of-principle experiment investigating the use of plasma wakefields driven by a proton bunch to accelerate charged particles.

    A plasma wakefield is a type of wave generated by particles travelling through a plasma. AWAKE sends proton beams through plasma cells to generate these fields. By harnessing wakefields, physicists may be able to produce accelerator gradients hundreds of times higher than those achieved in current radiofrequency cavities. This would allow future colliders to achieve higher energies over shorter distances than is possible today.

    AWAKE uses proton beams from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS)

    The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), CERN’s second-largest accelerator. (Image: Julien Ordan/CERN

    AWAKE is the world’s first proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. Besides demonstrating how protons can be used to generate wakefields, AWAKE will also develop the necessary technologies for long-term, proton-driven plasma acceleration projects.

    AWAKE is an international scientific collaboration made up of 16 institutes and involving over 80 engineers and physicists (November 2017).

    These protons are injected into a 10-metre plasma cell to initiate strong wakefields. A second beam – the “witness” electron beam – would then be accelerated by the wakefields, gaining up to several gigavolts of energy. Following AWAKE’s approval in autumn 2013, the first proton beams were sent to the plasma cell at the end of 2016. During the 2016–2017 run, strong wakefields generated by the proton beams in plasma were observed for the first time and studied in detail. In 2018, electrons will be generated in these plasma wakefields.


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  • richardmitnick 10:55 am on June 4, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Interactions.org, , ,   

    From Fermilab: “NOvA experiment sees strong evidence for antineutrino oscillation” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermilab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    June 4th, 2018

    Science contact
    Peter Shanahan, co-spokesperson for NOvA, Fermilab
    shanahan@fnal.gov
    630-840-8378

    Tricia Vahle, NOvA co-spokesperson, William & Mary
    plvahle@wm.edu
    757-221-3559

    Media contact
    Andre Salles, Fermilab Office of Communication,
    asalles@fnal.gov
    630-840-6733

    For more than three years, scientists on the NOvA collaboration have been observing particles called neutrinos as they oscillate from one type to another over a distance of 500 miles. Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed.

    3
    This display shows, from two perspectives, an electron antineutrino appearance candidate in the NOvA far detector. Image courtesy of Evan Niner/NOvA collaboration

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    NOvA Far detector 15 metric-kiloton far detector in Minnesota just south of the U.S.-Canada border schematic

    NOvA Far Detector Block

    NOvA, based at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, is the world’s longest-baseline neutrino experiment. Its purpose is to discover more about neutrinos, ghostly yet abundant particles that travel through matter mostly without leaving a trace. The experiment’s long-term goal is to look for similarities and differences in how neutrinos and antineutrinos change from one type – in this case, muon – into one of the other two types, electron or tau. Precisely measuring this change in both neutrinos and antineutrinos, and then comparing them, will help scientists unlock the secrets that these particles hold about how the universe operates.

    NOvA uses two large particle detectors – a smaller one at Fermilab in Illinois, and a much larger one 500 miles away in northern Minnesota – to study a beam of particles generated by Fermilab’s accelerator complex and sent through the earth, with no tunnel required.

    The new result is drawn from NOvA’s first run with antineutrinos, the antimatter counterpart to neutrinos. NOvA began studying antineutrinos in February of 2017. Fermilab’s accelerators create a beam of muon neutrinos (or muon antineutrinos), and NOvA’s far detector is specifically designed to see those particles changing into electron neutrinos (or electron antineutrinos) on their journey.

    If antineutrinos did not oscillate from muon type to electron type, scientists would have expected to record just five electron antineutrino candidates in the NOvA far detector during this first run. But when they analyzed the data, they found 18, providing strong evidence that antineutrinos undergo this oscillation.

    “Antineutrinos are more difficult to make than neutrinos, and they are less likely to interact in our detector,” said Fermilab’s Peter Shanahan, co-spokesperson of the NOvA collaboration. “This first data set is a fraction of our goal, but the number of oscillation events we see is far greater than we would expect if antineutrinos didn’t oscillate from muon type to electron. It demonstrates the impact that Fermilab’s high-power particle beam has on our ability to study neutrinos and antineutrinos.”

    Although antineutrinos are known to oscillate, the change into electron antineutrinos over long distances has not yet been definitively observed. The T2K experiment, located in Japan, announced that it had observed hints of this phenomenon in 2017.

    T2K map, T2K Experiment, Tokai to Kamioka, Japan


    T2K Experiment, Tokai to Kamioka, Japan

    The NOvA and T2K collaborations are working toward a combined analysis of their data in the coming years.

    “With this first result using antineutrinos, NOvA has moved into the next phase of its scientific program,” said Jim Siegrist, Associate Director for High Energy Physics at the Department of Energy Office of Science. “I’m pleased to see this important experiment continuing to tell us more about these fascinating particles.”

    NOvA’s new antineutrino result accompanies an improvement to its methods of analysis, leading to a more precise measurement of its neutrino data. From 2014 to 2017, NOvA saw 58 candidates for interactions from muon neutrinos changing into electron neutrinos, and scientists are using this data to move closer to unraveling some of the knottiest mysteries of these elusive particles.

    The key to NOvA’s science program is comparing the rate at which electron neutrinos appear in the far detector with the rate that electron antineutrinos appear. A precise measurement of those differences will allow NOvA to achieve one of its main science goals: to determine which of the three types of neutrinos is the heaviest, and which the lightest.

    Neutrinos have been shown to have mass, but scientists have not been able to directly measure that mass. However, with enough data, they can determine the relative masses of the three, a puzzle called the mass ordering. NOvA is working toward a definitive answer to this question. Scientists on the experiment will continue studying antineutrinos through 2019, and over the following years will eventually collect equal amounts of data from neutrinos and antineutrinos.

    “This first data set from antineutrinos is a just a start to what promises to be an exciting run,” said NOvA co-spokesperson Tricia Vahle of William & Mary. “It’s early days, but NOvA is already giving us new insights into the many mysteries of neutrinos and antineutrinos.”

    For more information on neutrinos and neutrino research, please visit http://neutrinos.fnal.gov.

    The NOvA collaboration includes more than 240 scientists from nearly 50 institutions in seven countries: Brazil, Colombia, Czech Republic, India, Russia, the U.K. and the U.S. For more information visit the experiment’s website at http://novaexperiment.fnal.gov.

    See the full article here .


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    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 2:39 pm on May 28, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Interactions.org, , , The hunt for Dark Natter, , XENON1T at Gran Sasso   

    From Columbia University The XENON1T experiment via interactions.org: “XENON1T probes deeper into Dark Matter WIMPs, with 1300 kg of cold Xe atoms” 

    Columbia U bloc

    From Columbia University

    interactions.org

    XENON1T at Gran Sasso LABORATORI NAZIONALI del GRAN SASSO, located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy

    Results from XENON1T, the world’s largest and most sensitive detector dedicated to a direct search for Dark Matter in the form of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), are reported today (Monday, 28th May) by the spokesperson, Prof. Elena Aprile of Columbia University, in a seminar at the hosting laboratory, the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), in Italy.

    The international collaboration of more than 165 researchers from 27 institutions, has successfully operated XENON1T, collecting an unprecedentedly large exposure of about 1 tonne x year with a 3D imaging liquid xenon time projection chamber. The data are consistent with the expectation from background, and place the most stringent limit on spin-independent interactions of WIMPs with ordinary matter for a WIMP mass higher than 6 GeV/c². The sensitivity achieved with XENON1T is almost four orders of magnitude better than that of XENON10, the first detector of the XENON Dark Matter project, which has been hosted at LNGS since 2005. Steadily increasing the fiducial target mass from the initial 5 kg to the current 1300 kg, while simultaneously decreasing the background rate by a factor 5000, the XENON collaboration has continued to be at the forefront of Dark Matter direct detection, probing deeper into the WIMP parameter space.

    WIMPs are a class of Dark Matter candidates which are being frantically searched with experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, in space, and on Earth. Even though about a billion WIMPs are expected to cross a surface of one square meter per second on Earth, they are extremely difficult to detect. Results from XENON1T show that WIMPs, if they indeed comprise the Dark Matter in our galaxy, will result in a rare signal, so rare that even the largest detector built so far cannot see it directly. XENON1T is a cylindrical detector of approximately one meter height and diameter, filled with liquid xenon at -95 °C, with a density three times that of water. In XENON1T, the signature of a WIMP interaction with xenon atoms is a tiny flash of scintillation light and a handful of ionization electrons, which themselves are turned into flashes of light. Both light signals are simultaneously recorded with ultra-sensitive photodetectors, giving the energy and 3D spatial information on an event-by-event basis.

    2
    XENON1T installation in the underground hall of Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The three story building houses various auxiliary systems. The cryostat containing the LXeTPC is located inside the large water tank next to the building. Photo by Roberto Corrieri and Patrick De Perio.

    In developing this unique type of detector to search for a rare WIMP signal, many challenges had to be overcome; first and foremost the reduction of the overwhelmingly large background from many sources, from radioactivity to cosmic rays. Today, XENON1T is the largest Dark Matter experiment with the lowest background ever measured, counting a mere 630 events in one year and one tonne of xenon in the energy region of interest for a WIMP search. The search results, submitted to Physical Review Letters, are based on 1300 kg out of the total 2000 kg active xenon target and 279 days of data, making it the first WIMP search with a noble liquid target exposure of 1.0 tonne x year. Only two background events were expected in the innermost, cleanest region of the detector, but none were detected, setting the most stringent limit on WIMPs with masses above 6 GeV/c² to date. XENON1T continues to acquire high-quality data and the search will continue until it will be upgraded with a larger mass detector, being developed by the collaboration. With another factor of four increase in fiducial target mass, and ten times less background rate, XENONnT will be ready in 2019 for a new exploration of particle Dark Matter at a level of sensitivity nobody imagined when the project started in 2002.

    The international collaboration of more than 165 researchers from 27 institutions, has successfully operated XENON1T, collecting an unprecedentedly large exposure of about 1 tonne x year with a 3D imaging liquid xenon time projection chamber.

    Columbia University, New York, USA
    PI and Spokesperson of XENON: Elena Aprile

    Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionale del Gran Sasso, l’Aquila, Italy
    PI: Walter Fulgione

    Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino, Italy
    PI: Giancarlo Trinchero

    Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
    PI: Uwe Oberlack

    Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg, Germany
    PI: Manfred Lindner

    Nikhef & GRAPPA/University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands
    PI: Patrick Decowski

    Purdue University, West Lafayette, USA
    PI: Rafael Lang

    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, USA
    PI: Ethan Brown

    Rice University, Houston, USA
    PI: Petr Shagin

    Subatech, Nantes, France
    PI: Dominique Thers

    University of Bern, Switzerland
    PI: Marc Schumann

    Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Bologna and University of Bologna, Italy
    PI: Gabriella Sartorelli

    University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    PI: Hanguo Wang

    University of California, San Diego, USA
    PI: Kaixuan Ni

    University of Chicago, USA
    PI: Luca Grandi

    University of Coimbra, Portugal
    PI: José Matias-Lopes

    University of Münster, Germany
    PI: Christian Weinheimer

    University of Zürich, Switzerland
    PI: Laura Baudis

    Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
    PI: Ranny Budnik

    NYU Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
    PI: Francesco Arneodo

    Stockholm University, Sweden
    PI: Jan Conrad

    The data are consistent with the expectation from background, and place the most stringent limit on spin-independent interactions of WIMPs with ordinary matter for a WIMP mass higher than 6 GeV/c². The sensitivity achieved with XENON1T is almost four orders of magnitude better than that of XENON10, the first detector of the XENON Dark Matter project, which has been hosted at LNGS since 2005. Steadily increasing the fiducial target mass from the initial 5 kg to the current 1300 kg, while simultaneously decreasing the background rate by a factor 5000, the XENON collaboration has continued to be at the forefront of Dark Matter direct detection, probing deeper into the WIMP parameter space.

    WIMPs are a class of Dark Matter candidates which are being frantically searched with experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, in space, and on Earth. Even though about a billion WIMPs are expected to cross a surface of one square meter per second on Earth, they are extremely difficult to detect. Results from XENON1T show that WIMPs, if they indeed comprise the Dark Matter in our galaxy, will result in a rare signal, so rare that even the largest detector built so far cannot see it directly. XENON1T is a cylindrical detector of approximately one meter height and diameter, filled with liquid xenon at -95 °C, with a density three times that of water. In XENON1T, the signature of a WIMP interaction with xenon atoms is a tiny flash of scintillation light and a handful of ionization electrons, which themselves are turned into flashes of light. Both light signals are simultaneously recorded with ultra-sensitive photodetectors, giving the energy and 3D spatial information on an event-by-event basis.

    See the full article here .


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  • richardmitnick 12:22 pm on May 19, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Interactions.org, , , , The Future of HEP   

    From Interactions.org: “Quo Vadis, High Energy Physics?” 

    From Interactions.org

    16th May 2018
    Juan Rojo

    1

    High Energy Physics finds itself at a crossroads, a fact commonly recognized within the scientific community. Paradoxically, the main reason for this state of affairs is none other than the extreme success of both our theoretical framework and our experimental programs. Indeed, our current understanding of elementary particles, as encapsulated by the Standard Model, has so far been confirmed with exquisite precision by countless experiments.

    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.


    Standard Model of Particle Physics from Symmetry Magazine

    Even then, there are still enough urgent fundamental questions that are so far left unanswered!

    To begin with, the Standard Model (SM) does not provide a candidate for dark matter, the mysterious non-luminous form of matter five times more abundant than normal matter and whose existence we infer from astronomical observations.

    Caterpillar Project A Milky-Way-size dark-matter halo and its subhalos circled, an enormous suite of simulations . Griffen et al. 2016


    Dark matter cosmic web and the large-scale structure it forms The Millenium Simulation, V. Springel et al

    It does not provide either a microscopic mechanism for the dark energy accelerating the expansion of the universe.

    Reticulum II galaxy-Dark Energy Survey, DECam, CTIO/Blanco Telescope, Cerro Tololo, Chile

    Dark Energy Survey


    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL


    NOAO/CTIO Victor M Blanco 4m Telescope which houses the DECam at Cerro Tololo, Chile, housing DECam

    Neither does the SM explain how the observed asymmetry between matter and antimatter was generated in the early universe, nor the fact that neutrinos have non-zero masses.

    In addition to these ’observational’ conundrums, the SM also contains several puzzles of a more theoretical nature. To begin with, we still don’t know for sure if the scalar boson observed at the LHC is really the SM Higgs boson, or if it is instead a more complicated creature.

    CERN CMS Higgs Event


    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event

    LHC

    CERN/LHC Map

    CERN LHC Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    For example, it could very well be that the Higgs is a composite particle itself. In addition, in the SM the mass of the Higgs boson is not protected by any symmetry, and for this reason it will tend to grow up to the highest energies at which the theory is valid. In this respect, we do not really understand the unbearable lightness of the Higgs particle. We also have no clue whatsoever of the origin of the flavour structure in the SM, for instance why there are three generations and not 27, and what mechanism determines the observed values of the masses of the SM particles. So there is definitely no lack of fascinating problems to be tackled!

    Going even deeper into the foundations of high-energy physics, we don’t know how to marry the two most arguably successful physical theories ever formulated, quantum mechanics and general relativity. Indeed, the ongoing quest for quantum gravity has turned out to be a formidable challenge attacked without success by some of the most brilliant physicists of the last decades. The fact that the experimental signatures of quantum gravity are in most cases orders of magnitude beyond our foreseeable experimental reach does for sure not help in this context. Quantum gravity has been so far the playground of mostly theoretical speculations, though there are hopes that its effects can be probed experimentally in the near future either from cosmological observations or from ultra-high precision measurements of quantum systems.

    I encourage the interested reader to take an interactive look at the various mysteries of the Standard Model and the various “Theories of Everything” that have been proposed in this infographic by Quanta Magazine.

    As I was saying, one of the main hopes for our field is that the thorough exploration of the Higgs boson properties can shed some light on the SM mysteries. For instance, we are now only starting to scratch the surface of the Higgs particle, and current and future measurements at the LHC will tell us more about its underlying nature. Indeed, one of the main goals of the High-Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC), which will deliver up to a factor 10 more collisions, is the accurate profiling of the properties of the Higgs boson, where any deviation with respect to the tightly fixed properties of the SM would represent a “smoking gun” for new physics beyond it.

    While the HEP community is certainly together in its support for the full exploitation of the physics potential of the HL-LHC as a major priority, it’s less clear what should come next. Should we build yet a bigger particle collider? A different type of collider? Perhaps the key is in the intensity, high-precision frontier? Should we focus on completely different types of experiments, perhaps more weighted towards astrophysics and cosmology? Something else that no one has even thought of before?

    In this context, one particularly attractive proposal goes under the name of Future Circular Collider (FCC).

    FCC Future Circular Collider at CERN

    The FCC would be a gargantuan particle collider with a radius of around 100 kilometers, dwarfing the already pretty huge LHC. This collider could accelerate protons up to the extreme energies of 100 TeV, about 7 times more powerful than those available at the LHC. In addition, this machine could also accommodate the collisions between electrons and positrons at high energy and luminosity, which would make extremely high precision characterization of SM particles possible, such as the Higgs boson, the W and Z gauge bosons, and the top quarks. Similar machines are under active study by the Chinese HEP community. Another proposal for the next collider is the International Linear Collider (ILC), a high energy linear accelerator of electrons and positrons, to be hosted by Japan.


    ILC schematic, being planned for the Kitakami highland, in the Iwate prefecture of northern Japan

    While it would be amazing if we had machines like this at our disposal, they will come with a hefty price tag of several billion euros at the very least. It is obviously not a decision that can be taken lightly, and the science case in each option must the weighted carefully. One particularly challenging aspect of the current situation for high-energy physics is that there is no machine that can guarantee discoveries, such as new particles or novel fundamental interactions. This was not the case in the past: at the LHC for instance there was a “no-lose” theorem guaranteeing that it would either discover the Higgs boson or instead an altogether novel force of nature. It is worth emphasizing that this is true also for many other fields, such as cosmology, where there is no current or planned experiment that can lead to guaranteed breakthroughs such as evidence for inflation or pinning down the nature of dark energy.

    For instance, despite frequent claims of the contrary, there is no guarantee that a high precision study of the properties of the Higgs boson will unveil new physics beyond the Standard Model. Of course, it could lead to the discovery of new physics, which would of course be awesome, and it is thus an extremely interesting and important experimental program. But we should make sure that we do not oversell our field and that we avoid making promises that we cannot fulfil.

    The bottom line of all this lengthy disquisition is that future progress in HEP should be driven by exploration, rather than by theoretical prejudice. For many years (better said, decades) HEP was driven by theoretical efforts, with experiments successfully confirming prediction after prediction. But now our field is experiencing a U-turn, where we should think outside the box and be ready for the unexpected. A nice example of the latter is provided by the recent anomalous in the b-quark sector presented by LHCb. These anomalies seem to indicate the violation of one of the cornerstones of the Standard Model, namely the symmetry telling us that leptons of different families (say muons and electrons) interact with other particles in exactly the same way. Only time will tell the fate of these anomalies, but if confirmed they would represent an arguably more important discovery than that of the Higgs itself!

    With the same motivation, and in order to make sure that no stone is left unturned, it is healthy for our field to develop a varied program of experiments that are not limited to high-energy colliders. For instance, CERN has recently set up a Working Group focusing on the potential of ’Physics beyond Colliders’. The idea underlying this approach is that high-precision measurements of specific properties of known particles can reveal the presence of new, heavy particles beyond the direct reach of future colliders. This is possible by means of quantum effects, where heavy virtual particles pop up from the vacuum for a fleeting moment, leaving a measurable imprint in the SM particles.

    3

    A prime example of this precision program is shown above: the muon storage ring at Fermilab. There the “muon g-2” experiment aims to measure with exquisite precision the internal magnet of the muons, its so-called magnetic moment. The hope is to resolve a long-standing discrepancy between similar measurements and the SM predictions, which could unveil new physics beyond the SM.

    Can we now summarise what the best option is for the future of HEP? Well, not really, this is precisely the million dollar question! Every member of the HEP community, including of course famous bloggers, has something important to say there. I think that irrespective of the exact path that our field chooses for the next years, the future is bright for particle physics and everyone should certainly stay tuned for news from the high-energy frontier.

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 10:36 am on March 22, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Interactions.org, , , ,   

    From Interactions.org: “SuperKEKB accelerator kicks into new gear” 

    Interactions.org

    3.22.18

    KEK has begun a new stage of operation of the SuperKEKB electron-positron collider, with a brand new positron damping ring and the Belle II detector. Electron and positron beams will begin colliding soon for the first time in 8 years since the previous KEKB collider ceased its operations in 2010.

    3

    On March 21, 2018, a beam of electrons was successfully stored in the main ring. A beam of positrons will be injected and stored around the beginning of April, and then final accelerator tuning for beam collisions will begin. The first collisions of electrons and positrons are expected in the coming months.

    This is the first step toward the SuperKEKB design luminosity1, which is a factor of 40 times higher than the current world record set by KEKB.

    2

    SuperKEKB, along with the Belle II detector, is a facility designed to search for New Physics beyond the Standard Model by measuring rare decays of elementary particles such as b quarks, c quarks, and tau leptons.

    In contrast to the LHC at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, which is the world’s highest energy hadron accelerator, SuperKEKB/Belle II located at KEK in Tsukuba, Japan is designed to have the world’s highest luminosity (a factor of 40 times higher than the earlier KEKB machine that holds many records for accelerator performance). Thus, SuperKEKB is the leading accelerator on the “luminosity frontier”.

    The Belle II detector at SuperKEKB was designed and built by an international collaboration of over 750 physicists from 25 countries. This collaboration is working closely with SuperKEKB accelerator experts to optimize the accelerator performance and backgrounds.

    Background information on the science goals of the SuperKEKB/Belle II facility is available on the Belle II public webpage.

    Footnote

    1.Luminosity is a measure of the rate or intensity of electron-positron collisions

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  • richardmitnick 10:36 am on March 21, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , Interactions.org, , , , RHIC and the Future   

    From BNL via Interactions.org: “Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Begins 18th Year of Experiments” 

    Brookhaven Lab

    Interactions.org

    21 March 2018

    Media and Communications Office
    Peter Genzer
    + 1 631 344 5056
    genzer@bnl.gov

    The first smashups of two new types of particles at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC —a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science user facility for nuclear physics research at Brookhaven National Laboratory—will offer fresh insight into the effects of magnetism on the fireball of matter created in these collisions. Accomplishing this main goal of the 15-week run of RHIC’s 18th year will draw on more than a decade of accumulated expertise, enhancements to collider and detector components, and a collaborative effort with partners across the DOE complex and around the world.

    Physicists will also perform two different kinds of collisions with gold ions at low energies, including collisions of gold ions with a stationary target. These collisions will help scientists better understand the exotic matter created in RHIC’s highest energy collisions, including the strength of its magnetic field and how it evolves from a hot soup of matter’s fundamental building blocks (quarks and gluons) to the ordinary protons and neutrons that make up the bulk of visible matter in the universe today.

    As an added bonus—or rather, a testament to the efficiency of RHIC accelerator staff—the collider-accelerator team will also be implementing and fine-tuning several technologies important for future nuclear physics research.

    “In some ways this run is the culmination of two decades of facility development,” said Wolfram Fischer, Associate Chair for Accelerators in Brookhaven Lab’s Collider-Accelerator (C-AD) Department. “We will make use of many tools we have developed over many years, which we now need all at the same time. All this expertise in C-AD and support from DOE and other labs came together to make this possible.”

    Helen Caines, a physicist at Yale University who serves as co-spokesperson for RHIC’s STAR experiment, agreed and expressed her appreciation for RHIC’s unique versatility and ability to pack in so much in such a short time. “It’s going to be a busy 15 weeks!” she said.

    Studying magnetic effects

    RHIC collides ions (for example, the nuclei of heavy atoms such as gold that have been stripped of their electrons) to “melt” their protons and neutrons and set free those particles’ internal building blocks, known as quarks and gluons. Creating this “quark-gluon plasma” mimics the conditions of the very early universe and gives scientists a way to explore the force that governs how these fundamental particles interact. The nuclear physicists conduct these studies by tracking the particles emerging from the collisions.

    One intriguing finding from an earlier run at RHIC was an observation of differences in how negatively and positively charged particles flow out from the fireball created when two gold ions collide. Scientists suspect that this charge separation is triggered in part by something called the “chiral magnetic effect”—an interaction between the powerful magnetic field generated when the positively charged ions collide slightly off center (producing a swirling mass of charged matter) and each individual particle’s “chirality”. Chirality is a particle’s right- or left-handedness, which depends on whether it is spinning clockwise or counterclockwise relative to its direction of motion. According to this understanding, the charge separation should get stronger as the strength of the magnetic field increases—which is exactly what STAR scientists are testing in Run 18.

    “Instead of gold, we are using collisions with two different ‘isobars’—isotopes of atoms that have the same mass but different numbers of protons, and therefore different levels of positive charge,” said Caines. Collisions of two ruthenium ions (mass number 96 with 44 protons) will create a magnetic field that’s 10 percent stronger than collisions of two zirconium ions (mass number 96 with only 40 protons), she said.

    “We are keeping everything else the same—the size of nucleus, the energy, and the total number of particles participating in the collision. We’ll even be switching from one ion species to the other on close to a day-by-day basis to eliminate any variation running the two types of collisions weeks apart might cause. Since the only thing we are varying is the magnetic field, this should be a definitive test of the chiral magnetic effect.”

    A positive result would prove that the collisions are creating a very strong magnetic field—”the strongest ever observed,” Caines said. “It would also be definitive proof that the collisions are creating a medium made up of free quarks and gluons, a quark-gluon plasma, with an imbalance of left- and right-handed particles driven by quantum fluctuations.”

    Obtaining and prepping the isotopes

    Though the amount of matter needed to collide individual ions is extremely small (RHIC will use much less than a gram of gold in all its years of operation!), obtaining certain rare isotopes can be challenging. Zirconium-96 (the form needed for these experiments) makes up less than three percent of the naturally occurring supply of this element, while ruthenium-96 makes up less than six percent.

    “If you just used natural material for the ion sources that feed RHIC, the beam intensity would be way too low to collect the data needed,” said Fischer. “You can buy enriched samples of zirconium but there is no commercial source of enriched ruthenium.”

    Fortunately, there is a new facility for such isotope enrichment at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Enriched Stable Isotope Prototype Plant (ESIPP), which heated up the natural material and electromagnetically separated out the different masses. ESIPP is part of the DOE Isotope Program and started operations in FY 2018, re-establishing a general domestic capability to enrich stable isotopes.

    “With the help of the DOE Isotope Program in the Office of Science, ORNL put us at the top of their priority list to provide one-half gram of this material—a little vial with a bit of ‘dust’ in the bottom—in time for the run,” Fischer said.

    The ruthenium ions start their path of acceleration in Brookhaven’s Tandem Van De Graaff accelerator. So as not to waste any of the precious ion supply, the Tandem team, led by Peter Thieberger, first ran tests with higher-abundance forms of ruthenium, making sure they’d have the beam intensity needed. For the actual experiments, they dilute the ruthenium sample with aluminum to spread out the supply. Once accelerated, the ions get bunched and those bunches get combined into more and more tightly pack bunches as they circulate through the Booster ring and the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), gaining energy at each step before being injected into RHIC’s two counter-circulating 2.4-mile-circumference rings for collisions at 200 billion electron volts (GeV).

    To get the zirconium ions for collisions on the alternating days, the Brookhaven team, led by Masahiro Okamura, sought help from Hiromitsu Haba and colleagues at Japan’s RIKEN laboratory who’d had experience with zirconium targets. “They generously shared everything they know about transforming zirconium into oxide targets we could use to extract the ions,” Fischer said.

    Scientists zap these zirconium oxide targets with a laser at Brookhaven’s Laser Ion Source to create a plasma containing positively charged zirconium ions. Those ions then enter the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) to be transformed into a beam. From EBIS, the zirconium beam follows a path similar to that of ruthenium, with the ions merging into tighter and tighter bunches and gaining energy in the Booster and AGS before being injected into RHIC. Yet another team—Brookhaven’s own chemists from the Medical Isotope Research and Production Program, led by Cathy Cutler—recovers leftover target material and reprocess it to make new targets so that no valuable isotope material is left unused.

    Having the two types of ions enter RHIC from different sources makes it easier to switch from ruthenium to zirconium day by day. “These are two somewhat exotic species of ions, so we wanted two independent sources that can be optimized and run independently,” Fischer said. “If you run both out of one source, it’s harder to get the best performance out of both of them.”

    Once either set of ions enters the collider, additional enhancements made at RHIC over the years help maximize the number of data-producing collisions. Most significantly, a technique called “stochastic cooling”, implemented during this run by Kevin Mernick, detects when particles within the beams spread out (heat up), and sends corrective signals to devices ahead of the speeding ions to nudge them back into tight packs.

    “Without stochastic cooling it would be very hard if not impossible to reach the experimental goals because we would lose a lot of ions,” Fischer said. “And we couldn’t do this without all the different parts in DOE and at Brookhaven. We needed all our source knowledge in EBIS and at the Tandem, and we needed collaborators from RIKEN, ORNL, and our chemists in the Isotope Program at Brookhaven as well. It’s been an amazing collaborative effort.”

    “Switching from one species to another every day has never been done before in a collider,” Fischer said. “Greg Marr, the RHIC Run Coordinator this year, needs to draw on all tools available to make these transitions as quickly and seamlessly as possible.”

    More to learn from gold-gold

    Following the isobar run, STAR physicists will also study two kinds of gold-gold collisions. First, in collisions of gold beams at 27 GeV, they will look for differential effects in how particles called lambdas and oppositely charged antilambda particles emerge. Tracking lambdas recently led to the discovery that RHIC’s quark-gluon plasma is the fastest spinning fluid ever encountered. Measuring the difference in how lambdas and their antiparticle counterparts behave would give STAR scientists a precise way to measure the strength of the magnetic field that causes this “vorticity.”

    “This will help us improve our calculations of the chiral magnetic effect because we would have an actual measurement of the magnetic contribution. Until now, those values have been based purely on theoretical calculations,” Caines said.

    In the final phase of the run, accelerator physicists will configure RHIC to run as a fixed-target experiment. Instead of crashing two beams together in head-on collisions, they will slam one beam of gold ions into a gold foil placed within the STAR detector. The center of mass collision energy, 3.2 GeV, will be lower than in any previous RHIC run. These collisions will test to see if a signal the scientists saw at higher energies—large fluctuations in the production of protons— turns off. The disappearance of this signal could indicate that the fluctuations observed at higher energies were associated with a so-called “critical point” in the transition of free quarks and gluons to ordinary matter []. The search for this point—a particular set of temperature and pressure conditions where the type of phase transformation changes—has been another major research goal at RHIC.

    These lowest energy collisions will also form the start of the next “beam energy scan,” a series of collisions across a wide range of energies beginning in earnest next year, Caines said. That work will build on results from earlier efforts to map the various phases of quark-gluon matter.

    Tuning up detector and accelerator technologies

    Some newly upgraded components of the STAR detector will be essential to these and future studies of nuclear matter at RHIC, so STAR physicists will be closely monitoring their performance during this run. These include:

    • An inner component of the barrel-shaped Time Projection Chamber (the iTPC), developed with significant support from DOE and China’s National Natural Science Foundation and Ministry of Science and Technology.
    • An “endcap time of flight” (eTOF) detector developed by STAR physicists and a collaboration of scientists working on the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment, which will be located at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany.
    • A new “event plane detector” developed by U.S. and Chinese collaborators in a project supported by the DOE, the U.S. National Science Foundation, and the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology.

    The first two of these components work together to track and identify particles emerging from collisions closer to the beamline than ever before, enabling physicists to more precisely study directional preferences of particles. The event plane detector will track the orientation of the overlap region created by colliding particles—and therefore the orientation of the magnetic field.

    “The combination of these new components will enhance our ability to track and identify particles and study how the patterns of particles produced are influenced by collision conditions,” Caines said.

    On the accelerator front, Fischer notes two major efforts taking place in parallel with the Run 18 physics studies.

    One project is commissioning a newly installed electron accelerator for low energy electron cooling, an effort led by Alexei Fedotov. This major new piece of equipment uses a green-laser-triggered photocathode electron gun to produce a cool beam of electrons. The electrons get injected into a short section of each RHIC ring to mix with the ion beams and extract heat, which reduces spreading of the ions at low energies to maximize collision rates.

    The commissioning will include fine tuning the photocathode gun and the radiofrequency (RF) cavities that accelerate the electron beam after it leaves the gun to get it up to speed of RHIC’s gold beams. The physicists will also commission RF correctors that give extra kicks to lagging particles and slow down those that are too speedy to keep all the electrons closely spaced.

    “We have to make sure the electron beam has all the necessary properties—energy, size, momentum spread, and current—to cool the ion beam,” Fischer said. “If everything goes right, then we can use this system to start cooling the gold beam next year.”

    Physicists will also test another system for electron cooling at higher energies, which was developed in an effort led by Vladimir Litvinenko. In this system, called coherent electron cooling, electron beams are used as sensors for picking up irregularities in the ion beam. “The electron beam gets ‘imprinted’ by regions of low or high ion density,” Fischer said. Once amplified, this signal in the electron beam can be fed back to the ion beam “out of phase” to smooth out the irregularities.

    Though this type of cooling is not essential to the research program at RHIC, it would be essential for cooling beams in a high-energy Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), a possible future research facility that nuclear physicists hope to build. Testing the concept at RHIC helps lay the foundation for how it would work at an EIC, Fischer said.

    If the experience at RHIC is any guide, all the testing should pay off with future physics discoveries.

    BNL RHIC Campus

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector

    BNL RHIC PHENIX

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.
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  • richardmitnick 1:00 pm on November 10, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Hyper-Kamiokande project, Interactions.org, , , MEXT, NNSO-Next-generation Neutrino Science Organization   

    From Interactions.org: “Inauguration of Next-generation Neutrino Science Organization for the Hyper-Kamiokande Nucleon Decay and Neutrino Experiment” 

    Interactions.org

    10 November 2017
    Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe

    Date Issued:
    November 10th, 2017
    Source:
    Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe
    Content:
    Press Release
    Contact:

    John Amari
    Public Relations Office
    The University of Tokyo International Institute for Advanced Studies
    Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe
    E-mail: press@ipmu.jp
    Tel: 04-7136-5977

    The Hyper-Kamiokande project aims to address the mysteries of the origin and evolution of the Universe’s matter as well as to confront theories of elementary particle unification.

    Hyper-Kamiokande, a neutrino physics laboratory located underground in the Mozumi Mine of the Kamioka Mining and Smelting Co. near the Kamioka section of the city of Hida in Gifu Prefecture, Japan.

    To realize these goals it will combine a high intensity neutrino beam from J-PARC with a new detector based upon precision neutrino experimental techniques developed in Japan and built to be approximately 10 times larger than the running Super-Kamiokande.

    Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex J-PARC, located in Tokai village, Ibaraki prefecture, on the east coast of Japan

    On October 1st, 2017, The University of Tokyo launched its “Next-generation Neutrino Science Organization (NNSO),” in cooperation with the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research (ICRR), the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU), and the University of Tokyo’s School of Science. The NNSO is a means of pioneering the future of neutrino physics through the development of neutrino research techniques and detector technologies. In particular, it aims to advance what will become its flagship facility, the Hyper-Kamiokande project. To mark the occasion, an inaugural ceremony was held on November 8th, 2017, at the Kamioka Observatory in Japan.

    Professor Takaaki Kajita, director of NNSO and a Nobel laureate for the discovery of neutrino oscillations demonstrating that neutrinos have mass, started the ceremony with opening remarks: “Understanding the neutrino, whose mass is extremely small, is not only important to particle physics, but is also thought to have deep connections to the origins of matter. Indeed, by observing neutrinos created with the high intensity proton accelerator J-PARC at Hyper-Kamiokande and testing whether or not neutrino and antineutrino oscillations are the same, we expect to close in on the mysteries of our matter-dominated universe. Further, we would like to discover the decay of the proton and thereby verify the unification of the three forces that act between elementary particles. Through the research represented by these goals, I would like to greatly expand our knowledge of elementary particles and the universe.”

    Professor Masashi Haneda, Executive Vice President of The University of Tokyo and Director of The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, greeted attendees with these words: “Through the cooperation of these three important institutions, I’m sure that a world-class center for neutrino research will be established. Further, it will contribute much to cultivate talented young researchers. Succeeding Kamiokande and Super-Kamiokande, the Hyper-Kamiokande project will lead the world’s neutrino research. I would like to underline that the University of Tokyo will do our best to support this newly established organization.”

    Professor Hiroyuki Takeda, Dean of the School of Science, also gave an address: “The School of Science has a long and intimate relationship to the research in Kamioka, because Professor Koshiba started the original Kamiokande experiment when he was a faculty member of the School of Science. It is our great pleasure that we can further deepen the relationship with ICRR and Kavli IPMU through this organization to promote neutrino physics and the Hyper-Kamiokande project.”

    Professor Hitoshi Murayama, director of the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, delivered this message: “I firmly believe that the Hyper-Kamiokande experiment will be one of the most important experiments in the foreseeable future to study the Universe. Kavli IPMU would like to contribute to the Hyper-Kamiokande experiment with experimental expertise, theoretical support, and international networking. I’m very excited. Let’s make the Hyper-Kamiokande experiment happen!”

    Tomonori Nishii, Director of Scientific Research Institutes Division, Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan, presented congratulations: “In July of this year, the MEXT Roadmap 2017, which outlines the basic plan for pursuing large-scale projects, has been compiled by the Council for Science and Technology. It made the implementation priority of such projects clear. “Nucleon Decay and Neutrino Oscillation Experiment with a Large Advanced Detector”, that is Hyper-Kamiokande, is highly evaluated and listed in the roadmap with six other projects. MEXT, together with you, looks forward to seeing this new organization thrive as an international collaborative research hub and produce excellent scientific research achievements.”

    The ceremony was attended by about 100 people from MEXT, the University of Tokyo, KEK, local government and community, the Kamioka Mining and Smelting Company, and collaborating scientists. At the end, all attendees got together to take a group photo and celebrated the start of the new organization for promotion of neutrino physics and the Hyper-Kamiokande project.

    ABOUT THE HYPER-KAMIOKANDE

    Hyper-Kamiokande, or Hyper-K, is a straightforward extension of the successful water Cherenkov detector experiment Super-Kamiokande.

    Super-Kamiokande Detector, located under Mount Ikeno near the city of Hida, Gifu Prefecture, Japan

    It employs well-proven and high-performance water Cherenkov detector technology with established capabilities of neutrino oscillation studies by accelerator and atmospheric neutrinos, proton decay searches, and precision measurements of solar and supernova neutrinos. Hyper-Kamiokande will provide major new capabilities to make new discoveries in particle and astroparticle physics thanks to an order of magnitude increase in detector mass and improvements in photon detection, along with the envisioned J-PARC Megawatt-class neutrino beam.

    An international Hyper-Kamiokande proto-collaboration has been formed to carry out the experiment; it consists of about 300 researchers from 15 countries as of April 2017. The Hyper-Kamiokande member states are Armenia, Brazil, Canada, Ecuador, France, Italy, Japan, Korea, Poland, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, UK, Ukraine, and USA. The Institute for Cosmic Ray Research of the University of Tokyo and the Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK have signed a MoU affirming cooperation in the Hyper-K project to review and develop the program.

    Hyper-K is to be built as a tank with a 187 kiloton fiducial volume containing about 40,000 50-cm photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs), providing 40% photo cathode coverage. The proto-collaboration has succeeded in developing new PMTs with double the single-photon-sensitivity of those in Super-K.

    The Hyper-K and J-PARC neutrino beam measurement of neutrino oscillation is more likely to provide a 5-sigma discovery of CP violation than any other existing or proposed experiment. Hyper-K will also be the world leader for nucleon decays. The sensitivity to the partial lifetime of protons for the decay modes of p→e+π0 is expected to exceed 1035 years. This is the only known, realistic detector option capable of reaching such a sensitivity for the p→e+π0 mode. Finally, the astrophysical neutrino program involves precision measurement of solar neutrinos and their matter effects, as well as high-statistics supernova burst and supernova relic neutrinos.

    See the full article here .

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