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  • richardmitnick 5:24 pm on January 23, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Large Amounts of Oxygen Detected in Ancient Star’s Atmosphere", , , , , Halo stars-roughly spherical distribution around the Milky Way, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Old star J0815+4729, ,   

    From UC San Diego: “Large Amounts of Oxygen Detected in Ancient Star’s Atmosphere” 

    From UC San Diego

    Cynthia Dillon, 858-822-0142, cdillon@ucsd.edu


    This animation illustrates the earliest epoch of our universe, just after the Big Bang, when the first elements of hydrogen, helium and lithium were created in the still hot cosmos. These atoms eventually collected to form the first generation of massive stars, which in turn produced heavier elements such as carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. As these massive stars exploded as supernovae, they released these heavier elements into the universe, eventually collecting on next generation stars such as J0815+4729. Video courtesy of Gabriel Pérez, SMM (IAC); IACVideos, YouTube

    An international team of astronomers from the University of California San Diego, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the University of Cambridge have detected large amounts of oxygen in the atmosphere of one of the oldest and most elementally depleted stars known—a primitive star scientists call “J0815+4729.” This new finding, reported in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, provides an important clue about how oxygen and other important elements were produced in the universe’s first generations of stars.

    1
    Artistic image of the supernova explosions of the first massive stars that formed in the Milky Way. The star J0815+4729 was formed from the material ejected by these first supernovae. Image courtesy of Gabriel Pérez, SMM (IAC).

    After hydrogen and helium, oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe and important to all life forms on Earth. It serves as a chemical basis of respiration and a building block of carbohydrates, as well as the main element in the Earth’s crust. Absent from the early universe, it emerged through nuclear fusion reactions that occurred deep inside the most massive stars—stars roughly 10 times or more massive than the sun.

    To trace this early production of oxygen and other elements, astronomers study the oldest existing stars. J0815+4729 is one of them. It was first discovered by the IAC team in 2017 using the Grand Canary Telescope in La Palma, in the Canaries, Spain.

    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, Spain, sited on a volcanic peak 2,267 metres (7,438 ft) above sea level

    It resides over 5,000 light years away toward the constellation Lynx.

    “Stars like J0815+4729 are referred to as halo stars,” explained UC San Diego Professor of Physics Adam Burgasser, a co-author of the study. “This is due to their roughly spherical distribution around the Milky Way, as opposed to the more familiar flat disk of younger stars that include the sun.”

    Halo stars like J0815+4729 are truly ancient stars, allowing astronomers a peek into the universe’s early history of element production. The research team observed J0815+4729 with the W. M. Keck Observatory’s Keck I 10-meter telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, using a high resolution spectrograph called HIRES.

    Keck Keck High-Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES), at the Keck I telescope, Keck Observatory, Maunakea, Hawaii, USA.4,207 m (13,802 ft) above sea level

    Keck Observatory, operated by Caltech and the University of California, Maunakea Hawaii USA, 4,207 m (13,802 ft)

    The data, which required more than five hours of staring at the star over a single night, were used to measure the abundances of 16 chemical species in the star’s atmosphere, including oxygen.

    “The primitive composition of the star indicates that it was formed during the first hundreds of millions of years after the Big Bang, possibly from the material expelled from the first supernovae of the Milky Way,” said Jonay González Hernández, an IAC Ramón y Cajal postdoctoral researcher and lead author of the study.

    The chemical composition of the star was found to be very unusual. While it has relatively large amounts of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, approximately 10, 8 and 3 percent of the abundances measured in the sun, other elements like calcium and iron have abundances around one millionth that of the sun.

    “Only a few such stars are known in the halo of our galaxy, but none have such an enormous amount of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen compared to their iron content,” said David Aguado, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Cambridge and co-author of the study.

    The search for stars of this type involves dedicated projects that sift through hundreds of thousands of stellar spectra to uncover a few rare sources like J0815+4729 and follow-up observation to measure their chemical composition. This star was first discovered in data obtained with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS).

    SDSS Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, near Sunspot NM, USA, Altitude2,788 meters (9,147 ft)

    According to Rafael Rebolo, IAC director and co-author of the paper, the institute began studying the presence of oxygen in the oldest stars of the galaxy 30 years ago, with results indicating that this element was produced enormously in the first generations of supernovae.

    “However, we could not imagine that we would find a case of enrichment as spectacular as that of this star,” Rebolo noted.

    The researchers acknowledge Heather Hershley and Sherry Yeh at Keck Observatory for their assistance with the observations; financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MICIU) under the 2013 Ramón y Cajal program (RYC-2013-14875); the Spanish Ministry project MICIU (AYA2017-86389-P) and Leverhulme Trust.

    UC San Diego’s Department of Physics in the Division of Physical Sciences offers one of the top graduate programs in the U.S. Many of its faculty are active at the Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences (CASS), an interdisciplinary research unit for research and graduate study in astronomy, astrophysics and space sciences. Areas of specialization include high-energy astrophysics, optical and ultraviolet astronomy, infrared astronomy, radio astronomy, theoretical astrophysics, cosmology, solar physics, space plasma physics, interferometry and astronomical instrumentation.

    See the full article here .

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    The University of California, San Diego (also referred to as UC San Diego or UCSD), is a public research university located in the La Jolla area of San Diego, California, in the United States.[12] The university occupies 2,141 acres (866 ha) near the coast of the Pacific Ocean with the main campus resting on approximately 1,152 acres (466 ha).[13] Established in 1960 near the pre-existing Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego is the seventh oldest of the 10 University of California campuses and offers over 200 undergraduate and graduate degree programs, enrolling about 22,700 undergraduate and 6,300 graduate students. UC San Diego is one of America’s Public Ivy universities, which recognizes top public research universities in the United States. UC San Diego was ranked 8th among public universities and 37th among all universities in the United States, and rated the 18th Top World University by U.S. News & World Report ‘s 2015 rankings.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:01 am on May 20, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), ,   

    From Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC via Manu: “20 years watching R Aquarii” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    May 19, 2,018
    David Jones
    djones@iac.es
    922605200 + ext. 3718

    Romano Corradi
    romano.corradi@gtc.iac.es

    From Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    1
    Image Nebula R Aquarii obtained with the Nordic Telescope (NOT) of the Roque of the Boys (ORM) in La Palma. The colors correspond to different ionization states of the same chemical element, oxygen. Credit: R. Corradi – Daniel Lopez.


    Nordic Optical telescope, at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma in the Canary Islands, Spain, Altitude 2,396 m (7,861 ft)

    An international team of researchers, with the collaboration of scientists from the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands, presents a detailed study of the evolution of the nebula surrounding the symbiotic nova R Aquarii , which spans more than two decades of observations. For preparation of this work we were used telescopes at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory in La Palma, and Chile.

    When we talk about astronomical distances, 600 light years that separate us from the nebula formed around R Aquarii, they place it very close to us. This symbiotic star is formed by a red giant and a white dwarf, whose relationship causes a magnificent nebula produced by removal of material from this binary system.

    The R Aquarii system, which is named for its apparent location in the constellation Aquarius, is a clear example of the effects that gravitational interactions between stars. In the last stages of its evolution, when stars like the Sun grow to gigantic proportions, the attraction of a nearby star can determine its evolution and destiny. As is the case with R Aquarii , missing matter by a star can result in complex although symmetrical nebulae, during processing, may form jets, jets material outlet, very common around binary stars, black holes or in the middle of supermassive galaxies.

    2
    Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, at an altitude of 2400m .

    The stream of R Aquarii is the closest known, which allows specialists to study these physical complexes with unprecedented detail. Due to its proximity, you can follow in real time both the evolution of the nebula as jet, a study has been doing for over 20 years and recently published in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics (A & A). For tracking telescopes they have been used Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Garafía, La Palma) and Chile.

    The lead author and doctoral student at Tartu Observatory (Estonia), Tiina Liimets, explains that “while the nebula expands regularly, jet shows an extremely complex behavior.” Observations indicate that the jets are composed of multiple “nodes” of material that does not seem to flow linearly from the center. On the contrary, “seem to move in seemingly random directions, merging and separating, appearing and disappearing from sight , ” said David Jones, IAC researcher and one of the authors. According Romano Corradi, director of the Gran Telescopio Canarias, co – author of the publication and project developer for 25 years, “this indicates that the observed scales, there are other external factors that determine the evolution and apparent curvature of the jet, as can be changes in the illumination of the central stars. ” In any case, Liimets is clear that continue to follow the evolution of R Aquarii in the coming decades , “taking advantage of the next generation of telescopes and instruments, which provide more information about this nebula and the processes that regulate the formation of the jets.”


    Science paper:
    Liimets, T. et al. New insights into the outflows from R Aquarii Astronomy & Astrophysics

    Observatories Astrophysics Institute of the Canary Islands (IAC) are part of the network of Singular Scientific and Technical Infrastructures (ICTS) of Spain.

    IAC

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Stem Education Coalition
    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    Roque de los Muchachos Observatory is an astronomical observatory located in the municipality of Garafía on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands, at an altitude of 2,396 m (7,861 ft)

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 8:40 am on March 30, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), , , , TXS 0828+193, TXS0211−122   

    From Keck and IAC via phys.org: “Expanding super bubble of gas detected around massive black holes in the early universe” 

    Keck Observatory

    Keck Observatory.
    Keck, with Subaru and IRTF (NASA Infrared Telescope Facility). Vadim Kurland

    Keck Observatory

    2

    Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço

    phys.org

    1
    Left – Composite image of a large gas blob of glowing hydrogen gas, shown by a Lyman-alpha optical image (colored yellow) from the Subaru telescope (NAOJ). A galaxy located in the blob is visible in a broadband optical image (white) from the Hubble Space Telescope and an infrared image from the Spitzer Space Telescope (red). Finally, the Chandra X-ray Observatory image in blue shows evidence for a growing supermassive black hole in the center of the galaxy. Radiation and outflows from this active black hole are powerful enough to light up and heat the gas in the blob.

    In a study led by Sandy Morais, a PhD student at Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço and Faculty of Sciences of the University of Porto (FCUP), researchers found massive super bubbles of gas and dust around two distant radio galaxies about 11.5 billion light years away.

    Andrew Humphrey (IA & University of Porto), the leader of the project, commented: “By studying violent galaxies like these, we have gained a new insight into the way supermassive black holes affect the evolution of the galaxies in which they reside.”

    The researchers used two of the largest observatories available today, the Keck II (Hawaii) and the Gran Telescópio de Canárias (GTC), to observe TXS0211−122 and TXS 0828+193, two powerful radio galaxies, harboring the most energetic type of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) known. This type of galaxy houses the most massive black holes and have the most powerful continuous energy ejections known.

    The team discovered expanding super bubbles of gas around each of TXS 0211-122 and TXS 0828+193, most likely caused by “feedback” activity whereby the AGN injects vast quantities of energy into its host galaxy, creating a powerful wind that sweeps up gas and dust into an expanding super bubble.

    Study of the symbiosis between the supermassive black hole and the galaxy is a key to understanding the evolution of the most massive galaxies. Ultraviolet emission from the black hole’s accretion disk can inhibit star formation temporarily, by ionizing the Interstellar medium, and the great outflows of gas towards the black hole can lead to permanent inhibition of star formation.

    1
    Schematic of the expanding gas Bubble, over a radio image of the full field of TXS 0828+193. Credit: Morais et al. 2017

    More information: S. G. Morais et al. Ionization and feedback in Lyα haloes around two radio galaxies at∼ 2.5, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017). DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw2926

    See the full article here .

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    Mission
    To advance the frontiers of astronomy and share our discoveries with the world.

    The W. M. Keck Observatory operates the largest, most scientifically productive telescopes on Earth. The two, 10-meter optical/infrared telescopes on the summit of Mauna Kea on the Island of Hawaii feature a suite of advanced instruments including imagers, multi-object spectrographs, high-resolution spectrographs, integral-field spectrometer and world-leading laser guide star adaptive optics systems. Keck Observatory is a private 501(c) 3 non-profit organization and a scientific partnership of the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and NASA.

    Today Keck Observatory is supported by both public funding sources and private philanthropy. As a 501(c)3, the organization is managed by the California Association for Research in Astronomy (CARA), whose Board of Directors includes representatives from the California Institute of Technology and the University of California, with liaisons to the board from NASA and the Keck Foundation.
    Keck UCal

    Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences

    Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences (IA) is a new but long anticipated research infrastructure with a national dimension. It embodies a bold but feasible vision for the development of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Sciences in Portugal, taking full advantage and fully realizing the potential created by the national membership of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). IA resulted from the merging the two most prominent research units in the field in Portugal: the Centre for Astrophysics of the University of Porto (CAUP) and the Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics of the University of Lisbon (CAAUL). It currently hosts more than two-thirds of all active researchers working in Space Sciences in Portugal, and is responsible for an even greater fraction of the national productivity in international ISI journals in the area of Space Sciences. This is the scientific area with the highest relative impact factor (1.65 times above the international average) and the field with the highest average number of citations per article for Portugal.

     
    • RIcardo Reis 5:49 am on March 31, 2017 Permalink | Reply

      This research was NOT made by Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias in Spain, but by Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço in Portugal.
      In fact, if you check the paper (https://academic.oup.com/mnras/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/mnras/stw2926), this research has no one from IAC.

      Like

    • richardmitnick 7:47 am on March 31, 2017 Permalink | Reply

      Thank you very much for the correction. I did not read far enough and got myself stuck in the acronym. I believe that I have sufficiently corrected the post. Please look at it again and let me know what you think.

      Thanks again for your help.

      Like

  • richardmitnick 9:59 am on February 23, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Extreme trans Neptunian objects (ETNOs), Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), , The visible spectrum can give some information also about their composition   

    From IAC: “New data about two distant asteroids give a clue to the possible ‘Planet Nine'” 

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    Feb. 17, 2017
    Julia de León (IAC):
    jmlc@iac.es
    +39922425717

    1
    No image caption. No image credit
    The dynamical properties of these asteroids, observed spectroscopiccally for the first time using the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, suggest a possible common origin and give a clue to the existence of a planet beyond Pluto, the so-called “Planet Nine”.

    In the year 2000 the first of a new class of distant solar system objects was discovered, orbiting the Sun at a distance greater than that of Neptune: the “extreme trans Neptunian objects (ETNOs). Their orbits are very far from the Sun compared with that of the Earth. We orbit the Sun at a mean distance of one astronomical unit (1 AU which is 150 million kilometres) but the ETNOs orbit at more than 150 AU. To give an idea of how far away they are, Pluto’s orbit is at around 40 AU and its closest approach to the Sun (perihelion) is at 30 AU. This discovery marked a turning point in Solar System studies, and up to now, a total of 21 ETNOs have been identified.

    Recently, a number of studies have suggested that the dynamical parameters of the ETNOs could be better explained if there were one or more planets with masses several times that of the Earth orbiting the Sun at distances of hundreds of AU. In particular, in 2016 the researchers Brown and Batygin used the orbits of seven ETNOs to predict the existence of a “superearth” orbiting the sun at some 700 AU. This range of masses is termed sub Neptunian. This idea is referred to as the Planet Nine Hypothesis and is one of the current subjects of interest in planetary science. However, because the objects are so far away the light we receive from them is very weak and until now the only one of the 21 trans Neptunian objects observed spectroscopically was Sedna.

    Now, a team of researchers led by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) in collaboration with the Complutense University of Madrid has taken a step towards the physical characterization of these bodies, and to confirm or refute the hypothesis of Planet Nine by studying them. The scientists have made the first spectroscopic observations of 2004 VN112 and 2013 RF98, both of them particularly interesting dynamically because their orbits are almost identical and the poles of the orbits are separated by a very small angle. This suggest a common origin, and their present-day orbits could be the result of a past interaction with the hypothetical Planet Nine. This study, recently published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, suggests that this pair of ETNOs was a binary asteroid which separated after an encounter with a planet beyond the orbit of Pluto.

    To reach these conclusions, they made the first spectroscopic observations of 2004 VN112 and 2013 RF98 in the visible range. These were performed in collaboration with the support astronomers Gianluca Lombardi and Ricardo Scarpa, using the OSIRIS spectrograph on the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC), situated in the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Garafía, La Plama). It was hard work to identify these asteroids because their great distance means that their apparent movement on the sky is very slow. Then, they measured their apparent magnitudes (their brightness as seen from Earth) and also recalculated the orbit of 2013 RF98, which had been poorly determined. They found this object at a distance of more than an arcminute away from the position predicted from the ephemerides. These observations have helped to improve the computed orbit, and have been published by the Minor Planet Center (MPEC 2016-U18: 2013 RF98), the organism responsible for the identification of comets and minor planets (asteroids) as well as for measurements of their parameters and orbital positions.

    The visible spectrum can give some information also about their composition. By measuring the slope of the spectrum, can be determined whether they have pure ices on their surfaces, as is the case for Pluto, as well as highly processed carbon compounds. The spectrum can also indicate the possible presence of amorphous silicates, as in the Trojan asteroids associated with Jupiter. The values obtained for 2004 VN112 and 2013 RF98 are almost identical and similar to those observed photometrically for two other ETNOs, 2000 CR105 and 2012 VP113. Sedna, however, the only one of these objects which had been previously observed spectroscopically, shows very different values from the others. These five objects are part of the group of seven used to test the hypothesis of Planet Nine, which suggests that all of them should have a common origin, except for Sedna, which is thought to have come from the inner part of the Oort cloud.

    “The similar spectral gradients observed for the pair 2004 VN112 – 2013 RF98 suggests a common physical origin”, explains Julia de León, the first author of the paper, an astrophysicist at the IAC. “We are proposing the possibility that they were previously a binary asteroid which became unbound during an encounter with a more massive object”. To validate this hypothesis, the team performed thousands of numerical simulations to see how the poles of the orbits would separate as time went on. The results of these simulations suggest that a possible Planet Nine, with a mass of between 10 and 20 Earth masses orbiting the Sun at a distance between 300 and 600 AU could have deviated the pair 2004 VN112 – 2013 RF98 around 5 and 10 million years ago. This could explain, in principle, how these two asteroids, starting as a pair orbiting one another, became gradually separated in their orbits because they made an approach to a much more massive object at a particular moment in time.

    Article: Visible spectra of (474640) 2004 VN112 – 2013 RF98 with OSIRIS at the 10.4m GTC: evidence for binary dissociation near aphelion among the extreme trans-Neptunian objects, by Julia de León, Carlos de la Fuente Marcos and Raúl de la Fuente Marcos. Published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/mnrasl/slx003

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teachingand outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.

    Gran Telescopio  Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, Spain
    Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 8:15 pm on August 10, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), , NGC 7380   

    From Juan P. Ramon at IAC: NGC 7380 

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    1

    A couple of days I dared with NGC 7380 with a field quite generous, although hard to define more with my telescope.

    I hope you like it.

    NGC7380 – also known as the Wizard Nebula – it is an open cluster in the constellation Cepheus about 8.000 Light-years away and stretches the length of about 100 Light-years away, it’s still a difficult object of See visually requiring telescopes of medium range.
    This nebula will be a few million years, although some of the stars will live much more than, even, our sun.
    Visually iteration of gas, dust and stars gives a form that according to some remember very vaguely to a medieval wizard.
    The tremendous gravitational force, stellar winds and the powerful radiation is more than enough to dissolve and create these towers of dust and gas.

    Team; Neq6proii – Atik460exm (lights) – Atik414exm (LED) – Acrom60mm (LED) – Ts765hq (lights)
    6 x 300 sec by lrgb filter
    10 x 300 sec has
    Maxim – Pixinsight.

    See the full article here.

    Three more views:
    1
    Sh2-142 NGC7380 in Hubble Palette Ha/OIII/SII with amateur equipment
    Date 27 August 2010
    Source Own work
    Author Hewholooks

    3
    This picture of the open star cluster NGC 7380 is a mosaic of images from the WISE mission spanning an area on the sky of about 5 times the size of the full Moon.
    16 March 2010
    NASA/JPL-Caltech/WISE TEam

    4
    Deep exposures of Nebulae using the 0.8m Schulman Telescope at the Mount Lemmon SkyCenter
    Credit Line & Copyright Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona
    Date 26 October 2013, 12:48:48
    Source Own work

    NASA/WISE Telescope
    NASA/WISE Telescope

    5
    Schulman 32-inch Telescope at Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona, USA

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teachingand outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.

    Gran Telescopio  Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, Spain
    Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 9:59 pm on July 17, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC),   

    From ING: “Three Supernova Shells Around a Young Star Cluster” 

    Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes Logo
    Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes

    16 July, 2016

    A group of astronomers, led by researchers at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), has found the first known case of three supernova remnants one inside the other. Using a method developed within the group for detecting huge expanding bubbles of gas in interstellar space, they were observing the galaxy M33 in our Local Group of galaxies and found an example of a triple-bubble.

    Local Group. Andrew Z. Colvin 3 March 2011
    Local Group. Andrew Z. Colvin 3 March 2011

    The results help to understand the feedback phenomenon, a fundamental process controlling star formation and the dissemination of metals produced in massive stars.

    The group has been building up a database of these superbubbles with observations of a number of galaxies and, using the very high resolution 2D spectrograph GHaFaS (Galaxy Halpha Fabry-Perot System) on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT), has been able to detect and measure some tens of them in different galaxies, which range in size from a few light years to as big as a thousand light years across.

    Superbubbles around large young star clusters are known to have a complex structure due to the effects of powerful stellar winds and supernova explosions of individual stars, whose separate bubbles may end up merging into a superbubble, but this is the first time that they, or any other observers, have found three concentric expanding supernova shells. They are concentric because the supernovae which produced them exploded at intervals of only 10,000 years, close to simultaneously on astronomical timescales, so they are still relatively spherical and surround their parent star cluster.

    1
    Expansion maps of the three detected bubbles, which show the detected expansion velocity in each pixel, all in the same velocity scale. Overlaid are contours of the region’s Hydrogen alpha emission; it can be seen that the bubbles are roughly concentric with each other and the region. Figure extracted from Camps Fariña et al. (2016).

    “This phenomenon—says John Beckman, one of the co-authors on the paper—allows us to explore the interstellar medium in a unique way, we can measure how much matter there is in a shell, approximately a couple of hundred times the mass of the sun in each of the shells”. However, if it is known that a supernova expels only around ten times the mass of the sun, where do the second and third shells get their gas from if the first supernova sweeps up all the gas?

    The answer to that must come from the structure of the surrounding gas: the inhomogeneous interstellar medium. “It must be—says Artemi Camps Fariña, who is first author on the paper—that the interstellar medium is not at all uniform, there must be dense clumps of gas, surrounded by space with gas at a much lower density. A supernova does not just sweep up gas, it evaporates the outsides of the clumps, leaving some dense gas behind which can make the second and the third shells”.

    “The presence of the bubbles—adds Artemi— explains why star formation on cosmological timescales has been much slower than simple models of galaxy evolution predicted. These bubbles are part of a widespread feedback process in galaxy discs and if it were not for feedback, spiral galaxies would have very short lives, and our own existence would be improbable”, concludes. The idea of an inhomogeneous interstellar medium is not new, but the triple bubble gives a much clearer and quantitative view of the structure and the feedback process. The results will help theorists working on feedback to a better understanding of how this process works in all galaxy discs.

    Science paper:
    Three supernova shells around a young star cluster in M33

    See the full article here .

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