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  • richardmitnick 3:51 pm on April 30, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Scientists connect quantum bits with sound and over record distances", ‘Quantum ping-pong’—sending and then catching individual photons as they bounce back, Boosting quantum technology, Entangling two quantum bits using sound for the first time, Institute for Molecular Engineering at the University of Chicago, The key was shaping the pulses correctly—in an arc shape,   

    From University of Chicago: “Scientists connect quantum bits with sound and over record distances” 

    U Chicago bloc

    From University of Chicago

    Apr 30, 2019
    Louise Lerner

    1
    Researchers work on superconducting quantum technology at the Institute for Molecular Engineering. Photo by Nancy Wong

    Two studies show breakthroughs that could boost quantum technology.

    Scientists with the Institute for Molecular Engineering at the University of Chicago have made two breakthroughs in the quest to develop quantum technology. In one study, they entangled two quantum bits using sound for the first time [Science]; in another, they built the highest-quality long-range link between two qubits to date [Nature Physics]. The work brings us closer to harnessing quantum technology to make more powerful computers, ultra-sensitive sensors and secure transmissions.

    “Both of these are transformative steps forward to quantum communications,” said co-author Andrew Cleland, the John A. MacLean Sr. Professor of Molecular Engineering at the IME and UChicago-affiliated Argonne National Laboratory. A leader in the development of superconducting quantum technology, he led the team that built the first “quantum machine,” demonstrating quantum performance in a mechanical resonator. “One of these experiments shows the precision and accuracy we can now achieve, and the other demonstrates a fundamental new ability for these qubits.”

    Scientists and engineers see enormous potential in quantum technology, a field that uses the strange properties of the tiniest particles in nature to manipulate and transmit information. For example, under certain conditions, two particles can be “entangled”—their fates linked even when they’re not physically connected. Entangling particles allows you to do all kinds of cool things, like transmit information instantly to space [Science] or make unhackable networks.

    But the technology has a long way to go—literally: A huge challenge is sending quantum information any substantial amount of distance, along cables or fibers.

    In a study published April 22 in Nature Physics, Cleland’s lab was able to build a system out of superconducting qubits that exchanged quantum information along a track nearly a meter long with extremely strong fidelity—with far higher performance has been previously demonstrated.

    “The coupling was so strong that we can demonstrate a quantum phenomenon called ‘quantum ping-pong’—sending and then catching individual photons as they bounce back,” said Youpeng Zhong, a graduate student in Cleland’s group and the first author of the paper.

    2
    Postdoctoral researcher Audrey Bienfait (left) and graduate student Youpeng Zhong work in the laboratory of Prof. Andrew Cleland in UChicago’s Institute for Molecular Engineering.
    Photo by Nancy Wong

    One of scientists’ breakthroughs was building the right device to send the signal. The key was shaping the pulses correctly—in an arc shape, like opening and closing a valve slowly, at just the right rate. This method of ‘throttling’ the quantum information helped them achieve such clarity that the system could pass a gold standard measurement of quantum entanglement, called a Bell test. This is a first for superconducting qubits, and it could be useful for building quantum computers as well as for quantum communications.

    The other study, published April 26 in Science, shows a way to entangle two superconducting qubits using sound.

    A challenge for scientists and engineers as they advance quantum technology is to be able to translate quantum signals from one medium to the other. For example, microwave light is perfect for carrying quantum signals around inside chips. “But you can’t send quantum information through the air in microwaves; the signal just gets swamped,” Cleland said.

    3
    Photo by Nancy Wong

    The team built a system that could translate the qubits’ microwave language into acoustic sound and have it travel across the chip—using a receiver at the other end that could do the reverse translation.

    It required some creative engineering: “Microwaves and acoustics are not friends, so we had to separate them onto two different materials and stack those on top of each other,” said Audrey Bienfait, a postdoctoral researcher and first author on the study. “But now that we’ve shown it is possible, it opens some interesting new possibilities for quantum sensors.”

    Both studies made use of the Pritzker Nanofabrication Facility, a 10,000-square-foot clean room at the University of Chicago for groundbreaking nano research.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Chicago Campus

    An intellectual destination

    One of the world’s premier academic and research institutions, the University of Chicago has driven new ways of thinking since our 1890 founding. Today, UChicago is an intellectual destination that draws inspired scholars to our Hyde Park and international campuses, keeping UChicago at the nexus of ideas that challenge and change the world.

    The University of Chicago is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with UChicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    UChicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics, establishing revolutionary theories of economics, and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations with our national and affiliated laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:19 pm on April 9, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New ‘lab-on-a-chip’ can test thousands of stem cells simultaneously", A patient’s stem cells could be removed- placed into the device and be given the right combination of molecules to develop them into a certain lineage- then be placed back in the body., , “We achieved that and now we have an understanding of how stem cells make decisions. That’s pretty exciting.”, “We wanted to develop a microfluidic device that could sort image and culture single cells in an automated high-throughput way” said Assoc. Prof. Savas Tay, Institute for Molecular Engineering at the University of Chicago, It can culture cells in different modes—meaning it can examine different types of cells at the same time., Tay and his collaborators designed a microfluidic device that has 1500 automated chambers—much higher than similar devices which have less than 100., The credit-card-sized microfluidic device not only saves time and money but also offers a new glimpse into how single stem cells react to different molecules and environments., , Ultimately a device like this could be used in fields like immunotherapy   

    From University of Chicago: “New ‘lab-on-a-chip’ can test thousands of stem cells simultaneously” 

    U Chicago bloc

    From University of Chicago

    Apr 9, 2019
    Emily Ayshford

    1
    Institute for Molecular Engineering researchers have developed a “lab-on-a-chip” that could help us understand how single stem cells react to different molecules and environments.
    Courtesy of Zhang et al.

    UChicago scientists invent time-saving technique to show how cells differentiate.

    Researchers with the Institute for Molecular Engineering at the University of Chicago have developed a new “lab-on-a-chip” that can examine thousands of individual live cells over a weeklong period, performing experiments that would take more than 1 million steps in a laboratory.

    The credit-card-sized, microfluidic device not only saves time and money, but also offers a new glimpse into how single stem cells react to different molecules and environments.

    When researchers examined neural stem cells on the device and analyzed the data, they found several new rules that determine the timing and signaling sequences needed to cause the cells to differentiate or renew themselves. The finding could have implications in understanding brain development or in treating patients with immunotherapy.

    “We wanted to develop a microfluidic device that could sort, image and culture single cells in an automated, high-throughput way,” said Assoc. Prof. Savas Tay, lead author of the research, published April 3 in the journal Science Advances. “We achieved that, and now we have an understanding of how stem cells make decisions. That’s pretty exciting.”

    Developing a new way to study cells

    Cells within our body are constantly responding to different signals and changes in the environment. In stem cells, for example, signals received at different points in time determine how the cell chooses what kind of cell it will develop into. One signal might cause a stem cell to differentiate into another cell, while another signal might cause it to maintain its form.

    Researchers currently have no way of studying these signal molecules on individual cells inside the body. Such analysis can be done in a lab with expensive, time-consuming experiments, but they ultimately cannot test all possible outcomes.

    Microfluidic devices, which have tiny chambers, tunnels and valves, have offered researchers a faster, automated process for studying these reactions in cells. But these devices have offered a limited number of chambers—meaning researchers could only test a certain amount of conditions with each cell—and could not keep the cells alive long enough to study them over a long period of time.

    Finding a way to keep finicky cells alive

    Tay and his collaborators set out to change that. They designed a microfluidic device that has 1,500 automated chambers—much higher than similar devices, which have less than 100. The device can also conduct several tasks—like cell stimulation, culturing, imaging and sorting—that were previously relegated to separate devices. It can culture cells in different modes—meaning it can examine different types of cells at the same time.

    Finally, the device also can keep cells alive for much longer, thanks to a new technique of diffusing media into a cell culture. Normally, to keep cells alive, researchers must change the media they are kept in every few hours. This change shocks the cells, and after several shocks, the cells can die. The researchers’ new technique diffuses the media into the cell chamber, a gentler process that does not shock the cells.

    In the first experiment with the device, the researchers studied how different signaling molecules affected the outcome of mouse neural stem cells. Such experiments create millions of data points, so Tay collaborated with Andrey Rzhetsky, UChicago professor in medicine and genetics, to conduct machine-learning analyses on the large dataset.

    They found that certain combinations of signals synergize and cause the cells to differentiate, while other molecules shut down those processes. The timing of these signals is also crucial. If a molecule is delivered at the right time, the researchers found, it can change the course of stem cells, from differentiation to self-renewal.

    “There are certain orders of signals that are highly optimal, and the exact timing of signals matters,” Tay said. “There hasn’t been a way to dynamically monitor these cells before, so finding and understanding these principles is exciting.”

    Next, the researchers hope to use the device to study organoids, tissue cultures derived from stem cells that organize themselves like tiny organs.

    Ultimately, a device like this could be used in fields like immunotherapy, where a patient’s own immune system is stimulated to help fight disease. A patient’s stem cells could be removed, placed into the device and be given the right combination of molecules to develop them into a certain lineage, then be placed back in the body.

    “We want to be able to use this device for all kinds of problems in cell biology,” Tay said.

    Other authors on the paper include Ce Zhang and Hsiung-Lin Tu, former postdoctoral fellows in Tay’s lab; Gengjie Jia, a postdoc in the Rzhetsky lab; and Verdon Taylor and Tanzila Mukhtar of the University of Basel.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Chicago Campus

    An intellectual destination

    One of the world’s premier academic and research institutions, the University of Chicago has driven new ways of thinking since our 1890 founding. Today, UChicago is an intellectual destination that draws inspired scholars to our Hyde Park and international campuses, keeping UChicago at the nexus of ideas that challenge and change the world.

    The University of Chicago is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with UChicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    UChicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics, establishing revolutionary theories of economics, and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations with our national and affiliated laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts.

     
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