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  • richardmitnick 12:14 pm on October 1, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Earthquake forecasting clues unearthed in strange precariously balanced rocks", , , , , ICL-Imperial College London   

    From Imperial College London: “Earthquake forecasting clues unearthed in strange precariously balanced rocks” 


    From Imperial College London

    01 October 2020
    Caroline Brogan

    1
    A precariously balanced rock in Colorado.

    Naturally formed balancing boulders could be used to help scientists to forecast large earthquakes more precisely.

    2
    Credit: Imperial College London/Caroline Brogan.

    3
    Credit: Imperial College London/Caroline Brogan.

    Precariously balanced rocks (PBRs) are formations found throughout the world where a slender boulder is balanced precariously on a pedestal boulder. They form as blocks preserved on cliffs, or when softer rocks erode and leave the harder rocks behind. They can also form when landslides or retreating glaciers deposit them in strange positions.

    By tapping into ancient geological data locked within Californian PBRs, Imperial College London researchers have broken ground on a new technique to boost the precision of hazard estimates for large earthquakes by up to 49 per cent.

    4
    A balanced rock in Utah.

    Despite their delicate balancing act, many PBRs – like the Brimham Rocks in Yorkshire, or Chiricahua National Monument in Arizona – have survived earthquake shaking over thousands of years. They can therefore tell us the upper limit of earthquake shaking that has occurred since they were first formed – shaking that, were it strong enough, would have caused them to topple.

    Earthquake hazard models estimate the likelihood of future earthquakes in a given location. They help engineers decide where bridges, dams, and buildings should be built and how robust they should be – as well as informing earthquake insurance prices in high-risk areas.

    The findings are published in AGU Advances.

    5
    Lead author Anna Rood examining a PBR in California.

    Lead author Anna Rood, from Imperial’s Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, said: “Our new approach could help us work out which areas are most likely to experience a major earthquake. PBRs act like inverse seismometers by capturing regional seismic history that we weren’t around to see, and tell us the upper limit of past earthquake shakes simply by not toppling. By tapping into this, we provide uniquely valuable data on the rates of rare, large-magnitude earthquakes.

    Current earthquake hazard estimates rely largely on observations like proximity to fault lines and how seismically active a region has been in the past. However, estimates for rarer earthquakes that have occurred over periods of 10,000 to 1,000,000 years are extremely uncertain due to the lack of seismic data spanning those timescales and subsequent reliance on rocky assumptions.

    By counting rare cosmic ray-generated atoms in PBRs and digitally modelling PBR-earthquake interactions, Imperial researchers have created a new method of earthquake hazard validation that could be built into existing models to finetune their precision.

    Rock clocks

    To tap into the seismology of the past, the researchers set out to determine the fragility (likelihood of toppling due to ground shaking) and age of PBRs at a site near to the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant in coastal California.

    They used a technique called cosmogenic surface exposure dating – counting the number of rare beryllium atoms formed within rocks by long-term exposure to cosmic rays – to determine how long PBRs had existed in their current formation.

    They then used 3D modelling software to digitally recreate the PBRs and calculate how much earthquake ground shaking they could withstand before toppling.

    Both the age and fragility of the PBRs were then compared with current hazard estimates to help boost their certainty.

    They found that combining their calculations with existing models reduced the uncertainty of earthquake hazard estimates at the site by 49 per cent, and, by removing the ‘worst-case-scenario’ estimates, reduced the average size of earthquakes estimated to happen once every 10,000 years by 27 per cent. They also found that PBRs can be preserved in the landscape for twice as long as previously thought.

    They conclude that this new method reduces the amount of assumptions, and therefore the uncertainty, used in estimating and extrapolating historic earthquake data for estimates of future risk.

    Study co-author Dr Dylan Rood, of Imperial’s Department of Earth Science and Engineering, said: “We’re teetering on the edge of a breakthrough in the science of earthquake forecasting. Our ‘rock clock’ techniques have the potential to save huge costs in seismic engineering, and could be used to test and update site-specific hazard estimates for earthquake-prone areas – specifically in coastal regions where the controlling seismic sources are offshore faults whose movements are inherently more difficult to investigate.”

    The team are now using their techniques to validate hazard estimates for southern California – one of the most hazardous and densely populated regions of the United States.

    6
    Anna collecting samples for cosmogenic surface exposure dating, which will be used to model the history of the PBR being exhumed from the surrounding softer weathered rock.

    Anna said: “We’re now looking at PBRs near major earthquake faults like the San Andreas fault near Los Angeles. We’re also looking at how to pinpoint which data – whether it be fault slip rates or choice of ground shaking equations – are skewing the results in the original hazard models. This way we can improve scientists’ understanding of big earthquakes even more.”

    This study was funded by Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), National Science Foundation (NSF), British Society for Geomorphology, and Australia’s Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO).

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Imperial College London is a science-based university with an international reputation for excellence in teaching and research. Consistently rated amongst the world’s best universities, Imperial is committed to developing the next generation of researchers, scientists and academics through collaboration across disciplines. Located in the heart of London, Imperial is a multidisciplinary space for education, research, translation and commercialisation, harnessing science and innovation to tackle global challenges.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:19 pm on September 30, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Solar Orbiter’s first science data shows the Sun at its quietest", ICL-Imperial College London,   

    From Imperial College London: “Solar Orbiter’s first science data shows the Sun at its quietest” 


    From Imperial College London

    30 September 2020
    Hayley Dunning

    ESA/NASA Solar Orbiter.

    Three of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft’s instruments, including Imperial’s magnetometer, have released their first data.

    The European Space Agency’s Solar Orbiter spacecraft launched in February 2020 on its mission to study to Sun and it began collecting science data in June. Now, three of its ten instruments have released their first tranche of data, revealing the state of the Sun in a ‘quiet’ phase.

    The Sun is known to follow an 11-year cycle of sunspot activity and is currently almost completely free of sunspots. This is expected to change over the coming years as sunspot activity ramps up, causing the Sun to become more active and raising the chances of adverse ‘space weather’ events, where the Sun releases huge amounts of material and energy in solar flares and coronal mass ejections.

    The Sun’s activity is closely linked to the state of its magnetic field, and this is measured by Imperial’s instrument aboard Solar Orbiter, the magnetometer (MAG). Since June, MAG has recorded hundreds of millions of ‘vectors’ – measurements of the direction and strength of the Sun’s magnetic field.

    Solar Orbiter has already flown inside the orbit of Venus, collecting some of the closest data to the Sun so far, and will get progressively closer in the coming years. It is currently orbiting close to the equator of the Sun, which in times of high activity would show a very warped magnetic field.

    Currently, however, the Sun’s magnetic ‘equator’ is lying very flat to the true equator, allowing the spacecraft to observe fields from the Northern magnetic hemisphere for weeks on end, when just a few degrees north of the equator. Near times of high solar activity, when the Sun’s magnetic equator is more warped, it is not possible to see a single polarity of magnetic field for so long.

    Solar wind structure

    The MAG has also observed waves caused by protons and electrons streaming from the Sun. Further out, near the Earth, these particles are distributed more evenly in the bulk solar wind of charged particles streaming from the Sun, but at Solar Orbiter there are also ‘beams’ protons and electrons coming from the Sun.

    There appears to much more structure in the solar wind closer to the Sun, and this is further shown by MAG confirming the presence of ‘switchbacks’ – dramatic folds in the solar wind first recorded by the Parker Solar Probe, a NASA mission launched in 2018.

    NASA Parker Solar Probe Plus named to honor Pioneering Physicist Eugene Parker.

    Solar Orbiter and Parker Solar Probe will work together over the coming years to compare data on the same phenomena at different distances and orbits around the Sun as it wakes up and enters the next phase of its sunspot cycle.

    2
    Overview of the Solar Orbiter magnetic field data released today. Here, the amplitude of the magnetic field is shown, along with the distance of the spacecraft from the Sun in Astronomical Units (the Earth is 1 AU from the Sun). The magnetic field is larger closer to the Sun, but the magnetic fields measured in space by MAG are still less than a thousandth of the Earth’s magnetic field.

    A testament to hard work

    The data released today are part of Solar Orbiter’s commitment to releasing data within three months of it arriving on the ground – a tight schedule for any space mission, but particularly challenging during a pandemic. Professor Tim Horbury, the Principal Investigator of MAG from the Department of Physics at Imperial, says that the fact the data is ready on time is testament to the hard work of the engineering team at Imperial.

    “They have worked incredibly hard over the last few months. It’s been an immense amount of work,” he said. But it’s paid off. “There’s a lot of it that we’re releasing that nobody’s really looked at in great detail yet. So I am sure there will also be a whole extra set of wonders – we just don’t know what they are yet. There’s an enormous amount for people to do, and I really hope that people will dive in.”

    One of the first challenges from the team was to eliminate the tiny magnetic field signatures from the spacecraft itself. Almost everything that runs on electrical power on the spacecraft creates a varying magnetic field that must be removed from the data in order to get the true signal from the Sun. This includes the solar panels, the thrusters, the other science instruments and over 50 separate heaters.

    While different parts of the spacecraft turned on, the team had to take data from all of them in order to eliminate their signal. But Professor Horbury says it was all worth it: “This is just the beginning, but the data is already enormously exciting and very rich.

    “Solar Orbiter is living up to its promise. We always knew it was going to be a fantastic mission and the early measurements are showing just how much potential there is for unprecedented insights into the Sun,” he said.

    MAG Instrument Manager Helen O’Brien said: “MAG has been performing brilliantly for seven months now. We tested it here on Earth before launch, but we cannot perfectly recreate the harsh space environment, and certainly not for the prolonged periods MAG is now experiencing.

    “So to see the first data go public is wonderful, and this is just the beginning. In December, the spacecraft does a flyby of Venus, and then we are back in to half the Sun-Earth distance in February next year. We are so proud!”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Imperial College London is a science-based university with an international reputation for excellence in teaching and research. Consistently rated amongst the world’s best universities, Imperial is committed to developing the next generation of researchers, scientists and academics through collaboration across disciplines. Located in the heart of London, Imperial is a multidisciplinary space for education, research, translation and commercialisation, harnessing science and innovation to tackle global challenges.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:47 pm on August 11, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Rare ‘boomerang’ earthquake observed along Atlantic Ocean fault line", , , , Earthquake early-warning systems, , ICL-Imperial College London, ,   

    From Imperial College London: “Rare ‘boomerang’ earthquake observed along Atlantic Ocean fault line” 


    From Imperial College London

    10 August 2020
    Hayley Dunning

    1
    The Romanche fracture zone
    Scientists have tracked a ‘boomerang’ earthquake in the ocean for the first time, providing clues about how they could cause devastation on land.

    Earthquakes occur when rocks suddenly break on a fault – a boundary between two blocks or plates. During large earthquakes, the breaking of rock can spread down the fault line. Now, an international team of researchers have recorded a ‘boomerang’ earthquake, where the rupture initially spreads away from initial break but then turns and runs back the other way at higher speeds.

    The strength and duration of rupture along a fault influences the among of ground shaking on the surface, which can damage buildings or create tsunamis. Ultimately, knowing the mechanisms of how faults rupture and the physics involved will help researchers make better models and predictions of future earthquakes, and could inform earthquake early-warning systems.

    The team, led by scientists from the University of Southampton and Imperial College London, report their results today in Nature Geoscience.

    Breaking the seismic sound barrier

    While large (magnitude 7 or higher) earthquakes occur on land and have been measured by nearby networks of monitors (seismometers), these earthquakes often trigger movement along complex networks of faults, like a series of dominoes. This makes it difficult to track the underlying mechanisms of how this ‘seismic slip’ occurs.

    Under the ocean, many types of fault have simple shapes, so provide the possibility get under the bonnet of the ‘earthquake engine’. However, they are far from large networks of seismometers on land. The team made use of a new network of underwater seismometers to monitor the Romanche fracture zone, a fault line stretching 900km under the Atlantic near the equator.

    In 2016, they recorded a magnitude 7.1 earthquake along the Romanche fracture zone and tracked the rupture along the fault. This revealed that initially the rupture travelled in one direction before turning around midway through the earthquake and breaking the ‘seismic sound barrier’, becoming an ultra-fast earthquake.

    Only a handful of such earthquakes have been recorded globally. The team believe that the first phase of the rupture was crucial in causing the second, rapidly slipping phase.

    Feeding earthquake forecasts

    First author of the study Dr Stephen Hicks, from the Department of Earth Sciences and Engineering at Imperial, said: “Whilst scientists have found that such a reversing rupture mechanism is possible from theoretical models, our new study provides some of the clearest evidence for this enigmatic mechanism occurring in a real fault.

    2
    Installing an ocean bottom seismometer. Credit: C. Rychert

    “Even though the fault structure seems simple, the way the earthquake grew was not, and this was completely opposite to how we expected the earthquake to look before we started to analyse the data.”

    However, the team say that if similar types of reversing or boomerang earthquakes can occur on land, a seismic rupture turning around mid-way through an earthquake could dramatically affect the amount of ground shaking caused.

    Given the lack of observational evidence before now, this mechanism has been unaccounted for in earthquake scenario modelling and assessments of the hazards from such earthquakes. The detailed tracking of the boomerang earthquake could allow researchers to find similar patterns in other earthquakes and to add new scenarios into their modelling and improve earthquake impact forecasts.

    The ocean bottom seismometer network used was part of the PI-LAB and EUROLAB projects, a million-dollar experiment funded by the Natural Environment Research Council in the UK, the European Research Council, and the National Science Foundation in the US.

    __________________________________________________
    Earthquake Alert

    1

    Earthquake Alert

    Earthquake Network projectEarthquake Network is a research project which aims at developing and maintaining a crowdsourced smartphone-based earthquake warning system at a global level. Smartphones made available by the population are used to detect the earthquake waves using the on-board accelerometers. When an earthquake is detected, an earthquake warning is issued in order to alert the population not yet reached by the damaging waves of the earthquake.

    The project started on January 1, 2013 with the release of the homonymous Android application Earthquake Network. The author of the research project and developer of the smartphone application is Francesco Finazzi of the University of Bergamo, Italy.

    Get the app in the Google Play store.

    3
    Smartphone network spatial distribution (green and red dots) on December 4, 2015

    Meet The Quake-Catcher Network

    QCN bloc

    Quake-Catcher Network

    The Quake-Catcher Network is a collaborative initiative for developing the world’s largest, low-cost strong-motion seismic network by utilizing sensors in and attached to internet-connected computers. With your help, the Quake-Catcher Network can provide better understanding of earthquakes, give early warning to schools, emergency response systems, and others. The Quake-Catcher Network also provides educational software designed to help teach about earthquakes and earthquake hazards.

    After almost eight years at Stanford, and a year at CalTech, the QCN project is moving to the University of Southern California Dept. of Earth Sciences. QCN will be sponsored by the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC).

    The Quake-Catcher Network is a distributed computing network that links volunteer hosted computers into a real-time motion sensing network. QCN is one of many scientific computing projects that runs on the world-renowned distributed computing platform Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC).

    The volunteer computers monitor vibrational sensors called MEMS accelerometers, and digitally transmit “triggers” to QCN’s servers whenever strong new motions are observed. QCN’s servers sift through these signals, and determine which ones represent earthquakes, and which ones represent cultural noise (like doors slamming, or trucks driving by).

    There are two categories of sensors used by QCN: 1) internal mobile device sensors, and 2) external USB sensors.

    Mobile Devices: MEMS sensors are often included in laptops, games, cell phones, and other electronic devices for hardware protection, navigation, and game control. When these devices are still and connected to QCN, QCN software monitors the internal accelerometer for strong new shaking. Unfortunately, these devices are rarely secured to the floor, so they may bounce around when a large earthquake occurs. While this is less than ideal for characterizing the regional ground shaking, many such sensors can still provide useful information about earthquake locations and magnitudes.

    USB Sensors: MEMS sensors can be mounted to the floor and connected to a desktop computer via a USB cable. These sensors have several advantages over mobile device sensors. 1) By mounting them to the floor, they measure more reliable shaking than mobile devices. 2) These sensors typically have lower noise and better resolution of 3D motion. 3) Desktops are often left on and do not move. 4) The USB sensor is physically removed from the game, phone, or laptop, so human interaction with the device doesn’t reduce the sensors’ performance. 5) USB sensors can be aligned to North, so we know what direction the horizontal “X” and “Y” axes correspond to.

    If you are a science teacher at a K-12 school, please apply for a free USB sensor and accompanying QCN software. QCN has been able to purchase sensors to donate to schools in need. If you are interested in donating to the program or requesting a sensor, click here.

    BOINC is a leader in the field(s) of Distributed Computing, Grid Computing and Citizen Cyberscience.BOINC is more properly the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing, developed at UC Berkeley.

    Earthquake safety is a responsibility shared by billions worldwide. The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) provides software so that individuals can join together to improve earthquake monitoring, earthquake awareness, and the science of earthquakes. The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) links existing networked laptops and desktops in hopes to form the worlds largest strong-motion seismic network.

    Below, the QCN Quake Catcher Network map
    QCN Quake Catcher Network map

    ShakeAlert: An Earthquake Early Warning System for the West Coast of the United States

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) along with a coalition of State and university partners is developing and testing an earthquake early warning (EEW) system called ShakeAlert for the west coast of the United States. Long term funding must be secured before the system can begin sending general public notifications, however, some limited pilot projects are active and more are being developed. The USGS has set the goal of beginning limited public notifications in 2018.

    Watch a video describing how ShakeAlert works in English or Spanish.

    The primary project partners include:

    United States Geological Survey
    California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services (CalOES)
    California Geological Survey
    California Institute of Technology
    University of California Berkeley
    University of Washington
    University of Oregon
    Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

    The Earthquake Threat

    Earthquakes pose a national challenge because more than 143 million Americans live in areas of significant seismic risk across 39 states. Most of our Nation’s earthquake risk is concentrated on the West Coast of the United States. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has estimated the average annualized loss from earthquakes, nationwide, to be $5.3 billion, with 77 percent of that figure ($4.1 billion) coming from California, Washington, and Oregon, and 66 percent ($3.5 billion) from California alone. In the next 30 years, California has a 99.7 percent chance of a magnitude 6.7 or larger earthquake and the Pacific Northwest has a 10 percent chance of a magnitude 8 to 9 megathrust earthquake on the Cascadia subduction zone.

    Part of the Solution

    Today, the technology exists to detect earthquakes, so quickly, that an alert can reach some areas before strong shaking arrives. The purpose of the ShakeAlert system is to identify and characterize an earthquake a few seconds after it begins, calculate the likely intensity of ground shaking that will result, and deliver warnings to people and infrastructure in harm’s way. This can be done by detecting the first energy to radiate from an earthquake, the P-wave energy, which rarely causes damage. Using P-wave information, we first estimate the location and the magnitude of the earthquake. Then, the anticipated ground shaking across the region to be affected is estimated and a warning is provided to local populations. The method can provide warning before the S-wave arrives, bringing the strong shaking that usually causes most of the damage.

    Studies of earthquake early warning methods in California have shown that the warning time would range from a few seconds to a few tens of seconds. ShakeAlert can give enough time to slow trains and taxiing planes, to prevent cars from entering bridges and tunnels, to move away from dangerous machines or chemicals in work environments and to take cover under a desk, or to automatically shut down and isolate industrial systems. Taking such actions before shaking starts can reduce damage and casualties during an earthquake. It can also prevent cascading failures in the aftermath of an event. For example, isolating utilities before shaking starts can reduce the number of fire initiations.

    System Goal

    The USGS will issue public warnings of potentially damaging earthquakes and provide warning parameter data to government agencies and private users on a region-by-region basis, as soon as the ShakeAlert system, its products, and its parametric data meet minimum quality and reliability standards in those geographic regions. The USGS has set the goal of beginning limited public notifications in 2018. Product availability will expand geographically via ANSS regional seismic networks, such that ShakeAlert products and warnings become available for all regions with dense seismic instrumentation.

    Current Status

    The West Coast ShakeAlert system is being developed by expanding and upgrading the infrastructure of regional seismic networks that are part of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS); the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) is made up of the Southern California Seismic Network, SCSN) and the Northern California Seismic System, NCSS and the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN). This enables the USGS and ANSS to leverage their substantial investment in sensor networks, data telemetry systems, data processing centers, and software for earthquake monitoring activities residing in these network centers. The ShakeAlert system has been sending live alerts to “beta” users in California since January of 2012 and in the Pacific Northwest since February of 2015.

    In February of 2016 the USGS, along with its partners, rolled-out the next-generation ShakeAlert early warning test system in California joined by Oregon and Washington in April 2017. This West Coast-wide “production prototype” has been designed for redundant, reliable operations. The system includes geographically distributed servers, and allows for automatic fail-over if connection is lost.

    This next-generation system will not yet support public warnings but does allow selected early adopters to develop and deploy pilot implementations that take protective actions triggered by the ShakeAlert notifications in areas with sufficient sensor coverage.

    Authorities

    The USGS will develop and operate the ShakeAlert system, and issue public notifications under collaborative authorities with FEMA, as part of the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program, as enacted by the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977, 42 U.S.C. §§ 7704 SEC. 2.

    For More Information

    Robert de Groot, ShakeAlert National Coordinator for Communication, Education, and Outreach
    rdegroot@usgs.gov
    626-583-7225

    Learn more about EEW Research

    ShakeAlert Fact Sheet

    ShakeAlert Implementation Plan

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Imperial College London is a science-based university with an international reputation for excellence in teaching and research. Consistently rated amongst the world’s best universities, Imperial is committed to developing the next generation of researchers, scientists and academics through collaboration across disciplines. Located in the heart of London, Imperial is a multidisciplinary space for education, research, translation and commercialisation, harnessing science and innovation to tackle global challenges.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:44 pm on April 4, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Artificial fog helps lasers shine brighter", A team led by the EU Graphene Flagship with collaborators including Imperial have invented a diffuser that scatters laser light making it more useful in lighting larger areas., ICL-Imperial College London   

    From Imperial College London: “Artificial fog helps lasers shine brighter” 

    Imperial College London
    From Imperial College London

    03 April 2020
    Hayley Dunning

    1
    The ‘fog’ in action. Credit: Florian Rasch
    Laser-based lights could replace lightbulbs thanks to an artificial ‘fog’ that scatters laser light, producing high brightness at low power.

    The new and improved laser-based lights could be used anywhere from indoor lighting and projectors to car headlights and outdoor floodlights. As they produce high brightness at low power, they would be more energy-efficient than regular lightbulbs or LEDs.

    Current uses of laser light are limited to a single colour and the light is very focused and narrow – for example in laser pointers, barcode scanners and DVD players.

    Now, a team led by the EU Graphene Flagship with collaborators including Imperial have invented a diffuser that scatters laser light, making it more useful in lighting larger areas.

    The study, published in Nature Communications, also shows how the laser light can be tuned to different colours, including white, which has been difficult to achieve with lasers.

    More than 99.99% air

    Previously laser-based lights, called laser diodes (LDs), have created white light by shining a laser onto phosphor materials, but the process is not very efficient and can only create one colour of light.

    The team invented a new way to create white light, by shining red, blue and green lasers into a diffuser made of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), an ultrathin material related to graphene.

    The diffuser, called aero-BN, is made of a semi-transparent web of randomly arranged and interconnected hBN hollow microtubes, and consists of more than 99.99% air. The three coloured laser beams penetrate deeply into the diffuser, where they are strongly and randomly scattered multiple times by the nanoscopic walls of the microtubes.

    3
    Graphical representation of the Aero-BN diffuser exposed to three lasers beams. Credit: F. Schütt

    In this way, the diffuser acts like an artificial fog, making the light more diffuse. At an optimum intensity of all three lasers, white light is emitted, and by varying the ratio of intensity of the coloured lasers, this method allows for the choice of a rainbow palette of colours.

    Enormous range of applications

    Co-author of the study Dr Felice Torrisi, from the Department of Chemistry at Imperial, said: “We have shown that hexagonal boron nitride flakes can be assembled into a micro-scaffold that converts laser light into a white light source suitable for low-power and high-intensity lighting applications, just like lightbulbs, with the advantage of operating across all the visible colours.

    “We are currently looking into applying this technology for future high-brightness and low-power illumination systems, with an enormous range of applications from indoor lighting to aerospace.”

    The high degree of scattering inside the fog also reduces the problem of ‘speckle’ – a contrast pattern usually caused by LDs that is uncomfortable for human vision, making it unsuitable for lighting applications. In the artificial fog, a large number of speckle patterns were superimposed and averaged out, so that they became invisible to the human eye.

    Professor Xinliang Feng, the Graphene Flagship’s Work Package Leader for Functional Foams and Coatings, said: “This is an excellent example of how we can utilise the functionality of layered materials on the macroscopic scale. The foam is capable of withstanding extremely high-powered lasers, allowing for the creation of small-scale light sources with extremely high intensities.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Imperial College London is a science-based university with an international reputation for excellence in teaching and research. Consistently rated amongst the world’s best universities, Imperial is committed to developing the next generation of researchers, scientists and academics through collaboration across disciplines. Located in the heart of London, Imperial is a multidisciplinary space for education, research, translation and commercialisation, harnessing science and innovation to tackle global challenges.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:47 am on December 20, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "High performance computing is part of our vital research infrastructure”, ICL-Imperial College London   

    From Imperial College London: “High performance computing is part of our vital research infrastructure” 

    Imperial College London
    From Imperial College London

    20 December 2019
    Elizabeth Nixon

    1
    Imperial has invested £15m to support the expansion of the Research Computing Service.

    High performance computing (HPC) is fast confirming its place as a vital tool for researchers at the College. It allows individual computers to work together to analyse data that is too large for a single desktop to handle.

    Imperial’s Research Computing Service provides access to powerful computing resources, expert consultancy and training for all researchers. Over 1,800 staff and postgraduate students across the College have used the service over the past year, supported by a team of software engineers, specialist trainers and systems analysts.

    The number of staff and students using the service has increased by 35 per cent over the past two years. Advances in areas such as machine learning, electronic records and genomics have led to an increase in registered users from the Faculty of Medicine and the Business School in particular.

    Professor Nick Jennings, Imperial’s Vice-Provost for Research and Enterprise, has championed the need for central institutional support for the service. He said: “We often think of infrastructure in terms of buildings and labs, but in the modern world high performance computing is part of the vital infrastructure that underpins our research.

    “Access to high capacity computing resources is increasingly vital across growing and emerging research areas such as machine learning and genomics. The investment we’ve made means that we have a largest active user community and one of the largest facilities of any UK university.”

    Imperial has committed to an ongoing investment of £3 million per year to expand the service to meet demand, and to keep it free at the point of use for researchers.

    Professor Spencer Sherwin, Director of the Research Computing Service, said: “Different disciplines value different aspects of our service. We’re tailoring it to meet this range of needs, not only in terms of the actual hardware and software, but also in the support and training we offer.”

    Below we hear from three regular users of the service.
    Dr David Orme, Research Fellow, Department of Life Sciences

    Dr Orme works on species diversity and uses computer models to explore spatial data – like species’ range maps.

    He said: “Ecological research using ‘big data’ is becoming more common. An individual researcher might be able to afford one powerful workstation, but computing resources are then the bottleneck in research. The Research Computing Service allows us to get answers much more quickly and provides the power to solve difficult problems but, probably more importantly, also makes it possible to do more data exploration and more careful research.”

    Dr Kim Jelfs, Senior Lecturer, Department of Chemistry

    Dr Jelfs uses computational approaches to enable the discovery of functional molecular materials.

    She said: “Every member of my group uses the Research Computing Service on a daily basis to run computationally intensive calculations. Not only do we need to run parallel calculations, but my group’s research is also focused upon high throughput screening, where we need to run tens of thousands of calculations to screen candidate materials before we analyse them for functionality.”

    Dr Antonio Berlanga-Taylor, Research Fellow, School of Public Health

    Dr Berlanga-Taylor studies the interaction of our genes and the environment in disease development.

    He said: “Genomics simply wouldn’t exist without research computing resources such as those provided by Imperial. I study large cohorts with multiple measurements that amount to hundreds of millions of observations. Answering research questions based on these data requires not only high performance computing but also data storage alongside the expertise and person-power that the Service provides.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Imperial College London

    Imperial College London is a science-based university with an international reputation for excellence in teaching and research. Consistently rated amongst the world’s best universities, Imperial is committed to developing the next generation of researchers, scientists and academics through collaboration across disciplines. Located in the heart of London, Imperial is a multidisciplinary space for education, research, translation and commercialisation, harnessing science and innovation to tackle global challenges.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:37 am on December 19, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Ultrashort x-ray technique will probe conditions found at the heart of planets", , , , , , ICL-Imperial College London, , ,   

    From Imperial College London and STFC: “Ultrashort x-ray technique will probe conditions found at the heart of planets” 


    From Science and Technology Facilities Council

    and

    Imperial College London
    From Imperial College London

    19 December 2019
    Hayley Dunning

    1
    Working with the Gemini Laser. Credit: STFC

    Combining powerful lasers and bright x-rays, Imperial and STFC researchers have demonstrated a technique that will allow new extreme experiments.

    The new technique would be able to use a single x-ray flash to capture information about extremely dense and hot matter, such as can be found inside gas giant planets or on the crusts of dead stars.

    The same conditions are also found in fusion experiments, which are trying to create a new source of energy that mimics the Sun.

    ______________________________________
    We will now be able to probe warm dense matter much more efficiently and in unprecedented resolution.
    Dr Brendan Kettle
    ______________________________________

    The technique, reported this week in Physical Review Letters, was developed by a team led by Imperial College London scientists working with colleagues including those at the UK’s Central Laser Facility at the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) Rutherford Appleton Laboratory [below], and was funded by the European Research Council.

    The researchers wanted to improve ways to study ‘warm dense matter’ – matter that has the same density as a solid, but is heated up to 10,000?C. Researchers can create warm dense matter in the lab, recreating the conditions in the hearts of planets or crucial for fusion power, but it is difficult to study.

    Accelerating discoveries

    The team used the Gemini Laser, which has two beams – one which can create the conditions for warm dense matter, and one which can create ultrashort and bright x-rays to probe the conditions inside the warm dense matter.

    2
    STFC Gemini Laser

    Previous attempts using lower-powered lasers required 50-100 x-ray flashes to get the same information that the new technique can gain in just one flash. The flashes last only femtoseconds (quadrillionths of a second), meaning the new technique can reveal what is happening within warm dense matter across very short timescales.

    First author Dr Brendan Kettle, from the Department of Physics at Imperial, said: “We will now be able to probe warm dense matter much more efficiently and in unprecedented resolution, which could accelerate discoveries in fusion experiments and astrophysics, such as the internal structure and evolution of planets including the Earth itself.”

    The technique could also be used to probe fast-changing conditions inside new kinds of batteries and memory storage devices.

    Answering key questions

    In the new study, the team used their technique to examine a heated sample of titanium, successfully showing that it could measure the distribution of electrons and ions.

    Lead researcher Dr Stuart Mangles, from the Department of Physics at Imperial, said: “We are planning to use the technique to answer key questions about how the electrons and ions in this warm dense matter ‘talk’ to each other, and how quickly can energy transfer from the electrons to the ions.”

    The Central Laser Facility’s Gemini Laser is currently one of the few places the right conditions for the technique can be created, but as new facilities start operating around the world, the team hope the technique can be expanded and used to do a whole new class of experiments.

    Dr Rajeev Pattathil, Gemini Group Leader at the Central Laser Facility, said: “With ultrashort x-ray flashes we can get a freeze-frame focus on transient or dynamic processes in materials, revealing key new fundamental information about materials here and in the wider Universe, and especially those in extreme states.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Imperial College London

    Imperial College London is a science-based university with an international reputation for excellence in teaching and research. Consistently rated amongst the world’s best universities, Imperial is committed to developing the next generation of researchers, scientists and academics through collaboration across disciplines. Located in the heart of London, Imperial is a multidisciplinary space for education, research, translation and commercialisation, harnessing science and innovation to tackle global challenges.

    STFC-Science and Technology Facilities Council

    STFC Hartree Centre

    STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory at Harwell in Oxfordshire, UK

    Helping build a globally competitive, knowledge-based UK economy

    We are a world-leading multi-disciplinary science organisation, and our goal is to deliver economic, societal, scientific and international benefits to the UK and its people – and more broadly to the world. Our strength comes from our distinct but interrelated functions:

    Universities: we support university-based research, innovation and skills development in astronomy, particle physics, nuclear physics, and space science
    Scientific Facilities: we provide access to world-leading, large-scale facilities across a range of physical and life sciences, enabling research, innovation and skills training in these areas
    National Campuses: we work with partners to build National Science and Innovation Campuses based around our National Laboratories to promote academic and industrial collaboration and translation of our research to market through direct interaction with industry
    Inspiring and Involving: we help ensure a future pipeline of skilled and enthusiastic young people by using the excitement of our sciences to encourage wider take-up of STEM subjects in school and future life (science, technology, engineering and mathematics)

    We support an academic community of around 1,700 in particle physics, nuclear physics, and astronomy including space science, who work at more than 50 universities and research institutes in the UK, Europe, Japan and the United States, including a rolling cohort of more than 900 PhD students.

    STFC-funded universities produce physics postgraduates with outstanding high-end scientific, analytic and technical skills who on graduation enjoy almost full employment. Roughly half of our PhD students continue in research, sustaining national capability and creating the bedrock of the UK’s scientific excellence. The remainder – much valued for their numerical, problem solving and project management skills – choose equally important industrial, commercial or government careers.

    Our large-scale scientific facilities in the UK and Europe are used by more than 3,500 users each year, carrying out more than 2,000 experiments and generating around 900 publications. The facilities provide a range of research techniques using neutrons, muons, lasers and x-rays, and high performance computing and complex analysis of large data sets.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:38 pm on August 22, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Quantum computing race needs ‘global effort’ says Provost", ICL-Imperial College London, The UK has a decades-long head start in quantum technologies.   

    From Imperial College London: “Quantum computing race needs ‘global effort’, says Provost” 

    Imperial College London
    From Imperial College London

    21 August 2019
    Andrew Scheuber

    1
    NQIT https://nqit.ox.ac.uk/

    The race for a viable quantum computer – “the most exciting in science today” – needs enormous collaborations, Professor Ian Walmsley argues.

    Writing in today’s Financial Times, Imperial’s Provost notes that “The complexity of some of the hurdles are arguably more challenging than those that were solved at the Large Hadron Collider, the world’s most powerful atom smasher. Disparate networks of researchers, entrepreneurs, capital and governments will have to compete and collaborate all over the world.

    “Yet too much commentary, especially in the UK and Europe, fixates on where quantum innovation and commercialisation is happening.”

    This so-called “brain drain” argument is “nonsense”, he writes. “It misunderstands the global nature of science and innovation, and underplays the UK’s exceptional strengths in quantum technology.”

    Welcoming competition

    He argues that “We should welcome, not fear, competition, as well as being open to collaboration. From lunar exploration to cancer research, it’s how the best science and innovation comes to life.”

    Professor Walmsley, a quantum physicist, also serves as Director of the UK’s Networked Quantum Information Technologies Hub.

    He observes that “the UK has a decades-long head start in quantum technologies. Consistent support from research councils and university departments have spurred crucial breakthroughs. These leaps in fundamental science — all from British laboratories — are the foundation of today’s global industry. It is what has drawn pioneers in quantum metrology such as Ed Hinds back to the UK from the US.

    “The British government’s foresight in founding the National Quantum Technologies Programme six years ago accelerated research and development, and stimulated private investment. Total UK government investment has now reached £1bn.”

    The full opinion piece can be read in the Financial Times.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Imperial College London

    Imperial College London is a science-based university with an international reputation for excellence in teaching and research. Consistently rated amongst the world’s best universities, Imperial is committed to developing the next generation of researchers, scientists and academics through collaboration across disciplines. Located in the heart of London, Imperial is a multidisciplinary space for education, research, translation and commercialisation, harnessing science and innovation to tackle global challenges.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:22 pm on August 19, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , ICL-Imperial College London   

    From Imperial College London: “Lab-based dark energy experiment narrows search options for elusive force” 

    Imperial College London
    From Imperial College London

    19 August 2019
    Hayley Dunning

    1
    No image caption or credit.

    An experiment to test a popular theory of dark energy has found no evidence of new forces, placing strong constraints on related theories.

    Dark energy is the name given to an unknown force that is causing the universe to expand at an accelerating rate.

    Some physicists propose dark energy is a ‘fifth’ force that acts on matter, beyond the four already known – gravitational, electromagnetic, and the strong and weak nuclear interactions.

    However, researchers think this fifth force may be ‘screened’ or ‘hidden’ for large objects like planets or weights on Earth, making it difficult to detect.

    Now, researchers at Imperial College London and the University of Nottingham have tested the possibility that this fifth force is acting on single atoms, and found no evidence for it in their most recent experiment.

    This could rule out popular theories of dark energy that modify the theory of gravity, and leaves fewer places to search for the elusive fifth force.

    Finding the fifth force

    The experiment, performed at Imperial College London and analysed by theorists at the University of Nottingham, is reported today in Physical Review Letters.

    Professor Ed Copeland, from the Centre for Astronomy & Particle Physics at the University of Nottingham, said: “This experiment, connecting atomic physics and cosmology, has allowed us to rule out a wide class of models that have been proposed to explain the nature of dark energy, and will enable us to constrain many more dark energy models.”

    The experiment tested theories of dark energy that propose the fifth force is comparatively weaker when there is more matter around – the opposite of how gravity behaves.

    This would mean it is strong in a vacuum like space, but is weak when there is lots of matter around. Therefore, experiments using two large weights would mean the force becomes too weak to measure.

    Experiment with a single atom

    The researchers instead tested a larger weight with an incredibly small weight – a single atom – where the force should have been observed if it exists.

    The team used an atom interferometer to test whether there were any extra forces that could be the fifth force acting on an atom. A marble-sized sphere of metal was placed in a vacuum chamber and atoms were allowed to free-fall inside the chamber.

    The theory is, if there is a fifth force acting between the sphere and atom, the atom’s path will deviate slightly as it passes by the sphere, causing a change in the path of the falling atom. However, no such force was found.

    Professor Ed Hinds, from the Department of Physics at Imperial, said: “It is very exciting to be able to discover something about the evolution of the universe using a table-top experiment in a London basement.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Imperial College London

    Imperial College London is a science-based university with an international reputation for excellence in teaching and research. Consistently rated amongst the world’s best universities, Imperial is committed to developing the next generation of researchers, scientists and academics through collaboration across disciplines. Located in the heart of London, Imperial is a multidisciplinary space for education, research, translation and commercialisation, harnessing science and innovation to tackle global challenges.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:36 pm on December 14, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , ICL-Imperial College London, ,   

    From Imperial College London: “Young star caught forming around another star” 

    Imperial College London
    From Imperial College London

    14 December 2018
    Hayley Dunning

    1
    A small star has been observed forming out of the dust surrounding a larger star, in a similar way to how planets are born.

    Astronomers were observing the formation of a massive young star, called MM 1a, when they discovered an unexpected object nearby.

    MM 1a is surrounded by rotating disc of gas and dust. But orbiting just beyond this disc, they discovered a faint object they called MM 1b, which they discovered was a smaller star. MM 1b is believed to have formed out of the gas and dust surrounding the larger MM 1a.

    The team of astronomers, led by the University of Leeds and including an Imperial College London researcher, have published their discovery today in the journal Astrophysical Journal Letters.

    Co-author Dr Thomas Haworth, from the Department of Physics at Imperial, helped predict what might be observed around MM 1a, and then to interpret what they actually found. He said: “It’s great when the new data surprises you, which was definitely the case here.

    “Seeing the disc itself in so much detail is exciting, but detecting a second star forming within the disc, perhaps in a similar way to how planets form, was a huge unexpected bonus. There is a lot of work ahead of us to fully understand the consequences of this new discovery.”

    An entirely different formation process

    Stars form within large clouds of gas and dust in interstellar space. When these clouds collapse under gravity, they begin to rotate faster, forming a disc around them. It is in these discs that planets can form around low mass stars like our Sun.

    Lead author Dr John Ilee, from the School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Leeds, said: “In this case, the star and disc we have observed is so massive that, rather than witnessing a planet forming in the disc, we are seeing another star being born.”

    By measuring the amount of radiation emitted by the dust and subtle shifts in the frequency of light emitted by the gas, the researchers were able to calculate the mass of MM 1a and MM 1b.

    They found that MM 1a weighs 40 times the mass of our Sun. The smaller orbiting star MM 1b was calculated to weigh less than half the mass of our Sun.

    2
    Observation of the dust emission (green) and hot gas rotating in the disc around MM 1a (red is receding gas, blue is approaching gas). MM 1b is seen the lower left. Credit: J. D. Ilee / University of Leeds.

    Dr Ilee said: “Many older massive stars are found with nearby companions. But these ‘binary’ stars are often very equal in mass, and so likely formed together as siblings. Finding a young binary system with a mass ratio of 80:1 is very unusual, and suggests an entirely different formation process for both objects.”

    The team believe stars like MM 1b could form in the outer regions of cold, massive discs. These discs are unable to hold themselves up against the pull of their own gravity, collapsing into one or more fragments.

    The team believe their discovery is one of the first examples of a ‘fragmented’ disc to be detected around a massive young star.

    Only a million years to live

    Dr Duncan Forgan, a co-author from the Centre for Exoplanet Science at the University of St Andrews, added: “I’ve spent most of my career simulating this process to form giant planets around stars like our Sun. To actually see it forming something as large as a star is really exciting.”

    The researchers note that newly discovered young star MM 1b could also be surrounded by its own disc, which may have the potential to form planets of its own – but it will need to be quick.

    Dr Ilee added: “Stars as massive as MM 1a only live for around a million years before exploding as powerful supernovae, so while MM 1b may have the potential to form its own planetary system in the future, it won’t be around for long.”

    The astronomers made this surprising discovery by using a unique new instrument situated high in the Chilean desert – the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA).

    ESO/NRAO/NAOJ ALMA Array in Chile in the Atacama at Chajnantor plateau, at 5,000 metres

    Using the 66 individual dishes of ALMA together in a process called interferometry, the astronomers were able to simulate the power of a single telescope nearly 4km across, allowing them to image the material surrounding the young stars for the first time.

    Funders for this research include the Science and Technologies Facilities Council (UK) and the European Research Council.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Imperial College London

    Imperial College London is a science-based university with an international reputation for excellence in teaching and research. Consistently rated amongst the world’s best universities, Imperial is committed to developing the next generation of researchers, scientists and academics through collaboration across disciplines. Located in the heart of London, Imperial is a multidisciplinary space for education, research, translation and commercialisation, harnessing science and innovation to tackle global challenges.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:34 pm on August 9, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , ICL-Imperial College London, Mini antimatter accelerator could rival the likes of the Large Hadron Collider, , ,   

    From Imperial College London: “Mini antimatter accelerator could rival the likes of the Large Hadron Collider” 

    Imperial College London
    From Imperial College London

    09 August 2018
    Hayley Dunning

    1
    Simulation of groups of positrons being concentrated into a beam and accelerated. No image credit .

    Researchers have found a way to accelerate antimatter in a 1000x smaller space than current accelerators, boosting the science of exotic particles.

    The new method could be used to probe more mysteries of physics, like the properties of the Higgs boson and the nature of dark matter and dark energy, and provide more sensitive testing of aircraft and computer chips.

    The method has been modelled using the properties of existing lasers, with experiments planned soon. If proven, the technology could allow many more labs around the world to conduct antimatter acceleration experiments.

    Particle accelerators in facilities such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in CERN and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at Stanford University in the United States, speed up elementary particles like protons and electrons.

    LHC

    CERN map


    CERN LHC Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    SLAC/LCLS

    These accelerated particles can be smashed together, as in the LHC, to produce particles that are more elementary, like the Higgs boson, which gives all other particles mass.

    They can also be used to generate x-ray laser light, such as in the LCLS, which is used to image extremely fast and small process, like photosynthesis.

    Shrinking accelerators to fit in a lab

    However, to get to these high speeds, the accelerators need to use equipment that is at least two kilometres long. Previously, researchers at Imperial College London had invented a system that could accelerate electrons using equipment only meters long.

    Now a researcher at Imperial has invented a method of accelerating the antimatter version of electrons – called positrons – in a system that would be just centimetres long.

    The accelerator would require a type of laser system that currently covers around 25 square metres, but that is already present in many physics labs.

    Dr Aakash Sahai, from the Department of Physics at Imperial reported his method today in the Physical Review Journal for Accelerators and Beams. He said: “With this new accelerator method, we could drastically reduce the size and the cost of antimatter acceleration. What is now only possible by using large physics facilities at tens of million-dollar costs could soon be possible in ordinary physics labs.”

    “The technologies used in facilities like the Large Hadron Collider or the Linac Coherent Light Source have not undergone significant advances since their invention in the 1950s [not true, HL-LHC and LCLS II are on the way] . They are expensive to run, and it may be that we will soon have all we can get out of them [not true].

    “A new generation of compact, energetic and cheap accelerators of elusive particles would allow us to probe new physics – and allow many more labs worldwide to join the effort.”

    Creating ‘Higgs factories’ and testing aircraft

    While the method is currently undergoing experimental validation, Dr Sahai is confident it will be possible to produce a working prototype within a couple of years, based on the Department’s previous experience creating electron beams using a similar method.

    The method uses lasers and plasma – a gas of charged particles – to produce, concentrate positrons and accelerate them to create a beam. This centimetre-scale accelerator could use existing lasers to accelerate positron beams with tens of millions of particles to the same energy as reached over two kilometres at the Stanford accelerator.

    Colliding electron and positron beams could have implications in fundamental physics. For example, they could create a higher rate of Higgs bosons than the LHC can, allowing physicists to better study its properties. They could also be used to look for new particles thought to exist in a theory called ‘supersymmetry’, which would fill in some gaps in the Standard Model of particle physics.

    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.


    Standard Model of Particle Physics from Symmetry Magazine

    3
    No image caption or credit.

    The positron beams would also have practical applications. Currently, when checking for faults and fracture risks in materials such as aircraft bodies, engine blades and computer chips, x-rays or electron beams are used. Positrons interact in a different way with these materials than x-rays and electrons, providing another dimension to the quality control process.

    Dr Sahai added: “It is particularly gratifying to do this work at Imperial, where our lab’s namesake – Professor Patrick Blackett – won a Nobel Prize for his invention of methods to track exotic particles like antimatter. Professor Abdus Salam, another Imperial academic, also won a Nobel Prize for the validation of his theory of weak force made possible only using a pre-LHC positron-electron collider machine at CERN. It’s wonderful to attempt to carry on this legacy.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Imperial College London

    Imperial College London is a science-based university with an international reputation for excellence in teaching and research. Consistently rated amongst the world’s best universities, Imperial is committed to developing the next generation of researchers, scientists and academics through collaboration across disciplines. Located in the heart of London, Imperial is a multidisciplinary space for education, research, translation and commercialisation, harnessing science and innovation to tackle global challenges.

     
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