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  • richardmitnick 11:36 am on October 11, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , IAC, , Sextans: the smallest cannibal galaxy discovered until now   

    From Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC via Manu Garcia: “Sextans: the smallest cannibal galaxy discovered until now” 


    From Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    IAC

    From Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    Oct. 11, 2018

    A team at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) has discovered a new case of galactic cannibalism in the neighbourhood of the Milky Way, which has caused the merging of two galaxies on the smallest scale so far known.

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    The researchers at the IAC Luis Cicuéndez and Giuseppina Battaglia have found a case of galactic cannibalism on the smallest known scale until now. This is the Sextans galaxy, which has a mass some 100,000 times less than that of the Milky Way but has swallowed an even smaller companion.

    Using data form the Victor M. Blanco Telescope (4m diameter) at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory and the Landon Clay 6 m telescope, also known as Magellan 2, at the Las Campanas Observatory, both in Chile, they observed clear signs that Sextans had absorbed a smaller stellar system.


    NOAO/CTIO Victor M Blanco 4m Telescope which houses the DECam at Cerro Tololo, Chile, housing DECam at an altitude of 7200 feet

    Carnegie 6.5 meter Magellan Baade and Clay Telescopes located at Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high

    When they analyzed the dwarf galaxy they observed that the spatial distribution of the blue, metal-poor stars was round and regular, while that of the red, metal-rich stars was much more elliptical and irregular, with an overdensity of stars on the north-eastern side. “The most reasonable explanation of this phenomenon is that two galaxies merged, and had different metallicities” explains Luis Cicuéndez, a researcher at the IAC and at the University of La Laguna.

    The analysis of the velocities and of indicators of the chemical composition of the stars reveal the presence of a spatial sub-structure in the shape of a ring. This substructure shows a much higher velocity and a different chemical composition than the rest of the stars in the galaxy.

    “This finding appears to show that the hierarchical theory of galaxy formation, in which small galaxies merge to form larger ones, can explain the formation of even the smallest known galaxies, the dwarf galaxies” explains the IAC researcher and co-author of the study Giuseppina Battaglia.

    The details of this new discovery are published in the latest volume of the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS)

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).


    Roque de los Muchachos Observatory is an astronomical observatory located in the municipality of Garafía on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands, at an altitude of 2,396 m (7,861 ft)

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.



    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

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  • richardmitnick 3:19 pm on September 10, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , IAC, , OTHELLO reveals a population of "ghost galaxies" in the Universe.   

    From IAC via Manu Garcia: “OTHELLO reveals a population of “ghost galaxies” in the Universe” 


    From Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    IAC

    From Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    1
    The census OTELO (OSIRIS Tunable Emission Line Object survey)

    Composite image of OTELO field. Field explored covers less than 50 arc minutes square -the that resembles a 13 times smaller area than the full Moon and enrolled in known as Extended Groth Strip, an area of ​​the sky between the constellations Osa Major and Bootes has been deeply observed by other telescopes and instruments in complementary branches of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the description of the image the color red is assigned to the integrated data OTELO using tunable filters of OSIRIS in the GTC, while the blue and green colors correspond to the bands graphic Canada-France-Hawaii, respectively. Credit: OTHELLO.


    CFHT Telescope, Maunakea, Hawaii, USA, at Maunakea, Hawaii, USA,4,207 m (13,802 ft) above sea level

    Thanks to the OSIRIS instrument, installed in the Gran Telescopio Canarias, has been conducting the census deeper galaxies to date (OTELO), the results could affect what we now know about the formation and evolution of galaxies.

    IAC Gran Telescopio Canarias OSIRIS spectrograph

    OTHELLO, which gets its name “OSIRIS Tunable Emission Line Object survey” is the census of galaxies with emission lines deeper than has been done until today. This record, which includes more than 11,000 of these objects, has been performed using the OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated-Intermediate-Spectroscopy) instrument installed in the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The GTC is the largest optical telescope and fully adjustable infrared world, because the collection capacity in light of its primary mirror 10.4 meters in diameter, so it is an excellent window into the depths of the Cosmos.

    “OSIRIS was designed to be able to detect a hypothetical population of galaxies which had hitherto remained hidden. These are objects that can not be seen in other surveys of galaxies, but appearing in images obtained with OSIRIS, through the use of its tunable filters, which make it unique among the instruments for telescopes class 8-10 meters ” explains Jordi Cepa, principal investigator of this census, the first results will be published shortly in the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics.

    OSIRIS tunable filters detect galaxies with emission lines, ie, galaxies possessing ionized gas (such as low consumption lamps that are in our homes). This gas can be ionized by a stellar star formation much larger than the sun, or by violent processes around supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies mass. Some of these galaxies, however, do not emit enough light to be detected with conventional filters, so have remained hidden until now. Without a complete census, you can not understand how they evolve the properties of galaxies, in the same way it would not be possible to study the evolution of humans being restricted only to persons over 50 years.

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    The Great Canary Telescope. Credit: IAC.

    Built in collaboration with IAC in Mexico, OSIRIS observed the sky in the optical range of the spectrum, ie, with the light of heaven that is capable of perceiving the human eye, but extended to the ultraviolet and infrared ends. From the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Garafía, La Palma), this instrument has been responsible for the discovery of this galactic population, whose analysis could change our current knowledge about the formation and evolution of galaxies.

    The OTELO project involves researchers from various institutions in Spain (Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia-CSIC, IFCA-University of Cantabria, Center for Astrobiology (INTA-CSIC), ISDEFE and Universidad Complutense de Madrid) and other countries (Mexico, ESO-Chile, Denmark, Canada and Australia).

    It has been funded by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) through projects AYA2013-46724-P, AYA2014-58861-C3-1-P, AYA2014-58861-C3-2-P, AYA2014-58861-C3-3- P, AYA2016-75808-R, AYA2016-75931-C2-2-P, AYA2017-88007-C3-1-P and AYA2017-88007-C3-2-P.

    Article: The OTELO survey: I. Presentation, multiwavelength data reduction and catalog, The OTELO survey: II. The impact of Tunable narrow band Filters in surveys,

    Contact the IAC: Jordi Cepa ( jcn@iac.es )

    Science article
    OTELO reveals a population of “ghost galaxies” in the Universe
    Sep. 10, 2018

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).


    Roque de los Muchachos Observatory is an astronomical observatory located in the municipality of Garafía on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands, at an altitude of 2,396 m (7,861 ft)

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.



    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 12:28 pm on June 7, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , IAC, , Researchers discover a system with three Earth-sized planets   

    From Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC : “Researchers discover a system with three Earth-sized planets” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    IAC

    From Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    Jun. 6, 2018
    Contact at the IAC:
    Jonay González Hernández
    jonay@iac.es

    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the University of Oviedo present today the discovery of two new planetary systems, one of them hosting three planets with the same size of the Earth.

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    The information about these new exoplanets has been obtained from the data collected by the K2 mission of NASA’s Kepler satellite, which started in November 2013.

    NASA/Kepler Telescope

    The work, which will be published in the Monthly Notices of the magazine Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS), reveals the existence of two new planetary systems detected from the eclipses they produce in the stellar light of their respective stars. In the research team led jointly by Javier de Cos at the University of Oviedo, and Rafael Rebolo at the IAC, participate, along with researchers from these two centres, others from the University of Geneva and the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC).

    The first exoplanetary system is located in the star K2-239, characterized by these researchers as a red dwarf type M3V from observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Garafía, La Palma). It is located in the constellation of the Sextant at 50 parsecs from the Sun (at about 160 light years). It has a compact system of at least three rocky planets of similar size to the Earth (1.1, 1.0 and 1.1 Earth radii) that orbit the star every 5.2, 7.8 and 10.1 days, respectively.

    The other red dwarf star called K2-240 has two super-Earth-like planets about twice the size of our planet. Although the atmospheric temperature of red dwarf stars, around which these planets revolve, is 3,450 and 3,800 K respectively, almost half the temperature of our Sun. These researchers estimate that all planets discovered will have temperatures superficial tens of degrees higher than those of the planet Earth due to the strong radiation they receive in these close orbits to their stars.

    Future observation campaigns with the new James Webb space telescope will characterize the composition of the atmospheres of the discovered planets. Spectroscopic observations with the ESPRESSO instrument, installed in the Very Large Telescope (VLT), of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), or with future spectrographs in the GTC or in new astronomical facilities, such as the ELT or the TMT, will be crucial to determine the masses, densities and physical properties of these planets.

    NASA/ESA/CSA Webb Telescope annotated

    Espresso Layout


    ESO/ESPRESSO on the VLT


    ESO VLT Interferometer, at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    ESO/E-ELT,to be on top of Cerro Armazones in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, at an altitude 3,046 m (9,993 ft)

    TMT-Thirty Meter Telescope, proposed and now approved for Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA4,207 m (13,802 ft) above sea level

    Astro-ph: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1806.01181.pdf

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    Roque de los Muchachos Observatory is an astronomical observatory located in the municipality of Garafía on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands, at an altitude of 2,396 m (7,861 ft)

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 3:04 pm on March 3, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Active galaxy TXS 0506 + 056, , , , , IAC, ,   

    From IAC: Discovered the origin of the neutrino detected in the “Ice Cube” at the South Pole.” 

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    1
    Region of sky that is the emitting source of the neutrino.

    They use the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) to calculate the distance to the object that emitted the extremely energetic neutrino detected last September thanks to experiment “IceCube”, installed in Antarctica is.

    One type of galaxies are called active (AGN) of which, besides the starlight that compose, receive radiation at all frequencies of the spectrum (from radio to gamma rays, passing of course, by light emitted by stars that compose them). Physical processes taking place in the nucleus of these galaxies are so extreme that produce many other highly energetic particles, such as neutrino. These are the most abundant subatomic particles in the universe that are everywhere, but they are very slippery. Although they are constantly bombarding the Earth, moving as fast as light, we can not see or feel them. They are “ghost” particles that rarely interact with matter and yet are fundamental to understand the laws of nature. Detect neutrinos requires, therefore, special instruments, such as the experimentIceCube , installed at the South Pole, which uses a huge ice cube with a size of 1 km long, 1 km wide and 1 km deep, as a sensor to locate these particles.

    On September 22, 2017, researchers from this particular observatory announced the detection of an extremely energetic neutrino coming from an area outside the Milky Way. The news spread rapidly causing a race to identify the source responsible for this issue, which by the high – energy neutrino detected had to be an active galaxy capable of emitting gamma rays. The satellite FERMI and MAGIC telescope, installed at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (Garafía, La Palma), were the first to be activated to look for sources of such radiation within the region expected sky.


    NASA/Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope

    MAGIC Cherenkov gamma ray telescope on the Canary island of La Palma, Spain

    They found that the active galaxy TXS 0506 + 056 was responsible for this issue and for the first time, it was possible to associate the emission of extragalactic neutrinos to a known source. However, the distance that he was was unknown, so it still could not deduct the brightness of the source, nor the physical processes responsible for the emission of neutrinos.

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    U Wisconsin IceCube at the South Pole
    Structure that houses the IceCube experiment. Superimposed, in the ice,
    a representation of how the developer detecting neutrinos.

    To measure, were spectroscopic observations needed with “conventional” telescopes, but all attempts failed because the signal was too weak. So a team of researchers led by astrophysicist Simona Paiano, the Observatory of Padova INAF (Instituto Nazionale di Astrofisica ) and Riccardo Scarpa, an astronomer at the GTC, decided to observe this source with the largest optical-infrared telescope in the world, ie the Gran Telescopio Canarias in La Palma. the results were recently published in the journal The Astrophysical journal.

    “Thanks to the enormous light collecting area of ​​the GTC, and after spending several hours of observation, could detect the typical features of the emission of gas in the galaxy, and thus determine its distance,” explains Paiano. In this way, they managed to place this active at a distance of 6000 million light years from Earth galaxy. “We saw the weak emission of gas where others saw nothing, a result that would not have been possible without the power of the GTC and experience of its staff,” adds Scarpa.

    “Credible association of a source as an emitter of neutrinos extremely high energy, located thousands of millions of light years away, opens a new window in astronomy to study the universe of the highest energies and, most importantly, use a messenger than light, “says Simona Paiano.

    Article: Paiano, S. et al. The redshift BL Lac object of the TXS 0506 + 056, The Astrophysical Journal Letters. http://lanl.arxiv.org/pdf/1802.01939v1

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    Roque de los Muchachos Observatory is an astronomical observatory located in the municipality of Garafía on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands, at an altitude of 2,396 m (7,861 ft)

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 12:39 pm on January 9, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Galaxies that feed galaxies, , IAC, Stellar haloes   

    From IAC: ” Galaxies that feed galaxies” 

    IAC

    1.9.18
    Giuseppina Battaglia
    gbattaglia@iac.es

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

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    Pan-STARRS1 map. Location of our overlapping objectives in an RGB representation of the distribution of stars in the halo of the Milky Way. Credit: Giuseppina Battaglia

    Pann-STARS telescope, U Hawaii, Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA, 4,207 m (13,802 ft) above sea level

    Most of the information we have about the Milky Way stellar halo comes from its inner region, which we can observe close to the solar neighbourhood. However, for the first time the chemical properties of the external regions of the halo of our galaxy were explored with high resolution spectroscopy in the optical of a sample of 28 red giant stars at large distances from the Sun. The method that was used, i.e. a spectroscopic analysis, consists in separating the light of the stars in its different frequencies in order to obtain information on the star’s chemical composition. The analysis of the chemical properties of the stars can provide information on the characteristics of the environment in which they were born.

    “The abundance of some chemical elements in the stars in the external regions of the Milky Way halo – explains Giuseppina Battaglia, astrophysicist at the IAC and first author of the article – was found to be surprisingly different from the information we had concerning the inner regions of the halo”. On the other hand, several similarities were discovered with the chemical composition observed for stars in nearby massive dwarf galaxies, such as Sagittarius and the Large Magellanic Cloud. These signatures tells us that the external regions of the stellar halo might contain the remains of one, or more, massive dwarf galaxy, devoured by the Milky Way.

    Stellar haloes are a common component of galaxies like the Milky Way. “The theory explaining the formation of structure and galaxies in the Universe predicts that stellar haloes, and in particular their outer regions, consist mainly of the stellar component of destroyed, smaller galaxies.” G.Battaglia comments “Qualitatively this is in agreement with the observational findings of this study, where we found remnants of cannibalized dwarf galaxies around the Milky Way.”

    For this study data from about 100 hours of telescope observing time were used, obtained on facilities in both the Northern and Southern hemisphere. Specifically, the team used the Very Large Telescope “Kueyen” (UT2) of the European Southern Observatory in Paranal and the Magellan telescope Clay in Las Campanas, both in Chile, as well as the Hobby Eberly Telescope, in Texas.

    ESO/VLT at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    Carnegie 6.5 meter Magellan Baade and Clay Telescopes located at Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high

    U Texas Austin McDonald Observatory Hobby-Eberly Telescope, Altitude 2,026 m (6,647 ft)

    Science article:
    What is the Milky Way outer halo made of? High resolution spectroscopy of distant red giants. Astronomy & Astrophysics

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 11:44 am on December 7, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Blazar CTA 102, , Emission from the centre of a galaxy has a serpentine shape, IAC,   

    From Manu at IAC: “Emission from the centre of a galaxy has a serpentine shape” 


    Manu Garcia, a friend from IAC.

    The universe around us.
    Astronomy, everything you wanted to know about our local universe and never dared to ask.

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    Dec. 4, 2017
    Contact in IAC:
    José Antonio Acosta Pulido jap@iac.es

    An international group of scientists led by members of the National Instituto of Astrophysics (Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino (INAF-OATo) with participation by researchers from the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) has discovered a peculiar spiral jet with many twists. The results of these observations are published today in Nature.

    1
    No image caption or credit.

    3
    No image caption or credit.

    4
    No image caption or credit.

    A blazar is an astronomical object within an elliptical galaxy, at whose centre there is a supermassive black hole which emits jets of radiation and particles with huge energies. When these are directed towards the Earth we can detect them. They are among the most energetic phenomena in the universo.

    In the second half of last year the blazar CTA 102, which is 7,600 million light years from Earth, brightened considerably, drawing the attention of all the astronomers who specialise in this kind of objects. The peak emission was detected on December 28th when it was 3,500 times greater than the brightness minima observed in previous years. This event was so exceptional that for a few days this object was the brightest blazar observed until now.

    To follow this event the researchers of the Astrophysical Observatory of Turin (OATo) coordinated an intense multifrecuency observational campaign in the framework of of the international collaboration Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT). More than 40 telescopes in the northern hemisphere took thousands of observations in the visible, radio, and near infrared ranges, which enabled the production of detailed light curves. Among the telescopoes used in the collaboration were the Carlos Sánchez Telescope and the IAC-80 and STELLA telescopes, all of them at the Teide Observatory (Izaña, Tenerife).

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    IAC Observatorio del Teide, on Mount Teide at 2,390 metres (7,840 ft), located on Tenerife, Spain. It is operated by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias

    “This large quantity of data has enabled us to verify the hypothesis that the variability of this object is due to changes in the relativistic Doppler factor” explains José Antonio Acosta Pulido, a researcher at the IAC and one of the authors of the article, which is published today in Nature magazine.

    The researchers’ interpretation is that the jet is “serpentine and inhomogeneous” because it emits radiation over a range of frequencies and from different zones, which change their orientation due to the instabilities in the jet, or to orbital motions.

    Within this interpretation Acosta explains that “The incredible rise inthe luminosity was due to the increased alignment (this occurred nearly 8 thousand million years ago) of the emitting zone of the jet with our line of sight to the object” Thanks to these observatinos the model used in this research is supported both theoretically and observationally.

    “Three dimensional numerical simulations, taking into account the magnetohydrodynamic properties and the relativistic velocities, predict the appearance and the propagation of instabilities in the jet, which then distort it “ explains Acosta. He adds that “ In addition the images obtained by radio-interferometry show,on scales of one parsec (some three light years) that the jet appears to be helical, and contains many vórtices. The picture which emerges is one of a twisting jet whose emission is amplified at different wavelengths at different times, by the “lighthouse effect”. The orientation in December 2016 was especially favourable for the extraordinary amplification observed.

    The Observatories of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) are part of the network of Singular Scientific and Technical Infrastructures (ICTS) of Spain.

    Other researchers:

    Carlos Lázaro
    Francesca Pinna
    Cristina Protasio
    F.J. Redondo-Lorenzo
    Gustavo Rodríguez Coira
    Noel Castro Segura
    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 12:52 pm on June 8, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , DAVID SOBRAL, IAC   

    From IAC: DAVID SOBRAL interview 

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    Jun. 8, 2017
    DAVID SOBRAL: “There is so much to be discovered about the universe that astronomy is certainly an area worth pursuing”

    1
    Astronomer Dr David Sobral is on a quest to trace the origins of the Universe and understand how galaxies like our own formed and evolved from the end of the cosmic dark ages to galaxies we see today, much like our own Milky Way. He credits a boyhood passion for stargazing in the dark skies of Alentejo (Portugal), coupled with early help from the European Union Contest for Young Scientists (EUCYS) and Lisbon’s Astronomical Observatory. Since 2016, David Sobral is part of the new Observational Astrophysics group at Lancaster University (United Kingdom). This young astronomer has obtained very high impact results, including measuring, with a single technique, the decline of the star formation history of the Universe, and e.g. the discovery of the CR7 galaxy, the brightest of the early Universe and with hints of light sources similar to first generation stars or black holes. David Sobral recently visited the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) within the Severo Ochoa Program of Visiting Researchers, which seeks to deepen scientific collaborations among leading research institutions.

    By Viktor Rivera and Elena Mora (IAC)

    “Looking in a different direction is always worth it, even if you think you won’t find anything. That’s when we discover the unknown unknowns”

    “Apart from being an exciting way to figure out what Science is all about, astronomy really teaches us to be humble”

    “Astronomy will provide future generations with valuable tools that can be applied in virtually all areas of society and that will help making the world a better place”.

    Question: What projects are you currently working here at the IAC?

    Answer: Currently I’m collaborating with the “Estallidos” group. We have a lot of questions in common and we all want to understand how different kinds of galaxies form, evolve and how they work, from the early/young Universe until now. In order to do that we need to identify galaxies at a variety of cosmic times, so we can then study them in detail and try to understand how they evolve. In practice, we use some of the largest telescopes in the world, to time travel to the early universe and witness how those galaxies looked like and what physical processes were happening at different times. I’m confident that together with the “Estallidos” group we will be able to join forces and make a few more contributions towards our understanding with telescopes in La Palma.

    Q: What impression did the IAC give you after your visit?

    A: I think it is quite impressive. I visited the IAC for the first time in 2012 and was already impressed, specifically because in Portugal, where I am from, the astronomy community is completely different. We don’t have and we never had our own large telescopes. There is no institute like this that competes with the best international ones. It is really exciting to have people working on all different areas as well, including on the instrumentation for the telescopes here in the Canary Islands.

    Q: You led the team that discovered the “CR7” galaxy, the brightest galaxy of the early universe with hints of the first generations of stars. What made this discovery so special to the point of being among the top ten of discoveries of ESO?

    A: This was quite an exciting discovery which is part of the research I’ve been pushing for and leading over the last three to four years with my outstanding students. It essentially began when we started looking at very early galaxies in the very distant universe. Instead of using the Hubble Space telescope (HST) and looking at a very tiny area in the sky, we wanted to do it differently and explore a new parameter space.

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    We were aiming to look for bright rare galaxies in the early universe so it was clear we needed to cover very large areas, and would not be able to go as deep as observations in tiny areas. This was of course very challenging and led to quite a lot of dead ends along the way, but we kept improving our methods, persevered, and in the end showed that it really pays off.

    We have now found quite a few very bright galaxies in the early Universe, which we are studying in detail, and showed that they are about 30 times more common than previously thought. The brightest one we have found so far in a specific hydrogen line is the galaxy we have called COSMOS Redshift 7 or “CR7”. “C” is because it was discovered in the field that is called “COSMOS”. “R” is for its redshift of 7, which basically give us the distance to the object. That is why we called it “CR7”. We thought we should give it a name instead of been just the coordinates that people will never remember. At the same time, we also understood that it could be quite nice for outreach purposes and to reach a much wider public, due the potential association with the football player Cristiano Ronaldo. In addition, the brightest in the ultra-violet of these galaxies was also the fifth to be discovered, and we named it “VR7”, in honour of Vera Rubin, astronomer who found outstanding evidence for dark matter.

    Q: Instead of conducting a deep study of a small area you broadened the scope to produce the widest survey of very distant galaxies ever attempted. Why did you chose to do that?

    A: I guess that the fundamental reason has to do with the way I like to do research. If everyone else is doing something, I see no point in also doing it, unless we come up with a new twist or a new approach. What we usually do is to take different paths, try new methods, new approaches, and also take risks when we can. Looking in a different direction is always worth it, even if you think you won’t find anything. That’s when we discover the unknown unknowns. Of course, this approach makes things much harder, and many searches fail.

    Q: But that time was successful.

    A: Yes, after a lot of attempts and a lot of hard work, we were able to show that large area surveys can be very successful. That really encouraged us to continue and expand our surveys.

    Q: Would you encourage future generations to study astronomy? Which message would you give them?

    A: Definitely! Astronomy is a really exciting way to figure out what Science is all about and, as a bonus, it really teaches us to be humble. Astronomy shows us how meaningless we are in the face of the vast Universe; yet, together, as a community, we can make outstanding discoveries of sources billions of light-years away. And while it’s true that we’ve discovered so much about the Universe, most of it is still completely unknown. There is actually so much to be discovered that it is certainly an area worth pursuing. It will also provide future generations with valuable tools that can be applied in virtually all areas of society and that will help making the world a better place.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teaching and outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.


    Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 10:46 am on May 18, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , IAC,   

    From IAC Lee: ” The Chandra Observatory of NASA found new evidence about the origin of supernovas. The supernova remnant of Tycho” 

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    5.18.17
    Manu Garcia‎

    1
    The supernova remnant of Tycho. Credit: NASA / Cxc / Chinese Academy of sciences / f. Lu et al.

    NASA/Chandra Telescope

    This image is an image of the supernova remnant of Tycho, Tycho for short, contains new evidence of what was the mechanism that originated the supernova explosion in the skies of earth 1.572 CE. Tycho originated by a supernova explosion type 1a supernovae, these are used to measure the cosmic distance and the expansion of the universe due to his tremendous starshine.

    X-Rays of medium and low energy is represented in red showing us the remains of the debris from the supernova explosion, x-Rays of high-Energy Blue represented reveal the shockwave of the blast, a shell of high-energy electrons. Also shown in bottom left region of tycho a blue bow of x-Ray emission. Several lines of evidence supporting the conclusion that this bow is due to a shock wave created when a white dwarf exploded and blew the surface material from a companion star nearby. Previously, the studies with optical telescopes have revealed a star within the remnant that is moving much more quickly than their neighbours, indicating that it could be the companion of the white dwarf that erupted giving the supernova explosion a cosmic kick to this star who made That displace so abruptly.

    Other details of the arch support the idea of who was cast out away from the companion star. For example, the emission of x-Ray shows a remnant of the “Shadow” apparent next to the arch, consistent with the blocking of the remains of the explosion by the cone of expansion of the material he was robbed of his partner. This shadow is more obvious in x-Ray very high energy showing traces of iron.

    This evidence supported a popular scenario to be triggered a type ia supernova, where a white dwarf extracted material from a companion star “normal”, or similar to the sun, until it produces a thermonuclear explosion. In the other main competitive theory, happens a fusion of two white dwarfs, and in this case, no star partner or evidence of material ripped from a partner must exist. Both scenarios can happen really under different conditions, but the final result of Chandra of tycho supports the previous one.

    The shape of a bow is different from any other feature seen in the remnant. Other features inside the remnant include the stripes announced recently that have a different way and you think to be features in the wave of external explosion caused by the acceleration of the cosmic ray.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

     
  • richardmitnick 6:26 pm on March 6, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , IAC, Jellyfish by Cesar Blanco   

    From IAC: “Jellyfish by Cesar Blanco” 

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    1

    In the picture above, we have an excellent work of Cesar Blanco Gonzalez, from deep sky show IC 443, which is a supernova remnant located in the constellation of Gemini. Is believed to have originated from a supernova that exploded in a period of between 3.000 and 30.000 years ago, and that the core of the star parent responsible for this event has formed the neutron star cxou j061705. 3 + 222.127. it is a subject very studied, due to their interaction with other molecular clouds. IC 443 has an angular diameter of 50 Arc minutes, at a distance of 5.000 Light-years is equivalent to a real size of about 70 Light-years away. The Nebula, in both the visible as in radio waves, is shaped like a shell, which consists of two halves with different radio, and in the center, a third layer nebula, originally attributed to IC 443, is now recognised as the Supernova Remnant oldest called G189. 6 + 3.3. through observations with the observatory chandra x-Ray and the xmm-Newton, he has identified a pulsar near the southern bypass.

    IC 443 is located in the direction of the galactic plane. Many objects are found in this area of the sky, as the region hii s249, and several young stars. The Nebula thrives in an environment rich and complex, with strong influence over its morphology; comments in long wavelengths conducted in this area of sky shows the presence of mysterious gradients and different shapes of the clouds. We know that massive stars have a relatively short life (about 30 million years ago) and end their lives when they are still within the cloud parent; the most massive stars (Stars of the class or) illuminate the environment with his mighty wind Stellar.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teachingand outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.

    Gran Telescopio  Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, Spain
    Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
  • richardmitnick 11:55 am on March 2, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , IAC, Primordial black holes,   

    From IAC: “A new look at the nature of dark matter” 

    IAC

    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias – IAC

    Mar. 2, 2017
    Evencio Mediavilla (IAC)
    emg@iac.es
    +34 922 605 318

    A new study suggests that the gravitational waves detected by the LIGO experiment must have come from black holes generated during the collapse of stars, and not in the earliest phases of the Universe.

    The nature of the dark matter which apparently makes up 80% of the mass of the particles in the universe is still one of the great unsolved mysteries of present day sciences. The lack of experimental evidence, which could allow us to identify it with one or other of the new elementary particles predicted by the theorists, as well as the recent discovery of gravitational waves coming from the merging of two black holes (with masses some 30 times that of the Sun) by LIGO the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory) have revived interest in the possibility that dark matter might take the form of primordial black holes with masses between 10 and 1000 times that of the Sun.

    LIGO bloc new
    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo Hanford, WA, USA installation
    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo Hanford, WA, USA installation
    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo detector installation Livingston, LA, USA
    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo detector installation Livingston, LA, USA

    Cornell SXS, the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) project
    Cornell SXS, the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) project

    Primordial black holes, which would have originated in high density fluctuations of matter during the first moments of the Universe, are in principle very interesting. As opposed to those which form from stars, whose abundance and masses are limited by models of stellar formation and evolution, primordial black holes could exist with a wide range of masses and abundances. They would be found in the halos of galaxies, and the occasional meeting between two of them having masses 30 times that of the Sun, followed by a subsequent merger, might have given rise to the gravitational waves detected by LIGO.

    “Microlensing effect”

    1

    If there were an appreciable number of black holes in the halos of galaxies, some of them intercept the light coming towards us from a distant quasar. Because of their strong gravitational fields, their gravity could concentrate the rays of light, and cause an increase in the apparent brightness of the quasar. This effect, known as “gravitational microlensing” is bigger the bigger the mass of the black hole, and the probability of detecting it would be bigger the more the presence of these black holes. So although the black holes themselves cannot be directly detected, they would be detected by increases in the brightness of observed quasars.

    On this assumption, a group of scientists has used the microlensing effect on quasars to estimate the numbers of primordial black holes of intermediate mass in galaxies. The study, led by the researcher at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the University of La Laguna (ULL), Evencio Mediavilla Gradolph, shows that normal stars like the Sun cause the microlensing effects, thus ruling out the existence of a large population of primordial black holes with intermediate mass.

    Computer simulations

    Using computer simulations, they have compared the rise in brightness, in visible light and in X-rays, of 24 distant quasars with the values predicted by the microlensing effect. They have found that the strength of the effect is relatively low, as would be expected from objects with a mass between 0.05 and 0.45 times that of the Sun, and well below that of intermediate mass black holes. In addition they have estimated that these microlenses form roughly 20% of the total mass of a galaxy, equivalent to the mass expected to be found in stars. So their results show that, with high probability, it is normal stars and not primordial intermediate mass black holes which are responsible for the observed microlensing.

    “This study implies “says Evencio Mediavilla, “that it is not at all probable that black holes with masses between 10 and 100 times the mass of the Sun make up a significant fraction of the dark matter”. For that reason the black holes whose merging was detected by LIGO were probably formed by the collapse of stars, and were not primordial black holes”.

    Astronomers participating in this research include Jorge Jiménez-Vicente and José Calderón-Infante (University of Granada) and José A. Muñoz Lozano, and Héctor Vives-Arias, (University of Valencia).

    Article: Limits on the Mass and Abundance of Primordial Black Holes from Quasar Gravitational Microlensing, by E. Mediavilla et al. Published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Reference: E. Mediavilla et al 2017 ApJL 836 L18.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    The Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC) is an international research centre in Spain which comprises:

    The Instituto de Astrofísica, the headquarters, which is in La Laguna (Tenerife).
    The Centro de Astrofísica en La Palma (CALP)
    The Observatorio del Teide (OT), in Izaña (Tenerife).
    The Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM), in Garafía (La Palma).

    These centres, with all the facilities they bring together, make up the European Northern Observatory(ENO).

    The IAC is constituted administratively as a Public Consortium, created by statute in 1982, with involvement from the Spanish Government, the Government of the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna and Spain’s Science Research Council (CSIC).

    The International Scientific Committee (CCI) manages participation in the observatories by institutions from other countries. A Time Allocation Committee (CAT) allocates the observing time reserved for Spain at the telescopes in the IAC’s observatories.

    The exceptional quality of the sky over the Canaries for astronomical observations is protected by law. The IAC’s Sky Quality Protection Office (OTPC) regulates the application of the law and its Sky Quality Group continuously monitors the parameters that define observing quality at the IAC Observatories.

    The IAC’s research programme includes astrophysical research and technological development projects.

    The IAC is also involved in researcher training, university teachingand outreachactivities.

    The IAC has devoted much energy to developing technology for the design and construction of a large 10.4 metre diameter telescope, the ( Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC), which is sited at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.

    Gran Telescopio  Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries, SpainGran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC
    Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, GTC

     
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