From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Discovery of a new type of particle beam instability”

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From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

November 14, 2019
Alexey Burov

Accelerated, charged particle beams do what light does for microscopes: illuminate matter. The more intense the beams, the more easily scientists can examine the object they are looking at. But intensity comes with a cost: the more intense the beams, the more they become prone to instabilities.

One type of instability occurs when the average energy of accelerated particles traveling through a circular machine reaches its transition value. The transition point occurs when the particles revolve around the ring at the same rate, even though they do not all carry the same energy — in fact, they exhibit a range of energies. The specific motion of the particles near the transition energy makes them extremely prone to collective instabilities.

These particular instabilities were observed for decades, but they were not sufficiently understood. In fact, they were misinterpreted. In a paper published this year, I suggest a new theory about these instabilities. The application of this theory to the Fermilab Booster accelerator predicted the main features of the instability there at the transition crossing, suggesting better ways to suppress the instability. Recent measurements confirmed the predictions, and more detailed experimental beam studies are planned in the near future.

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Recent measurements at the Fermilab Booster accelerator confirmed existence of a certain kind of particle beam instability. More measurements are planned for the near future to examine new methods proposed to mitigate it.

Accelerating high-intensity beams is a crucial part of the Fermilab scientific program. A solid theoretical understanding of particle beam behavior equips experimentalists to better manipulate the accelerator parameters to suppress instability. This leads to the high-intensity beams needed for Fermilab’s experiments in fundamental physics. It is also useful for any experiment or institution operating circular accelerators.

Beam protons talk to each other by electromagnetic fields, which are of two kinds. One is called the Coulomb field. These fields are local and, by themselves, cannot drive instabilities. The second kind is the wake field. Wake fields are radiated by the particles and trail behind them, sometimes far behind.

When a particle strays from the beam path, the wake field translates this departure backward — in the wake left by the particle. Even a small departure from the path may not escape being carried backward by these electromagnetic fields. If the beams are intense enough, their wakes can destabilize them.

In the new theory, I suggested a compact mathematical model that effectively takes both sorts of fields into account, realizing that both of them are important when they are strong enough, as they typically are near transition energy.

This kind of huge amplification happens at CERN’s Proton Synchrotron, for example, as I showed in my more recent paper, submitted to Physical Review Accelerators and Beams. If not suppressed one way or another, this amplification may grow until the beam touches the vacuum chamber wall and becomes lost. Recent measurements at the Fermilab Booster confirmed existence of a similar instability there; more measurements are planned for the near future to examine new methods proposed to mitigate it.

These phenomena are called transverse convective instabilities, and the discoveries of how they arise open new doors to theoretical, numerical and experimental ways to better understanding and better dealing with the intense proton beams.

This work is supported by the DOE Office of Science.

Science paper:
Convective instabilities of bunched beams with space charge
Physical Review Accelerators and Beams

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Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
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From CERN: “LHCf gears up to probe birth of cosmic-ray showers”

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From CERN

11 November, 2019
Ana Lopes


CERN LHCf

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One of the LHCf experiment’s two detectors, LHCf Arm2, seen here during installation into a particle absorber that surrounds the LHC’s beam pipe. (Image: Lorenzo Bonechi)

Cosmic rays are particles from outer space, typically protons, travelling at almost the speed of light. When the most energetic of these particles strike the atmosphere of our planet, they interact with atomic nuclei in the atmosphere and produce cascades of secondary particles that shower down to the Earth’s surface. These extensive air showers, as they are known, are similar to the cascades of particles that are created in collisions inside particle colliders such as CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In the next LHC, run starting in 2021, the smallest of the LHC experiments – the LHCf experiment – is set to probe the first interaction that triggers these cosmic showers.

Observations of extensive air showers are generally interpreted using computer simulations that involve a model of how cosmic rays interact with atomic nuclei in the atmosphere. But different models exist and it’s unclear which one is the most appropriate. The LHCf experiment is in an ideal position to test these models and help shed light on cosmic-ray interactions.

In contrast to the main LHC experiments, which measure particles emitted at large angles from the collision line, the LHCf experiment measures particles that fly out in the “forward” direction, that is, at small angles from the collision line. These particles, which carry a large portion of the collision energy, can be used to probe the small angles and high energies at which the predictions from the different models don’t match.

Using data from proton–proton LHC collisions at an energy of 13 TeV, LHCf has recently measured how the number of forward photons and neutrons varies with particle energy at previously unexplored high energies. These measurements agree better with some models than others, and they are being factored in by modellers of extensive air showers.

In the next LHC run, LHCf should extend the range of particle energies probed, due to the planned higher collision energy. In addition, and thanks to ongoing upgrade work, the experiment should also increase the number and type of particles that are detected and studied.

What’s more, the experiment plans to measure forward particles emitted from collisions of protons with light ions, most likely oxygen ions. The first interactions that trigger extensive air showers in the atmosphere involve mainly light atomic nuclei such as oxygen and nitrogen. LHCf could therefore probe such an interaction in the next run, casting new light on cosmic-ray interaction models at high energies.

Find out more in the Experimental Physics newsletter article.

See the full article here.


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From CERN: “CERN Council appoints Fabiola Gianotti for second term of office as CERN Director General”

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From CERN

6 November, 2019

At its 195th Session today, the CERN Council selected Fabiola Gianotti, as the Organization’s next Director-General, for her second term of office.

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President of the CERN Council, Ursula Bassler and Director-General of CERN, Fabiola Gianotti (Image: CERN)

At its 195th Session today, the CERN Council selected Fabiola Gianotti, as the Organization’s next Director-General, for her second term of office. The appointment will be formalised at the December Session of the Council, and Gianotti’s new five-year term of office will begin on 1 January 2021. This is the first time in CERN’s history that a Director-General has been appointed for a full second term.

“I congratulate Fabiola Gianotti very warmly for her reappointment as Director-General for another five-year term of office. With her at the helm, CERN will continue to benefit from her strong leadership and experience, especially for important upcoming projects such as the High-Luminosity LHC, implementation of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, and the construction of the Science Gateway,” said President of the CERN Council, Ursula Bassler. “During her first term, she excelled in leading our diverse and international scientific organisation, becoming a role model, especially for women in science”.

“I am deeply grateful to the CERN Council for their renewed trust. It is a great privilege and a huge responsibility,” said CERN Director-General, Fabiola Gianotti. “The following years will be crucial for laying the foundations of CERN’s future projects and I am honoured to have the opportunity to work with the CERN Member States, Associate Member States, other international partners and the worldwide particle physics community.”

Gianotti has been CERN’s Director-General since 1 January 2016. She received her Ph.D. in experimental particle physics from the University of Milano in 1989 and has been a research physicist at CERN since 1994. She was the leader of the ATLAS experiment’s collaboration from March 2009 to February 2013, including the period in which the LHC experiments ATLAS and CMS announced the discovery of the Higgs boson. The discovery was recognised in 2013 with the Nobel Prize in Physics being awarded to theorists François Englert and Peter Higgs. Gianotti is a member of many international committees, and has received numerous prestigious awards. She was the first woman to become the Director-General of CERN.

See the full article here.


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Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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Meet CERN in a variety of places:

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Cern Courier

THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

ATLAS

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ALICE

CERN/ALICE Detector


CMS
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LHCb
CERN LHCb New II

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From Symmetry: “Put it to the test beam”

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From Symmetry<

11/05/19
Lauren Biron

Before a detector component can head to its forever home, it has to pass the test.

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Photo by Reidar Hahn, Fermilab

If building a modern particle physics experiment is a marathon, then visiting a test beam facility is the 100-meter dash. Over the course of just a few weeks, small teams work non-stop to gather as much data as they can about a piece of equipment they are thinking of installing in an experiment.

“It is stressful, but I think it’s super fun,” says Jessica Metcalfe, a researcher at Argonne working on upgrades for the innermost part of the ATLAS detector, one of the two major detectors at CERN that co-discovered the Higgs boson.

CERN ATLAS Credit CERN SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

“You’re all there squeezed together in the tiny control room, problem solving, all very focused on a very specific goal, and you learn a lot—really fast.”

Test beams generally sit to the side of full-on accelerators, sipping beam and passing it to the reconfigurable spaces housing temporary experiments. Scientists bring pieces of their detectors—sensors, chips, electronics or other material—and blast them with the well understood beam to see if things work how they expect, and if their software performs as expected. If things check out, they’re one step closer to being installed in a detector, and if not, it’s a chance to do some R&D, tinker and make things work.

“We’re typically testing pieces that are going into a larger experiment, but you’re also doing research on the detector technology, which is a form of research in itself,” Metcalfe says. “We’re not just getting ready to build something, we’re also learning a lot about the devices. There’s often many iterations of design and redevelopment.”

Test beam visits are typically short, and getting time can be competitive because there are only a handful of places around the world that have high-energy particle beams available for testing. When it comes to hadrons—particles made of quarks—there are really just two: the Department of Energy’s Fermilab in the United States and CERN in Europe.

Other test beams specialize in different particles, for example, electrons (at Germany’s DESY or California’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory) and photons (like at the Research Center for Electron Photon Science in Japan).

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“It’s part of the lifecycle of any detector you build,” says Mandy Rominsky, who manages the Fermilab Test Beam Facility. “You start on a bench with an idea, and before you put something into a running experiment, you always put it in a test beam. You need to be able to characterize it, change it and go back and forth—and you can’t do that on a bench.”

Groups come with components of all shapes and sizes to the test beam. At the Fermilab test beam alone, researchers have tested teeny, tiny pieces of scintillator (the material that captures particles of light) and detector panels taller than people. Researchers come from many scientific fields, including nuclear physics, neutrino physics, collider physics, dark matter physics and astronomy. There are people working on general research and development without a specific experiment in mind, and ultra-specific tasks, like the crew working on turning smartphones into cosmic ray detectors. Still others are interested in learning how the materials they plan to put in a detector will change over time, especially in the harsh environment surrounding particle collisions.

Test-beam facilities try to keep useful experimental infrastructure on hand for visiting researchers: There are movable tables to pull equipment in and out, cooling systems and electronics, cables, different kinds of gas, cranes, and, of course, the beam itself, which often comes in many flavors of particles and energies. But some experiments need to bring in a little something extra, creating odd requests for facility managers—like when a visiting group from the IceCube experiment needed about 1000 gallons of deionized water to test their modules before similar detectors were shipped to the South Pole and entombed in the ice.

“It is surprisingly difficult to get that much deionized water,” Rominsky notes. “We couldn’t use a tanker and had to ship it in from Indiana in 55-gallon drums.”

And while most components will have only a short stay in the test beam, some facilities do have areas for longer-term experiments. For example, the LArIAT (Liquid Argon in a Test beam) detector lived its full existence in the test beam, collecting data for three years at Fermilab.

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Its goal was to better understand how particles interact with argon, the material now being used in massive neutrino detectors such as MicroBooNE and the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment hosted by Fermilab.

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FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

“I like that we help everybody,” Rominsky says. “It doesn’t matter which groups come to us. Our policy is to be very helpful to everyone.”

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IceCube PMT beam test at Fermilab Test Beam Facility. Photo by Reidar Hahn, Fermilab.

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Meson Test Beam Facility with LArIAT Detector. Photo by Reidar Hahn, Fermilab

Research crucible

Test beams are not only important for detectors themselves—the test beam experience is also formative for the researchers who come to do the hands-on work. Teams work together over long hours, sharing both shifts and meals, ups and downs.

“For me, it was really communal,” says Clara Nellist, an ATLAS researcher at Radboud University in the Netherlands and former co-organizer of the annual Beam Telescope and Test Beams Workshop. “I learned so much from other people, even though we were from different universities and, in essence, we were competing.”

Nellist did her PhD thesis on proposed technology for the ATLAS pixel detector and spent many night shifts at the CERN test beam facility. Sometimes, groups working on a different proposed sensor intended for the same slot in the detector would share the same experimental setup. When the competing team didn’t have enough people to run their shifts, she volunteered to take data for them. A few months later, she unexpectedly found herself on their research paper for contributing to their data.

“We needed each other’s expertise,” Nellist says. “There are friends I made in the first week of my PhD who, 10 years later, I’m still friends with and check up on.”

The diverse nature of projects also means researchers from all different stages of their careers make their way through the test beam facility doors.

“You get people who are legends in the detector R&D community, and they need beam time like everyone else, and then there are undergrads having their first lab experience,” explains Aria Soha, an engineering physicist at Fermilab who managed the test beam facility until 2013. For those new to hardware testing—and even the more seasoned pros—it’s a thrill to watch those first particle tracks splash across the detector.

“I remember knowing when the beam was coming and watching the particles show up, and thinking, ‘This is cool, this is why I went to school for physics,’” Soha says.

Those moments of triumph often come after a stressful period of testing and debugging.

“You test everything in the lab before you go. Everything works perfectly and then you go [to the test beam] and nothing works,” Metcalfe says. “Checking the cables and turning things on and off solves about 80% of the problems.”

The granular, hands-on experience can make a big difference in understanding the results coming out of the detector later on. Visiting a test beam teaches researchers how particles are going through their detector, how they interact, how the data looks when it comes out, and much more. If researchers see a problem in their data analysis, they can recognize the potential causes more quickly, Metcalfe says. These are skills for the future of physics.

“There’s going to be a next generation of experiments, and people need to know how to design them and how to make that design motivated by the physics you want to do,” Metcalfe says. “It’s part of the training.”

See the full article here .


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From Symmetry: “ARAPUCA: Let there be light traps”

Symmetry Mag
From Symmetry<

10/24/19
Lauren Biron

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Illustration by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Pedro Rivas

Latin American institutions are instrumental in creating photon detectors for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment.

FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

It started with a drive.

Physicists Ana Machado and Ettore Segreto trundled their car along an Italian road, headed from Gran Sasso National Laboratory on a 40-minute trip to pick up their son from kindergarten. As was often the case, physics was on their minds—in particular, the topic of light.

Light is a key tool in the physicist’s bag of tricks, able to give glimpses of far-off galaxies or streaks of subatomic particles. For physicists such as Machado and Segreto, it’s a crucial component in reconstructing the interactions of elusive particles called neutrinos. Neutrinos rarely interact, making every quantum of light—called a photon—released when they do a precious piece of data. How, the scientists wondered, could detectors more efficiently capture those gems of light?

They imagined a slender box that contained a silicon photomultiplier: a small detector that could count single photons. The box would contain a transparent top that light could easily pass through when entering, paired with a film that could shift the light to a different, visible wavelength. The transformed light, unable to escape through the same opening, would reflect inside the box until it was absorbed and detected by the silicon photomultiplier.

Later, Machado would liken the design to a bird trap and christen it with a name from the indigenous Guaraní word for “a trap to catch birds.” ARAPUCA was born.

With only a few months before the pair left Italy for new jobs at the University of Campinas in Machado’s home country of Brazil, they hurried to test their idea. After some internet shopping to find what filters and components they could purchase commercially (with their own money), they contacted a mechanic at Gran Sasso to help them build a box and install a silicon sensor. The simple prototype was a mere 3.3-square-centimeter container made of Teflon—but it proved the concept.

They had no idea then that their technology would soon unite scientists from across Latin America.

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Illustration by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Pedro Rivas

Back in Brazil
Flushed with success, the couple started their new jobs in Brazil with a focus on ARAPUCA technology and how it could be used in the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), an enormous undertaking supported by the US Department of Energy’s Office of Science and hosted by Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory near Chicago.

The massive project was beginning to take shape, with plans to construct some of the world’s largest neutrino detectors and install them 1.5 kilometers (about a mile) deep in a former-mine-turned-underground-laboratory. Shielded from extraneous signals, the detectors would then be bombarded with the world’s most intense high-energy neutrino beam.

The goal of DUNE is to unlock some of the mysteries of neutrinos, including the answer to the biggest question of all: whether they are part of the reason matter as we know it exists. To reach their aims, scientists would need to gather immense amounts of data from neutrino interactions—including the light.

At a 2015 conference in Albany, New York, Machado and Segreto presented the ARAPUCA design publicly for the first time. The reception was positive, and further tweaks and tests with Fermilab and new collaborators at Colorado State University showed a technology that was quickly maturing. The results were so good, Machado says, that they proposed installing 32 ARAPUCA modules in the first ProtoDUNE detector—a house-sized prototype to test technology for the even bigger final detectors of DUNE.

Even with the construction start-date looming, the collaboration accepted their proposal. The summer of 2017 found Machado and Segreto back in Europe, this time at CERN to install many of the ARAPUCA detectors over the course of six months. When the ProtoDUNE detector turned on in 2018, ARAPUCA’s success was clear: The technology worked, the light was there, and the tracks were beautiful.

“It’s fun to think that everything started from that moment during that long drive,” Segreto says.

“We never had the idea that ARAPUCA would become what it is now,” Machado adds. “We never thought that this idea would become a reality. Everything that has happened for us has been such a surprise.”

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Illustration by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Pedro Rivas

Spreading across the continent
Back in Brazil, Machado and Segreto found themselves at the center of a rapidly growing group.

ARAPUCA had become an important piece of technology for neutrino experiments, but it was still but one of a thousand parts needed to build DUNE. ARAPUCA would need to connect to cold electronics: the hardware that sits inside the liquid argon that makes up the bulk of the neutrino detector, hovering around a frosty negative 184 degrees Celsius (negative 300 degrees Fahrenheit). Those cold electronics would need to interface with DUNE’s warm electronics, which sit outside the detector at room temperature. Along with simulations and testing, there was plenty of work to do—and a growing number of people to lend a hand.

Scientific tendrils snaked their way from the University of Campinas to other universities in Brazil and on to other Latin American countries, binding together a Latin American consortium focused on the detection of light. Machado made many of the connections personally. She reached out to fellow physicists, some of whom she knew from her PhD program, and encouraged them to join with their teams.

That was how Jorge Molina, a scientist in the engineering school at the National University of Asunción in Paraguay, got involved. The school doesn’t have a postgraduate program in physics, but the engineers excel at instrumentation, so they joined to work on the electronics in 2017.

“This is a great opportunity,’” Molina says. “We’ve never been delegated a huge project like this. It’s a chance to demonstrate we can do it, and do it well. This will be the door for the next big project that comes.”

Sometimes, a lack of scientific infrastructure in the country—which has a population of 7 million, about the same as Massachusetts—means Molina’s group has to take their science on the road. Paraguay sent one researcher to Fermilab to test electronics in cryogenic temperatures at the ICEBERG testbed earlier this year.

For many partners, participating in ARAPUCA is a chance to expand their skills. The Colombian team joined to work on the warm electronics, building on their decade of experience with running simulations for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and digitizing signals for small neutrino experiments.

“The difference between ATLAS and DUNE, and something that I like a lot, is that when we started on ATLAS, the detector was already designed,” says Deywis Moreno Lopez, a scientist at Colombia’s University of Antonio Nariño. “With DUNE, we have the opportunity to participate directly in the design and construction of the components. It’s a very nice opportunity to get the universities involved and make a closer contact with industry.”

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Illustration by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Pedro Rivas

Industrial partners will be vital for producing the hundreds upon hundreds of pieces necessary to instrument the large detectors of DUNE. Each of the four far-detector modules will hold 17,000 tons of liquid argon inside a container four stories high. Accelerator operators at Fermilab will send trillions of neutrinos from the accelerator complex in Illinois straight through the earth, no tunnel required, to the detectors in South Dakota. The fraction of neutrinos that interact will produce additional particles, including electrons and light, that will be captured by the electronics, processed by computing algorithms, and stored for data analysis. The invisible will become visible.

“This is something that is almost science fiction,” says Cesar Castromonte, a physicist at Peru’s National University of Engineering and part of the group from Peru that began working on ARAPUCA earlier this year. “People are totally surprised most of the time when I talk about neutrinos—and surprised that there are Peruvian people working on this kind of stuff.”

That “stuff” for DUNE includes hunting for an explanation as to why matter exists in our universe, trying to determine whether protons decay, and working to better understand exploding stars and the formation of black holes. They’re giant science goals using the biggest detector of its kind, and collaborators know they need to bring the best technological solutions in their arsenals. Not long after the initial ARAPUCA tests were successful, the team began working on upgrades to the design to make the equipment even better.

The new X-ARAPUCA rolled in additional light guides within the box that funneled photons toward the sensor. Tests showed even more light captured than before, and scientists decided to incorporate 200 of the newly designed modules into the plans for the Short-Baseline Near Detector (SBND) at Fermilab—another neutrino experiment and another good test for DUNE technologies. Machado says she expects the electronic boards, filters and mechanical structures to be shipped to Fermilab, assembled and installed in SBND around December.

With DUNE test detectors running, cavern preparation for the massive far detectors at Sanford Lab underway, and a recent groundbreaking for Fermilab’s new accelerator upgrades, teams around the world are pushing their pieces of DUNE forward quickly and aiming to start up the experiment around 2026.

“We are very excited,” Castromonte says. “It’s a once-in-a-lifetime chance.

See the full article here .


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From Symmetry: “A budding strategy for large-scale science in Latin America”

Symmetry Mag
From Symmetry<

10/29/19
Ali Sundermier

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Artwork by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Pedro Rivas

For the first time, scientists and policy-makers are creating a regional strategy for scientific projects in Latin America, starting with a focus on high-energy physics and cosmology.

Earlier this year, scientists from around Latin America gathered in São Paulo. It was the start of something new: the first-ever regional strategy for large-scale research infrastructure in Latin America.

Latin America is home to a large number of experts, the majority of Earth’s astronomical observatories, and a large number of particle physics and astrophysics projects. But only recently have Latin American scientists built up the critical mass and governmental support to create their own strategy for science moving forward.

“There could be someone in Chile working on the same topic as someone in Venezuela or Colombia, and they might not even know it,” says Carla Bonifazi, a physicist at the University of Brazil. “Making connections, opening up new lines of communication and creating an exchange of ideas between these different countries could strike up new collaborations that advance science.”

Collaboration between nations is one of the biggest forces behind some of the most revolutionary discoveries in physics in recent history. Twelve countries across Europe, plus outside partners like the United States, pooled resources and expertise through CERN to build the Large Hadron Collider. With it, they discovered the Higgs boson. The UK Science and Technology Facilities Council, the Max Planck Society of Germany and the Australian Research Council all joined the National Science Foundation in the United States to build the Advanced LIGO Project. Together with the Italy-based Virgo collaboration, whose member institutions are situated in six countries in Europe, scientists used the Advanced LIGO detector to discover gravitational waves.

Scientists and policymakers from across Latin America are banding together to carve out their future in science, and they’re starting with cosmology and high-energy physics.

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Artwork by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Pedro Rivas

Pilot project
Scientists began speaking seriously about a regional strategy in 2016, during a symposium on high-energy physics in Guatemala. In 2018 policymakers at the Ibero-American Meeting of Ministers and High Authorities on Science, Technology and Innovation made a ministerial declaration emphasizing the need to further the existing scientific activities of researchers and inspire new projects and collaborations.

This year marked the first workshop of LASF4RI, the Latin American Strategy Forum for Large-Scale Research Infrastructure.

“Through this forum, we hope to map out and prioritize scientific projects that will fire up collaborations and train a new generation of scientists in specific fields,” says Fernando Quevedo, a Guatemalan physicist and director of the International Center for Theoretical Physics.

At the workshop, which took place at the ICTP-affiliated South American Institute for Fundamental Research, participants formed two different groups. A preparatory group will create guidelines and receive white papers from the different efforts in high-energy physics and cosmology in Latin America, mapping the current landscape of scientific projects in the region. Using that information, a strategy group will provide feedback and recommendations to present at the next ministerial meeting.

“If this is going to work, we really need to engage people and get input and support from the community,” says Marta Losada, a Colombian physicist who has been spearheading the effort. “Through this workshop, we wanted to get everybody on the same page and explain what we mean when we talk about this strategy. We wanted to show why it’s important to develop this research infrastructure here in Latin America in order to move forward and be an active participant in science.”

Down the line, those involved in the project hope that this strategy can be applied to a wide range of scientific fields in the region.

A new stage of participation
One reason to start with cosmology and high-energy physics: There’s already a proposed Latin-America-led international project to discuss. The proposed ANDES Deep Underground Laboratory would take advantage of the construction of a road tunnel deep in the Andes mountain range between Argentina and Chile to host a variety of experiments that could benefit from the protection of a 1700 meters of rock.

“This huge rock cover will protect the laboratory from natural radiation coming from space, allowing extremely precise experiments to be run,” says Xavier Bertou, a physicist at the Bariloche Atomic Center in Argentina who originally proposed the project along with fellow scientists Osvaldo Civitarese in Argentina and Claudio Dib in Chile. “These experiments would not work in another laboratory as they would be blinded by this space radiation.”

The laboratory, which would be the first Latin America-led facility for astrophysics, could enable the study of neutrinos and the search for dark matter, as well as investigations into geosciences—of particuliar importance since the lab would sit in a strongly geoactive region. It could also enable research in fields such as biology, material science and climate studies.

“ANDES represents a new stage of participation in particle physics for Latin America,” says Dib, a physicist at the Scientific and Technological Center of Valparaís and the national coordinator for the ANDES initiative in Chile. “It will help promote particle physics, in particular for young students who normally have little access to international particle physics laboratories. Since it will be located near the border between Chile and Argentina and led by Latin American researchers, we hope it will also inspire a scientific exchange between the different countries.”

Bertou sees the project as a natural next step for the region, since many Latin American groups already participate in particle physics collaborations based in Europe and the United States, as well as astroparticle collaborations at facilities based in Latin America, such as the Pierre Auger Observatory and the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory, or HAWC.

“The science done will be quite unique in Latin America and will provide a huge boost for the community working on it,” he says. “It will be one of a small number of international laboratories in the region, opening a new way to work together to build science opportunities at an international scale.

A roadmap for the future

Since nothing like this has ever been done in Latin America, the scientists will essentially have to build this infrastructure from scratch. But for Losada, the value of a new regional strategy far outweighs the difficulties.

“We have differences with respect to other regions in the world who have implemented similar strategies,” Losada says. “Since we’ve never done anything like this here before, it’s been a challenge to get everyone on board. But we can’t keep working in small groups in little pockets and expect to make an impact. We have to develop a real coherent strategy.”

Rogerio Rosenfeld—a physicist at the Institute of Theoretical Physics of the State University of São Paulo in Brazil, one of the organizers of the workshop and the current president of the Brazilian Physical Society—says he hopes that this effort becomes truly international, nurturing more cooperation among different countries in Latin America.

According to Losada, the seeds they’re planting have already started to take root.

“One of the main effects that we’re already seeing is that the communities across countries are now talking to each other,” she says. “We’re starting to get organized in a way that we hope can be interesting and effective. Through this process, we hope to identify both our strengths and weaknesses to help us build a clear-cut roadmap of how to move forward and increase our scientific impact.

See the full article here .


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Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


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From CERN Courier: “European strategy [for HEP] enters next phase”


From CERN Courier

2 October 2019

Matthew Chalmers, editor

European strategy enters next phase

Physicists in Europe have published a 250-page “briefing book” to help map out the next major paths in fundamental exploration. Compiled by an expert physics-preparatory group set up by the CERN Council, the document is the result of an intense effort to capture the status and prospects for experiment, theory, accelerators, computing and other vital machinery of high-energy physics.

Last year, the European Strategy Group (ESG) — which includes scientific delegates from CERN’s member and associate-member states, directors and representatives of major European laboratories and organisations and invitees from outside Europe — was tasked with formulating the next update of the European strategy for particle physics. Following a call for input in September 2018, which attracted 160 submissions, an open symposium was held in Granada, Spain, on 13-16 May at which more than 600 delegates discussed the potential merits and challenges of the proposed research programmes. The ESG briefing book distills input from the working groups and the Granada symposium to provide an objective scientific summary.

“This document is the result of months of work by hundreds of people, and every effort has been made to objectively analyse the submitted inputs,” says ESG chair Halina Abramowicz of Tel Aviv University. “It does not take a position on the strategy process itself, or on individual projects, but rather is intended to represent the forward thinking of the community and be the main input to the drafting session in Germany in January.”

Collider considerations

An important element of the European strategy update is to consider which major collider should follow the LHC. The Granada symposium revealed there is clear support for an electron–positron collider to study the Higgs boson in greater detail, but four possible options at different stages of maturity exist: an International Linear Collider (ILC) in Japan, a Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) or Future Circular Collider (FCC-ee) at CERN, and a Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) in China. The briefing book states that, in a global context, CLIC and FCC-ee are competing with the ILC and with CEPC. As Higgs factories, however, the report finds all four to have similar reach, albeit with different time schedules and with differing potentials for the study of physics topics at other energies.


ILC schematic, being planned for the Kitakami highland, in the Iwate prefecture of northern Japan



CLIC Collider annotated

CERN FCC Future Circular Collider details of proposed 100km-diameter successor to LHC

China Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) map

Also considered in depth are design studies in Europe for colliders that push the energy frontier, including a 3 TeV CLIC and a 100 TeV circular hadron collider (FCC-hh). The briefing book details the estimated timescales to develop some of these technologies, observing that the development of 16 T dipole magnets for FCC-hh will take a comparable time (about 20 years) to that projected for novel acceleration technologies such as plasma-wakefield techniques to reach conceptual designs.

“The Granada symposium and the briefing book mention the urgent need for intensifying accelerator R&D, including that for muon colliders,” says Lenny Rivkin of Paul Scherrer Institut, who was co-convener of the chapter on accelerator science and technology. “Another important aspect of the strategy update is to recognize the potential impact of the development of accelerator and associated technology on the progress in other branches of science, such as astroparticle physics, cosmology and nuclear physics.”

The bulk of the briefing book details the current physics landscape and prospects for progress, with chapters devoted to electroweak physics, strong interactions, flavour physics, neutrinos, cosmic messengers, physics beyond the Standard Model, and dark-sector exploration. A preceding chapter about theory emphasises the importance of keeping theoretical research in fundamental physics “free and diverse” and “not only limited to the goals of ongoing experimental projects”. It points to historical success stories such as Peter Higgs’ celebrated 1964 paper, which had the purely theoretical aim to show that Gilbert’s theorem is invalid for gauge theories at a time when applications to electroweak interactions were well beyond the horizon.

“While an amazing amount of progress has been made in the past seven years since the Higgs boson discovery, our knowledge of the couplings of the Higgs-boson to the W and Z and to third-generation charged fermions is quite imprecise, and the couplings of the Higgs boson to the other charged fermions and to itself are unmeasured,” says Beate Heinemann of DESY, who co-convened the report’s electroweak chapter. “The imperative to study this unique particle further derives from its special properties and the special role it might play in resolving some of the current puzzles of the universe, for example dark matter, the matter-antimatter asymmetry or the hierarchy problem.”

Readers are reminded that the discovery of neutrino oscillations constitutes a “laboratory” proof of physics beyond the Standard Model. The briefing book also notes the significant role played by Europe, via CERN, in neutrino-experiment R&D since the last strategy update concluded in 2013. Flavour physics too should remain at the forefront of the European strategy, it argues, noting that the search for flavour and CP violation in the quark and lepton sectors at different energy frontiers “has a great potential to lead to new physics at moderate cost”. An independent determination of the proton structure is needed if present and future hadron colliders are to be turned into precision machines, reports the chapter on strong interactions, and a diverse global programme based on fixed-target experiments as well as dedicated electron-proton colliders is in place.

Europe also has the opportunity to play a leading role in the searches for dark matter “by fully exploiting the opportunities offered by the CERN facilities, such as the SPS, the potential Beam Dump Facility, and the LHC itself, and by supporting the programme of searches for axions to be hosted at other European institutions”. The briefing book notes the strong complementarity between accelerator and astrophysical searches for dark matter, and the demand for deeper technology sharing between particle and astroparticle physics.

Scientific diversity

The diversity of the experimental physics programme is a strong feature of the strategy update. The briefing book lists outstanding puzzles that did not change in the post-Run 2 LHC era – such as the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking, the nature of the Higgs boson, the pattern of quark and lepton masses and the neutrino’s nature – that can also be investigated by smaller scale experiments at lower energies, as explored by CERN’s dedicated Physics Beyond Colliders initiative.

Finally, in addressing the vital roles of detector & accelerator development, computing and instrumentation, the report acknowledges both the growing importance of energy efficiency and the risks posed by “the limited amount of success in attracting, developing and retaining instrumentation and computing experts”, urging that such activities be recognized correctly as fundamental research activities. The strong support in computing and infrastructure is also key to the success of the high-luminosity LHC which, the report states, will see “a very dynamic programme occupying a large fraction of the community” during the next two decades – including a determination of the couplings between the Higgs boson and Standard Model particles “at the percent level”.

Following a drafting session to take place in Bad Honnef, Germany, on 20-24 January, the ESG is due to submit its recommendations for the approval of the CERN Council in May 2020 in Budapest, Hungary.

“Now comes the most challenging part of the strategy update process: how to turn the exciting and well-motivated scientific proposals of the community into a viable and coherent strategy which will ensure progress and a bright future for particle physics in Europe,” says Abramowicz. “Its importance cannot be overestimated, coming at a time when the field faces several crossroads and decisions about how best to maintain progress in fundamental exploration, potentially for generations to come.”

See the full article here .


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THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

ATLAS

CERN/ATLAS detector

ALICE

CERN/ALICE Detector


CMS
CERN CMS New

LHCb
CERN LHCb New II

LHC

CERN map

CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

CERN LHC particles

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