Tagged: HEP Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • richardmitnick 1:08 pm on March 21, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: 30 million collision events, , , HEP, ,   

    From ATLAS: “Particle-hunting at the energy frontier” 

    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event

    CERN/ATLAS
    ATLAS

    20th March 2017
    ATLAS Collaboration

    1
    Fig. 1: The highest-mass dijet event measured by ATLAS (mass = 8.12TeV). Green lines indicate tracks of charged particles. Green and yellow blocks show the energy of the two back-to-back jets deposited in the calorimeters. (Image: ATLAS Collaboration/CERN)

    There are many mysteries the Standard Model of particle physics cannot answer. Why is there an imbalance between matter and anti-matter in our Universe? What is the nature of dark matter or dark energy? And many more. The existence of physics beyond the Standard Model can solve some of these fundamental questions. By studying the head-on collisions of protons at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV provided by the LHC, the ATLAS Collaboration is on the hunt for signs of new physics.

    2
    Fig. 2: Dijet resonance search results. (Image: ATLAS Collaboration/CERN)

    A newly released ATLAS search studies approximately 30 million collision events that produce two high-energy sprays of particles in the final state. These sprays are known as “jets” or, when seen in pairs as in this case, “dijets” (Figure 1). Jets with extraordinarily high energies – copiously produced due to the strong interactions of quarks and gluons – probe the highest energy scales of all processes at the LHC. These jets can provide a window into new physics phenomena, and allow ATLAS physicists to search for mediators between Standard Model and dark matter particles or other hypothetical objects such as non-elementary quarks, heavy “partners” of known Standard Model particles or miniature quantum black-holes (a phenomenon of strong gravity predicted in models with additional spatial dimensions). They can even be used to search for very heavy particles with masses beyond the LHC collision energies, through models known as contact interactions (similar to the Fermi model for weak interactions).

    The dijet search described here consists of two complementary analyses: the resonance analysis and the angular analysis. The resonance analysis looks for a localized excess in the dijet mass spectrum. In the absence of a heavy resonance, the mass distribution is well described by a smooth, monotonically falling function. A statistically significant bump would signify a new particle with mass near the measured bump. The histogram in Figure 2 displays the results of the resonance analysis. The x-axis represents the dijet mass (mjj) and the y-axis (shown with a logarithmic scale) represents the number of observed events. The solid black dots show the data, the red curve represents the fit of a smooth function to the data, and the open green dots show how two non-elementary (“excited”) quark signals might look like. The second panel shows how significant the deviations in the data are as compared to the smooth background fit. The vertical blue lines show the region with the largest significance. A statistical analysis results in a probablility value of 0.63 which means that there is no significant deviation from the Standard Model. The third panel compares the data to the dijet mass prediction; again, no significant deviation from the Standard Model expectation is seen.

    See the full article here .

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles
    LHC at CERN

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

     
  • richardmitnick 1:22 pm on March 17, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , HEP, , , The LHC Just Discovered A New System of Five Particles   

    From Futurism: “The LHC Just Discovered A New System of Five Particles” 

    futurism-bloc

    Futurism

    3.17.17
    Sarah Marquart

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the latest addition to CERN’s accelerator complex, is the most powerful particle accelerator ever built. It features a 27 kilometer (16 mile) ring made of superconducting magnets and accelerating structures built to boost the energy of particles in the chamber. In the accelerator, two high-energy particle beams are forced to collide from opposite directions at speeds close to the speed of light.




    LHC at CERN

    The energy densities that are created when these collisions occur cause ordinary matter to melt into its constituent parts—quarks and gluons. This allows us to interrogate the basic constituents of matter–the fundamental particles of the Standard Model.


    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    It is a project of massive, unparalleled proportions.

    More than 10,000 scientists and engineers are currently working together to help us learn about the fundamental properties of physics using the LHC. To date, these men and women have brought about some impressive discoveries. The LHC team is responsible for the discovery of the Higgs Boson, potentially disproving the existence of the paranormal, and discovering a host of new particles.


    CERN CMS Higgs Event


    CERN/CMS Detector


    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event


    CERN/ATLAS detector

    And today, a paper proved that these discoveries aren’t slowing down.

    The Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment (LHCb) collaboration just announced the discovery of a new system of five particles all in a single analysis. Discovering a new state is a feat in itself – but discovering five new states all at once is exceptional. Especially since there’s such an overwhelming level of statistical significance – i.e. this isn’t just a fluke.


    CERN/LHCb

    3
    4
    Subsequently the Ξc+ candidates were combined with K- mesons present in the same event. The Ξc+ K- invariant mass distribution obtained in this way is shown in the right image above, revealing for the first time five narrow structures with an overwhelming statistical significance. These structures are interpreted as manifestations of excited states of the Ωc0 baryon. These excited states decay into a Ξc+ baryon and a K- meson via the strong interactions, in contrast to the weak decays responsible for the three particles used to form the Ξc+ mass peak.

    Excitement Abounds

    Each of the five particles were found to be excited states of Omega-c-zero, a particle with three quarks. These particle states are named, according to the standard convention, Ωc(3000)0, Ωc(3050)0, Ωc(3066)0, Ωc(3090)0 and Ωc(3119)0

    Now, the researchers need to determine the quantum numbers of these new particles, and their theoretical significance. This will all add to our understanding of the correlation between quarks, and multi-quark states, which will further the way we comprehend our universe and quantum theory in general.

    Ultimately, CERN called this “a hotbed of new and outstanding physics results.” And it’s just the beginning. More experiments and results are on their way.


    Access mp4 video here .

    This is why the importance of international collaborations cannot be overstated. The LHC is the largest international scientific collaboration in history (scientists from more than 85 countries are involved in the LHC and its experiments at the European laboratory CERN). As such, perhaps it is no surprise that it is leading to a new era in physics and opening new doors in our understanding of the universe, in fact, it could even prove the existence of higher dimensions.

    Over the coming months and years, the LHC will use its amazing amount of energy to open up the “dark sector of physics,” revealing currently unknown particles and helping solve some of our greatest cosmic mysteries (such as dark matter, parallel dimensions, and what happened during the earliest moments of the Big Bang). With new updates coming to the LHC, the team promises “even more impressive” physics opportunities.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Futurism covers the breakthrough technologies and scientific discoveries that will shape humanity’s future. Our mission is to empower our readers and drive the development of these transformative technologies towards maximizing human potential.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:22 am on March 16, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , HEP, , , Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)   

    From CERN via Accelerating News: “HL-LHC project stimulates new collaboration” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    Accelerating News

    1
    View from the LHC tunnel (Credit: CERN)

    A new multi-million-pound project between CERN, the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) and six other UK institutions has been launched to contribute to the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva. The world’s highest energy particle collider shall be upgraded to the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) in the 2020s through international collaboration.

    The challenges of this project are best tackled with input from the project partners from around the world. Several partnerships have already been established with the HL-LHC project and there is room for more potential partnerships in the future. It has now been announced that the UK will make contributions in four areas across the new HL-LHC-UK project among other contributions from UK universities.

    The full exploitation of the LHC is the highest priority in the European Strategy for Particle Physics, adopted by the CERN Council and integrated into the ESFRI Roadmap. The full HL-LHC project funding was approved by the CERN Council in June 2016. To extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade around 2025 to increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of 10 beyond the original design value (from 300 to 3,000 fb-1). This will enable scientists to look for new, very rare fundamental particles, and to measure known particles such as the Higgs boson with unprecedented accuracy.

    Upgrading the LHC calls for technology breakthroughs in areas already under study, and requires about 10 years of research to implement. HL-LHC relies on a number of key innovative technologies, representing exceptional technological challenges. Led by experts from the Cockcroft Institute, the HL-LHC-UK project has now been established to address these challenges.

    Within HL-LHC-UK, the partner institutions will perform cutting-edge research and deliver hardware for the LHC upgrade in four areas: 1) proton beam collimation to remove stray halo protons, 2) the development and test of transverse deflecting cavities (“crab cavities”), 3) new methods to diagnose the stored beams including gas jet-based beam profile monitors and, 4) novel beam position monitors, as well as sophisticated cold powering technology needed for the cryogenic systems.

    Lucio Rossi, Head of the High-Luminosity LHC project, commented: “In order to make the project a success we have to innovate in many fields, developing cutting-edge technologies for magnets, the optics of the accelerator, superconducting radiofrequency cavities, and superconducting links. We are very excited for the UK to be making key contributions and using their expertise to help deliver this upgrade.”

    The HL-LHC-UK project comprises the University of Manchester (Cockcroft Institute), Lancaster University (Cockcroft Institute), the University of Liverpool (Cockcroft Institute), the University of Huddersfield (International Institute of Accelerator Applications), Royal Holloway University of London (John Adams Institute), the University of Southampton and the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). The spokesperson is Rob Appleby (Manchester) and the project manager is Graeme Burt (Lancaster).

    More information about the High Luminosity LHC project, its technology and design as well as the challenges ahead can be found in the recently released open access HiLumi LHC book The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The New Machine for Illuminating the Mysteries of the Universe.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    CernCourier
    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

     
  • richardmitnick 11:07 am on March 16, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , HEP, ,   

    From CERN via Accelerating News: “Progress in the interaction region magnets of HL-LHC” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    Accelerator News

    3.16.17
    Ezio Todesco (CERN)

    1
    Winding of the first 7.15-m-long dummy coil of the triplet quadrupole at building 180 (CERN)

    During the past months, significant advancements have been done in the development of the interaction region magnets for HL-LHC.

    In KEK, Japan, the short model of the separation dipole D1, that showed insufficient quench performance after the first test, has been disassembled. Significant movements of the coils (up to few mm) were observed in the heads, and a clear evidence of a lack of prestress in the straight part was found. The new assembly took place during winter, and a prestress increase in the straight part of about 35 MPa has been achieved. The magnet was tested in February, reaching nominal current after 2 quenches and ultimate after 5 quenches (see Figure 1). “The magnet performance is now in line with the project requirements – says T. Nakamoto, in charge of the D1 project – we will have a warm-up and cool-down to prove the magnet memory in the next weeks”. The short model design is being updated in some features of the iron yoke, and to account for an unexpected contribution to field quality from the coil heads in the strong regime of saturation. A second model will be built in the second part of 2017, and tested in 2018.

    2
    Training of MBXFS1 in KEK: quenches (markers), nominal and ultimate current (solid lines) and short sample limit (dotted line). (Credit: HL-LHC WP3 collaboration)

    In the US, the first 4-m-long coil has been tested in a mirror configuration, reaching 85% of short sample limit. “This is the new world record for coil length in Nb3Sn accelerator magnets – says G. Ambrosio, in charge of the US contribution for the triplet – and paves the way to the assembly and test of the first 4-m-long quadrupole, to be done in the second part of the year”. At the same time at CERN the first 7.15-m-long dummy coils are being produced to validate the assembly procedures.

    3
    Training of mirror 4-m-long coil in BNL: quenches (markers), 70% and 80% of short sample (solid lines) and short sample limit (dotted line). (Credit: HL-LHC WP3 collaboration)

    Furthermore, in CIEMAT, Madrid, the prototype for the nested orbit correctors is entering the construction phase. The concept of double collaring has been validated on a mechanical model with the final design of the collars and a dummy coil made of aluminum (see Figure 4). This is an important step of the validation of the mechanical concept of this magnet, where a mechanical lock between the horizontal and vertical dipoles is required to control the large torque. In particular, the second collaring of the outer dipole on the inner one is critical. “Both collaring operations were in line with our expectations, and we managed to insert pins without any criticality – said F. Toral from CIEMAT, in charge of the Spanish contribution for the orbit correctors – we saw some asymmetries that need more investigations, but given the complexity of the design, this is a very encouraging first step towards construction”.

    4
    Double collaring of the nested corrector in CIEMAT

    Finally, in LASA, Milano the activity on the high order corrector prototypes is at full speed. After the successful test of the sextupole, the first decapole coil in a single coil configuration has been tested successfully. The coil reached twice the ultimate current with negligible training, thus proving the assembly procedures and tooling concepts. LASA is working in parallel on two magnets: besides the first decapole coil, eigth octupole coils have been completed and will be assembled in the first prototype, and tested in April.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    CernCourier
    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

     
  • richardmitnick 10:47 am on March 16, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , HEP, , , ,   

    From CERN via Accelerating News: “CESSAMag delivering impact” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    Accelerating News

    3.16.17
    Livia Lapadatescu (CERN)

    1
    Section of the SESAME Main Accelerator Ring (Image credit: CERN)

    The main objective of the FP7-CESSAMag (CERN-EC Support for SESAME Magnets) project was to support the construction of the SESAME light source in the Middle-East. With financial contribution from the EC, CERN’s main objective was to deliver the magnetic system and its powering scheme for the SESAME main accelerator ring, as well as to support the training of SESAME staff. Completed at the end of 2016, the project fulfilled or exceeded all its objectives.

    Scientific and technical impact of CESSAMag

    Building upon SESAME studies, CESSAMag finalized the requirements and design and produced the engineering and technical drawings of the SESAME magnets and powering scheme. The first main result of CESSAMag is the production of design reports on the combined function bending magnets, on the quadrupole magnets (long and short), on the sextupole magnets with their auxiliary corrector windings and on the powering scheme. These design and engineering study reports were used as background for the technical specifications needed for tendering and can serve as reference for the construction of similar light sources.

    During the tendering process, CERN made a special effort to place orders not only with experienced European companies, but also with companies based in some of the SESAME Members (Cyprus, Israel, Pakistan, Turkey), without former experience in accelerator components (except for Israel), but demonstrating potential and motivation. This was achieved through effective knowledge transfer from CERN and generated potential commercial impact in the companies trained.

    All magnets successfully passed the acceptance tests at either ALBA-CELLS or CERN and their measured field quality and reproducibility from magnet to magnet are excellent, making them a reference for similar synchrotrons. Therefore, a key result of CESSAMag is the string of magnets forming the SESAME storage ring, composed of:

    16 combined function bending magnets (dipole + quadrupole)

    64 quadrupoles of two types: 32 long focusing and 32 short defocusing quadrupoles

    64 sextupole/correctors

    CESSAMag also contributed to the production of an improved magnet powering scheme: rather than procuring power supplies adapted to each kind of magnet, another approach was proposed by CERN, based on light source standards (PSI), which allows individual powering of quadrupoles and simplified maintenance by plug-and-play modules by standardizing interfaces. With this strategy, SESAME benefits from a powering strategy more powerful, flexible and robust than initially foreseen.

    Following the decision to procure some components from companies based in the SESAME Members and thanks to the in-kind contribution of Pakistan, offering the assembly of 50% of the sextupoles, CESSAMag managed to deliver a more powerful and complete magnetic system and reduce the financial share that SESAME was due to contribute to the project.

    Finally, CESSAMag contributed to the magnet integration and commissioning, with the goal of making SESAME fully in control of the equipment delivered by CERN.

    The first beam was circulated in the SESAME main accelerator ring on 11 January 2017 and it was stored and accumulated up to 20mA in mid-February. The next step is ramping the beam and completing the RF stations and final acceleration assessment expected before the end of summer. The inauguration ceremony of the SESAME light source will take place in mid-May with the foreseen presence of high-ranking officials from SESAME Members and Observers. The first user experiments are foreseen to start in Q3.

    Political and social impact of CESSAMag

    A significant aspect showcasing the socio-economic impact of CESSAMag is the knowledge transfer to companies from SESAME Members and training of SESAME staff. The duration of training to staff, engineers and companies from SESAME Members amounts to about 90 person-months and the CERN personnel effort in training and knowledge transfer amounts to 16 person-months.

    In the context of CESSAMag, international collaborations and agreements were established between CERN and SESAME and CERN and ALBA-CELLS; implementation agreements were formed with PAEK (Pakistan), TAEK (Turkey) and ILSF (Iran) and an informal collaboration with IAEA, which provided financial support for training and experts’ visits between CERN and SESAME. These collaborations and agreements illustrate the international and science diplomacy dimensions of the project.

    Furthermore, the European Union acknowledged the science diplomacy impact of CESSAMag and made further steps in support of SESAME. Since 2015, the EU is an Observer in the SESAME Council and the EC decided to further support the training of SESAME users and staff in the framework of the OPEN SESAME (Opening Synchrotron Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) H2020 “Policy and international cooperation measures for research infrastructures” project.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    CernCourier
    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

     
  • richardmitnick 8:51 pm on March 10, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , HEP, , , , , The strong force (strong interaction)   

    From Symmetry: “A strength test for the strong force [strong interaction]” 

    Symmetry Mag

    Symmetry

    03/10/17
    Sarah Charley

    1
    Science Saturday

    New research could tell us about particle interactions in the early universe and even hint at new physics.

    Much of the matter in the universe is made up of tiny particles called quarks. Normally it’s impossible to see a quark on its own because they are always bound tightly together in groups. Quarks only separate in extreme conditions, such as immediately after the Big Bang or in the center of stars or during high-energy particle collisions generated in particle colliders.

    Scientists at Louisiana Tech University are working on a study of quarks and the force that binds them by analyzing data from the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Their measurements could tell us more about the conditions of the early universe and could even hint at new, undiscovered principles of physics.


    ATLAS at the LHC

    The particles that stick quarks together are aptly named “gluons.” Gluons carry the strong force, one of four fundamental forces in the universe that govern how particles interact and behave. The strong force binds quarks into particles such as protons, neutrons and atomic nuclei.

    As its name suggests, the strong force [strong interaction] is the strongest—it’s 100 times stronger than the electromagnetic force (which binds electrons into atoms), 10,000 times stronger than the weak force (which governs radioactive decay), and a hundred million million million million million million (1039) times stronger than gravity (which attracts you to the Earth and the Earth to the sun).

    But this ratio shifts when the particles are pumped full of energy. Just as real glue loses its stickiness when overheated, the strong force carried by gluons becomes weaker at higher energies.

    “Particles play by an evolving set of rules,” says Markus Wobisch from Louisiana Tech University. “The strength of the forces and their influence within the subatomic world changes as the particles’ energies increase. This is a fundamental parameter in our understanding of matter, yet has not been fully investigated by scientists at high energies.”

    Characterizing the cohesiveness of the strong force is one of the key ingredients to understanding the formation of particles after the Big Bang and could even provide hints of new physics, such as hidden extra dimensions.

    “Extra dimensions could help explain why the fundamental forces vary dramatically in strength,” says Lee Sawyer, a professor at Louisiana Tech University. “For instance, some of the fundamental forces could only appear weak because they live in hidden extra dimensions and we can’t measure their full strength. If the strong force is weaker or stronger than expected at high energies, this tells us that there’s something missing from our basic model of the universe.”

    By studying the high-energy collisions produced by the LHC, the research team at Louisiana Tech University is characterizing how the strong force pulls energetic quarks into encumbered particles. The challenge they face is that quarks are rambunctious and caper around inside the particle detectors. This subatomic soirée involves hundreds of particles, often arising from about 20 proton-proton collisions happening simultaneously. It leaves a messy signal, which scientists must then reconstruct and categorize.

    Wobisch and his colleagues innovated a new method to study these rowdy groups of quarks called jets. By measuring the angles and orientations of the jets, he and his colleagues are learning important new information about what transpired during the collisions—more than what they can deduce by simple counting the jets.

    The average number of jets produced by proton-proton collisions directly corresponds to the strength of the strong force in the LHC’s energetic environment.

    “If the strong force is stronger than predicted, then we should see an increase in the number of proton-protons collisions that generate three jets. But if the strong force is actually weaker than predicted, then we’d expect to see relatively more collisions that produce only two jets. The ratio between these two possible outcomes is the key to understanding the strong force.”

    After turning on the LHC, scientists doubled their energy reach and have now determined the strength of the strong force up to 1.5 trillion electronvolts, which is roughly the average energy of every particle in the universe just after the Big Bang. Wobisch and his team are hoping to double this number again with more data.

    “So far, all our measurements confirm our predictions,” Wobisch says. “More data will help us look at the strong force at even higher energies, giving us a glimpse as to how the first particles formed and the microscopic structure of space-time.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 10:04 am on March 10, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , HEP, , , , , Xiaofeng Guo   

    From Brookhaven: Women in STEM – “Secrets to Scientific Success: Planning and Coordination” Xiaofeng Guo 

    Brookhaven Lab

    March 8, 2017
    Lida Tunesi

    1
    Xiaofeng Guo

    Very often there are people behind the scenes of scientific advances, quietly organizing the project’s logistics. New facilities and big collaborations require people to create schedules, manage resources, and communicate among teams. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory is lucky to have Xiaofeng Guo in its ranks—a skilled project manager who coordinates projects reaching across the U.S. and around the world.

    Guo, who has a Ph.D. in theoretical physics from Iowa State University, is currently deputy manager for the U.S. role in two upgrades to the ATLAS detector, one of two detectors at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider that found the Higgs boson in 2012.


    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event


    CERN/ATLAS detector

    Brookhaven is the host laboratory for both U.S. ATLAS Phase I and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade projects, which involve hundreds of millions of dollars and 46 institutions across the nation. The upgrades are complex international endeavors that will allow the detector to make use of the LHC’s ramped up particle collision rates. Guo keeps both the capital and the teams on track.

    “I’m in charge of all business processes, project finance, contracts with institutions, baseline plan reports, progress reports—all aspects of business functions in the U.S. project team. It keeps me very busy,” she laughed. “In the beginning I was thinking ‘in my spare time I can still read physics papers, do my own calculations’… And now I have no spare time!”

    Guo’s dual interest in physics and management developed early in her career.

    “When I was an undergraduate there was a period when I actually signed up for a double major, with classes in finance and economics in addition to physics,” Guo recalled. “I’m happy to explore different things!”

    Later, while teaching physics part-time at Iowa State University, Guo desired career flexibility and studied to be a Chartered Financial Analyst. She passed all required exams in just two years but decided to continue her research after receiving a grant from the National Science Foundation.

    Guo joined Brookhaven Lab in 2010 to fill a need for project management in Nuclear and Particle Physics (NPP). The position offered her a way to learn new skills while staying up-to-date on the physics world.

    Early in her time at Brookhaven, Guo participated in the management of the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) upgrade to the STAR particle detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a DOE Office of Science User Facility for nuclear physics research. The project was successfully completed $600,000 under budget and a whole year ahead of schedule.


    BNL/RHIC Star Detector

    “This was a very good learning experience for me. I participated in all the manager meeting discussions, updated the review documents, and helped them handle some contracts. Through this process I learned all the DOE project rules,” Guo said.

    While working on the HFT upgrade, Guo also helped develop successful, large group proposals for increased computational resources in high-energy physics and other fields of science. She joined the ATLAS Upgrade projects after receiving her Project Management Certification, and her physics and finance background as well as experience with large collaborations have enabled her to orchestrate complex planning efforts.

    For the two phases of the U.S. ATLAS upgrade, Guo directly coordinates more than 140 scientists, engineers, and finance personnel, and oversees all business processes, including finance, contracts, and reports. And taking her job one step further, she’s developed entirely new management tools and reporting procedures to keep the multi-institutional effort synchronized.

    “Dr. Guo is one of our brightest stars,” said Berndt Mueller, Associate Lab Director of NPP. “We are fortunate to have her to assist us with many challenging aspects of project development and execution in NPP. In the process of guiding the work of scores of scientists and engineers, she has single-handedly created a unique and essential role in the development of complex projects with an international context, demonstrating skills of unusual depth and breadth and the ability to apply them across a wide array of disciplines.”

    Guo’s management of Phase I won great respect for the project from the high-energy physics community and the Office of Project Assessment (OPA) at the DOE’s Office of Science. The OPA invited her to participate in a panel discussion to share her expertise and help develop project management guidelines that can be used in other Office of Science projects. Guo also worked with BNL’s Project Management Center to help the lab update its own project management system description to meet DOE standards and lay down valuable groundwork for future large projects.

    As the ATLAS Phase I upgrade proceeds through the final construction stage, Guo is simultaneously managing the planning stages of HL-LHC.

    “We haven’t completely defined the project timeline yet, but it’s projected to go all the way to the end of 2025,” Guo said.

    Like Phase I, HL-LHC will ensure ATLAS can perform well while the LHC operates at much higher collision rates so that physicists can further explore the Higgs as well as search for signs of dark matter and extra dimensions.

    Although she admits to missing doing research herself, Guo is not disheartened.

    “I’m still in the physics world; I’m still working with physicists,” she said. “I enjoy working and interacting with people. So I’m happy.”

    Brookhaven’s work on RHIC and ATLAS is funded by the DOE Office of Science.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    BNL Campus

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.
    i1

     
  • richardmitnick 11:17 am on March 9, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , HEP, ,   

    From Futurism: “Scientists May Have Solved the Biggest Mystery of the Big Bang” 

    futurism-bloc

    Futurism

    February 2, 2017 [Where has this been hiding?]
    Chelsea Gohd

    The Unanswered Question

    The European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN) works to help us better understand what comprises the fabric of our universe. At this French association, engineers and physicists use particle accelerators and detectors to gain insight into the fundamental properties of matter and the laws of nature. Now, CERN scientists may have found an answer to one of the most pressing mysteries in the Standard Model of Physics, and their research can be found in Nature Physics.


    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    According to the Big Bang Theory, the universe began with the production of equal amounts of matter and antimatter. Since matter and antimatter cancel each other out, releasing light as they destroy each other, only a minuscule number of particles (mostly just radiation) should exist in the universe. But, clearly, we have more than just a few particles in our universe. So, what is the missing piece? Why is the amount of matter and the amount of antimatter so unbalanced?

    The Standard Model of particle physics does account for a small percentage of this asymmetry, but the majority of the matter produced during the Big Bang remains unexplained. Noticing this serious gap in information, scientists theorized that the laws of physics are not the same for matter and antimatter (or particles and antiparticles). But how do they differ? Where do these laws separate?

    This separation, known as charge-parity (CP) violation, has been seen in hadronic subatomic particles (mesons), but the particles in question are baryons. Finding evidence of CP violation in these particles would allow scientists to calculate the amount of matter in the universe, and answer the question of why we have an asymmetric universe. After decades of effort, the scientists at CERN think they’ve done just that.

    Using a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) detector, CERN scientists were able to witness CP violation in baryon particles.




    LHC at CERN

    When smashed together, the matter (Λb0) and antimatter (Λb0-bar) versions of the particles decayed into different components with a significant difference in the quantities of the matter and antimatter baryons. According to the team’s report, “The LHCb data revealed a significant level of asymmetries in those CP-violation-sensitive quantities for the Λb0 and Λb0-bar baryon decays, with differences in some cases as large as 20 percent.”


    CERN/LHCb

    This discovery isn’t yet statistically significant enough to claim that it is definitive proof of a CP variation, but most believe that it is only a matter of time. “Particle physics results are dragged, kicking and screaming, out of the noise via careful statistical analysis; no discovery is complete until the chance of it being a fluke is below one in a million. This result isn’t there yet (it’s at about the one-in-a-thousand level),” says scientist Chris Lee. “The asymmetry will either be quickly strengthened or it will disappear entirely. However, given that the result for mesons is well and truly confirmed, it would be really strange for this result to turn out to be wrong.”

    This borderline discovery is one huge leap forward in fully understanding what happened before, during, and after the Big Bang. While developments in physics like this may seem, from the outside, to be technical achievements exciting only to scientists, this new information could be the key to unlocking one of the biggest mysteries in modern physics. If the scientists at CERN are able to prove that matter and antimatter do, in fact, obey separate laws of physics, science as we know it would change and we’ll need to reevaluate our understanding of our physical world.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Futurism covers the breakthrough technologies and scientific discoveries that will shape humanity’s future. Our mission is to empower our readers and drive the development of these transformative technologies towards maximizing human potential.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:25 am on March 7, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Etas, , HEP, , Pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons, REDTOP – a potential voyage to new physics horizons, Strangeness   

    From FNAL: “REDTOP – a potential voyage to new physics horizons” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    March 6, 2017
    Ricarda Laasch

    1
    The proposed REDTOP experiment to study eta particles would use the detector shown here, in gray. No image credit

    The advantage of zero

    Every subatomic particle has a collection of “quantum numbers,” numerical assignments for each of a particle’s various properties. Take the properties of electric charge and spin. An electron’s electric charge quantum number is -1; its spin quantum number is ½. For the Higgs, electric charge and spin are both 0.

    According to physics laws, quantum numbers tend to remain unchanged throughout the decay process. If the pre-decay mother particle has a charge of 1, then the total charge of its post-decay daughter particles also adds to 1. In physicist parlance, its charge is conserved. If a quantum number changes in the decay process, the corresponding property is not conserved.

    And this is where REDTOP scientists hope to find new physics: in quantum numbers that change in a never-seen-before way. Those rarely witnessed, nonconserved behaviors might point to reveal hidden truths about our universe.

    Etas belong to a peculiar category of particles called pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons, meaning all their quantum numbers are equal to zero. That’s what makes eta decays so interesting to scientists: Of all the possible decay paths a particle can take, an eta can take only those whose descendants’ quantum numbers add to zero, substantially limiting the number of ways it can decay.

    Take the strange-sounding property called strangeness. Since an eta has a strangeness of 0 – which means it has no strangeness at all — it decays by the rarely occurring paths that don’t involve strangeness. Particle decays that do have strangeness, as in the case of kaons, would be strongly influenced by that property, taking the far more common strangeness-dominated paths and overshadowing other rarer decays.

    Because all quantum numbers of an eta are zero, no single property eclipses another, making etas very “pure” states and allowing the rare decays of the subatomic realm to melt out of the woodwork. That makes etas the perfect laboratory: They’re rare-decay factories.

    The small mass of the eta is a bonus. Because it’s lightweight, it tends to decay into a small number of particles, producing only three or four daughter particles. Scientists can decipher these simple decays more easily than large particle collision events, which can include decays into more than 50 particles.

    The REDTOP window to new physics

    So far scientists have listed 14 of these rare — and, being rare, little-understood — eta decays as possible candidates for new physics. The unknown details, once filled in, could lead to new discoveries. REDTOP scientists speculate that the decays may relate to dark matter, to new particles or even to a new “milliweak force,” a proposed force that is 1,000 times weaker than the known weak force.

    “This is only the tip of the iceberg. We expect that the portfolio of eta decays we want to study with REDTOP will continue to grow,” said Corrado Gatto, spokesperson for the REDTOP collaboration and a scientist at Northern Illinois University and the Italian institution INFN. “We keep working on new simulations to really understand all our possibilities with REDTOP.”

    REDTOP wants to produce a high-intensity sample of more than one trillion eta mesons in one year. That’s 10,000 times more than the current eta production worldwide.

    But eta mesons come with a catch: They are hard to produce and even harder to study.

    To make eta particles, REDTOP scientists propose using a proton beam that crashes into a specifically designed target to create an enormous shower of particles, many of which will be etas. The problem is that the collision would create 200 times more particles of other types than etas.

    “If you want to measure etas with conventional detector technology, the background will swamp the detector, and it will be constantly lit like a Christmas tree,” Gatto said.

    REDTOP scientists are proposing to develop three novel detector technologies, which are some of the project’s most challenging aspects. They could result in new technologies for the next generation of high-intensity experiments. Furthermore, Fermilab scientists working on the accelerator design for REDTOP will provide the laboratory with a new facility: a continuous proton beam with an energy selectable by the experimenters.

    “REDTOP will be a challenge, because we want to push for new physics and new technologies at the same time,” said Fermilab scientist Anna Mazzacane, who is working on REDTOP physics and detector simulations. “But we also have a lot to gain: REDTOP is not an experiment of just one measurement. It has a lot of potential for great discoveries.”

    The REDTOP collaboration aims to present the experiment to the Fermilab Physics Advisory Committee in January 2018. The Fermilab PAC is the body that reviews proposals for new experiments at the laboratory.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon
    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:56 pm on February 17, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Bjorken x variable, , HEP, HERA collider, How strange is the proton?, , , , , , Strong interactions   

    From CERN ATLAS: “How strange is the proton?” 

    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event

    CERN/ATLAS
    ATLAS

    25th January 2017
    ATLAS Collaboration

    1
    Figure 1: The data ellipses illustrate the 68% CL coverage for the total uncertainties (full green) and total excluding the luminosity uncertainty (open black). Theoretical predictions based on various PDF sets are shown with open symbols of different colours. (Image: ATLAS Collaboration/CERN)

    The protons collided by the LHC are not elementary particles, but are instead made up of quarks, antiquarks and gluons. The theory of the strong interactions – quantum chromodynamics (QCD) – does not allow physicists to calculate the composition of protons from first principles. However, QCD can connect measurements made in different processes and at different energy scales such that universal “parton density functions” (PDFs) can be extracted. These determine the dynamic substructure of the proton.

    The discovery of quarks as the elements of the partonic structure of the proton dates about 50 years. Soon after QCD was born and the existence of gluons inside the proton was established. Much has since been learned through a combination of new experimental data and theoretical advances. At the LHC, reactions involve quarks or gluons that carry a certain fraction x of the proton’s momentum, expressed through the Bjorken x variable. Below x of 0.01, the proton constituents are mainly gluons and a sea of quark-antiquark pairs.

    Electron-proton scattering data from the HERA collider has constrained the gluon and the sum of all quarks weighted by the square of their electric charge.

    3
    Data from the HERA collider live on (Image: DESY Hamburg)

    4
    DESY map

    But the low x sea-quark composition – expressed in terms of the lighter quarks named up, down and strange quarks – is still not well understood. New data from the ATLAS experiment shows, with unprecedented precision, the production of W and Z bosons through the weak interaction. This sheds new light on the question: how “strange” the proton is at small x?

    The W production is detected through its decay into a charged lepton (electron or muon) and a neutrino, while the Z boson produces an electron-positron (or muon-antimuon) pair. The experimental detection of electrons and muons poses different challenges and thus the simultaneous measurement in both channels provides an important cross-check of the results, thus improving the final precision achieved. The integrated cross sections for Z boson and W boson production are measured with a precision of 0.3% and 0.6%, respectively, and with an additional common normalisation uncertainty from the luminosity determination of 1.8%. Differential cross sections are also measured in a variety of kinematic regions and about half of the measurement points have a precision of 1% or better.

    2
    Figure 2: Determination of the relative strange-to-light quark fraction R_s. Bands: Present result and its uncertainty contributions from experimental data, QCD fit, and theoretical uncertainties. Closed symbols with horizontal error bars: predictions from different NNLO PDF sets. Open square: previous ATLAS result. (Image: ATLAS Collaboration/CERN)

    The measurements are then compared to state-of-the-art QCD expectations using different PDF sets. Because the production of W and Z bosons through the weak interaction has a different dependence on the specific quark flavours compared to the electromagnetic interaction seen in electron-positron scattering at HERA, analysing both data sets gives new access to the strange quark content of the proton.

    As is shown in Figure 1, the measured production rate of W bosons is very similar for all PDF sets, in good agreement with the data. In contrast, the rate for Z boson production is underestimated significantly for most PDF sets. A dedicated analysis enables this deficit to be attributed to a too small strange quark contribution in most PDF sets. The new PDF set, which this paper presents, requires the strange quark sea to be of a similar size as the up and down quark sea. This is summarised by the quantity RS, which is the ratio of the strange quark sea to the up and down quark sea, and which is found to be close to one, as shown in Figure 2. This result is a striking confirmation of the hypothesis of a light-flavour symmetry of proton structure at low x. This result will generate many further studies, because hitherto there had been indications from low energy neutrino-scattering data that favoured a suppressed strange-quark contribution with respect to the up and down quark parts, leading to an RS close to 0.5.

    The analysis also shows that the potential to which precise W and Z cross sections can provide useful constraints on PDFs is not limited by the now very high experimental precision, but rather by the uncertainty of the currently available theory calculations. The salient results of this paper are thus of fundamental importance for forthcoming high-precision measurements, such as the mass of the W boson, and also represent a strong incentive for further improving the theory of Drell-Yan scattering in proton-proton collisions.

    Links:

    Precision measurement and interpretation of inclusive W+, W− and Z/γ∗ production cross sections with the ATLAS detector, https://arxiv.org/abs/1612.03016

    See the full article here .

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles
    LHC at CERN

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel
%d bloggers like this: