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  • richardmitnick 12:28 pm on September 13, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CBETA-Cornell-Brookhaven “Energy-Recovery Linac” Test Accelerator or, , HEP, Innovative particle accelerator, , ,   

    From Brookhaven National Lab & Cornell University: “Innovative Accelerator Achieves Full Energy Recovery” 

    From Brookhaven National Lab

    September 10, 2019
    Karen McNulty Walsh
    kmcnulty@bnl.gov

    Collaborative Cornell University/Brookhaven Lab project known as CBETA offers promise for future accelerator applications.

    1
    Brookhaven Lab members of the CBETA team with Laboratory Director Doon Gibbs, front row, right.

    An innovative particle accelerator designed and built by scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory and Cornell University has achieved a significant milestone that could greatly enhance the efficiency of future particle accelerators. After sending a particle beam for one pass through the accelerator, machine components recovered nearly all of the energy required for accelerating the particles. This recovered energy can then be used for the next stage of acceleration—to accelerate another batch of particles—thus greatly reducing the potential cost of accelerating particles to high energies.

    “No new power is required to maintain the radiofrequency (RF) fields in the RF cavities used for acceleration, because the accelerated beam deposits its energy in the RF cavities when it is decelerated,” said Brookhaven Lab accelerator physicist Dejan Trbojevic, who led the design and construction of key components for the project and serves as the Principal Investigator for Brookhaven’s contributions.

    The prototype accelerator—known as the Cornell-Brookhaven ERL Test Accelerator (CBETA), where ERL stands for “energy-recovery linac”—was built at Cornell with funding from Brookhaven Science Associates (the managing entity of Brookhaven Lab) and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) as a research and development project in support of a possible future nuclear physics facility, the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC). The energy-recovery approach could play an essential role in generating reusable electron beams for enhancing operations at a future EIC. The electrons would reduce the spread of ion beams in the EIC, thus increasing the number of particle collisions scientists can record to make physics discoveries.

    2
    Schematic of the CBETA energy recovery linac installed at Cornell University. Electrons produced by a direct-current (DC) photo-emitter electron source are transported by a high-power superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) injector linac into the high-current main linac cryomodule, where SRF cavities accelerate them to high energy before sending them around the racetrack-shaped accelerator. Each curved arc is made of a series of fixed field, alternating gradient (FFA) permanent magnets. After passing through the second FFA arc, the electrons re-enter the main linac cryomodule, which decelerates them and returns their energy to the RF cavities so it can be used again.

    In designing and executing this project, the Brookhaven team drew on its vast experience of improving the performance of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a DOE Office of Science user facility for nuclear physics research.

    BNL/RHIC

    The accelerator technologies being developed for the EIC would push beyond the capabilities at RHIC and open up a new frontier in nuclear physics.

    3
    The injector and main linac cryomodule.

    Tech specs

    CBETA consists of a direct-current (DC) photo-emitter electron source that creates the electron beams to be accelerated. These electrons pass through a high-power superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) injector linac that transports them into a high-current main linac cryomodule (MLC). There, six SRF cavities accelerate the electrons to high energy, sending them around the racetrack-shaped accelerator. Each curved section of the racetrack is a single arc of permanent magnets designed with fixed-field alternating-gradient (FFA) optics that allow a single vacuum tube to accommodate beams at four different energies at the same time. After passing through the second FFA arc, the electrons re-enter the MLC, which has been uniquely optimized to decelerate the particles after a single pass and return their energy to the RF cavities so it can be used again.

    When completed, CBETA will accelerate particles through four complete turns, adding energy with each pass—all of which will be recovered during deceleration after the beams have been used. This will make it the world’s first four-turn superconducting radiofrequency ERL.

    Many scientists and engineers at Brookhaven Lab contributed to the design and construction of the magnets and other components of the accelerator, as well as the electronic devices that monitor the positions of the accelerated and decelerated beams: Francois Meot, Scott Berg, Stephen Brooks, and Nicholaos Tsoupas drove the design of the ERL’s optics; Brookhaven physicists led by Brooks and George Mahler designed, built, measured, and applied corrections to the permanent magnets; and Rob Michnoff led the design and construction of the beam position monitor system.

    “After building and successfully testing prototypes of the magnets, we established a very successful collaboration with Cornell, led by Principal Investigator Georg Hoffstaetter, to build the ERL using the refined fixed-field magnet designs,” Trbojevic said.

    Cornell provided the DC electron injector—the world’s record holder for producing high intensity, low emittance electron beams—which they recommissioned for the CBETA project. A team of young scientists and graduate students, including Adam Bartnik, Colwyn Gulliford, Kirsten Deitrick, and Nilanjan Banerjee, made other essential contributions: successfully commissioning the main linac cryomodule, and preparing the “command scripts”—computer-driven instructions—for running and commissioning the ERL in collaboration with Berg and other Brookhaven physicists.

    4
    Part of one of the fixed field, alternating gradient (FFA) permanent magnet arcs.

    “We hold weekly internet-based collaboration meetings and we had several visits and meetings at Cornell to ensure that the project was reaching the key milestones and that installation was proceeding according to the schedule,” said Michnoff, the Brookhaven Lab project manager.

    In May 2019, the team sent an electron beam with an energy of 42 million electron volts (MeV) through the FFA return loop for the first time. The beam made it through all 200 permanent magnets without the need for a single correction. In early June 2019, an energy scan in the FFA loop showed that the return beamline transported particles of different energies superbly, agreeing very well with the expectations for the design.

    Next, on June 13, the beam was accelerated to 42 MeV, transported through the FFA return loop back to the MLC, where the electrons were decelerated from 42 MeV back to the injection energy of 6 MeV, with the rest of their energy transferred back into the six SRF cavities of the main linac. And on June 24, the CBETA team achieved full energy recovery for the first time—demonstrating that each cavity could accelerate electrons on their second pass through the MLC without requiring additional external power.

    “Each cavity successfully regained the energy it expended in beam acceleration, eliminating or dramatically reducing the power needed to accelerate electrons,” Trbojevic said.

    “The successful demonstration of single-turn energy recovery shows that we are on the path toward creating this first-of-its-kind facility,” Trbojevic said. “The entire team is committed and excited to complete this four-turn energy-recovery linac—one of the most interesting and innovative accelerator physics project in the world today.”

    From Cornell University

    CORNELL LABORATORY FOR ACCELERATOR-BASED SCIENCES AND EDUCATION — CLASSE

    5

    Update on Beam Commissioning

    Cornell physicists, working with Brookhaven National Lab, are constructing a new type of particle accelerator called CBETA at Cornell’s Wilson Lab. This Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is a test accelerator built with permanent magnets as well as electro magnets.

    How it works: CBETA will recirculate multiple beams of different energies around the accelerator at one time. The electrons will make four accelerating passes around the accelerator, while building up energy as they pass through a cryomodule with superconducting RF (SRF) accelerating structures. In four more passes, they will return to the superconducting cavities that accelerated them and return their energy back to these cavities – hence it is an Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). While this method conserves energy, it also creates beams that are tightly bound and are a factor of 1,000 times brighter than other sources. For more details, please contact the Cornell PI Prof. Georg Hoffstaetter.

    Although linear accelerators (Linac) can have superior beam densities when compared to large circular accelerators, they are exceedingly wasteful due to the beam being discarded after use and can therefore only have an extremely low current compared to ring accelerators. This means that the amount of data collected in one hour in a circular accelerator may take several years to collect in a linear accelerator. In an ERL, the energy is recovered, and the beam current can therefore be as large as in a circular accelerator while its beam density remains as large as in a Linac.

    CBETA: the first multi-turn SRF ERL

    The lynchpin of CBETA’s design is to repeat the acceleration in a SRF cavities four times by recirculating multiple beams at four different energies. The beam with highest energy (150MeV) is to be used for experiments and is then decelerated in the same cavities four times to recapture the beam’s energies into the SRF cavities. Reusing the same cavity multiple times significantly reduces the construction and operational costs of the accelerator. It also means that an accelerator which would span roughly a foot ball field can fit into a single experimental Hall at Cornell’s Wilson Laboratory.

    However, beams of different energies require different amounts of bending, in the same way that it is hard for your car to navigate a sharp bend at 100 miles per hour. Traditional magnet designs are simply unable to keep different beams on the same “track”. Instead, the CBETA design relies on cutting edge Fixed-Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) magnets to contain all of the beams in a single 3 inch beam pipe. CBETA will be the first SRF ERL with more than one turn and it is also the first project in the history of accelerator physics to implement this new magnet technology in an Energy Recovery Linac.

    The task of creating and controlling eight beams of four different energies in a single accelerating structure sounds daunting. But by leveraging the pre-existing infrastructure and experience of Cornell with the power and expertise of Brookhaven National Laboratory, it will soon become a reality.

    Cornell University has prototyped technology essential for CBETA, including a DC gun and an SRF injector Linac with world-record current and normalized brightness in a bunch train, a high-current CW cryomodule for 70 MeV energy gain, a high-power beam stop, and several diagnostics tools for high-current and high-brightness beams, e.g. a beamline for measuring 6-D phase-space densities, a fast wire scanner for beam profiles, and beam loss diagnostics. All these now being used in the contrition of CBETA.

    Within the next several years, CBETA will develop into a powerhouse of accelerator physics and technology, and will be one of the most advanced on the planet (earth). When this prototype ERL is complete and expanded upon, it will be a critical resource to New York State and the nation, propelling high-power accelerator science, enabling applications of many particle accelerators, from biomedical advancement to basic physics and from computer-chip lithography to material science, driving economic development.

    7

    CBETA is composed of 4 main parts:

    -The Photoinjector that creates and prepares high-current electron beams to be injected into the Main Linac Cryomodule (MLC). The photoinjector in turn consists of a laser system that illuminates a photo-emitter cathode to produce electrons within a high-current DC electron source. These electrons traverses an emittance-matching section to produce a high-brightness beam which is then sent thorough the high-power injector cryomodule (ICM) for acceleration to the ERL’s injection energy.

    -The Main Linac Cryomodule (MLC) that accelerates the beam through several passages and then decelerates the beam the same number of times to recapture its energy.

    -The high-power Beam Stop where the electron beam is discarded after most of its energy has been recaptured.
    4 Spreaders and 4 combiners with electro magnets that separate beams at 4 different energies after the MLC to match them into the FFAG return loop and then combine them again before re-entering the MLC.

    -FFAG Magnets residing in the return loop. These cause very strong focusing so that beams with energies that differ by up to a factor 4 can be transported simultaneously.

    Dominant funding for CBETA comes from NYSERDA (2016 to 2020). Important for this agency is that CBETA emphasizes energy savings by its use of energy recovery technology, its application of permanent magnets, and its particle acceleration by superconducting structures. Previous funding came from the NSF (2005 – 2015) for the development of the complete accelerator chain from the source to the main ERL accelerating module, from DOE supporting developments for the LCLS (2014-2015), and from the industrial company ASML (2015-2016) for applications in computer chip lithography.

    See the full article here .


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  • richardmitnick 4:41 pm on September 9, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Fermilab achieves world-record field strength for accelerator magnet", , , Designing for a future collider that could serve as a potential successor to the powerful 17-mile-around Large Hadron Collider operating at CERN laboratory since 2009., , HEP, , ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Fermilab achieves world-record field strength for accelerator magnet” 

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    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    September 9, 2019
    Leah Hesla

    To build the next generation of powerful proton accelerators, scientists need the strongest magnets possible to steer particles close to the speed of light around a ring. For a given ring size, the higher the beam’s energy, the stronger the accelerator’s magnets need to be to keep the beam on course.

    Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Fermilab have announced that they achieved the highest magnetic field strength ever recorded for an accelerator steering magnet, setting a world record of 14.1 teslas, with the magnet cooled to 4.5 kelvins or minus 450 degrees Fahrenheit. The previous record of 13.8 teslas, achieved at the same temperature, was held for 11 years by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

    That’s more than a thousand times stronger magnet than the refrigerator magnet that’s holding your grocery list to your refrigerator.

    The achievement is a remarkable milestone for the particle physics community, which is studying designs for a future collider that could serve as a potential successor to the powerful 17-mile-around Large Hadron Collider operating at CERN laboratory since 2009. Such a machine would need to accelerate protons to energies several times higher than those at the LHC.

    And that calls for steering magnets that are stronger than the LHC’s, about 15 teslas.

    “We’ve been working on breaking the 14-tesla wall for several years, so getting to this point is an important step,” said Fermilab scientist Alexander Zlobin, who leads the project at Fermilab. “We got to 14.1 teslas with our 15-tesla demonstrator magnet in its first test. Now we’re working to draw one more tesla from it.”

    The success of a future high-energy hadron collider depends crucially on viable high-field magnets, and the international high-energy physics community is encouraging research toward the 15-tesla niobium-tin magnet.

    1
    Fermilab recently achieved a magnetic field strength of 14.1 teslas at 4.5 kelvins on an accelerator steering magnet — a world record. Photo: Thomas Strauss

    At the heart of the magnet’s design is an advanced superconducting material called niobium-tin.

    Electrical current flowing through the material generates a magnetic field. Because the current encounters no resistance when the material is cooled to very low temperature, it loses no energy and generates no heat. All of the current contributes to the creation of the magnetic field. In other words, you get lots of magnetic bang for the electrical buck.

    The strength of the magnetic field depends on the strength of the current that the material can handle. Unlike the niobium-titanium used in the current LHC magnets, niobium-tin can support the amount of current needed to make 15-tesla magnetic fields. But niobium-tin is brittle and susceptible to break when subject to the enormous forces at work inside an accelerator magnet.

    So the Fermilab team developed a magnet design that would shore up the coil against every stress and strain it could encounter during operation. Several dozen round wires were twisted into cables in a certain way, enabling it to meet the requisite electrical and mechanical specifications. These cables were wound into coils and heat-treated at high temperatures for approximately two weeks, with a peak temperature of about 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit, to convert the niobium-tin wires into superconductor at operation temperatures. The team encased several coils in a strong innovative structure composed of an iron yoke with aluminum clamps and a stainless-steel skin to stabilize the coils against the huge electromagnetic forces that can deform the brittle coils, thus degrading the niobium-tin wires.

    The Fermilab group took every known design feature into consideration, and it paid off.

    “This is a tremendous achievement in a key enabling technology for circular colliders beyond the LHC,” said Soren Prestemon, a senior scientist at Berkeley Lab and director of the multilaboratory U.S. Magnet Development Program, which includes the Fermilab team. “This is an exceptional milestone for the international community that develops these magnets, and the result has been enthusiastically received by researchers who will use the beams from a future collider to push forward the frontiers of high-energy physics.”

    And the Fermilab team is geared up to make their mark in the 15-tesla territory.

    “There are so many variables to consider in designing a magnet like this: the field parameters, superconducting wire and cable, mechanical structure and its performance during assembly and operation, magnet technology, and magnet protection during operation,” Zlobin said. “All of these issues are even more important for magnets with record parameters.”

    Over the next few months, the group plans to reinforce the coil’s mechanical support and then retest the magnet this fall. They expect to achieve the 15-tesla design goal.

    And they’re setting their sights even higher for the further future.

    “Based on the success of this project and the lessons we learned, we’re planning to advance the field in niobium-tin magnets for future colliders to 17 teslas,” Zlobin said.

    It doesn’t stop there. Zlobin says they may be able to design steering magnets that reach a field of 20 teslas using special inserts made of new advanced superconducting materials.

    Call it a field goal.

    The project is supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science.

    It is a key part of the U.S. Magnet Development Program, which includes Fermilab, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory.

    See the full here.


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  • richardmitnick 2:49 pm on September 4, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Another major component of the Phase-1 upgrade for ATLAS is the improvement of the trigger selection for the operation at the future HL-LHC., ATLAS teams are also preparing for the following long shutdown (LS3 starting in 2024), “The installation of new electronics for the liquid-argon calorimeter is proceeding smoothly and we are advancing through the different stages of production for the TDAQ deliverables., , During LS3 an all-silicon inner tracker will replace the current one using state-of-the-art silicon technologies to keep pace with the HL-LHC rate of collisions., HEP, In parallel, Located at the centre of the ATLAS detector the role of the inner tracker is to measure the direction; momentum; and charge of electrically charged particles produced in each proton–proton collision, New electronics to achieve a higher resolution of the electromagnetic calorimeter’s trigger., , , , the consolidation of the detector system is progressing according to schedule., The first phase of our HL-LHC upgrade programme has started., The new muon small wheels-developed to trigger and measure muons precisely despite the increased rate of collisions expected at the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the scintillators located between the central barrel and the extended barrels of the tile calorimeter are currently being installed., We have replaced cooling connectors connecting the modules of the tile calorimeter to the overall cooling infrastructure in almost all 256 modules of the calorimeter.   

    From CERN ATLAS: “LS2 Report: ATLAS upgrades are in full swing” 

    CERN/ATLAS detector

    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event

    CERN ATLAS another view Image Claudia Marcelloni ATLAS CERN


    CERN ATLAS New II Credit CERN SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY


    From CERN ATLAS

    3 September, 2019
    Anaïs Schaeffer

    The assembly of the new muon small wheels and the upgrades on the electronics and trigger systems are progressing well.

    1
    One of the new small wheels of ATLAS, which you can see at Building 191 during the CERN Open Days (Image: CERN)

    A few months ago, the ATLAS Collaboration presented its schedule for the second long shutdown 2 (LS2) concerning the detector’s repair, consolidation and upgrade activities. Since then, the experiment’s LS2 programme has been refined to best meet needs and constraints.

    Although ATLAS was originally supposed to install two new muon detectors in the forward regions (new small wheels) – measuring 9.3 metres in diameter and developed to trigger and measure muons precisely despite the increased rate of collisions expected at the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) – only one will be installed during LS2. “While considerable progress has been made on the assembly, the second wheel will not be ready before the end of LS2. So we decided to aim for installing that one in the next year-end technical stop (YETS, at the end of 2021),” says Ludovico Pontecorvo, ATLAS Technical Coordinator. A replacement of the first small wheel (on side A of the detector) is foreseen for August 2020.

    Another major component of the Phase-1 upgrade for ATLAS is the improvement of the trigger selection for the operation at the future HL-LHC, which requires new electronics to achieve a higher resolution of the electromagnetic calorimeter’s trigger. It also involves upgrading the level-1 trigger processors, and installing new electronic cards for the trigger and data-acquisition (TDAQ) system. “The installation of new electronics for the liquid-argon calorimeter is proceeding smoothly and we are advancing through the different stages of production for the TDAQ deliverables. The upgrade of the infrastructure and the necessary maintenance work is almost completed. The first phase of our HL-LHC upgrade programme has started,” says Ludovico Pontecorvo.

    In parallel, the consolidation of the detector system is progressing according to schedule. “We have replaced cooling connectors connecting the modules of the tile calorimeter to the overall cooling infrastructure in almost all 256 modules of the calorimeter and the standard maintenance of the read-out electronics is ongoing. In addition, the scintillators located between the central barrel and the extended barrels of the tile calorimeter are currently being installed,” adds Ludovico Pontecorvo.

    ATLAS teams are also preparing for the following long shutdown (LS3, starting in 2024), which will see the installation of an all-new inner tracker. Located at the centre of the ATLAS detector, the role of the inner tracker is to measure the direction, momentum and charge of electrically charged particles produced in each proton–proton collision. During LS3, an all-silicon inner tracker will replace the current one, using state-of-the-art silicon technologies to keep pace with the HL-LHC rate of collisions. The manoeuvre to lower and insert this new element (2 m in diameter, 7 m long) looks arduous, so, in March, the team in charge of its installation took advantage of the shutdown to practice the procedure in the cavern with a mock-up of the tracker. The two lowering options tested required a great meticulousness, given that, at the worst moment, the margin was only a few centimetres.

    See the full article here .


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  • richardmitnick 12:31 pm on August 29, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , HEP, IOTA will become the first facility in the world with the ability to precisely redirect synchrotron light back on the particle that generated it., IOTA-The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator, Nonlinear integrable optics, , , ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Fermilab’s newest accelerator delivers first results” 

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    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    August 14, 2019
    Bailey Bedford

    Fermilab’s newest particle accelerator is small but mighty. The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator [IOTA], designed to be versatile and flexible, is enabling researchers to push the frontiers of accelerator science.

    Instead of smashing beams together to study subatomic particles like most high-energy physics research accelerators, IOTA is dedicated to exploring and improving the particle beams themselves.

    IOTA researchers say they are excited by the observation of single-electron beams near the speed of light and the first results on decreasing beam instabilities. They are eager to use their single-electron technique to probe aspects of quantum science and see future breakthroughs in accelerator science.

    “The scientists who designed the accelerator are also the scientists that use it,” said Vladimir Shiltsev, a Fermilab distinguished scientist and one of the founders of IOTA. “It’s an opportunity to get great insight into the physics of beams at relatively small cost.”

    1
    Scientists using the 40-meter-circumference Integrable Optics Test Accelerator saw their first results from IOTA this summer. Photo: Giulio Stancari

    Versatility is the mother of innovation

    In the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology facility, a particle accelerator delivers intense bursts of electrons that are then stored in IOTA’s 40-meter-circumference ring, where they circulate about 7.5 million times every second at near the speed of light. The system’s design enables a small team to adjust or exchange components in the beamline to perform a variety of experiments on the frontier of accelerator science.

    “This machine was designed with a lot of flexibility in mind,” said Fermilab scientist Alexander Valishev, head of the team that developed and constructed IOTA.

    Consider the accelerator magnets, which are responsible for the size and shape of the particle beam’s profile. At IOTA, every magnet is powered separately so that researchers can reconfigure the machine for completely different experiments in a few minutes. At other accelerator facilities, a comparable change could require a lengthy shutdown of weeks or months.

    For research accelerators that serve researchers, the focus is typically on maximizing running time and maintaining well-understood, established beam parameters. In contrast, the IOTA team expects the accelerator to be routinely shut down, reconfigured and restarted. Its technical and operational flexibilities make it easier for outside teams to use IOTA to conduct their own experiments, exploring a variety of topics at the frontier of accelerator and beam physics.

    IOTA’s versatility has already attracted groups from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Northern Illinois University; SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; University of California, Berkeley; University of Chicago and other institutions. Not only are they conducting exciting science, but early-career researchers are also receiving valuable practical training in accelerator and beam science that can be challenging to come by.

    “If you wanted to have a comparable scientific program at a more traditional facility, it would be very difficult, if not prohibitive. Typically, those facilities are designed for a narrow range of research, aren’t easily modified and require nearly continuous operation,” said Fermilab scientist Jonathan Jarvis, who works on IOTA. “But here at IOTA, we are a purpose-built facility for frontier topics in accelerator research and development, and we have those flexibilities by design.”

    2
    Fermilab scientist Alexander Valishev inspects the specially designed nonlinear insert that produces the nonlinear magnetic fields for IOTA experiments. Photo: Giulio Stancari

    First results: Testing IOTA’s IO

    As part of the only dedicated ring-based accelerator R&D facility for high-intensity beam physics in the United States, IOTA is designed to develop technologies to increase the number of particles in a beam without increasing the beam’s size and thus the size and cost of the accelerator. Since all particles in the beam have an identical charge, they electrically repel each other, and as more particles are packed into the beam, it can become unstable. Particles may behave chaotically and escape. It takes expertise and innovative technology to tame a dense particle beam.

    To that end, IOTA researchers are investigating a novel technique called nonlinear integrable optics. The technique uses specially designed sets of magnets configured to prevent beam instabilities, significantly better than the configurations of magnets used over the past 50 years.

    To test the nonlinear integrable optics technique, IOTA researchers deliberately produced instability in the beam. They then measured how difficult it was to provoke unstable behavior in IOTA’s electron beam both with and without the influence of the magnetic fields

    The technique was a winner: Scientists observed that these specialized magnets significantly decreased the instability.

    During the next run of the system, the team plans to more rigorously study this effect.

    “The first result is merely a demonstration,” Valishev said. “But I think it’s already a big accomplishment.”

    3
    IOTA’s nonlinear magnets help prevent instabilities in high-intensity particle beams. Photo: Giulio Stancari

    Watching a single electron near the speed of light

    In a first for Fermilab, the researchers have also observed the circulation of a single electron.

    The IOTA beam, when injected into the storage ring, can contain about a billion electrons. As the beam circulates, electrons tend to escape the beam due to collisions with one another or with stray gas molecules in the beam pipe. So if you want to see an electron fly solo around the ring, it is just a matter of waiting.

    The real trick is being able to observe the last electron left “standing.”

    The fast-moving electrons emit visible light as they travel along the curves of the ring. This light is synchrotron radiation, which is emitted when charged particles moving near the speed of light change direction. The light provides researchers with information about the beam, including how many electrons are in it.

    IOTA researchers used the synchrotron radiation to observe the loss of electrons, one by one, until they finally witnessed a solitary electron.

    4
    This plot illustrates the decrease in the amount of measured synchrotron light every time an electron was knocked out of the particle beam.

    On their next round, rather than play the waiting game to get down to a beam of one electron, the team tried a faster, more deliberate approach. They devised a way to instead inject single electrons into IOTA on demand. It worked. The method reliably saw lone particles traveling around the ring.

    The wait was over.

    This feat is more than just a novel curiosity. The ability to store and observe a single electron, or even a very small number of electrons moving around at high speeds, creates opportunities to probe interesting quantum science.

    “Everything we do is rather macroscopic, so you wouldn’t think of any of this facility, let alone a 40-meter ring, as a quantum instrument,” Jarvis said. “But we’ve got this situation where there’s an individual particle circulating in the ring at nearly the speed of light, and it gives us fascinating opportunities to do something that is very quantum in nature.”

    For instance, in its upcoming run, IOTA will become the first facility in the world with the ability to precisely redirect synchrotron light back on the particle that generated it.

    This capability opens the door to a wide variety of fundamental quantum experiments and will also enable Fermilab scientists to attempt the world’s first demonstration of a powerful technique called optical stochastic beam cooling. Generally, beam cooling methods sap accelerated particles of their chaotic or frenetic motion. Optical stochastic cooling is expected to be thousands of times stronger than the current state of the art and is a perfect example of the high-impact returns that IOTA is targeting.

    Accelerating into the future: proton beams, electron lenses and more

    IOTA is currently set up to circulate electrons, and this work sets the stage for future, more challenging experiments with protons.

    The high-energy electron beam naturally shrinks to a smaller size due to synchrotron radiation, which makes it a well-behaved system for IOTA researchers to confirm important parts of beam physics theories.

    In contrast to IOTA’s electron beam, its forthcoming experiments with protons will see beam circulate at low velocity, be significantly larger and be strongly affected by the repulsive forces between beam particles. Research into the behavior of such proton beams will be integral to understanding how nonlinear integrable optics can be effectively applied in the high-power accelerators of the future.

    And with both electrons and protons in the mix, scientists can also advance to another exciting phase in IOTA’s research program: electron lenses. Electron lenses are yet another technique that researchers are investigating in their quest to create stable particle beams. This technique uses the negative charge of electrons to oppose the positive charges of protons to pull the protons into a compact, stable beam. The electron lens will also allow IOTA scientists to demonstrate the nonlinear integrable optics concept using special charge distributions rather than the specialized nonlinear magnets.

    With its breadth of unique capabilities, IOTA and its team are ready for several years of exciting research.

    “Frontier science requires frontier research and development, and at IOTA, we are focused on realizing those major innovations that could invigorate accelerator-based high-energy physics for the next several decades,” Jarvis said.

    This work is supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science.

    See the full here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:36 am on August 29, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "From capturing collisions to avoiding them", , , , HEP, , ,   

    From CERN: “From capturing collisions to avoiding them” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event


    From CERN

    29 August, 2019
    Kate Kahle

    1
    Around 100 simultaneous proton–proton collisions in an event recorded by the CMS experiment (Image: Thomas McCauley/CMS/CERN)

    With about one billion proton–proton collisions per second at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the LHC experiments need to sift quickly through the wealth of data to choose which collisions to analyse. To cope with an even higher number of collisions per second in the future, scientists are investigating computing methods such as machine-learning techniques. A new collaboration is now looking at how these techniques deployed on chips known as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) could apply to autonomous driving, so that the fast decision-making used for particle collisions could help prevent collisions on the road.

    FPGAs have been used at CERN for many years and for many applications. Unlike the central processing unit of a laptop, these chips follow simple instructions and process many parallel tasks at once. With up to 100 high-speed serial links, they are able to support high-bandwidth inputs and outputs. Their parallel processing and re-programmability make them suitable for machine-learning applications.

    2
    An FPGA-based readout card for the CMS tracker (Image: John Coughlan/CMS/CERN)

    The challenge, however, has been to fit complex deep-learning algorithms – a particular class of machine-learning algorithms – in chips of limited capacity. This required software developed for the CERN-based experiments, called “hls4ml”, which reduces the algorithms and produces FPGA-ready code without loss of accuracy or performance, allowing the chips to execute decision-making algorithms in micro-seconds.

    A new collaboration between CERN and Zenuity, the autonomous driving software company headquartered in Sweden, plans to use the techniques and software developed for the experiments at CERN to research their use in deploying deep learning on FPGAs, a particular class of machine-learning algorithms, for autonomous driving. Instead of particle-physics data, the FPGAs will be used to interpret huge quantities of data generated by normal driving conditions, using readouts from car sensors to identify pedestrians and vehicles. The technology should enable automated drive cars to make faster and better decisions and predictions, thus avoiding traffic collisions.

    To find out more about CERN technologies and their potential applications, visit kt.cern/technologies.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS

    CERN ATLAS Image Claudia Marcelloni CERN/ATLAS


    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

     
  • richardmitnick 2:42 pm on August 26, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , HEP, , ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “USCMS completes phase 1 upgrade program for CMS detector at CERN” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    August 26, 2019
    James Wetzel

    The CMS experiment at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider has achieved yet another significant milestone in its already storied history as a leader in the field of high-energy experimental particle physics.

    The U.S. contingent of the CMS collaboration, known as USCMS and managed by Fermilab, has been granted the Department of Energy’s final Critical Decision- 4 approval for its multiyear Phase 1 Detector Upgrade program, formally signifying the completion of the project after having met every stated goal — on time and under budget.

    “Getting CD-4 approval is a tremendous vote of confidence for the many people involved in CMS,” said Fermilab scientist Steve Nahn, U.S. project manager for the CMS detector upgrade. “The LHC is the best tool we have for further explication of the particle nature of the universe, and there are still mysteries to solve, so we have to have the best apparatus we can to continue the exploration.”

    LHC

    CERN map


    CERN LHC Maximilien Brice and Julien Marius Ordan


    CERN LHC particles

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS

    CERN ATLAS Image Claudia Marcelloni CERN/ATLAS

    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    The CMS experiment is a generation-spanning effort to build, operate and upgrade a particle-detecting behemoth that observes its protean prey in a large but cramped cavern 300 feet beneath the French countryside. CMS is one of four large experiments situated along the LHC accelerator complex, operated by CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The LHC is a 17-mile-round ring of magnets that accelerates two beams of protons in opposite directions, each to 99.999999999% the speed of light, and forces them to collide at the centers of CMS and the LHC’s other experiments: ALICE, LHCb and ATLAS.

    1
    Fermilab scientists Nadja Strobbe and Jim Hirschauer test chips for the CMS detector upgrades. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    The main goal of CMS (and the other LHC experiments) is to keep track of which particles emerge from the rapture of pure energy created from the collisions in order to search for new particles and phenomena. In catching sight of such new phenomena, scientists aim to answer some of the most fundamental questions we have about how the universe works.

    The global CMS collaboration comprises more than 5,000 professionals — including roughly 1,000 students — from over 200 institutes and universities across more than 50 countries. This international team collaborates to design, build, commission and operate the CMS detector, whose data is then distributed to dedicated centers in 40 nations for analysis. And analysis is their raison d’etre. By sussing out patterns in the data, CMS scientists search for previously unseen or unconfirmed phenomena and measure the properties of elementary particles that make up the universe with greater precision. To date, CMS has published over 900 papers.

    The USCMS collaboration is the single largest national group in CMS, involving 51 American universities and institutions in 24 states and Puerto Rico, over 400 Ph.D. physicists, and more than 200 graduate students and other professionals. USCMS has played a primary role in much of the CMS experiment’s original design and construction, including a wide network of eight CMS computing centers located across the United States, and in the experiment’s data analysis. USCMS is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation and has played an integral role in the success of the CMS collaboration as a whole from its founding.

    The CMS experiment, the LHC and the other LHC experiments became operational in 2009 (17 years after the CMS letter of intent), beginning a 10-year data-taking period referred to as Phase 1.

    Phase 1 was divided into four major epochs, alternating two periods of data-taking with two periods of maintenance and upgrade operations. The two data-taking periods are referred to as Run 1 (2009-2013) and Run 2 (2015-2018). It was during Run 1 (in 2012) that the CMS and ATLAS collaborations jointly announced they each had observed the long predicted Higgs boson, resulting in a Nobel Prize awarded a year later to scientists Peter Higgs and François Englert, and a further testament to the strength of the Standard Model of particle physics, the theory within which the Higgs boson was first hypothesized in 1964.

    Peter Higgs

    CERN CMS Higgs Event

    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event

    “That prize was a historic triumph of every individual, institution and nation involved with the LHC project, not only validating the Higgs conjecture, a cornerstone of the Standard Model, but also giving science a new particle to use as a tool for further exploration,” Nahn said. “This discovery and every milestone CMS has achieved since then is encouragement to continue working toward further discovery. That goes for our latest approval milestone.”

    Standard Model of Particle Physics

    2
    Fermilab scientist Maral Alyari and Stephanie Timpone conduct CMS pixel detector work. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    During the entirety of Phase 1, the wizard-like LHC particle accelerator experts were continually ramping up the collision energy and intensity, or in particle physics parlance, the luminosity of the LHC beam. The CMS technical team was charged with fulfilling the Phase 1 Upgrade plan, a series of hardware upgrades to the detector that allowed it to fully profit from the gains the LHC team was providing.

    While the LHC accelerator folks were prepping to push 20 times as many particles through the experiments per second, the experiments were busy upgrading their systems to handle this major influx of particles and the resulting data. This meant updating many of the readout electronics with faster and more capable brains to manage and process the data produced by CMS.

    With support from the Department of Energy’s Office of Science and the National Science Foundation, USCMS implemented $40 million worth of these strategic upgrades on time and under budget.

    With these upgrades complete, the CMS detector is now ready for LHC Run 3, which will go from 2021-23, and the collaboration is starting the stage of data taking on a solid foundation.

    Still, USCMS isn’t taking a break: The collaboration is already gearing up for its next, even more ambitious set of upgrades, planned for installation after Run 3. This USCMS upgrade phase will prepare the detector for an even higher luminosity, resulting in a data set 10 times greater than what the LHC provides currently.

    Every advance in the CMS detector ensures that it will support the experiment through 2038, when the LHC is planned to complete its final run.

    “For the last decade, we’ve worked to improve and enhance the CMS detector to squeeze everything we can out of the LHC’s collisions,” Nahn said. “We’re prepared to do the same for the next two decades to come.”

    See the full here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:18 am on August 12, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Cryomodules and Cavities, Fermilab modified a cryomodule design from DESY in Germany, , HEP, , LCLS-II will provide a staggering million pulses per second., Lined up end to end 37 cryomodules will power the LCLS-II XFEL., , , , , SLAC’s linear particle accelerator, ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “A million pulses per second: How particle accelerators are powering X-ray lasers” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    August 12, 2019
    Caitlyn Buongiorno

    About 10 years ago, the world’s most powerful X-ray laser — the Linac Coherent Light Source — made its debut at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Now the next revolutionary X-ray laser in a class of its own, LCLS-II, is under construction at SLAC, with support from four other DOE national laboratories.

    SLAC LCLS-II

    Researchers in biology, chemistry and physics will use LCLS-II to probe fundamental pieces of matter, creating 3-D movies of complex molecules in action, making LCLS-II a powerful, versatile instrument at the forefront of discovery.

    The project is coming together thanks largely to a crucial advance in the fields of particle and nuclear physics: superconducting accelerator technology. DOE’s Fermilab and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility are building the superconducting modules necessary for the accelerator upgrade for LCLS-II.

    1
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is upgrading its Linac Coherent Light Source, an X-ray laser, to be a more powerful tool for science. Both Fermilab and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility are contributing to the machine’s superconducting accelerator, seen here in the left part of the diagram. Image: SLAC

    A powerful tool for discovery

    Inside SLAC’s linear particle accelerator today, bursts of electrons are accelerated to energies that allow LCLS to fire off 120 X-ray pulses per second. These pulses last for quadrillionths of a second – a time scale known as a femtosecond – providing scientists with a flipbook-like look at molecular processes.

    “Over time, you can build up a molecular movie of how different systems evolve,” said SLAC scientist Mike Dunne, director of LCLS. “That’s proven to be quite remarkable, but it also has a number of limitations. That’s where LCLS-II comes in.”

    Using state-of-the-art particle accelerator technology, LCLS-II will provide a staggering million pulses per second. The advance will provide a more detailed look into how chemical, material and biological systems evolve on a time scale in which chemical bonds are made and broken.

    To really understand the difference, imagine you’re an alien visiting Earth. If you take one image a day of a city, you would notice roads and the cars that drive on them, but you couldn’t tell the speed of the cars or where the cars go. But taking a snapshot every few seconds would give you a highly detailed picture of how cars flow through the roads and would reveal phenomena like traffic jams. LCLS-II will provide this type of step-change information applied to chemical, biological and material processes.

    To reach this level of detail, SLAC needs to implement technology developed for particle physics – superconducting acceleration cavities – to power the LCLS-II free-electron laser, or XFEL.

    3
    This is an illustration of the electron accelerator of SLAC’s LCLS-II X-ray laser. The first third of the copper accelerator will be replaced with a superconducting one. The red tubes represent cryomodules, which are provided by Fermilab and Jefferson Lab. Image: SLAC

    Accelerating science

    Cavities are structures that impart energy to particle beams, accelerating the particles within them. LCLS-II, like modern particle accelerators, will take advantage of superconducting radio-frequency cavity technology, also called SRF technology. When cooled to 2 Kelvin, superconducting cavities allow electricity to flow freely, without any resistance. Like reducing the friction between a heavy object and the ground, less electrical resistance saves energy, allowing accelerators to reach higher power for less cost.

    “The SRF technology is the enabling step for LCLS-II’s million pulses per second,” Dunne said. “Jefferson Lab and Fermilab have been developing this technology for years. The core expertise to make LCLS-II possible lives at these labs.”

    Fermilab modified a cryomodule design from DESY, in Germany, and specially prepared the cavities to draw the record-setting performance from the cavities and cryomodules that will be used for LCLS-II.

    The cylinder-shaped cryomodules, about a meter in diameter, act as specialized containers for housing the cavities. Inside, ultracold liquid helium continuously flows around the cavities to ensure they maintain the unwavering 2 Kelvin essential for superconductivity. Lined up end to end, 37 cryomodules will power the LCLS-II XFEL.

    See the full here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:18 pm on August 5, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Fermilab’s HEPCloud goes live", , , , , , HEP,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Fermilab’s HEPCloud goes live” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    August 5, 2019
    Marcia Teckenbrock

    To meet the evolving needs of high-energy physics experiments, the underlying computing infrastructure must also evolve. Say hi to HEPCloud, the new, flexible way of meeting the peak computing demands of high-energy physics experiments using supercomputers, commercial services and other resources.

    Five years ago, Fermilab scientific computing experts began addressing the computing resource requirements for research occurring today and in the next decade. Back then, in 2014, some of Fermilab’s neutrino programs were just starting up. Looking further into future, plans were under way for two big projects. One was Fermilab’s participation in the future High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider at the European laboratory CERN.

    The other was the expansion of the Fermilab-hosted neutrino program, including the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. All of these programs would be accompanied by unprecedented data demands.

    To meet these demands, the experts had to change the way they did business.

    HEPCloud, the flagship project pioneered by Fermilab, changes the computing landscape because it employs an elastic computing model. Tested successfully over the last couple of years, it officially went into production as a service for Fermilab researchers this spring.

    2
    Scientists on Fermilab’s NOvA experiment were able to execute around 2 million hardware threads at a supercomputer [NERSC Cray Cori II supercomputer at NERSC at LBNL, named after Gerty Cori, the first American woman to win a Nobel Prize in science the Office of Science’s National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center.] And scientists on CMS experiment have been running workflows using HEPCloud at NERSC as a pilot project. Photo: Roy Kaltschmidt, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory]

    Experiments currently have some fixed computing capacity that meets, but doesn’t overshoot, its everyday needs. For times of peak demand, HEPCloud enables elasticity, allowing experiments to rent computing resources from other sources, such as supercomputers and commercial clouds, and manages them to satisfy peak demand. The prior method was to purchase local resources that on a day-to-day basis, overshoot the needs. In this new way, HEPCloud reduces the costs of providing computing capacity.

    “Traditionally, we would buy enough computers for peak capacity and put them in our local data center to cover our needs,” said Fermilab scientist Panagiotis Spentzouris, former HEPCloud project sponsor and a driving force behind HEPCloud. “However, the needs of experiments are not steady. They have peaks and valleys, so you want an elastic facility.”

    In addition, HEPCloud optimizes resource usage across all types, whether these resources are on site at Fermilab, on a grid such as Open Science Grid, in a cloud such as Amazon or Google, or at supercomputing centers like those run by the DOE Office of Science Advanced Scientific Computing Research program (ASCR). And it provides a uniform interface for scientists to easily access these resources without needing expert knowledge about where and how best to run their jobs.

    The idea to create a virtual facility to extend Fermilab’s computing resources began in 2014, when Spentzouris and Fermilab scientist Lothar Bauerdick began exploring ways to best provide resources for experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. The idea was to provide those resources based on the overall experiment needs rather than a certain amount of horsepower. After many planning sessions with computing experts from the CMS experiment at the LHC and beyond, and after a long period of hammering out the idea, a scientific facility called “One Facility” was born. DOE Associate Director of Science for High Energy Physics Jim Siegrist coined the name “HEPCloud” — a computing cloud for high-energy physics — during a general discussion about a solution for LHC computing demands. But interest beyond high-energy physics was also significant. DOE Associate Director of Science for Advanced Scientific Computing Research Barbara Helland was interested in HEPCloud for its relevancy to other Office of Science computing needs.

    3
    The CMS detector at CERN collects data from particle collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Now that HEPCloud is in production, CMS scientists will be able to run all of their physics workflows on the expanded resources made available through HEPCloud. Photo: CERN

    The project was a collaborative one. In addition to many individuals at Fermilab, Miron Livny at the University of Wisconsin-Madison contributed to the design, enabling HEPCloud to use the workload management system known as Condor (now HTCondor), which is used for all of the lab’s current grid activities.

    Since its inception, HEPCloud has achieved several milestones as it moved through the several development phases leading up to production. The project team first demonstrated the use of cloud computing on a significant scale in February 2016, when the CMS experiment used HEPCloud to achieve about 60,000 cores on the Amazon cloud, AWS. In November 2016, CMS again used HEPCloud to run 160,000 cores using Google Cloud Services , doubling the total size of the LHC’s computing worldwide. Most recently in May 2018, NOvA scientists were able to execute around 2 million hardware threads at a supercomputer the Office of Science’s National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), increasing both the scale and the amount of resources provided. During these activities, the experiments were executing and benefiting from real physics workflows. NOvA was even able to report significant scientific results at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Germany, one of the most attended conferences in neutrino physics.

    CMS has been running workflows using HEPCloud at NERSC as a pilot project. Now that HEPCloud is in production, CMS scientists will be able to run all of their physics workflows on the expanded resources made available through HEPCloud.

    Next, HEPCloud project members will work to expand the reach of HEPCloud even further, enabling experiments to use the leadership-class supercomputing facilities run by ASCR at Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

    Fermilab experts are working to see that, eventually, all Fermilab experiments be configured to use these extended computing resources.

    This work is supported by the DOE Office of Science.

    See the full here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:41 pm on August 5, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , HEP, , ,   

    From CERN Courier: “Sixty years of the CERN Courier” 


    From CERN Courier

    5 August, 2019
    Matthew Chalmers

    The magazine has published over 600 issues and now reaches tens of thousands of readers.

    1
    From its first issue in 1959 to today, the CERN Courier has gone through several transformations, including a redesign for its 60th anniversary (Image: Cristina Agrigoroae/CERN)

    In August 1959, when CERN was just five years old, and the Proton Synchrotron was preparing for beams, Director-General Cornelis Bakker founded a new periodical to inform staff what was going on.

    CERN Proton Synchrotron

    It was just eight-pages long with a print run of 1000, but already a section called Other people’s atoms reported news from other labs.

    The CERN Courier has since transformed into an international magazine of around 40 pages with a circulation of 22,000 print copies, covering the global high-energy physics scene. Its website, which receives about 30,000 monthly views, was relaunched this month and provides up-to-date news from the field.

    To celebrate its diamond jubilee, a feature in the latest issue reveals several gems from past editions and shows the ever-present challenges of predicting the next discovery in fundamental research.

    You can peruse the full archive of all CERN Courier issues via the CERN Document Server.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS

    CERN/ATLAS detector

    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

     
  • richardmitnick 12:22 pm on August 5, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "ATLAS releases new search for strong supersymmetry", , , HEP, , ,   

    From CERN ATLAS: “ATLAS releases new search for strong supersymmetry” 

    CERN/ATLAS detector

    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event

    CERN ATLAS another view Image Claudia Marcelloni ATLAS CERN


    CERN ATLAS New II Credit CERN SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY


    From CERN ATLAS

    5th August 2019

    1
    Figure 1: Distributions of observed data events, compared to the Standard Model prediction, for (left) a subset of the bins used in the multi-bin search, or (right) one of the BDT search discriminants. (Image: ATLAS Collaboration/CERN)

    New particles sensitive to the strong interaction might be produced in abundance in the proton-proton collisions generated by the LHC – provided that they aren’t too heavy. These particles could be the partners of gluons and quarks predicted by supersymmetry (SUSY), a proposed extension of the Standard Model of particle physics that would expand its predictive power to include much higher energies. In the simplest scenarios, these “gluinos” and “squarks” would be produced in pairs, and decay directly into quarks and a new stable neutral particle (the “neutralino”), which would not interact with the ATLAS detector. The neutralino could be the main constituent of dark matter.

    The ATLAS Collaboration has been searching for such processes since the early days of LHC operation. Physicists have been studying collision events featuring “jets” of hadrons, where there is a large imbalance in the momenta of these jets in the plane perpendicular to the colliding protons (“missing transverse momentum”, ETmiss). This missing momentum would be carried away by the undetectable neutralinos. So far, ATLAS searches have led to increasingly tighter constraints on the minimum possible masses of squarks and gluinos.

    Is it possible to do better, with more data? The probability of producing these heavy particles decreases exponentially with their masses, and thus repeating the previous analyses with a larger dataset only goes so far. New, sophisticated methods that help to better distinguish a SUSY signal from the background Standard Model events are needed to take these analyses further. Crucial improvements may come from increasing the efficiency for selecting signal events, improving the rejection of background processes, or looking into less-explored regions.

    Today, at the Lepton Photon Symposium in Toronto, Canada, the ATLAS Collaboration presented new results illustrating the benefits brought by more advanced analysis techniques, which were pioneered in other search channels. The sensitivity of the new analysis is significantly improved thanks to the use of two complementary approaches.

    In the first approach, referred to as the “multi-bin search”, the events are classified into bins defined by two observables: the effective mass and the ETmiss significance. These characterise the amount of energy involved in the interaction (large, if heavy particles were produced), and how unlikely the observed ETmiss is to be caused by the escaping neutralinos rather than the mismeasurement of jet energies. With up to 24 orthogonal bins defined at a time, the search is sensitive to a large variety of masses of gluinos, squarks and neutralinos (Figure 1 (left)).

    The second approach, known as the “Boosted Decision Tree (BDT) search”, uses machine learning classification algorithms to better discriminate a potential signal. The BDTs are trained with some of the kinematic properties of the jets + ETmiss final states, predicted by the Monte Carlo simulation for signal and background events. Eight such discriminants are defined, each optimised for a different region of the parameter and model space (Figure 1 (right)).

    2
    Figure 2: 95% confidence level exclusion limits on the masses of gluinos, squarks and neutralinos, in simplified signal scenarios assuming (left) only the pair production of gluinos, or (right) the combined pair production of gluinos and squarks for a neutralino mass of 0 GeV. (Image: ATLAS Collaboration/CERN)

    The new results made use of the full LHC Run 2 dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb-1, and did not show any significant difference between the number of observed events and the Standard Model predictions in the signal-enriched regions. Exclusion limits were therefore set on the masses of gluinos, squarks and neutralinos, assuming different scenarios. Some examples are shown in Figure 2. For the multi-bin search, the strength of all the bins can be simultaneously brought to bear, increasing the exclusion power of the analysis.

    Links

    Search for squarks and gluinos in final states with jets and missing transverse momentum using 139 fb−1 of 13 TeV proton-proton collision data with the ATLAS detector (ATLAS-CONF-2019-040, link coming soon)
    Lepton Photon 2019 plenary presentation: Overview of the ATLAS Experiment by Pierre Savard
    Search for squarks and gluinos in final states with jets and missing transverse momentum using 36 fb−1 of 13 TeV proton-proton collision data with the ATLAS detector (Phys. Rev. D 97 (2018) 112001, see figures)
    Search for squarks and gluinos using final states with jets and missing transverse momentum with the ATLAS detector in 7 TeV proton-proton collisions (ATLAS-CONF-2011-086)
    Search for top-squark pair production in final states with one lepton, jets, and missing transverse momentum using 36 fb−1 of 13 TeV proton-proton collision data with the ATLAS detector (JHEP 06 (2018) 108, see figures)
    Search for supersymmetry using final states with one lepton, jets, and missing transverse momentum with the ATLAS detector in 7 TeV proton-proton collisions (Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 (2011) 131802, see figures)
    See also the full lists of ATLAS Conference Notes and ATLAS Physics Papers.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    CERN Courier

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    CERN map


    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles

     
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