Tagged: Helmut Hornung Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • richardmitnick 12:02 pm on July 27, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Helmut Hornung, , Milky Way- The backbone of the night   

    From Max Planck Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics: “The backbone of the night – Like a huge spiral, the Milky Way floats in space 

    From Max Planck Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics

    July 27, 2018

    Contact
    Prof. Dr. Reinhard Genzel
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching
    +49 89 30000-3280 genzel@mpe.mpg.de

    Helmut Hornung
    Administrative Headquarters of the Max Planck Society, München
    +49 89 2108-1404 hornung@gv.mpg.de

    For thousands of years, people have been puzzling over the milky strip that extends across the entire firmament. In the modern era, Galileo Galilei discovered that this Milky Way consists of countless stars. However, it was not until the 20th century that astronomers succeeded in deciphering its form and its true nature.

    1

    Fire wheel: The Milky Way system, called galaxis, resembles a gigantic spiral with an estimated 200 billion stars. One of them is our Sun.
    © Robert Hurt/SSC/Caltech/JPL/NASA Robert Hurt

    Text: Helmut Hornung

    “My third observation relates to the nature of the Milky Way (…) No matter which part of it one targets with the telescope, one finds a huge number of stars, several of which are quite large and very striking; yet, the number of small stars is absolutely unfathomable.” These words were written in 1610 by a man who with his self-constructed telescope studied unknown lands that were not of this world. It was this work that earned him a place in history: Galileo Galilei.

    The land that he described is literally out of this world, and the document bears the title Sidereus Nuncius (“Starry Messenger”). In it, the Italian mathematician and astronomer presents his observations of the satellites of Jupiter, the Earth’s moon and also the Milky Way. Until then, their nature had remained a mystery, and had above all been the subject of mythology. The Greek natural philosopher Democritus had already claimed in the 5th century BC that the diffusely glowing strip in the sky – known by the African !Kung bushmen as the “backbone of the night” – consisted of countless weak stars.

    2
    Curved: from the side, the galaxy looks like a slightly bent wheel. It has a diameter of about 100,000 and a thickness of only 5,000 light years. Around the centre there is a bright, spherical bulge.© Helmut Rohrer

    Grindstone in the firmament

    After the discovery made by Galilei, however, nearly 150 years would pass before this celestial structure would again became the subject of scientific study. Thomas Wright of County Durham believed that stars were arranged in a flat region similar to a grindstone, which extended over the entire sky. For him, the Milky Way was nothing other than the projection of this grindstone. The German philosopher Immanuel Kant seized on this theory – and came very close to discovering the truth.

    In his General Natural History and Theory of the Heavens, published in 1755, he explained the Milky Way as an extended and very diluted layer of stars. The Sun, the Earth and all the other planets were part of this layer – but not at its centre. Depending on the line of sight, along the plane of the layer or vertically out of it, we would see different numbers of stars.

    But how were the astronomers to find out whether the apparent view of the Milky Way in the sky reflected its actual spatial structure? Stellar statistics devised at the end of the 18th century by Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel promised a solution: Herschel recorded the coordinates and brightness of all the stars that he could see through his telescope.

    However, the undertaking failed: apart from the unreliability of these measurements – for example, although it was possible to determine the apparent brightness of the stars, it was impossible to determine their absolute luminosity and hence their distance – there was also a fundamental problem: the Milky Way is filled with interstellar matter, gas and dust clouds that absorb the light from the stars. This obscures the view of the central region and makes it impossible to see the overarching structure. For this reason, stellar statistics can never encompass the system as a whole, but only the region around the Sun up to a radius of about 10,000 light-years. The breakthrough did not come until the middle of the 20th century, when astronomers learned to look at the sky with different eyes using radio telescopes.

    A look through curtains of dust

    4

    Close view: this image of the central part of the Milky Way shows a region of 1000 x 500 light years and was taken with the MeerKAT telescope stationed in South Africa, a system consisting of 64 radio antennas.
    © SARAO

    SKA Meerkat telescope, 90 km outside the small Northern Cape town of Carnarvon, SA

    Hydrogen is the most common element in the universe. As part of interstellar matter, neutral hydrogen (H1) fills the space between the stars, and thus also fills the Milky Way. This means that the distribution of clouds of hydrogen gas trace the shape of the whole system, similar to the way in which bones shape the human body.

    But how can these cosmic “bones” be made visible? The answer is provided by the nanouniverse: in the ground state of hydrogen, the direction of spin of the atomic nucleus and the electron that orbits around it are antiparallel. If two hydrogen atoms collide, the direction of spin of the nucleus and the electron may be flipped to end up parallel to each other – and after a certain time, they return to their basic antiparallel state.

    This process releases energy, which is radiated as an electromagnetic wave. This line lies in the radio range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Despite the extremely low density of interstellar matter, atoms are constantly colliding, causing the H 1 areas to glow in the light of this hydrogen line.

    This radiation penetrates the dust curtains almost unobstructed and can be picked up by radio telescopes. Thanks to this new window into the universe, astronomers have been able to discover the spiral structure of the Milky Way. However, in the 1970s, researchers found that hydrogen alone was not sufficient as an indicator of the galaxy’s morphology because, for example, it is less concentrated in the spiral arms than expected. The search began anew.

    Arms in motion

    The most important indicator turned out to be clouds of interstellar molecules; they emit radiation in the light of carbon monoxide (CO). Now it was gradually becoming possible to refine the portrait of the Milky Way. Accordingly, the galaxy (from the Greek word gala: milk) is a bent wheel, 100,000 light years in diameter and with a thickness of just 5,000 light years. The wheel hub with its black hole is surrounded by a spherical bulge of stars with an embedded cigar-shaped structure – a kind of bar.

    Around 15,000 light years from the centre, a ring extends that also consists of dust and gas clouds, as well as stars. The galaxy is characterised by several arms. Most of them bear the names of the stellar constellations in which we observe them: the Sagittarius and Perseus Arms, the Norma and Scutum-Crux Arms, the 3-Kiloparsec Arms and the Cygnus Arm.

    Our solar system is located in the Orion Arm, 26,000 light-years from the centre and almost on the main plane. The system, which contains around 200 billion suns, is surrounded by a spherical halo containing thousands of globular star clusters and a spherical region consisting of very thin hydrogen plasma.

    MIlky Way Halo NASA ESA STScI


    Milky Way Dark Matter Halo Credit ESO L. Calçada

    The entire galaxy rotates, with objects closer to the centre rotating faster, and those further from the centre rotating more slowly. The curve of this differential rotation shows irregularities that cannot be explained by visible mass alone.

    Here, it is likely that invisible dark matter plays a role.

    Caterpillar Project A Milky-Way-size dark-matter halo and its subhalos circled, an enormous suite of simulations . Griffen et al. 2016

    And the astronomers face yet another problem: despite the rotation, the spiral arms do not unwind, but have maintained their shape for billions of years. One explanation for this is shockwaves that propagate throughout the whole system and compact the matter in the spiral arms like a traffic jam on the motorway. Researchers are still puzzling over what causes these density waves.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    For their astrophysical research, the MPE scientists measure the radiation of far away objects in different wavelenths areas: from millimetere/sub-millimetre and infared all the way to X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. These methods span more than twelve decades of the electromagnetic spectrum.

    The research topics pursued at MPE range from the physics of cosmic plasmas and of stars to the physics and chemistry of interstellar matter, from star formation and nucleosynthesis to extragalactic astrophysics and cosmology. The interaction with observers and experimentalists in the institute not only leads to better consolidated efforts but also helps to identify new, promising research areas early on.

    The structural development of the institute mainly has been directed by the desire to work on cutting-edge experimental, astrophysical topics using instruments developed in-house. This includes individual detectors, spectrometers and cameras but also telescopes and integrated, complete payloads. Therefore the engineering and workshop areas are especially important for the close interlink between scientific and technical aspects.

    The scientific work is done in four major research areas that are supervised by one of the directors:

    Center for Astrochemical Studies (CAS)
    Director: P. Caselli

    High-Energy Astrophysics
    Director: P. Nandra

    Infrared/Submillimeter Astronomy
    Director: R. Genzel

    Optical & Interpretative Astronomy
    Director: R. Bender

    Within these areas scientists lead individual experiments and research projects organised in about 25 project teams.

    The Max Planck Society is Germany’s most successful research organization. Since its establishment in 1948, no fewer than 18 Nobel laureates have emerged from the ranks of its scientists, putting it on a par with the best and most prestigious research institutions worldwide. The more than 15,000 publications each year in internationally renowned scientific journals are proof of the outstanding research work conducted at Max Planck Institutes – and many of those articles are among the most-cited publications in the relevant field.

    What is the basis of this success? The scientific attractiveness of the Max Planck Society is based on its understanding of research: Max Planck Institutes are built up solely around the world’s leading researchers. They themselves define their research subjects and are given the best working conditions, as well as free reign in selecting their staff. This is the core of the Harnack principle, which dates back to Adolph von Harnack, the first president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, which was established in 1911. This principle has been successfully applied for nearly one hundred years. The Max Planck Society continues the tradition of its predecessor institution with this structural principle of the person-centered research organization.

    The currently 83 Max Planck Institutes and facilities conduct basic research in the service of the general public in the natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and the humanities. Max Planck Institutes focus on research fields that are particularly innovative, or that are especially demanding in terms of funding or time requirements. And their research spectrum is continually evolving: new institutes are established to find answers to seminal, forward-looking scientific questions, while others are closed when, for example, their research field has been widely established at universities. This continuous renewal preserves the scope the Max Planck Society needs to react quickly to pioneering scientific developments.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:30 pm on July 26, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , Helmut Hornung, , Reinhard Genzel,   

    From Max Planck Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics: ” ‘The galactic centre offers fantastic opportunities’” 

    From Max Planck Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics

    July 26, 2018

    Prof. Dr. Reinhard Genzel
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching
    +49 89 30000-3280 genzel@mpe.mpg.de

    Helmut Hornung
    Administrative Headquarters of the Max Planck Society, München
    +49 89 2108-1404 hornung@gv.mpg.de

    It is highly likely that there is a black hole at the centre of the Milky Way. The astronomers working under Reinhard Genzel, Director of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching near Munich are making repeated detailed studies of the surrounding area of the gravitational trap. Now, the researchers have succeeded in making a huge achievement in the art of observation: from the motion of a star called S2 around the black hole, which is 26,000 light years away, they have measured an effect predicted by Albert Einstein known as the gravitational redshift. What is so special about this observation?

    Star S2 Keck/UCLA Galactic Center Group

    1
    The astronomer and his tool: Reinhard Genzel, Director at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, in front of the Very Large Telescope, which he uses to peer into the heart of the Milky Way.
    © MPE

    ESO VLT at Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert, elevation 2,635 m (8,645 ft) from above Credit J.L. Dauvergne & G. Hüdepohl atacama photo

    You have been studying the surrounding area of the black hole in the centre of the Milky Way for more than 20 years. Were you specifically looking for the gravitational redshift that you have now discovered, or did this happen by accident?

    No, the discovery was by no means accidental. We’ve been systematically looking for this and preparing the experiment for ten years now. We’ve known for a long time that the object in the galactic centre has a very high mass, and that it is highly plausible that it is a black hole. However, there’s a difference between plausibility and physical certainty. That’s why we design all kinds of tests, for which the centre of our Milky Way offers wonderful opportunities. In short: our current measurement of the gravitational redshift is already providing very strong evidence of the existence of the black hole in the galactic centre – and of the general theory of relativity.

    The current observations are taking place on the margins of what is measurable. What instruments did you need in order to achieve your successful result?

    Certainly, measurements like these would not have been possible just a few years ago. At that time, we observed the centre of the Milky Way using a single eight-meter mirror in the Very Large Telescope. Now, we us all four telescopes in the system in Chile at the same time by using interferometry.

    ESO VLT Interferometer, at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    In radio astronomy, this procedure, in which the waves of an object overlap and this appears sharper as a result, has already been established for decades, but not in the field of optics. For this reason, the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics headed by Frank Eisenhauer, together with the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, the European Southern Observatory, the University of Cologne, two French CNRS institutes and institutes in Porto and Lisbon, has developed a highly complex instrument called Gravity.

    ESO GRAVITY in the VLTI

    Gravity processes the signals of the four individual telescopes and offers a huge improvement in the detail resolution in the infrared range. This means that thanks to Gravity, the Very Large Telescope could in theory provide images of two adjacent two-euro coins on the moon. It’s no exaggeration to say that Gravity has led to a breakthrough in the field of optics in matters relating to interferometry.

    A key role during observation is probably also played by adaptive optics. What’s the reason for this?

    Glistening against the awesome backdrop of the night sky above ESO_s Paranal Observatory, four laser beams project out into the darkness from Unit Telescope 4 UT4 of the VLT.

    Turbulences in the Earth’s atmosphere distort the wavefronts of the stars’ light. In principle, the aim is to compensate the crests and troughs of waves. This is made possible through the use of a mirror in the telescope, which has mechanical tappets attached to its rear side. These so-called actuators deform the surface of this small mirror in the beam path up to a thousand times per second, and in this way eliminate the distortions. In this way, we achieve the theoretical resolution of the telescope – and this is higher by a factor of ten than those that are achieved without correcting the air turbulence.

    You said that the centre of the Milky Way offers wonderful opportunities to finally put the general theory of relativity to the test …

    … and the redshift measured by us is one of these tests. In this regard, it’s important to realise that such a redshift is not just caused by the Doppler effect. We know this from everyday life when for example an ambulance drives past us, and the tone level of the siren increases and decreases. At the same time, this means a displacement of the wavelength into the short- or long-wave range. This also occurs with light waves, where reference is made to blueshift or also redshift. This aside, according to the general theory of relativity, a redshift also occurs in the field of gravity when light moves there and fights against it to a certain degree. This effect also has an impact on the radiation of the S2 star, which approaches the black hole up to a distance of around 14 billion kilometres – which is the equivalent of three times the distance between the planet Neptune and the Sun. On 19 May of this year, S2 again passed the place where the distance was lowest during its orbit. For us, this offered a unique opportunity to measure the gravitational redshift.

    Can you foresee conducting further tests for the general theory of relativity?

    Yes, another test would be the Schwarzschild precession. This sounds complicated, but in fact, it’s simple. According to the general theory of relativity, celestial bodies that move around a central mass do not run on closed trajectories. The point of the greatest approximation, the perihelion, constantly continues to move in space. This can be clearly observed with planet Mercury, the perihelion rotation of which has been known for a long time. Its measured value correlates precisely with Einstein’s prediction. It is likely that a similar effect can be observed in the orbits of stars that move around the central black hole of the Milky Way. Indeed, we are already seeing the first signs of this. In two years’ time, we should then have statistically significant measurements. The best test for the general theory of relativity would otherwise be when a star falls into the black hole in front of our eyes. Unfortunately, statistically speaking, this happens only once every 10,000 years.

    The gravitation effect measured by your group is a wonderful piece of evidence supporting Einstein’s theory of relativity. Is there any doubt at all now about the validity of this theory?

    Yes, certainly! To put it in drastic terms: the physical laws known to us to date only apply to a limited range of parameters. The tiniest and the largest in particular, namely quantum physics and the theory of relativity, do not match each other. And so far, a corresponding quantum theory of gravitation has not yet been developed.

    Interview: Helmut Hornung

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    For their astrophysical research, the MPE scientists measure the radiation of far away objects in different wavelenths areas: from millimetere/sub-millimetre and infared all the way to X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. These methods span more than twelve decades of the electromagnetic spectrum.

    The research topics pursued at MPE range from the physics of cosmic plasmas and of stars to the physics and chemistry of interstellar matter, from star formation and nucleosynthesis to extragalactic astrophysics and cosmology. The interaction with observers and experimentalists in the institute not only leads to better consolidated efforts but also helps to identify new, promising research areas early on.

    The structural development of the institute mainly has been directed by the desire to work on cutting-edge experimental, astrophysical topics using instruments developed in-house. This includes individual detectors, spectrometers and cameras but also telescopes and integrated, complete payloads. Therefore the engineering and workshop areas are especially important for the close interlink between scientific and technical aspects.

    The scientific work is done in four major research areas that are supervised by one of the directors:

    Center for Astrochemical Studies (CAS)
    Director: P. Caselli

    High-Energy Astrophysics
    Director: P. Nandra

    Infrared/Submillimeter Astronomy
    Director: R. Genzel

    Optical & Interpretative Astronomy
    Director: R. Bender

    Within these areas scientists lead individual experiments and research projects organised in about 25 project teams.

    The Max Planck Society is Germany’s most successful research organization. Since its establishment in 1948, no fewer than 18 Nobel laureates have emerged from the ranks of its scientists, putting it on a par with the best and most prestigious research institutions worldwide. The more than 15,000 publications each year in internationally renowned scientific journals are proof of the outstanding research work conducted at Max Planck Institutes – and many of those articles are among the most-cited publications in the relevant field.

    What is the basis of this success? The scientific attractiveness of the Max Planck Society is based on its understanding of research: Max Planck Institutes are built up solely around the world’s leading researchers. They themselves define their research subjects and are given the best working conditions, as well as free reign in selecting their staff. This is the core of the Harnack principle, which dates back to Adolph von Harnack, the first president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, which was established in 1911. This principle has been successfully applied for nearly one hundred years. The Max Planck Society continues the tradition of its predecessor institution with this structural principle of the person-centered research organization.

    The currently 83 Max Planck Institutes and facilities conduct basic research in the service of the general public in the natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and the humanities. Max Planck Institutes focus on research fields that are particularly innovative, or that are especially demanding in terms of funding or time requirements. And their research spectrum is continually evolving: new institutes are established to find answers to seminal, forward-looking scientific questions, while others are closed when, for example, their research field has been widely established at universities. This continuous renewal preserves the scope the Max Planck Society needs to react quickly to pioneering scientific developments.

     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel
%d bloggers like this: