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  • richardmitnick 12:12 pm on July 17, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "High gloss future — Testing of first of series module for the UNILAC Alvarez upgrade", Another specialty are the quadrupole magnets integrated into the structure's drift tubes which provide beam focusing during acceleration., , , GSI Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren GmbH] (DE), GSI's linear accelerator UNILAC, Many of GSI/FAIR’s technical departments are involved in this project., Once the FoS passes all tests 25 sections will be manufactured in series production., The FoS Alavarez structure, The new components combine large dimensions in the meter range with high precision in the submillimeter range., The new FAIR accelerator facility   

    From GSI Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren GmbH] (DE): “High gloss future — Testing of first of series module for the UNILAC Alvarez upgrade” 

    From GSI Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren GmbH] (DE)

    15.07.2021

    1
    The high gloss interior of the FoS Alavarez structure.

    2
    The FoS Alavarez structure is mounted and ready for testing of high power operation.

    Highest quality and a mirror-like gloss: Inside the so-called Alvarez accelerator, a 55-meter-long part of GSI’s linear accelerator UNILAC, the high-grade copper surface stands out. Due to the upgrading measures for operation with the new FAIR accelerator facility, which is currently under construction, the existing GSI facility is also undergoing many improvements. One of them is the replacement of the existing Alvarez with a new, improved accelerator structures of the Alvarez type. A first of series (FoS) module has now been completed and is undergoing testing.

    The linear accelerator UNILAC (Universal Linear Accelerator) serves as the first accelerator stage to bring ions up to speed. The Alvarez section, located at the rear of the 120-meter-long UNILAC, brings them from 5% to 15% of the speed of light so they can be injected into the GSI ring accelerator, accelerated further and later transferred into the FAIR facility. Since the existing Alvarez, which is in operation for nearly 50 years, doesn’t meet FAIR’s high requirements, the decision for its replacement was made.

    The new components combine large dimensions in the meter range with high precision in the submillimeter range. Internal surfaces must be manufactured to the highest quality with roughness of just a few micrometers to apply the copper plating afterwards. For the GSI electroplating department, which specializes in large components, the copper plating itself is a huge challenge due to the necessary homogeneity. The special surface is necessary for the device to start its “glossy” future in the accelerator.

    “Another specialty are the quadrupole magnets integrated into the structure’s drift tubes which provide beam focusing during acceleration. Manufacturing, installation and adjustment must be exactly right to guarantee the magnetic field quality,” explains accelerator physicist Dr. Lars Groening, who is head of the responsible department “UNILAC Post Stripper Upgrade”. “We have greatly improved the quadrupoles compared to the existing Alvarez: they focus more strongly and, in quasi-simultaneous operation with several ion species, ensure optimal focusing properties for each species through rapid switching. This is essential for FAIR.”

    Many of GSI/FAIR’s technical departments are involved in this project. Following extensive planning, design and construction of the components took place. A FoS Alvarez component was delivered in 2019 and assembled on campus. Testing took place for specified properties such as dimensions, tolerances and surface quality of the inside, as well as low-power electromagnetic field characteristics. In the previous year 2020 the structure received its characteristic high gloss: it was successfully copper-plated at GSI’s electroplating facility and is now ready for testing in high-power operation.

    Once the FoS passes all tests 25 sections will be manufactured in series production. They, too, must undergo a defined acceptance procedure and tests of the high-frequency electromagnetic fields. For this purpose, five sections with three-ton end caps at each side and the drift tubes will be assembled to one cavity, so that in total five cavities of the Alvarez type will be tested. Subsequent to the careful test campaign, the replacement of the existing Alvarez section with the five new Alvarez cavities can begin at the UNILAC tunnel, which is estimated to take about one and a half years. (CP)

    See the full article here.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Helmholtz Zentrum München (DE) by numbers.

    The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [[Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren GmbH] (DE) is the largest scientific organization in Germany. It is a union of 18 scientific-technical and biological-medical research centers. The official mission of the Association is “solving the grand challenges of science, society and industry”. Scientists at Helmholtz therefore focus research on complex systems which affect human life and the environment. The namesake of the association is the German physiologist and physicist Hermann von Helmholtz.
    The annual budget of the Helmholtz Association amounts to €4.56 billion, of which about 72% is raised from public funds. The remaining 28% of the budget is acquired by the 19 individual Helmholtz Centres in the form of contract funding. The public funds are provided by the federal government (90%) and the rest by the States of Germany (10%).
    The Helmholtz Association was ranked #8 in 2015 and #7 in 2017 by the Nature Index, which measures the largest contributors to papers published in 82 leading journals.

    The laboratory performs basic and applied research in physics and related natural science disciplines. Main fields of study include plasma physics, atomic physics, nuclear structure and reactions research, biophysics and medical research. The lab is a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:07 pm on July 7, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Like a molten pancake: A new model for shield volcano eruption", , , GSI Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren GmbH] (DE),   

    From GSI Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren GmbH] (DE) via phys.org : “Like a molten pancake: A new model for shield volcano eruption” 

    From GSI Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren GmbH] (DE)

    via

    phys.org

    July 7, 2021

    1
    Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. May 1954 eruption of Kilauea Volcano. Halemaumau fountains. Photo by J.P. Eaton, May 31, 1954.

    2
    Erta Ale is an active shield volcano located in the Afar Region of northeastern Ethiopia, within the Danakil Desert. It is the most active volcano in Ethiopia. Credit: filippo_jean

    There are some large shield volcanoes in the world’s oceans where the lava is usually not ejected from the crater in violent explosions, but flows slowly out of the ground from long fissures. In the recent eruption of the Sierra Negra volcano in the Galapagos Islands, which lie just under a thousand kilometers off South America in the Pacific Ocean, one of these fissures was fed through a curved pathway in June 2018.

    4
    Sierra Negra Volcano Eruption – June 2018. Credit: Allie Savage.

    This 15 kilometer-long pathway, including the kink, was created by the interaction of three different forces in the subsurface, Timothy Davis and Eleonora Rivalta from the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam, together with Marco Bagnardi and Paul Lundgren from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (US) in Pasadena, now explain based on computer models in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.

    Even before the eruption, the geoscientists in California had seen in radar satellite data that the surface of the flank of the 1140-meter-high Sierra Negra volcano had bulged to a height of about two meters: this bulge, about five kilometers wide, stretched from the crater rim about ten kilometers in a west-northwest direction and turned at a right angle to the north-northeast near the coast. Timothy Davis and his team then found out what this structure and its perplexing bend were all about with the help of computer models.

    Driving Force 1: Hotspot beneath the Galapagos Islands

    As with many other volcanoes in the middle of the world’s oceans, a “hotspot” is hidden beneath the Galapagos Islands. For at least 20 million years, hot rock has been rising slowly from deep within the Earth’s interior, like a solid, but difficult-to-form plasticine. Like a blowtorch, this hotspot, up to 200 kilometers wide, melts its way through the solid crust of the Earth. This hot magma is a little lighter than the solid rock around it, so it keeps rising until it collects in a large cavity about two kilometers below the crater of the Sierra Negra volcano. “With a diameter of around six kilometers and a thickness of no more than one kilometer, this magma chamber resembles an oversized pancake of molten rock,” Timothy Davis describes this structure.

    Driving Force 2: The weight of the volcano rock

    In the almost 13 years since the last eruption in October 2005, more and more magma has flowed into the chamber from below. There, the pressure rose and lifted the crater floor up to 5.20 meters. However, the enormous force of the gathering magma masses sought another way out. Deep underground, the viscous rock slowly crawled in a west-northwest direction. Another force plays an important role here: the enormous weight of the volcano’s rock masses presses from above on the magma flow that is just forming. As the shield volcano becomes flatter and flatter towards the outside, the pressure there also decreases. As the molten rock is pressed in the direction with lower pressure, it slowly swells outwards in a magma flow that is four kilometers wide but only about two meters high.

    Driving Force 3: Buoyancy

    Near the coastline, the flattening shield volcano presses ever more weakly on the now almost ten-kilometer-long magma corridor deep below the surface. There, a third force gains the upper hand. The magma is much lighter than the rock around the passage and was previously only prevented from swelling by the overlying weight of the shield volcano. Near the coastline, however, this buoyancy becomes stronger than the pressure of the rock from above. On top of that, the magma slope there tilts about ten degrees into the depths. Together, these forces change the direction in which the viscous rock is pressed and the magma slope bends towards the north-northeast.

    The rock cracks, the volcano erupts

    Still, the magma swelling under the crater continues to increase the pressure until the upward-pressing molten mass begins to crack the rock around the magma passage. At no more than walking speed, this magma-filled crack (dyke) is traveling deep underground towards the coastline. “The magma rising from the crack reaches the surface after a few days and continues to flow there as lava, which solidifies after some time,” Timothy Davis explains the subsequent course of the volcanic eruption.

    Important prerequisite for prediction and hazard minimization

    For the first time, the geophysicist was able to simulate such a tortuous magma propagation pathway feeding an eruption and determine the forces that control this. Timothy Davis and Eleonora Rivalta, together with their colleagues in California, have thus laid important foundations for research into such fissure eruptions. And they have taken a decisive step towards predicting such eruptions and thus reducing the dangers they pose.

    See the full article here.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Helmholtz Zentrum München (DE) by numbers.

    The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [[Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren GmbH] (DE) is the largest scientific organization in Germany. It is a union of 18 scientific-technical and biological-medical research centers. The official mission of the Association is “solving the grand challenges of science, society and industry”. Scientists at Helmholtz therefore focus research on complex systems which affect human life and the environment. The namesake of the association is the German physiologist and physicist Hermann von Helmholtz.
    The annual budget of the Helmholtz Association amounts to €4.56 billion, of which about 72% is raised from public funds. The remaining 28% of the budget is acquired by the 19 individual Helmholtz Centres in the form of contract funding. The public funds are provided by the federal government (90%) and the rest by the States of Germany (10%).
    The Helmholtz Association was ranked #8 in 2015 and #7 in 2017 by the Nature Index, which measures the largest contributors to papers published in 82 leading journals.

    The laboratory performs basic and applied research in physics and related natural science disciplines. Main fields of study include plasma physics, atomic physics, nuclear structure and reactions research, biophysics and medical research. The lab is a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:04 pm on February 11, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "BASE opens up new possibilities in the search for cold dark matter", Axion physics, Axions or axion-like particles are candidates for cold dark matter., BASE opens up possibilities for other Penning trap experiments to participate in the search for dark matter., , For the first time the BASE experiment at CERN has turned the tools developed to detect single antiprotons to the search for dark matter., GSI Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren GmbH] (DE), High-precision Penning trap physics, , New limits set on the mass of axion-like particles., Penning trap-a combination of electric and strong magnetic fields., The Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment (BASE) at CERN’s Antimatter Factory, The physicists at BASE can isolate individual antiprotons and move them to a separate part of the trap.   

    From GSI Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren GmbH] (DE) and MPG Institute for Nuclear Physics [MPG Institut für Kernphysik] (DE): “BASE opens up new possibilities in the search for cold dark matter” 


    MPG Institute for Nuclear Physics [MPG Institut für Kernphysik] DE

    and

    From GSI Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren GmbH] (DE)

    11.02.2021

    Contacts

    Dr. Stefan Ulmer (RIKEN/CERN)
    Phone: +41 75411-9072
    Email: stefan.ulmer@cern.ch

    Prof. Dr. Klaus Blaum (MPIK)
    Phone: +49 6221 516-859
    Email: klaus.blaum@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    BASE: Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment

    2
    CERN Top view of the BASE experiment.

    The Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment (BASE) at CERN’s Antimatter Factory has set new limits on the mass of axion-like particles – hypothetical particles that are candidates for dark matter – and constrained how easily they can turn into photons, the particles of light.

    CERN ALPHA Antimatter Factory.

    This is especially significant as BASE was not designed for such studies. The experiment’s new result, published by Physical Review Letters, describes this pioneering method and opens up new experimental possibilities in the search for cold dark matter. GSI is involved in BASE, among other things, by manufacturing some components of the experimental setup.

    “BASE has extremely sensitive tuned circuit detection systems to study the properties of single trapped antiprotons. We realized that these detectors can also be used to search for signals of other particles. In this recently published work we used one of our detectors as an antenna to search for a new type of axion-like particles,” explains Jack Devlin, a CERN research fellow working on the experiment.

    Axions or axion-like particles are candidates for cold dark matter. From astrophysical observations, we believe that around 26.8 percent of the matter-energy content of the Universe is made up of dark matter and only about 5 percent of ordinary – visible – matter; the remainder is the mysterious dark energy.

    Lamda Cold Dark Matter Accerated Expansion of The universe http scinotions.com the-cosmic-inflation-suggests-the-existence-of-parallel-universes
    Alex Mittelmann, Coldcreation.

    These unknown particles feel the force of gravity, but they barely respond to the other fundamental forces, if they experience these at all. The best accepted theory of fundamental forces and particles, called the Standard Model of particle physics, does not contain any particles which have the right properties to be cold dark matter.

    Standard Model of Particle Physics (LATHAM BOYLE AND MARDUS OF WIKIMEDIA COMMONS).

    However, since the Standard Model leaves many questions unanswered, physicists have proposed theories that go beyond, some of which explain the nature of dark matter. Among such theories are those that suggest the existence of axions or axion-like particles. These theories need to be tested and there are many experiments set up around the world to look for these particles. For the first time, the BASE experiment at CERN has turned the tools developed to detect single antiprotons to the search for dark matter.

    Compared to the large detectors installed in the LHC, BASE is a much smaller experiment. It is connected to CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator, which supplies the experiment with antiprotons.

    CERN Antiproton Decelerator.

    BASE captures and suspends these particles in a Penning trap, a combination of electric and strong magnetic fields. To avoid collisions with ordinary matter, the trap is operated at 5 Kelvin (~−268 °C) where exceedingly low pressures, similar to those in deep space are reached (10−18 mbar). In this extremely well-isolated environment, clouds of trapped antiprotons can exist for years at a time. By carefully adjusting the electric fields, the physicists at BASE can isolate individual antiprotons and move them to a separate part of the trap. In this region, very sensitive superconducting resonant detectors can pick up the tiny electrical currents generated by single antiprotons as they move around the trap.

    In the now published work, the BASE team looked for unexpected electrical signals in their sensitive antiproton detectors. At the heart of each detector is a small, approximately 4cm diameter, donut-shaped coil, which looks similar to the inductors you might find in many ordinary electronics. However, the BASE detectors are superconducting and have almost no electrical resistance, and all the surrounding components are carefully chosen so that they do not cause electrical losses. This makes the BASE detectors extremely sensitive to any small electrical fields. Physicists used the antiproton as a quantum sensor to precisely calibrate the background noise on their detector. They then began to search for unusual signals, however faint, that could hint at those induced by axion-like particles and their possible interactions with photons. Nothing was found at the frequencies that were recorded, which means that BASE succeeded in setting new limits for the mass of axion-like particles and in investigating their possible interactions with photons.

    With this study, BASE opens up possibilities for other Penning trap experiments to participate in the search for dark matter. Since BASE was not built to look for these signals, several changes could be made to improve the probability of finding an axion-like particle in the future. “With this new technique, we’ve combined two previously unrelated branches of experimental physics: axion physics and high-precision Penning trap physics. Our laboratory experiment is complementary to astrophysics experiments and especially very sensitive in the low axion mass range. With a purpose-built instrument we would be able to increase the bandwidth and sensitivity to broaden the landscape of axion searches using Penning trap techniques,” says Stefan Ulmer, spokesperson for the BASE experiment collaboration.

    The BASE collaboration consists of scientists from RIKEN Fundamental Symmetries Laboratory (JP), the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN)(CH), the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK) (DE), the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU)(DE), the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM)(DE), the University of Tokyo (JP), the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt (DE), the Leibniz University Hannover (DE), and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) (DE). The research was performed as part of the work of the Max Planck-RIKEN-PTB Center for Time, Constants and Fundamental Symmetries, an international group established to develop high-precision measurements to better understand the physics of our Universe. (CP)

    See the full article here.

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    The MPG Institut für Kernphysik (DE) (“MPG for Nuclear Physics” or MPIK for short) is a research institute in Heidelberg, Germany.

    The institute is one of the 80 institutes of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (Max Planck Society), an independent, non-profit research organization. The Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics was founded in 1958 under the leadership of Wolfgang Gentner. Its precursor was the Institute for Physics at the MPI for Medical Research.

    The Max Planck Society is Germany’s most successful research organization. Since its establishment in 1948, no fewer than 18 Nobel laureates have emerged from the ranks of its scientists, putting it on a par with the best and most prestigious research institutions worldwide. The more than 15,000 publications each year in internationally renowned scientific journals are proof of the outstanding research work conducted at Max Planck Institutes – and many of those articles are among the most-cited publications in the relevant field.

    What is the basis of this success? The scientific attractiveness of the Max Planck Society is based on its understanding of research: Max Planck Institutes are built up solely around the world’s leading researchers. They themselves define their research subjects and are given the best working conditions, as well as free reign in selecting their staff. This is the core of the Harnack principle, which dates back to Adolph von Harnack, the first president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, which was established in 1911. This principle has been successfully applied for nearly one hundred years. The Max Planck Society continues the tradition of its predecessor institution with this structural principle of the person-centered research organization.

    The currently 83 Max Planck Institutes and facilities conduct basic research in the service of the general public in the natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and the humanities. Max Planck Institutes focus on research fields that are particularly innovative, or that are especially demanding in terms of funding or time requirements. And their research spectrum is continually evolving: new institutes are established to find answers to seminal, forward-looking scientific questions, while others are closed when, for example, their research field has been widely established at universities. This continuous renewal preserves the scope the Max Planck Society needs to react quickly to pioneering scientific developments.

    Helmholtz Zentrum München (DE) by numbers.

    The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [[Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren GmbH] (DE) is the largest scientific organization in Germany. It is a union of 18 scientific-technical and biological-medical research centers. The official mission of the Association is “solving the grand challenges of science, society and industry”. Scientists at Helmholtz therefore focus research on complex systems which affect human life and the environment. The namesake of the association is the German physiologist and physicist Hermann von Helmholtz.
    The annual budget of the Helmholtz Association amounts to €4.56 billion, of which about 72% is raised from public funds. The remaining 28% of the budget is acquired by the 19 individual Helmholtz Centres in the form of contract funding. The public funds are provided by the federal government (90%) and the rest by the States of Germany (10%).
    The Helmholtz Association was ranked #8 in 2015 and #7 in 2017 by the Nature Index, which measures the largest contributors to papers published in 82 leading journals.

    The laboratory performs basic and applied research in physics and related natural science disciplines. Main fields of study include plasma physics, atomic physics, nuclear structure and reactions research, biophysics and medical research. The lab is a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:20 pm on January 22, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Helium nuclei at the surface of heavy nuclei discovered", , GSI Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren GmbH] (DE), , The Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) in Osaka Japan, The results confirm a theory which predicts the formation of helium clusters in low-density nuclear matter and at the surface of heavy nuclei.   

    From GSI Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren GmbH] (DE): “Helium nuclei at the surface of heavy nuclei discovered” 

    From GSI Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren GmbH] (DE)

    21.01.2021

    1
    The experiments took place at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) Grand Raiden spectrometer in Osaka in Japan.

    Scientists are able to selectively knockout nucleons and preformed nuclear clusters from atomic nuclei using high-energy proton beams. In an experiment performed at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) in Osaka, Japan, the existence of preformed helium nuclei at the surface of several tin isotopes could be identified in a reaction. The results confirm a theory, which predicts the formation of helium clusters in low-density nuclear matter and at the surface of heavy nuclei. A research team, lead by scientists from TU Darmstadt and the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy-Ion Research, and from the RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, discuss the new findings in a contribution to the latest issue of the journal Science.

    The strong interaction binds neutrons and protons together to atomic nuclei. The knowledge of properties of nuclei and their theoretical description is basis for our understanding of nuclear matter and the development of the universe. Laboratory-based studies of reactions between atomic nuclei provide means to explore nuclear properties. These experiments allow the testing and verification of theories that describe properties of extended nuclear matter at different conditions, as present, for instance, in neutron stars in the universe.

    Several theories predict the formation of nuclear clusters like helium nuclei in dilute nuclear matter. This effect is expected to occur at densities significantly lower than saturation density of nuclear matter, as present in the inner part of heavy nuclei. A theory developed in Darmstadt by Dr. Stefan Typel predicts that such a condensation of helium nuclei should also occur at the surface of heavy nuclei. The goal of the experiment, which is presented in the latest issue of Science, was the verification of this prediction.

    Prediction confirmed

    The present experiment bombarded tin isotopes with high-energy protons and detected and identified the scattered protons as well as knocked-out helium nuclei. Dr. Junki Tanaka and Dr. Yang Zaihong could demonstrate that the reaction occurs as a direct “quasi-elastic” scattering of the protons off preformed helium nuclei in the surface of tin nuclei. The extracted cross sections for different tin isotopes reveal a decrease of the formation probability with the neutron excess of the nuclei, which impressively confirms the theoretical prediction.

    This new finding, which has far-reaching consequences for our understanding of nuclei and nuclear matter, will now be studied in more detail in experimental programs planned at RCNP, and in inverse kinematics at RIKEN and the new FAIR facility at GSI, where also unstable heavy neutron-rich nuclei are accessible.

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Helmholtz Zentrum München (DE) by numbers.

    The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren GmbH] is the largest scientific organization in Germany. It is a union of 18 scientific-technical and biological-medical research centers. The official mission of the Association is “solving the grand challenges of science, society and industry”. Scientists at Helmholtz therefore focus research on complex systems which affect human life and the environment. The namesake of the association is the German physiologist and physicist Hermann von Helmholtz.
    The annual budget of the Helmholtz Association amounts to €4.56 billion, of which about 72% is raised from public funds. The remaining 28% of the budget is acquired by the 19 individual Helmholtz Centres in the form of contract funding. The public funds are provided by the federal government (90%) and the rest by the States of Germany (10%).
    The Helmholtz Association was ranked #8 in 2015 and #7 in 2017 by the Nature Index, which measures the largest contributors to papers published in 82 leading journals.

    The laboratory performs basic and applied research in physics and related natural science disciplines. Main fields of study include plasma physics, atomic physics, nuclear structure and reactions research, biophysics and medical research. The lab is a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres.

     
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