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  • richardmitnick 6:16 pm on February 13, 2020 Permalink | Reply
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    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Finding hidden neutrinos with MicroBooNE” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    February 13, 2020
    Owen Goodwin
    Davide Porzio
    Stefan Söldner-Rembold
    Yun-Tse Tsai

    Neutrinos have baffled scientists for decades as their properties and behavior differ from those of other known elementary particles. Their masses, for example, are much smaller than the masses measured for any other elementary matter particle we know. They also carry no electric charge and interact only very rarely – through the weak force — with matter. At Fermilab, a chain of accelerators generates neutrino beams so researchers can study neutrino properties and understand their role in the formation of the universe.

    Scientists working on Fermilab’s MicroBooNE experiment have published a paper [Physical Review D] describing a search for a new – hidden – type of heavier neutrino that could help explain why the masses of ordinary neutrinos are so small. It could also provide important clues about the nature of dark matter. This search is the first of its kind performed with a type of particle detector known as a liquid-argon time projection chamber.

    The MicroBooNE detector consists of a large tank of liquid argon [below], totaling 170 tons, located in an intense beam of neutrinos at Fermilab. The neutrinos originate in a beam produced by the lab’s accelerators. Some of these ordinary neutrinos will hit an argon nucleus in the tank, resulting in the production of other particles. The MicroBooNE detector then acts like a giant camera that records the particles produced in this collision.

    A heavier type of neutrino – which has been hypothesized but never observed – could also be produced in the accelerator-generated beam. These heavier types of neutrinos, scientifically called “heavy neutral leptons,” would not interact through the weak force and therefore could not hit an argon nucleus in the same way as ordinary neutrinos do. They could, however, leave a hint of their existence if they decayed into known particles inside the MicroBooNE detector.

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    The display shows the decay of a heavy neutrino as it would be measured in the MicroBooNE detector. Scientists use such simulations to understand what a signal in data would look like. Image: MicroBooNE collaboration

    To find such signatures of heavy neutrinos, MicroBooNE scientists devised a new method that helps them distinguish the heavy neutrino decays from ordinary neutrino scatterings on argon, and it has a lot to do with timing.

    The Fermilab neutrino beam is not a continuous stream of particles. Rather, it is pulsed, and the experimenters know when these neutrino pulses are supposed to arrive at the MicroBooNE detector: The heavy neutrinos would be more massive and therefore slower than the ordinary neutrinos – a well-tested prediction of special relativity. The trick is therefore to wait just long enough — until the ordinary neutrinos in a pulse have passed through and only heavy neutrinos could arrive.

    In the MicroBooNE detector, a heavy neutrino would appear to come out of nowhere. The only traces of its appearance would be tracks from two charged particles emerging from its decay – a muon and a pion (see figure). Using the measured angles and energies of these two daughter particles, the mass of the invisible parent particle – assumed to be the heavy neutrino — can be calculated.

    After sifting through all the MicroBooNE data, scientists found that only a handful of heavy-neutrino candidates remained. Scientists found that the origin of these candidates is consistent with being muons from cosmic rays constantly bombarding the MicroBooNE detector. In very rare cases, such a muon can mimic the two charged particles from a heavy neutral lepton.

    The heavy neutrinos – if they exist – are therefore still hiding. MicroBooNE’s results are expressed as a limit on the strength of the coupling – or mixing – of the hidden neutrinos with ordinary neutrinos. In this way, the sensitivity of the MicroBooNE detector can be translated into stringent constraints on models that predict hidden neutrino states, leading to better predictions. The short-baseline liquid-argon neutrino experiments at Fermilab are going to collect much more data in the coming years. Heavy neutrinos might not be able to hide much longer.

    See the full article here.


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    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

    FNAL MINERvA front face Photo Reidar Hahn

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL MINOS Far Detector in the Soudan Mine in northern Minnesota

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 5:06 pm on February 6, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Dark Energy Camera, , FNAL, ,   

    From University of Chicago: “Leftover Big Bang light helps calculate how massive faraway galaxies are” 

    U Chicago bloc

    From University of Chicago

    Feb 6, 2020
    Catherine N. Steffel , FNAL

    1
    The South Pole Telescope provided key data for scientists to create a new method to weigh galaxy clusters. Photo by Daniel Michalik

    Fermilab, UChicago scientists tap South Pole Telescope data to shed light on universe.

    A team of scientists have demonstrated how to “weigh” galaxy clusters using light from the earliest moments of the universe—a new method that could help shed light on dark matter, dark energy and other mysteries of the cosmos, such as how the universe formed.

    The new method calculates the bending of light around galaxy clusters using the orientation of light from shortly after the Big Bang—data taken by the South Pole Telescope and the Dark Energy Camera.

    Dark Energy Survey


    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL


    NOAO/CTIO Victor M Blanco 4m Telescope which houses the DECam at Cerro Tololo, Chile, housing DECam at an altitude of 7200 feet

    Timeline of the Inflationary Universe WMAP

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is an international, collaborative effort to map hundreds of millions of galaxies, detect thousands of supernovae, and find patterns of cosmic structure that will reveal the nature of the mysterious dark energy that is accelerating the expansion of our Universe. DES began searching the Southern skies on August 31, 2013.

    According to Einstein’s theory of General Relativity, gravity should lead to a slowing of the cosmic expansion. Yet, in 1998, two teams of astronomers studying distant supernovae made the remarkable discovery that the expansion of the universe is speeding up. To explain cosmic acceleration, cosmologists are faced with two possibilities: either 70% of the universe exists in an exotic form, now called dark energy, that exhibits a gravitational force opposite to the attractive gravity of ordinary matter, or General Relativity must be replaced by a new theory of gravity on cosmic scales.

    DES is designed to probe the origin of the accelerating universe and help uncover the nature of dark energy by measuring the 14-billion-year history of cosmic expansion with high precision. More than 400 scientists from over 25 institutions in the United States, Spain, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Germany, Switzerland, and Australia are working on the project. The collaboration built and is using an extremely sensitive 570-Megapixel digital camera, DECam, mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, high in the Chilean Andes, to carry out the project.

    Over six years (2013-2019), the DES collaboration used 758 nights of observation to carry out a deep, wide-area survey to record information from 300 million galaxies that are billions of light-years from Earth. The survey imaged 5000 square degrees of the southern sky in five optical filters to obtain detailed information about each galaxy. A fraction of the survey time is used to observe smaller patches of sky roughly once a week to discover and study thousands of supernovae and other astrophysical transients.

    “Gravitational lensing,” a phenomenon in which light distorts as it’s affected by the gravity of big objects like galaxies, can function as a kind of magnifying glass.

    Gravitational Lensing NASA/ESA

    It’s helped scientists discover key information about the universe—but it’s always been done by looking for the smearing of light around distant objects like stars.

    In a study published in Physical Review Letters, Fermilab and University of Chicago scientist Brad Benson and colleagues use a different method to calculate the masses of distant galaxies: the polarization, or orientation, of the light left over from the moments after the Big Bang.

    “Making this estimate is important because most of the mass of galaxy clusters isn’t even visible—it’s dark matter, which does not emit light but interacts through gravity and makes up about 85% of the matter in our universe,” said Benson, an assistant professor in the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics. “Since photons from the cosmic microwave background have literally traveled across the entire observable universe, this method has the potential to more accurately measure the dark matter mass in the most distant galaxy clusters.”

    Fritz Zwicky discovered Dark Matter when observing the movement of the Coma Cluster., Vera Rubin a Woman in STEM denied the Nobel, did most of the work on Dark Matter.

    Fritz Zwicky from http:// palomarskies.blogspot.com

    Coma cluster via NASA/ESA Hubble

    Astronomer Vera Rubin at the Lowell Observatory in 1965, worked on Dark Matter (The Carnegie Institution for Science)


    Vera Rubin measuring spectra, worked on Dark Matter (Emilio Segre Visual Archives AIP SPL)


    Vera Rubin, with Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM) image tube spectrograph attached to the Kitt Peak 84-inch telescope, 1970. https://home.dtm.ciw.edu

    The LSST, or Large Synoptic Survey Telescope is to be named the Vera C. Rubin Observatory by an act of the U.S. Congress.

    LSST telescope, The Vera Rubin Survey Telescope currently under construction on the El Peñón peak at Cerro Pachón Chile, a 2,682-meter-high mountain in Coquimbo Region, in northern Chile, alongside the existing Gemini South and Southern Astrophysical Research Telescopes.

    LSST Data Journey, Illustration by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova

    Dark Matter Research

    Universe map Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey

    Scientists studying the cosmic microwave background [CMB]hope to learn about more than just how the universe grew—it could also offer insight into dark matter, dark energy and the mass of the neutrino.

    [caption id="attachment_73741" align="alignnone" width="632"] CMB per ESA/Planck

    Dark matter cosmic web and the large-scale structure it forms The Millenium Simulation, V. Springel et al

    Dark Matter Particle Explorer China

    DEAP Dark Matter detector, The DEAP-3600, suspended in the SNOLAB deep in Sudbury’s Creighton Mine

    LBNL LZ Dark Matter project at SURF, Lead, SD, USA


    Inside the ADMX experiment hall at the University of Washington Credit Mark Stone U. of Washington. Axion Dark Matter Experiment

    Clues from the beginning of time

    In the infant universe, temperatures were so high that electrons and protons were too hot to form atoms. Everything was a hot, ionized gas, not unlike the surface of the sun.

    Over the next 400,000 years, the universe expanded and cooled to about 3,000 degrees Celsius. At these temperatures, electrons and protons combined into hydrogen atoms and released photons in the process. This light, called the cosmic microwave background, or CMB, has been traveling through space ever since—a sort of “time machine” carrying information from the early universe.

    At the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, support staff and scientists, nicknamed “beakers,” work around the clock to manage the South Pole Telescope.

    South Pole Telescope SPTPOL. The SPT collaboration is made up of over a dozen (mostly North American) institutions, including the University of Chicago, the University of California, Berkeley, Case Western Reserve University, Harvard/Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the University of Colorado Boulder, McGill University, The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of California, Davis, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Argonne National Laboratory, and the National Institute for Standards and Technology. It is funded by the National Science Foundation.

    It’s not easy work; it is located at the southernmost place on Earth, where the average temperature is minus 47 degrees Celsius and the sun rises and sets only once a year. But the South Pole Telescope needs this harsh environment to carry out its scientific work.

    The camera on the South Pole Telescope measures minuscule fluctuations in the polarization, or orientation, of CMB light across the southern sky on the order of 1 part in 100 million on average, more sensitive than any other experiment to date.

    “These minuscule variations can be affected by large objects such as galaxy clusters, which act as lenses that create distinctive distortions in our signal,” Benson said.

    The signal Benson and other scientists were searching for was a small-scale ripple around galaxy clusters—an effect called gravitational lensing. You can see a similar effect yourself by looking through the base of a clear wine glass behind which a candle is lit.

    “If you look through the bottom of a wine glass base at a flame, you can see a ring of light. That’s like the effect we would see from a strong gravitational lens,” Benson said. “We are seeing a similar effect here, except the distortion is much weaker and the CMB light is spread out over a much larger area on the sky.”

    An assist from the Dark Energy Camera

    To find the maximum number of clusters, the scientists cross-referenced data from the Dark Energy Survey, a multi-year survey of the sky that captured the locations of more than 17,000 galaxy clusters in the universe.

    Then they could put these locations into a computer program that searched for evidence of gravitational lensing by the clusters in the polarization of the CMB. Once evidence was found, they could calculate the masses of the galaxy clusters themselves using their new mathematical estimator.

    Though the idea had been proposed, no one had yet demonstrated the method on actual data.

    The scientists found the average galaxy cluster mass to be around 100 trillion times the mass of our sun, an estimate that agrees with other methods. A substantial fraction of this mass is in the form of dark matter.

    To probe deeper, the scientists plan to perform similar experiments using an upgraded South Pole Telescope camera, SPT-3G, installed in 2017, and a next-generation CMB experiment, CMB-S4, that will offer further improvements in sensitivity and more galaxy clusters to examine.

    CMB-S4 will consist of dedicated telescopes equipped with highly sensitive superconducting cameras operating at the South Pole, the Chilean Atacama plateau and possibly northern-hemisphere sites, allowing researchers to constrain the parameters of inflation, dark energy and the number and masses of neutrinos, and even test general relativity on large scales.

    See the full article here .

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    U Chicago Campus

    An intellectual destination

    One of the world’s premier academic and research institutions, the University of Chicago has driven new ways of thinking since our 1890 founding. Today, UChicago is an intellectual destination that draws inspired scholars to our Hyde Park and international campuses, keeping UChicago at the nexus of ideas that challenge and change the world.

    The University of Chicago is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with UChicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    UChicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics, establishing revolutionary theories of economics, and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations with our national and affiliated laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:11 pm on February 5, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Breakthrough made on the next big step to building the world's most powerful particle accelerator", (MICE) Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment collaboration, FNAL, For the first time scientists have observed muon ionization cooling., , , This new muon accelerator will give us a better understanding of the fundamental constituents of matter.   

    From Science and Technology Facilities Council: “Breakthrough made on the next big step to building the world’s most powerful particle accelerator” 


    From Science and Technology Facilities Council

    5 February 2020

    For the first time scientists have observed muon ionization cooling – a major step in being able to create the world’s most powerful particle accelerator. This new muon accelerator will give us a better understanding of the fundamental constituents of matter.

    Since the 1930s, accelerators have been used to make ever more energetic proton, electron, and ion beams. These beams have been used in practically every scientific field, from colliding particles in the Large Hadron Collider to measuring the chemical structure of drugs, treating cancers and the manufacture of the ubiquitous silicon microchip.

    Now, the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) collaboration, which includes many UK scientists, has made a major step forward in the quest to create an accelerator for an entirely different sort of particle, a muon. A muon accelerator could replace the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), providing at least a ten-fold increase in energy for the creation of new particles.

    Until now, the question has been whether you can channel enough muons into a small enough volume to be able to study physics in new, unexplored systems. This new research, published in Nature today, shows that it is possible. The results of the experiment, carried out using the MICE muon beam-line at the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) ISIS Neutron and Muon Beam facility on the Harwell Campus in the UK, clearly show that ionization cooling works and can be used to channel muons into a tiny volume.

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    Credit: STFC

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    MICE target during development testing. Credit: STFC

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    The target used to generate the muons for the experiment. Credit: STFC

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    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment, pictured here at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the United Kingdom, has for the first time successfully cooled a beam of muons, essentially focusing a diffuse cloud of muon particles. The collaborators used powerful superconducting magnetic lenses and specially designed energy absorbers to achieve this milestone. Photo: Rutherford Appleton Laboratory/UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. Provided by FNAL.

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    In this photo of the MICE experiment, superconducting spectrometer solenoids (horizontal cylinders with yellow and black tape) flank the muon ionization cooling channel. A Berkeley Lab team designed, built, and delivered the spectrometer solenoids. Provided by LBNL(Credit: Steve Virostek/Berkeley Lab)

    “The enthusiasm, dedication, and hard work of the international collaboration and the outstanding support of laboratory personnel at STFC and from institutes across the world have made this game-changing breakthrough possible,” said Professor Ken Long from Imperial College London, spokesperson for the experiment.

    Dr Chris Rogers, based at ISIS and the collaboration’s Physics Co-ordinator, explained: “MICE has demonstrated a completely new way of squeezing a particle beam into a smaller volume. This technique is necessary for making a successful muon collider, which could outperform even the LHC.”

    Muons have many uses – they can be used to study the atomic structure of materials, they can be used as a catalyst for nuclear fusion and they can be used to see through really dense materials which X-rays can’t get through. The research team hopes that this technique can help produce good quality muon beams for these applications as well.

    Muons are produced by smashing a beam of protons into a target. The muons can then be separated off from the debris created at the target and directed through a series of magnetic lenses. Because of this rough-and-ready production mechanism, these muons form a diffuse cloud – so when it comes to colliding the muons, the chances of them hitting each other and producing interesting physical phenomena is really low.

    To make the cloud less diffuse, a process called beam cooling is used. This involves getting the muons closer together and moving in the same direction. Magnetic lenses can get the muons closer together, or get them moving in the same direction, but not both at the same time.

    A major obstacle to cooling a muon beam this is that muons only live for two millionths of a second, and previous methods developed to cool beams take hours to achieve an effect. In the 1970s a new method called ‘ionization cooling’ had been suggested, and developed into theoretically operable schemes in the in the 1990s. The hurdle of testing this idea in practice remained formidable.

    The MICE collaboration developed the completely new method to tackle this unique challenge, cooling the muons by putting them through specially-designed energy-absorbing materials such as lithium hydride, a compound of lithium metal and hydrogen, or liquid hydrogen cooled to around minus 250 degrees Celsius and encased by incredibly thin aluminium windows. This was done while the beam was very tightly focussed by powerful superconducting magnetic lenses. The measurement is so delicate that it requires measuring the beam particle-by-particle using particle physics techniques rather than the usual accelerator diagnostics.

    After cooling the beam, the muons can be accelerated by a normal particle accelerator in a precise direction, making it much more likely for the muons to collide. Alternatively, the cold muons can be slowed down so that their decay products can be studied.

    Professor Alain Blondel, spokesperson of MICE from 2001 to 2013, and Emeritus Professor at the University of Geneva, said: “We started MICE studies in 2000 with great enthusiasm and a strong team from all continents. It is a great pride to see the demonstration achieved, just at a time when it becomes evident to many new people that we must include muon machines in the future of particle physics.”

    “In this era of ever more-expensive particle accelerators, MICE points the way to a new generation of cost-effective muon colliders,” said Professor Dan Kaplan, Director of the IIT Center for Accelerator and Particle Physics in Chicago.

    Professor Paul Soler from the University of Glasgow and UK Principal Investigator said: “Ionization cooling is a game-changer for the future of high-energy muon accelerators, such as a muon collider, and we are extremely grateful to all the international funding agencies, including STFC in the UK, for supporting the experiment and to the staff at the ISIS neutron and muon source for hosting the facility that made this result possible.”

    Notes

    “Demonstration of cooling by the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment” was published in Nature on 5 February.

    About ISIS Neutron and Muon Source

    ISIS Neutron and Muon Source is a world-leading centre for research in the physical and life sciences at STFC’s Rutherford Appleton Laboratory near Oxford in the United Kingdom. Our suite of neutron and muon instruments gives unique insights into the properties of materials on the atomic scale. The neutron and muon beams produced at ISIS are used in research areas ranging from clean energy and the environment to pharmaceuticals, nanotechnology and IT.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    STFC-Science and Technology Facilities Council

    STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory at Harwell in Oxfordshire, UK


    STFC Hartree Centre

    Helping build a globally competitive, knowledge-based UK economy

    We are a world-leading multi-disciplinary science organisation, and our goal is to deliver economic, societal, scientific and international benefits to the UK and its people – and more broadly to the world. Our strength comes from our distinct but interrelated functions:

    Universities: we support university-based research, innovation and skills development in astronomy, particle physics, nuclear physics, and space science
    Scientific Facilities: we provide access to world-leading, large-scale facilities across a range of physical and life sciences, enabling research, innovation and skills training in these areas
    National Campuses: we work with partners to build National Science and Innovation Campuses based around our National Laboratories to promote academic and industrial collaboration and translation of our research to market through direct interaction with industry
    Inspiring and Involving: we help ensure a future pipeline of skilled and enthusiastic young people by using the excitement of our sciences to encourage wider take-up of STEM subjects in school and future life (science, technology, engineering and mathematics)

    We support an academic community of around 1,700 in particle physics, nuclear physics, and astronomy including space science, who work at more than 50 universities and research institutes in the UK, Europe, Japan and the United States, including a rolling cohort of more than 900 PhD students.

    STFC-funded universities produce physics postgraduates with outstanding high-end scientific, analytic and technical skills who on graduation enjoy almost full employment. Roughly half of our PhD students continue in research, sustaining national capability and creating the bedrock of the UK’s scientific excellence. The remainder – much valued for their numerical, problem solving and project management skills – choose equally important industrial, commercial or government careers.

    Our large-scale scientific facilities in the UK and Europe are used by more than 3,500 users each year, carrying out more than 2,000 experiments and generating around 900 publications. The facilities provide a range of research techniques using neutrons, muons, lasers and x-rays, and high performance computing and complex analysis of large data sets.

    They are used by scientists across a huge variety of science disciplines ranging from the physical and heritage sciences to medicine, biosciences, the environment, energy, and more. These facilities provide a massive productivity boost for UK science, as well as unique capabilities for UK industry.

    Our two Campuses are based around our Rutherford Appleton Laboratory at Harwell in Oxfordshire, and our Daresbury Laboratory in Cheshire – each of which offers a different cluster of technological expertise that underpins and ties together diverse research fields.

    Daresbury Laboratory at Sci-Tech Daresbury in the Liverpool City Region,

    The combination of access to world-class research facilities and scientists, office and laboratory space, business support, and an environment which encourages innovation has proven a compelling combination, attracting start-ups, SMEs and large blue chips such as IBM and Unilever.

    We think our science is awesome – and we know students, teachers and parents think so too. That’s why we run an extensive Public Engagement and science communication programme, ranging from loans to schools of Moon Rocks, funding support for academics to inspire more young people, embedding public engagement in our funded grant programme, and running a series of lectures, travelling exhibitions and visits to our sites across the year.

    Ninety per cent of physics undergraduates say that they were attracted to the course by our sciences, and applications for physics courses are up – despite an overall decline in university enrolment.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:54 pm on January 29, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: CBR, , , , FNAL, How standard are "standard candles"?, , , Solid experimental evidence but unsatisfying theories, Vera Rubin Observatory   

    From FNAL via Inside Science: “Dark Energy Skeptics Raise Concerns, But Remain Outnumbered” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    via

    Inside Science

    January 24, 2020
    Ramin Skibba

    Some scientists have been poking at the foundations of dark energy, but many say the concept remains on solid, if mysterious, ground.

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    Spiral galaxy NGC 5714. In 2003, a faint supernova (not visible in this later picture) appeared about 8000 light-years below the central bulge of NGC 5714. European Space Agency via Flickr. CC BY 2.0

    Since the dawn of the universe, the biggest stars have ended their lives with a bang, blowing out their outer layers in bright, fiery bursts that can be seen many light-years away. Astronomers use these supernova explosions like marks on an expanding balloon to measure how fast the universe is growing.

    Based on studies of dozens of supernova explosions, astronomers in the late 1990s realized that the universe’s expansion seems to be accelerating. They hypothesized that some unseen “energy,” which works the opposite of gravity, was pushing everything outward. The concept of so-called dark energy quickly became popular, and ultimately, scientists’ consensus view. It earned three physicists the 2011 Nobel Prize.

    Saul Perlmutter [The Supernova Cosmology Project] shared the 2006 Shaw Prize in Astronomy, the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics, and the 2015 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics with Brian P. Schmidt and Adam Riess [The High-z Supernova Search Team] for providing evidence that the expansion of the universe is accelerating.

    Recently, however, some scientists have been poking at this foundation of dark energy research.

    A team of Korean scientists published findings on Jan. 5 questioning the reliability of using supernovae to measure intergalactic distances. This followed a paper published in November [Astronomy and Astrophysics] that also cast doubt on the supernova evidence from a different angle, arguing that our galactic neighborhood is flowing in a particular direction, affecting certain kinds of distance measurements.

    In both instances, other scientists pushed back, noting potential flaws in the methodology and conclusions of the new studies.

    While most scientists still seem to believe that dark energy remains on solid ground, no one yet has any firm idea what it actually is.

    How standard are “standard candles”?

    Standard Candles to measure age and distance of the universe from supernovae. NASA

    Every time a star goes supernova, its radiant explosion follows such a familiar pattern that scientists nicknamed them “standard candles.” Assuming supernovae are predictable that way, astronomers can estimate how far away they are mainly based on how bright they appear. They can then map the universe’s expansion history by studying supernova both nearby and far away — that is, both recent and from a long time ago.

    It’s like gauging how far away vehicles are at night by looking at their headlights. If you made incorrect assumptions about what kinds of vehicles they are — for example assuming they are trucks with bright lights a long distance away when they are in fact smaller vehicles much closer — then your data and your inferences about the length of the road would be skewed.

    Young-Wook Lee, an astronomer at Yonsei University in South Korea and lead author of the Jan. 5 study, and his colleagues question a common and important assumption in the standard candle approach: that the brightness or luminosity of supernova explosions don’t vary when you look further back into the universe’s past.

    To test their hypothesis, they studied supernova in galaxies whose stars’ ages had been precisely measured and found that the brightness of a supernova depends on the ages of its host galaxy’s stellar population. The stars that produce supernovae are generally younger, further in the universe’s past, which is problematic for physicists estimating the universe’s expansion rate.

    “Supernova luminosity should vary as a function of cosmic time, and that hasn’t been accounted for in the so-called ‘discovery’ of dark energy,” said Lee.

    But to Dragan Huterer, an astrophysicist at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, the data from the paper doesn’t warrant a sweeping reconsideration of dark energy.

    “These evolution effects have not been observed to be strong, and cosmologists partly take them into account,” Huterer argued. He conceded there may be a small correlation, but not one large enough to shake the foundation of dark energy’s consensus. “I’d bet my life on it,” he said.

    Joshua Frieman, a Fermilab astrophysicist, thinks Lee and his team are doing legitimate research, but is also skeptical about whether one could draw sweeping conclusions from it. He points out that the study’s findings show only a weak trend with age; they use a model that estimates ages of a few supernova older than the universe’s age; and they focus only on a small sample of elliptical galaxies, while the scope of supernova studies that support dark energy include all kinds of galaxies.

    Solid experimental evidence, but unsatisfying theories

    While many scientists argue against overinterpreting results that seem to question the foundations of dark energy, both of the recent papers fall into accepted lines of research. Supernova cosmology has for years been plagued by questions about systematic uncertainties infecting every step of calculations, including how their fluxes and light curves are measured and calibrated. Researchers need to account for every factor, no matter how small, that could muddy a study of the expanding universe. And there’s always a concern for something missed, an unknown unknown.

    Such concerns are actually evidence of a well-developed field, argued Tamara Davis, an astrophysicist at the University of Queensland in Australia. “Once a field becomes very mature, the tiny details that were negligible before become more important,” said Davis. A focus on myriad uncertainties that affect a measurement by just a percent or two is actually a sign that the measurement’s quite good already, she argued.

    Astronomers’ current controversy over the precise value of the Hubble constant, which describes how fast the universe is expanding, reflects a similarly mature field, she said. (This question about the exact expansion rate is different than the one about whether the rate’s accelerating.) That research, similar to supernova cosmology, has made great strides since the 1990s, and now small, previously ignored discrepancies come to the fore.

    Most scientists Inside Science interviewed feel dark energy is still on solid ground. Even if Lee’s study and others like it discredited the kinds of supernova cosmology findings that formed the groundwork for dark energy research, other kinds of research now also point toward dark energy, Frieman argued. This includes studies of fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background [CMB] radiation — radiation [CBR] that’s thought to be left over from soon after the Big Bang and which bears an imprint of the growing universe when it was young — and studies of the large-scale structure of the universe, involving surveys of hundreds of thousands of galaxies over a wide area.

    CMB per ESA/Planck

    CBR per ESA/Planck

    “Yes, in 1998, you could’ve said, ‘There are supernova systematic uncertainties, so maybe the universe isn’t accelerating,'” Frieman said. “But in 2020, we now have multiple pieces of evidence that the stool holding up dark energy is much more stable, so you could knock out supernova and still say we have strong evidence for cosmic acceleration from these other probes.”

    Current and upcoming experiments could add yet more precision to studies of dark energy. These include the Dark Energy Survey, the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, space-based missions, and the newly renamed Vera Rubin Observatory, being built in northern Chile. But theoretical physicists are behind, Huterer said, as they still don’t have a compelling explanation for what dark energy is and where it came from.

    Dark Energy Survey


    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL


    NOAO/CTIO Victor M Blanco 4m Telescope which houses the DECam at Cerro Tololo, Chile, housing DECam at an altitude of 7200 feet

    Timeline of the Inflationary Universe WMAP

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is an international, collaborative effort to map hundreds of millions of galaxies, detect thousands of supernovae, and find patterns of cosmic structure that will reveal the nature of the mysterious dark energy that is accelerating the expansion of our Universe. DES began searching the Southern skies on August 31, 2013.

    According to Einstein’s theory of General Relativity, gravity should lead to a slowing of the cosmic expansion. Yet, in 1998, two teams of astronomers studying distant supernovae made the remarkable discovery that the expansion of the universe is speeding up. To explain cosmic acceleration, cosmologists are faced with two possibilities: either 70% of the universe exists in an exotic form, now called dark energy, that exhibits a gravitational force opposite to the attractive gravity of ordinary matter, or General Relativity must be replaced by a new theory of gravity on cosmic scales.

    DES is designed to probe the origin of the accelerating universe and help uncover the nature of dark energy by measuring the 14-billion-year history of cosmic expansion with high precision. More than 400 scientists from over 25 institutions in the United States, Spain, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Germany, Switzerland, and Australia are working on the project. The collaboration built and is using an extremely sensitive 570-Megapixel digital camera, DECam, mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, high in the Chilean Andes, to carry out the project.

    Over six years (2013-2019), the DES collaboration used 758 nights of observation to carry out a deep, wide-area survey to record information from 300 million galaxies that are billions of light-years from Earth. The survey imaged 5000 square degrees of the southern sky in five optical filters to obtain detailed information about each galaxy. A fraction of the survey time is used to observe smaller patches of sky roughly once a week to discover and study thousands of supernovae and other astrophysical transients.

    LBNL/DESI spectroscopic instrument on the Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory starting in 2018

    NOAO/Mayall 4 m telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA, Altitude 2,120 m (6,960 ft)

    Fritz Zwicky discovered Dark Matter when observing the movement of the Coma Cluster., Vera Rubin a Woman in STEM denied the Nobel, did most of the work on Dark Matter.

    Fritz Zwicky from http:// palomarskies.blogspot.com

    Coma cluster via NASA/ESA Hubble

    Astronomer Vera Rubin at the Lowell Observatory in 1965, worked on Dark Matter (The Carnegie Institution for Science)


    Vera Rubin measuring spectra, worked on Dark Matter (Emilio Segre Visual Archives AIP SPL)


    Vera Rubin, with Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM) image tube spectrograph attached to the Kitt Peak 84-inch telescope, 1970. https://home.dtm.ciw.edu

    The LSST, or Large Synoptic Survey Telescope renamed named the Vera C. Rubin Observatory by an act of the U.S. Congress.

    LSST telescope, The Vera Rubin Survey Telescope currently under construction on the El Peñón peak at Cerro Pachón Chile, a 2,682-meter-high mountain in Coquimbo Region, in northern Chile, alongside the existing Gemini South and Southern Astrophysical Research Telescopes.

    LSST Data Journey, Illustration by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova

    “I think the precision on dark energy parameters is definitely going to be improving with these missions,” Frieman said. The data so far is consistent with the idea of dark energy as a simple cosmological constant, a ubiquitous vacuum energy somehow produced by the universe’s expansion that generates yet more expansion. But Frieman hopes new data may reveal something more exotic, such as a mysterious substance called quintessence, which some scientists have proposed could explain the accelerating expansion of the universe. Which theory will be ahead 10 years from now “is anyone’s guess,” Freiman said.

    See the full here.


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:36 pm on January 13, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Calculate the masses of enormous galaxy clusters using a new mathematical estimator., , , , , Destination: Antarctica-the South Pole Telescope., Destination: Chile-Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory-The Dark Energy Camera of the Dark Energy Survey, Destination: Unspoiled places-, FNAL, Most of the mass of galaxy clusters isn’t even visible – it’s dark matter.   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Data from antipodal places: First use of CMB polarization to detect gravitational lensing from galaxy clusters” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    January 13, 2020
    Catherine N. Steffel

    Galaxies. Amalgamations of stars, interstellar gas, dust, stellar debris and dark matter. They waltz through the cold universe, gravity nurturing their embrace. Occasionally, galaxies snowball into enormous galaxy clusters with masses averaging 100 trillion times that of our sun.

    But this wasn’t always the case.

    In the infant universe, temperatures were so high that electrons and protons were too hot to form atoms. Everything was a hot, ionized gas, not unlike the surface of the sun.

    Over the next 400,000 years, the universe expanded and cooled to around 3,000 degrees Celsius, about the temperature of an industrial furnace. At these temperatures, electrons and protons combined into hydrogen atoms and released photons in the process. This light, called the cosmic microwave background radiation, has been traveling through space ever since, a watermark of space and time.

    Now, scientists have found new ways to tease information out of this inexhaustible time machine.

    Constraining cosmology with CMB polarization

    In a study published in Physical Review Letters, Fermilab and University of Chicago scientist Brad Benson and colleagues use the polarization, or orientation, of the cosmic microwave background [CMB] to calculate the masses of enormous galaxy clusters using a new mathematical estimator.

    CMB per ESA/Planck

    This is the first time that scientists have measured these masses using the polarization of the CMB and the novel estimation method.

    “Making this estimate is important because most of the mass of galaxy clusters isn’t even visible – it’s dark matter, which does not emit light but interacts through gravity and makes up about 85% of the matter in our universe,” Benson said.

    The scientists’ work may eventually shed light on dark matter, dark energy and cosmological parameters that reveal more about structure formation in the universe.

    1
    The camera on the South Pole Telescope measures minuscule fluctuations in the polarization of cosmic-microwave-background light across the southern sky. Photo: Jason Gallicchio, University of Chicago

    Destination: Antarctica

    At Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, support staff and scientists, nicknamed “beakers,” work around the clock to manage the South Pole Telescope. It’s not easy work. Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station is located at the southernmost place on Earth, where the average temperature is minus 47 degrees Celsius and the sun rises and sets only once a year. But the South Pole Telescope, a 10-meter telescope charged with observing the cosmic microwave background, known as the CMB, is more than capable of achieving its scientific goals in this harsh environment.

    The camera on the South Pole Telescope measures minuscule fluctuations in the polarization of CMB light across the southern sky on the order of 1 part in 100 million on average, more sensitive than any other experiment to date.

    “These minuscule variations can be affected by large objects such as galaxy clusters, which act as lenses that create distinctive distortions in our signal,” Benson said.

    The signal Benson and other scientists were looking for was a small-scale ripple around galaxy clusters — an effect called gravitational lensing. You can see a similar effect yourself by looking through the base of a clear wine glass behind which a candle is lit.

    “If you look through the bottom of a wine glass base at a flame, you can see a ring of light. That’s like the effect we would see from a strong gravitational lens,” Benson said.

    2
    Scientists look for small-scale ripple around galaxy clusters — an effect called gravitational lensing. The lensing is similar to the effect you would see looking through the base of a clear wine glass behind which a candle is lit — a ring of light. Image: Sandbox Studio

    Gravitational Lensing NASA/ESA

    “We are seeing a similar effect here, except the distortion is much weaker and the CMB light is spread out over a much larger area on the sky.”

    There was a problem, however. Scientists estimated they would need to look at around 17,000 galaxy clusters to measure the gravitational lensing effect from the CMB and estimate galaxy cluster masses with any certainty, even using their new mathematical estimator. While the South Pole Telescope provided deeper and more sensitive measurements of the CMB’s polarization than ever before, its library of galaxy locations contained only about 1,000 galaxy clusters.

    Destination: Chile

    To identify more galaxy cluster locations from which to examine the gravitational lensing of CMB light around galaxy clusters, the scientists needed to travel roughly 6,000 kilometers north of the South Pole to the Atacama region of Chile, home to the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory.

    Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory on Cerro Tololo in the Coquimbo Region of northern Chile Altitude 2,207 m (7,241 ft)

    The Dark Energy Camera, mounted 2,200 meters above sea level on the 4-meter Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo, is one of the largest digital cameras in the world. Its 520 megapixels see light from objects originating billions of light-years away and capture them in unprecedented quality. Most importantly, the camera captures the light and locations of the 17,000 galaxy clusters scientists needed to observe gravitational lensing of CMB light by galaxy clusters.

    Dark Energy Survey


    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL


    NOAO/CTIO Victor M Blanco 4m Telescope which houses the DECam at Cerro Tololo, Chile, housing DECam at an altitude of 7200 feet

    Timeline of the Inflationary Universe WMAP

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is an international, collaborative effort to map hundreds of millions of galaxies, detect thousands of supernovae, and find patterns of cosmic structure that will reveal the nature of the mysterious dark energy that is accelerating the expansion of our Universe. DES began searching the Southern skies on August 31, 2013.

    According to Einstein’s theory of General Relativity, gravity should lead to a slowing of the cosmic expansion. Yet, in 1998, two teams of astronomers studying distant supernovae made the remarkable discovery that the expansion of the universe is speeding up. To explain cosmic acceleration, cosmologists are faced with two possibilities: either 70% of the universe exists in an exotic form, now called dark energy, that exhibits a gravitational force opposite to the attractive gravity of ordinary matter, or General Relativity must be replaced by a new theory of gravity on cosmic scales.

    DES is designed to probe the origin of the accelerating universe and help uncover the nature of dark energy by measuring the 14-billion-year history of cosmic expansion with high precision. More than 400 scientists from over 25 institutions in the United States, Spain, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Germany, Switzerland, and Australia are working on the project. The collaboration built and is using an extremely sensitive 570-Megapixel digital camera, DECam, mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, high in the Chilean Andes, to carry out the project.

    Over six years (2013-2019), the DES collaboration used 758 nights of observation to carry out a deep, wide-area survey to record information from 300 million galaxies that are billions of light-years from Earth. The survey imaged 5000 square degrees of the southern sky in five optical filters to obtain detailed information about each galaxy. A fraction of the survey time is used to observe smaller patches of sky roughly once a week to discover and study thousands of supernovae and other astrophysical transients.

    The scientists identified the locations of these clusters using three years’ worth of data from the Fermilab-led Dark Energy Survey and then put these locations into a computer program that searched for evidence of gravitational lensing by the clusters in the polarization of the CMB. Once evidence was found, they could calculate the masses of the galaxy clusters themselves using their new mathematical estimator.

    Destination: Unspoiled places

    In the current study, the scientists found the average galaxy cluster mass to be around 100 trillion times the mass of our sun, an estimate that agrees with other methods. A substantial fraction of this mass is in the form of dark matter.

    To probe deeper, the scientists plan to perform similar experiments using an upgraded South Pole Telescope camera, SPT-3G, installed in 2017, and a next-generation CMB experiment, CMB-S4, that will offer further improvements in sensitivity and more galaxy clusters to examine.

    CMB-S4 will consist of dedicated telescopes equipped with highly sensitive superconducting cameras operating at the South Pole, the Chilean Atacama plateau and possibly northern-hemisphere sites, allowing researchers to constrain the parameters of inflation, dark energy and the number and masses of neutrinos, and even test general relativity on large scales.

    Anthony Bourdain, a gifted storyteller and food writer, once called Antarctica “the last unspoiled place on Earth … where people come together to explore the art of pure science, looking for something called facts.”

    Scientists go far beyond Antarctica to another unspoiled place, the farthest reaches of our universe, to grapple with fundamental cosmological parameters and the behavior of structure in our universe.

    See the full here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:10 pm on November 14, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , FNAL, , , ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Discovery of a new type of particle beam instability” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    November 14, 2019
    Alexey Burov

    Accelerated, charged particle beams do what light does for microscopes: illuminate matter. The more intense the beams, the more easily scientists can examine the object they are looking at. But intensity comes with a cost: the more intense the beams, the more they become prone to instabilities.

    One type of instability occurs when the average energy of accelerated particles traveling through a circular machine reaches its transition value. The transition point occurs when the particles revolve around the ring at the same rate, even though they do not all carry the same energy — in fact, they exhibit a range of energies. The specific motion of the particles near the transition energy makes them extremely prone to collective instabilities.

    These particular instabilities were observed for decades, but they were not sufficiently understood. In fact, they were misinterpreted. In a paper published this year, I suggest a new theory about these instabilities. The application of this theory to the Fermilab Booster accelerator predicted the main features of the instability there at the transition crossing, suggesting better ways to suppress the instability. Recent measurements confirmed the predictions, and more detailed experimental beam studies are planned in the near future.

    1
    Recent measurements at the Fermilab Booster accelerator confirmed existence of a certain kind of particle beam instability. More measurements are planned for the near future to examine new methods proposed to mitigate it.

    Accelerating high-intensity beams is a crucial part of the Fermilab scientific program. A solid theoretical understanding of particle beam behavior equips experimentalists to better manipulate the accelerator parameters to suppress instability. This leads to the high-intensity beams needed for Fermilab’s experiments in fundamental physics. It is also useful for any experiment or institution operating circular accelerators.

    Beam protons talk to each other by electromagnetic fields, which are of two kinds. One is called the Coulomb field. These fields are local and, by themselves, cannot drive instabilities. The second kind is the wake field. Wake fields are radiated by the particles and trail behind them, sometimes far behind.

    When a particle strays from the beam path, the wake field translates this departure backward — in the wake left by the particle. Even a small departure from the path may not escape being carried backward by these electromagnetic fields. If the beams are intense enough, their wakes can destabilize them.

    In the new theory, I suggested a compact mathematical model that effectively takes both sorts of fields into account, realizing that both of them are important when they are strong enough, as they typically are near transition energy.

    This kind of huge amplification happens at CERN’s Proton Synchrotron, for example, as I showed in my more recent paper, submitted to Physical Review Accelerators and Beams. If not suppressed one way or another, this amplification may grow until the beam touches the vacuum chamber wall and becomes lost. Recent measurements at the Fermilab Booster confirmed existence of a similar instability there; more measurements are planned for the near future to examine new methods proposed to mitigate it.

    These phenomena are called transverse convective instabilities, and the discoveries of how they arise open new doors to theoretical, numerical and experimental ways to better understanding and better dealing with the intense proton beams.

    This work is supported by the DOE Office of Science.

    Science paper:
    Convective instabilities of bunched beams with space charge
    Physical Review Accelerators and Beams

    See the full here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:00 pm on November 14, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "How do you make the world’s most powerful neutrino beam?", , FNAL, ,   

    From Symmetry: “How do you make the world’s most powerful neutrino beam?” 

    Symmetry Mag
    From Symmetry<

    11/13/19
    Lauren Biron

    DUNE will need lots of neutrinos—and to make them, scientists and engineers will use extreme versions of some common sounding ingredients: magnets and pencil lead.

    1
    Photo by Reidar Hahn, Fermilab

    What do you need to make the most intense beam of neutrinos in the world? Just a few magnets and some pencil lead. But not your usual household stuff. After all, this is the world’s most intense high-energy neutrino beam, so we’re talking about jumbo-sized parts: magnets the size of park benches and ultrapure rods of graphite as tall as Danny DeVito.

    Physics experiments that push the extent of human knowledge tend to work at the extremes: the biggest and smallest scales, the highest intensities. All three are true for the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, hosted by the Department of Energy’s Fermilab.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    The design of the experiment is elegant—produce neutrinos and measure them at Fermilab, send them straight through 1,300 kilometers of earth, then measure them again in giant liquid-argon detectors at Sanford Lab.
    Courtesy of Fermilab

    The experiment brings together more than 1000 people from 30-plus countries to tackle questions that have kept many a person awake at night: Why is the universe full of matter and not antimatter, or no matter at all? Do protons, one of the building blocks of atoms (and of us), ever decay? How do black holes form? And did I leave the stove on?

    Maybe not the last one.

    To tackle the biggest questions, DUNE will look at mysterious subatomic particles called neutrinos: neutral, wispy wraiths that rarely interact with matter. Because neutrinos are so antisocial, scientists will build enormous particle detectors to catch and study them. More matter inside the DUNE detectors means more things for neutrinos to interact with, and these behemoth neutrino traps will contain a total of 70,000 tons of liquid argon. At their home 1.5 kilometers below the rock in the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota, they’ll be shielded from interfering cosmic rays—though neutrinos will have no trouble passing through that buffer and hitting their mark.

    SURF-Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    The detectors can pick up neutrinos from exploding stars that might evolve into black holes and capture interactions from a deliberately aimed beam of neutrinos.

    Neutrinos (and their antimatter counterparts, antineutrinos) are born as other particles decay, carrying away small amounts of energy to balance the cosmic ledger. You’ll find them coming in droves from stars like our sun, inside Earth, even the potassium in bananas. But if you want to make trillions of high-energy neutrinos every second and send them to a particle detector deep underground, you’d be hard-pressed to do it by throwing fruit toward South Dakota.

    That’s where Fermilab’s particle accelerator complex comes in.

    Fermilab sends particles through a series of accelerators, each adding a burst of speed and energy. Work has started for an upgrade to the complex that will include a new linear accelerator at the start of the journey: PIP-II. This is the first accelerator project in the United States with major international contributions, and it will propel particles to 84% of the speed of light as they travel about the length of two football fields. Particles then enter the booster for another… well, boost, and finally head to the Main Injector, Fermilab’s most powerful accelerator.

    FNAL booster

    FNAL Main Injector Accelerator

    The twist? Fermilab’s particle accelerators propel protons—useful particles, but not the ones that neutrino scientists want to study.

    So how do researchers plan to turn Fermilab’s first megawatt beam of protons into the trillions of high-energy neutrinos they need for DUNE every second? This calls for some extra infrastructure: The Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility, or LBNF. A long baseline means that LBNF will send its neutrinos a long distance—1300 kilometers, from Fermilab to Sanford Lab—and the neutrino facility means … let’s make some neutrinos.

    Step 1: Grab some protons

    The first step is to siphon off particles from the Main Injector—otherwise, the circular accelerator will act more like a merry-go-round. Engineers will need to build and connect a new beamline. That’s no easy feat, considering all the utilities, other beamlines, and Main Injector magnets around.

    “It’s in one of the most congested areas of the Fermilab accelerator complex,” says Elaine McCluskey, the LBNF project manager at Fermilab. Site prep work starting at Fermilab in 2019 will move some of the utilities out of the way. Later, when it’s time for the LBNF beamline construction, the accelerator complex will temporarily power down.

    Crews will move some of the Main Injector magnets safely out of the way and punch into the accelerator’s enclosure. They’ll construct a new extraction area and beam enclosure, then reinstall the Main Injector magnets with a new Fermilab-built addition: kicker magnets to change the beam’s course. They’ll also build the new LBNF beamline itself, using 24 dipole and 17 quadrupole magnets, most of them built by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in India.

    Step 2: Aim

    Neutrinos are tricky particles. Because they are neutral, they can’t be steered by magnetic forces in the same way that charged particles (such as protons) are. Once a neutrino is born, it keeps heading in whatever direction it was going, like a kid riding the world’s longest Slip ‘N Slide. This property makes neutrinos great cosmic messengers but means an extra step for Earth-bound engineers: aiming.

    As they build the LBNF beamline, crews will drape it along the curve of an 18-meter-tall hill. When the protons descend the hill, they’ll be pointed toward the DUNE detectors in South Dakota. Once the neutrinos are born, they’ll continue in that same direction, no tunnel required.

    With all the magnets in place and everything sealed up tight, accelerator operators will be able to direct protons down the new beamline, like switching a train on a track. But instead of pulling into a station, the particles will run full speed into a target.

    Step 3: Smash things

    The target is a crucial piece of engineering. While still being designed, it’s likely to be a 1.5-meter-long rod of pure graphite—think of your pencil lead on steroids.

    Together with some other equipment, it will sit inside the target hall, a sealed room filled with gaseous nitrogen. DUNE will start up with a proton beam that will run at more than 1 megawatt of power, and there are already plans to upgrade the beam to 2.4 megawatts. Almost everything being built for LBNF is designed to withstand that higher beam intensity.

    Because of the record-breaking beam power, manipulating anything inside the sealed hall will likely require the help of some robot friends controlled from outside the thick walls. Engineers at KEK, the high-energy accelerator research organization in Japan, are working on prototypes for elements of the sealed LBNF target hall design.

    KEK-Accelerator Laboratory, Tsukuba, Japan

    The high-power beam of protons will enter the target hall and smash into the graphite like bowling balls hitting pins, depositing their energy and unleashing a spray of new particles—mostly pions and kaons.

    “These targets have a very hard life,” says Chris Densham, group leader for high-power targets at STFC’s Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, which is responsible for the design and production of the target for the one-megawatt beam.

    STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory at Harwell in Oxfordshire

    “Each proton pulse causes the temperature to jump up by a few hundred degrees in a few microseconds.”

    The LBNF target will operate around 500 degrees Celsius in a sort of Goldilocks scenario. Graphite performs well when it’s hot, but not too hot, so engineers will need to remove excess heat. But they can’t let it get too cool, either. Water, which is used in some current target designs, would provide too much cooling, so specialists at RAL are also developing a new method. The current proposed design circulates gaseous helium, which will be moving about 720 kilometers per hour—the speed of a cruising airliner—by the time it exits the system.

    Step 4: Focus the debris

    As protons strike the target and produce pions and kaons, devices called focusing horns take over. The pions and kaons are electrically charged, and these giant magnets direct the spray back into a focused beam. A series of three horns that will be designed and built at Fermilab will correct the particle paths and aim them at the detectors at Sanford Lab.

    For the design to work, the target—a cylindrical tube—must sit inside the first horn, cantilevered into place from the upstream side. This causes some interesting engineering challenges. It boils down to a balance between what physicists want—a lengthier target that can stay in service for longer—with what engineers can build. The target is only a couple of centimeters in diameter, and every extra centimeter of length makes it more likely to droop under the barrage of protons and the pull of Earth’s gravity.

    Much like a game of Operation, physicists don’t want the target to touch the sides of the horn.

    To create the focusing field, the metallic horns receive a 300,000-amp electromagnetic pulse about once per second—delivering more charge than a powerful lightning bolt. If you were standing next to it, you’d want to stick your fingers in your ears to block out the noise—and you certainly wouldn’t want anything touching the horns, including graphite. Engineers could support the target from both ends, but that would make the inevitable removal and replacement much more complicated.

    “The simpler you can make it, the better,” Densham says. “There’s always a temptation to make something clever and complicated, but we want to make it as dumb as possible, so there’s less to go wrong.”

    Step 5: Physics happens

    Focused into a beam, the pions and kaons exit the target hall and travel through a 200-meter-long tunnel full of helium. As they do, they decay, giving birth to neutrinos and some particle friends. Researchers can also switch the horns to focus particles with the opposite charge, which will then decay into antineutrinos. Shielding at the end of the tunnel absorbs the extra particles, while the neutrinos or antineutrinos sail on, unperturbed, straight through dirt and rock, toward their South Dakota destiny.

    “LBNF is a complex project, with a lot of pieces that have to work together,” says Jonathan Lewis, the LBNF Beamline project manager. “It’s the future of the lab, the future of the field in the United States, and an exciting and challenging project. The prospect of uncovering the properties of neutrinos is exciting science.”

    Time to science

    DUNE scientists will examine the neutrino beam at Fermilab just after its production using a sophisticated particle detector on site, placed right in the path of the beam. Most neutrinos will pass straight through the detector, like they do with all matter. But a small fraction will collide with atoms inside the DUNE near-site detector, providing valuable information on the composition of the neutrino beam as well as high-energy neutrino interactions with matter.

    Then it’s time to wave farewell to the other neutrinos. Be quick—their 1300-kilometer journey at close to the speed of light will take four milliseconds, not even close to how long it takes to blink your eye. But for DUNE scientists, the work will be only beginning.

    FNAL Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility – South Dakota Site


    DUNE’s far detector will use four modules to capture interactions between argon atoms and the neutrinos sent from the LBNF beamline at Fermilab.

    Scientists will measure the neutrinos again with their gigantic particle detectors in South Dakota. Researchers will collect mountains of data, examine how neutrinos change, and try to figure out some of the many neutrino puzzles, including: which of the three types of neutrinos is actually the lightest? Do neutrinos behave the same as their antimatter counterparts? And the biggest question of all, are neutrinos the key to why matter won the battle with antimatter at the dawn of the universe?

    They’re lofty topics, and scientists have been preparing for this monumental work. Fermilab has a rich history of neutrino research, including short-distance experiments like MicroBooNE and MINERvA and long-distance projects like NOvA and MINOS.

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    Scientists at Fermilab use the MINERvA to make measurements of neutrino interactions that can support the work of other neutrino experiments. Photo Reidar Hahn

    NOvA Far Detector Block

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL/MINOS

    DUNE will benefit from the experience gained building and running those experiments, much like LBNF will benefit from the experience of building the NuMI (Neutrinos from the Main Injector) beamline, built to make neutrinos for the MINOS detectors at Fermilab and in Minnesota.

    Fermilab NuMI Tunnel

    “The NuMI beamline was something we had never made at Fermilab, and it enabled us to learn a lot of things about how to make neutrinos, operate a beamline efficiently, and replace components,” McCluskey says. “We have a lot of people who worked on that beamline who are designing the new one, and incorporating those lessons to make an effective, efficient, and unprecedented beam power for DUNE.”

    And that’s how you make the world’s most powerful neutrino beam.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 3:23 pm on November 13, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL, IEQNET-Illinois Express Quantum Network,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “DOE awards Fermilab and partners $3.2 million for Illinois quantum network” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    November 13, 2019
    edited by Leah Hesla

    1
    The proposed Illinois Express Quantum Network is a metropolitan-scale, quantum-classical hybrid design combining quantum technologies with existing classical networks to create a multinode system for multiple users.

    The Department of Energy has announced that it will grant Fermilab and partner institutions $3.2 million to develop designs for transparent optical quantum networks and demonstrate their operation in the greater Chicago area.

    The proposed Illinois-Express Quantum Network, or IEQNET, connects nodes at Fermilab and proposed nodes at Northwestern University’s Chicago and Evanston campuses. The metropolitan-scale network uses a combination of cutting-edge quantum and classical technologies to transmit quantum information and will be designed to coexist with classical networks.

    “Our team brings together researchers who are leading the way in quantum communications, classical networking, quantum devices and fast-timing electronics,” said scientist Panagiotis Spentzouris, head of quantum science at Fermilab and the project’s principal investigator. “That marriage of world-class expertise enables us to develop the new network.”

    Fermilab is the lead institution for the IEQNET collaboration, which includes the Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory, Caltech and Northwestern University.

    “We have leading quantum technology capabilities at our respective institutions,” said Northwestern University’s Prem Kumar, one of the researchers on the project. “Now we’re combining them to create new opportunities for distributed quantum communications.”

    Scientists have previously demonstrated point-to-point quantum communications over short distances — on the order of 10 miles — in fiber-optic cables. IEQNET’s goal is to demonstrate a multinode fiber-optic quantum network that supports multiple users.

    “We will be using state-of-the-art sources and photodetectors in nodes we have built already at Fermilab to co-distribute classical and quantum information across Chicagoland,” said Caltech scientist Maria Spiropulu, another IEQNET researcher. “We want to identify and address the challenges toward nontrivial, long-distance multilayered architectures that support multiple end-users and test various protocols.”

    IEQNET’s objective supports the United States in meeting the goals of its National Quantum Initiative, a coordinated multiagency program to support research and training in quantum information science. It also positions Chicago as one of the few places in the nation advancing quantum communications. The proposed network stretches between the Chicago area institutions using existing fiber-optic cables.

    “We want to utilize existing links because we have significant infrastructure that has already been laid for classical communications,” said Rajkumar Kettimuthu, an Argonne scientist affiliated with IEQNET. “One of the challenges will be to achieve classical and quantum co-existence in the same fibers.”

    IEQNET leverages existing conventional infrastructure and experience from ESnet, a high-speed computer network serving DOE scientists and their collaborators worldwide. ESnet is managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, also a DOE national laboratory.

    The project also brings together small quantum tech industry partners, including businesses such as NuCrypt and HyperLight, and the Intelligent Quantum Networks and Technologies, or INQNET, program, which was developed through a Caltech and AT&T partnership and is a member of the Quantum Economic Development Consortium of the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

    By connecting business with academia, IEQNET has the potential to generate new technologies that have wider application in industry, helping elevate the Chicago area as a hot spot for technology transfer in quantum science.

    IEQNET is one of the recently announced five four-year projects aimed at developing wide-area quantum networks funded by the DOE Office of Science.

    “We are on the threshold of a new era in quantum information science and quantum computing and networking, with potentially great promise for science and society,” said DOE Under Secretary for Science Paul Dabbar in an announcement from DOE. “These projects will help ensure U.S. leadership in these important new areas of science and technology.”

    See the full here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 5:31 pm on November 7, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , FNAL, , Neutrinos and antineutrinos, ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Gotta catch ’em all: new NOvA results with neutrinos and antineutrinos” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    November 7, 2019
    Steven Calvez
    Erika Catano Mur

    The latest results from the Fermilab NOvA experiment are taking us closer to describing the most basic properties of the mysterious neutrino — the most abundant particle of matter in the universe.

    Neutrinos appear in a variety of natural processes, from formidable supernova explosions and nuclear reactions in the sun to radioactive decays in your banana. They are also produced in abundance in nuclear reactors and particle accelerators. Yet neutrinos barely interact with matter: a light-year of lead would hardly stop your average neutrino. Their elusive nature makes them extremely challenging to study, which explains both why we still know very little about their properties and why many scientists and experiments around the world have so much fun hunting them down.

    The observation that neutrinos are able to change type — a behavior called oscillation — proved that neutrinos have masses, albeit very small. This phenomenon explains how neutrinos that are produced in one of the three “flavor” states (electron neutrino, muon neutrino or tau neutrino) transition in and out of these types as they travel a certain distance and may be detected as a different type. The probability of these transitions depends on a number of factors: the energy of the neutrino, the distance between the particle beam source and the detector, the differences in neutrino masses, the amount of blending between neutrino types, which scientists describe with three “mixing” angles, and additional complex phases.

    1
    Fermilab’s NOvA neutrino experiment studies neutrino oscillations using a powerful neutrino beam produced by the lab’s accelerator complex. The beam, made of muon neutrinos, is sent to NOvA’s two detectors — one located at Fermilab and one located about 800 kilometers away in Minnesota, pictured here.

    Fermilab’s NOvA neutrino experiment studies neutrino oscillations using the powerful NuMI neutrino beam produced by the lab’s accelerator complex. The beam, made of muon neutrinos, is sent to NOvA’s two detectors — one located at Fermilab and one located about 800 kilometers away in Minnesota. The NOvA far detector looks to identify the fraction of muon neutrinos in the NuMI beam that oscillated into electron neutrinos (called electron neutrino appearance) and the fraction of muon neutrinos that oscillated to a different flavor (called muon neutrino disappearance).

    The NuMI beam is generally described as a muon neutrino beam, but it can also be made of muon antineutrinos. The antineutrino is the antiparticle of the neutrino. Just as muon neutrinos can oscillate into electron neutrinos, muon antineutrinos can oscillate into electron antineutrinos.

    Experimentalists can use information from the combination of the measurements of electron and muon neutrinos, as well as their antiparticle equivalents, to draw their conclusions. For example, if the oscillation rates of antineutrinos compared to those of neutrinos are different, the implication could be a violation of a symmetry called charge parity, commonly called CP. The existence of this type of CP violation is one of the great unknowns in particle physics that NOvA is investigating.

    NOvA’s latest measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters have been published in Physical Review Letters. The data were recorded between 2014 and 2019 and correspond to 8.85 x 1020 protons-on-target of neutrino beam and 12.33 x 1020 protons-on-target of antineutrino beam. This represents a 78% increase in the amount of antineutrino data compared to NOvA’s previous results, presented at the Neutrino 2018 conference.

    NOvA identified 27 electron antineutrino candidate events in the NOvA far detector, compared to the 10.3 events expected if muon antineutrinos did not oscillate into electron antineutrinos. This remains the strongest evidence (4.4 sigma) of electron antineutrino appearance in a muon antineutrino beam for a long-baseline experiment. (In particle physics, 3 sigma is usually considered “strong evidence” that the conclusions of the data analysis are unlikely to be a fluke, while 5 sigma means that the experimental results qualify as a discovery.)

    In addition to those 27 electron antineutrino events, 102 surviving muon antineutrino candidates were detected in the far detector, where 476 events would have been expected if muon antineutrinos did not oscillate at all. NOvA scientists combined these new events with previously recorded neutrino data and analyzed them jointly. Pictures of such neutrino and antineutrino events as recorded by the NOvA far detector are shown below.

    3
    Four events observed in the NOvA far detector, classified as muon (left) or electron (right) neutrino interactions, with the beam in neutrino (top) or antineutrino (bottom) mode. Each panel shows two views of the same event, and the color represents the energy deposited by particles that emerged from the interaction. The latest NOvA results comprise four data samples with 113 muon neutrino to muon neutrino, 58 muon neutrino to electron neutrino, 102 muon antineutrino to muon antineutrino and 27 muon antineutrino to electron antineutrino candidates.

    The results help scientists chip away another problem in neutrino physics: the ordering of the three neutrino masses — which of the three is the lightest? NOvA’s combined neutrino-antineutrino appearance and disappearance fit shows a preference (1.9 sigma) for what is called normal mass ordering: The three neutrino mass states are ordered m1 ≤ m2 ≤ m3.

    NOvA is also working to measure one of the least known oscillation parameters, θ23, that governs the degree of flavor mixing in the third mass state. The fit shows a slight preference (1.6 sigma) for the value of this angle to be in the upper octant (θ23 > 45 degrees) and therefore points towards an absence of symmetry in the way muon and tau neutrino flavors contribute to the third neutrino mass state. The data recorded thus far does not allow us to draw conclusions about CP violation in neutrino interactions.

    The experiment is scheduled to collect new data until 2025. NOvA collaborators are continually working to improve the experiment and analysis techniques to potentially provide a definitive statement about the neutrino mass ordering, the value of θ23, and strong constraints on the CP-violating phase. These measurements are paramount if we want to understand the neutrino properties and the role they played in the formation of the universe as we know it.

    This work is supported in part by the DOE Office of Science and the National Science Foundation.

    See the full here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:14 pm on October 18, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Department of Energy awards Fermilab funding for next-generation dark matter research", Extending the search for axions with ADMX U Washington, FNAL, Toward unprecedented sensitivity with skipper CCDs   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Department of Energy awards Fermilab funding for next-generation dark matter research” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    October 18, 2019
    Leah Hesla

    Earlier this month, the Department of Energy announced that it has awarded scientists at its Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory funding to boost research on dark matter, the mysterious substance that makes up an astounding 85% of the matter in the universe.

    The award will fund two Fermilab projects focused on searching for dark matter particles of low mass — less than the mass of a proton.

    Over the past 90 years, scientists have found increasing evidence for dark matter, first in the motion of stars and galaxies and more recently in the pattern of temperature fluctuations from the universe’s earliest moments, still seen today. While evidence for dark matter is strong, the nature of dark matter has remained a mystery.

    DOE’s Basic Research Needs for Dark Matter New Initiatives program aims to bolster the search for dark matter particles in the range from as heavy as a proton to the lightest mass consistent with the evidence, a million trillion trillion times lighter. It leverages existing and planned large-scale investments and expertise in accelerators, underground laboratories, detector R&D, novel sensing and theoretical physics.

    “The mystery of the nature of dark matter is one of the most persistent in particle physics, and it’s only through smart, steady searching that we’ll get to the bottom of it,” said Josh Frieman, head of the Fermilab Particle Physics Division. “Our scientists have been on the cutting edge in the search for low-mass dark matter. The infusion of funding from this award will enable us to advance new approaches that can bring us that much closer to bringing dark matter to light.”

    The Fermilab-led initiatives funded through the DOE Basic Research Needs for Dark Matter New Initiatives grants are:

    1
    ADMX, based at the University of Washington, will search for hypothesized dark matter particles called axions. Photo: Mark Stone/University of Washington

    1. Extending the search for axions with ADMX

    Principal investigator: Andrew Sonnenschein

    One theory suggests that dark matter is made of axions, very light, invisible particles streaming through the cosmos. Scientists working on the ADMX experiment have been searching for these hypothesized particles using a haloscope, an instrument that uses a magnet to convert axion dark matter particles into ordinary microwaves. By building the world’s most sensitive superconducting radio receiver, ADMX researchers hope to discover axions at frequencies between 2 and 4 gigahertz.

    Collaborating institutions: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of Florida, University of Washington, Washington University, St. Louis, University of California, Berkeley and University of Western Australia

    2
    Engineers work on highly sensitive skipper CCDs. Researchers will use these sensors to search for low-mass dark matter particles. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    2. Toward unprecedented sensitivity with skipper CCDs

    Principal investigator: Juan Estrada

    One way to hunt for dark matter is to catch it in the act of bumping into a particle of ordinary matter, such as an electron. A sensitive enough detector could pick up on the transfer of energy between the two. Scientists at Fermilab and partnering institutions have been using high-sensitivity devices called skipper CCDs to catch those energy-transfer signals. Under the new DOE initiative, they’re setting their sights on the even harder-to-detect, lower-energy transfers that would arise from a low-mass dark matter particle. They plan to take the skipper CCD technology to its full potential by developing the design and construction plan for a 10-kilogram experiment with skipper CCDs, building on the developments from the ongoing pathfinder experiments SENSEI and DAMIC.

    Collaborating institutions: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Stony Brook University, University of Chicago, University of Washington

    See the full here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
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