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  • richardmitnick 2:41 pm on June 21, 2018 Permalink | Reply
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    From Fermilab: “New laser technology shows success in particle accelerators” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermilab an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    June 21, 2018
    Sarah Lawhun

    1
    David Johnson, left, and Todd Johnson work on the recently installed laser notcher in the Fermilab accelerator complex. The laser notcher, the first application of its kind in an in-production particle accelerator, has helped boost particle beam production at the lab. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    Lasers — used in medicine, manufacturing and made wildly popular by science fiction — are finding a new use in particle physics.

    Fermilab scientists and engineers have developed a tool called a laser notcher, which takes advantage of the laser’s famously precise targeting abilities to do something unexpected: boost the number of particles that accelerators send to experiments. It’s cranked up the lab’s particle output considerably — by an incredible 15 percent — giving scientists more opportunities to study nature’s tiniest constituents.

    While lasers have been used during accelerator tests and diagnostics, this is the first application of its kind used in a fully operational accelerator.

    “For such a new design, the laser notcher has been remarkably reliable,” said Fermilab engineer Bill Pellico, who manages one of the laboratory’s major accelerator upgrade programs, called the Proton Improvement Plan. “It’s already shown it will provide a considerable increase in the number of particles we can produce.”

    The notcher increases particle production, counterintuitively, by removing particles from a particle beam.

    Bunching out

    The process of removing particles isn’t new. Typically, an accelerator generates a particle beam in bunches — compact packets that each contain hundreds of millions of particles. Imagine each bunch in a beam as a pearl on a strand. Bunches can be arranged in patterns according to the acceleration needs. Perhaps the needed pattern is a 80-bunch-long string followed by a three-bunch-long gap. Often, the best way to create the gap is to start with a regular, uninterrupted string of bunches and simply remove the unneeded ones.

    But it isn’t so simple. Traditionally, beam bunches are kicked out by a fast-acting magnet, called a magnetic kicker. It’s a messy business: Particles fly off, strike beamline walls and generally create a subatomic obstacle course for the beam. While it’s not impossible for the beam to pass through such a scene, it also isn’t smooth sailing.

    Accelerator experts refer to the messy phenomenon as beam loss, and it’s a measurable, predictable predicament. They accommodate it by holding back on the amount of beam they accelerate in the first place, setting a ceiling on the number of particles they pack into the beam.

    That ceiling is a limitation for Fermilab’s new and upcoming experiments, which require greater and greater numbers of particles than the accelerator complex could handle previously. So the lab’s accelerator specialists look for ways to raise the particle beam ceiling and meet the experimental needs for beam.

    The most straightforward way to do this is to eliminate the thing that’s keeping the ceiling low and stifling particle delivery — beam loss.

    Lasers against loss

    The new laser notcher works by directing powerful pulses of laser light at particle bunches, taking them out of commission. Both the position and precision of the notcher allow it to create gaps cleanly —delivering a one-two punch in curbing beam loss.

    First, the notcher is positioned early in the series of Fermilab’s accelerators, when the particle beam hasn’t yet achieved the close-to-light speeds it will attain by the time it exits the accelerator chain. (At this early stage, the beam lumbers along at 4 percent the speed of light, a mere 2.7 million miles per hour.) This far upstream, the beam loss resulting from ejecting bunches doesn’t have much of an impact.

    “We moved the process to a place where, when we lose particles, it really doesn’t matter,” said David Johnson, Fermilab engineering physicist who led the laser notcher project.

    Second, the laser notcher is, like a scalpel, surgical in its bunch removal. It ejects bunches precisely, individually, bunch by bunch. That enables scientists to create gaps of exactly the right lengths needed by later acceleration stages.

    For Fermilab’s accelerator chain, the winning formula is for the notcher to create a gap that is 80 nanoseconds (billionths of a second) long every 2,200 nanoseconds. It’s the perfect-length gap needed by one of Fermilab’s later-stage accelerators, called the Booster.

    A graceful exit

    The Fermilab Booster feeds beam to the next accelerator stages or directly to experiments.

    Prior to the laser notcher’s installation, a magnetic kicker would boot specified bunches as they entered the Booster, resulting in messy beam loss.

    With the laser notcher now on the scene, the Booster receives a beam that has prefab, well-defined gaps. These 80-nanosecond-long windows of opportunity mean that, as the beam leaves the Booster and heads toward its next stop, it can make a clean, no-fuss, no-loss exit.

    With Booster beam loss brought down to low levels, Fermilab accelerator operators can raise the ceiling on the numbers of particles they can pack into the beam. The results so far are promising: The notcher has already allowed beam power to increase by a whopping 15 percent.

    Thanks to this innovation and other upgrade improvements, the Booster accelerator is now operating at its highest efficiency ever and at record-setting beam power.

    “Although lasers have been used in proton accelerators in the past for diagnostics and tests, this is the first-of-its-kind application of lasers in an operational proton synchrotron, and it establishes a technological framework for using laser systems in a variety of other bunch-by-bunch applications, which would further advance the field of high-power proton accelerators,” said Sergei Nagaitsev, head of the Fermilab Office of Accelerator Science Programs.

    Plentiful protons and other particles

    The laser notcher, installed in January, is a key part of a larger program, the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP), to upgrade the lab’s chain of particle accelerators to produce powerful proton beams.

    As the name of the program implies, it starts with protons.

    Fermilab sends protons barreling through the lab’s accelerator complex, and they’re routed to various experiments. Along the way, some of them are transformed into other particles needed by experiments, for example into neutrinos—tiny, omnipresent particles that could hold the key to filling in gaps in our understanding the universe’s evolution. Fermilab experiments need boatloads of these particles to carry out its scientific program. Some of the protons are transformed into muons, which can provide scientists with hints about the nature of the vacuum.

    With more protons coming down the pipe, thanks to PIP and the laser notcher, the accelerator can generate more neutrinos, muons and other particles, feeding Fermilab’s muon experiments, Muon g-2 and Mu2e, and its neutrino experiments, including its largest operating neutrino experiment, NOvA, and its flagship, the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment and Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility.

    “Considering all the upgrades and improvements to Fermilab accelerators as a beautiful cake with frosting, the increase in particle production we managed to achieve with the laser notcher is like the cherry on top of the cake,” Nagaitsev said.

    “It’s a seemingly small change with a significant impact,” Johnson said.

    As the Fermilab team moves forward, they’ll continue to put the notcher through its paces, investigating paths for improvement.

    With this innovation, Fermilab adds another notch in the belt of what lasers can do.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

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  • richardmitnick 5:07 pm on June 15, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , FNAL,   

    From Fermilab: “Fermilab develops forefront accelerator components for the High-Luminosity LHC” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermilab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    June 14, 2018
    Jordan Rice

    A groundbreaking ceremony will be held tomorrow to celebrate the start of civil engineering work for a major upgrade to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. When complete, the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will produce five to seven times more proton-proton collisions than the currently operating LHC, powering new discoveries about our universe.

    CERN CMS Tracker for HL-LHC

    For the last decade, scientists, engineers and technicians from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory have been working with partners around the world to conduct R&D on new accelerator components that would make operations at the HL-LHC possible. The U.S. research was conducted via the LHC Accelerator Research Program, or LARP. Now the research turns into reality, as construction of the new components begins.

    The primary components contributed by the United States for the HL-LHC construction are powerful superconducting magnets and superconducting deflecting cavities, called crab cavities of a novel compact design never before used in an accelerator.

    1
    Fermilab is developing magnets such as this one, which is mounted on a test stand at Fermilab, for the High-Luminosity LHC. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    “This is a truly major milestone for the whole U.S. accelerator community,” said Fermilab scientist Giorgio Apollinari, who leads the DOE Office of Science-funded U.S. HL-LHC Accelerator Upgrade Project (AUP). “More than 10 years of research work funded by DOE under LARP have gone into developing these cutting-edge magnets and crab cavities and in demonstrating their technical feasibility for the intended application at HL-LHC. We now look forward with much anticipation to shipping the first components to CERN and seeing them operate as part of the world’s foremost particle collider.”

    In the LHC, superconducting quadrupole magnets focus the beams into collision at four points around the 27-kilometer ring. In the HL-LHC, these focusing magnets must be more powerful to focus the stream of particles much tighter than in the LHC. Fermilab, in collaboration with DOE’s Brookhaven and Lawrence Berkeley national laboratories, developed the basic technology for these new magnets through LARP. The final design was completed in collaboration with CERN for application in the HL-LHC upgrade.

    These new magnets are made of a niobium-tin alloy that allows the magnets to reach the desired high magnetic field of 12 tesla. This powerful field is created by running a very high electric current through coils of superconducting wire, which conduct electricity without resistance when cooled to almost absolute zero. Fermilab is the lead U.S. laboratory for this project and is fabricating half of the coils and conducting the final assembly and testing of 11 full cryoassembly magnet structures before shipping them to CERN. The U.S. in total is delivering half of the quadrupole magnets for the upgrade, while CERN is completing the other half.

    “These are the next generation of superconducting magnets for accelerators,” said Fermilab’s Ruben Carcagno, the deputy project manager for the HL-LHC AUP. “This is the first time that this new technology will be deployed in a working machine. So it’s a big step.”

    2
    Fermilab is developing and constructing cavities like this one for the future HL-LHC. The cavity proper is the structure situated between the four rods. Photo: Leonardo Ristori

    In addition to the magnets, the United States will deliver half of the crab cavities to CERN for the HL-LHC, while CERN completes the remaining cavities. The cavities to be produced in the United States are of a radio-frequency dipole (RFD) design and are the product of more than 10 years of research through LARP by Old Dominion University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, with contributions from Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and U.S. industry. Fermilab will be responsible for fabricating and testing the RFD cavities before delivering them to CERN. These novel cavities will kick or tilt the beams just before they pass through each other to maximize the beam overlap and therefore the possibility of proton collisions.

    Once it’s up and running, the HL-LHC will produce up to 15 million Higgs bosons per year, compared to the 4 million produced during the LHC’s 2015-2017 run. The higher luminosity will mean big changes for the LHC experiments as well, and the ATLAS and CMS detectors are undergoing major upgrades of their own. Learn more about Fermilab’s contributions to the HL-LHC upgrades to the CMS detector.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 2:10 pm on June 8, 2018 Permalink | Reply
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    From Fermilab: “A boon for physicists: new insights into neutrino interactions” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermilab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    June 8, 2018
    1
    Image of a 3-track neutrino event in the MicroBooNE data with a muon, charged pion, and proton candidate in the final state. Image: MicroBooNE collaboration

    Physicists on the MicroBooNE collaboration at the Department of Energy’s Fermilab have produced their first collection of science results. Roxanne Guenette of Harvard University presented the results on behalf of the collaboration at the international Neutrino 2018 conference in Germany. The measurements are of three independent quantities that describe neutrino interactions with argon atoms, which make up the 170 tons of total target material used for neutrino collisions inside the MicroBooNE detector.

    MicroBooNE started operations in the fall of 2015. The detector, about the size of a school bus, has recorded hundreds of thousands of neutrino-argon collisions since then. It features a time projection chamber with three wire planes that record the particle tracks created by those collisions, similar to a digital camera recording images of fireworks. The Booster particle accelerator at Fermilab is used to create the muon neutrino beam for the experiment.

    It is the first low-energy neutrino experiment to make detailed observations of the subatomic processes that happen when a muon neutrino hits and interacts with an argon atom, leading to showers of secondary particles including protons, pions, muons and more. Using noise-reducing analysis techniques, MicroBooNE scientists can interpret the precise images of the particle tracks.

    One of the new results reported at the Neutrino 2018 conference was the first measurement of the multiplicity – or number of particles – that these neutrino-argon collisions generate. A new paper describing these results was submitted to the journal Physical Review D last week. Other measurements determined the likelihood, or more precisely the cross section, of a neutrino-argon collision occurring and producing a neutral pion or a more inclusive final state.

    The new results are of great importance for the groundbreaking measurements to be performed by neutrino experiments with liquid-argon TPCs. This includes the search for a fourth type of neutrino with the Short-Baseline Neutrino program at Fermilab, which comprises three neutrino detectors: the ICARUS detector, built by Italy’s INFN, refurbished at CERN, and then shipped to Fermilab in 2017; the new Short Baseline Near Detector; and MicroBooNE.

    FNAL/ICARUS

    FNAL Short Baseline near Detector

    FNAL Near Detector

    FNAL/MicroBooNE

    The measurements are also important for the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment hosted by Fermilab, which will use both neutrino and antineutrino collisions with argon to search for differences between neutrino and antineutrino interactions, with the goal of understanding what role neutrinos played in the evolution of the universe.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    “We are building on the success of neutrino interaction measurements in ICARUS and ArgoNeuT now with much larger statistics in MicroBooNE, to enable precise cross section measurements on argon,” said MicroBooNE co-spokesperson Bonnie Fleming, who holds a joint appointment with Fermilab and Yale University. “These are the first high-statistics, precision measurements on argon. They will be critical for the DUNE program.”

    Nearly 200 scientists from 31 institutions in Israel, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States are members of the MicroBooNE collaboration. The experiment is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 5:26 pm on May 31, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , FNAL, MicroBooNE measures charged-particle multiplicity in first neutrino-beam-based result, ,   

    From Fermilab: “MicroBooNE measures charged-particle multiplicity in first neutrino-beam-based result” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    May 31, 2018
    Tim Bolton
    Aleena Rafique

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    2
    This plot shows the observed multiplicity of charged particles emerging from the neutrino interaction point in MicroBooNE data (points with error bars) and three models (histograms). Data favors lower multiplicity compared to all the models.

    Neutrinos from the sun, from cosmic rays, from nuclear reactors, from radioactive decays in the earth, from exploded supernovas, from the Big Bang itself, and even occasionally from particle accelerators rush through our body every second in enormous quantity with no notice at all on our part. To detect neutrinos requires that they interact, and to first approximation, the theory of these interactions could not be simpler: They don’t. However, the very occasional scattering of a neutrino could allow us to unlock some of nature’s biggest remaining secrets.

    To study neutrinos we must enhance their rate of interactions, and this we do by boosting their energies using accelerators such as those at Fermilab and by building massive instrumented targets to give them more chance to bounce off of something. The technology of choice for this at Fermilab is the liquid-argon time projection chamber. This forms the heart of the MicroBooNE experiment’s 170-ton neutrino target, which intercepts the intense neutrino flux generated by Fermilab’s Booster Neutrino Beam. The same technology will in a decade enable the DUNE experiment’s 40,000-ton far detector, sited underground in South Dakota, to receive an even more intense beam generated 1,300 kilometers east at Fermilab.

    The path to extracting deeper science from neutrinos starts with understanding the details of their interactions, which means not only the manner in which they scatter from protons and neutrons, but also the effects of the argon nuclear volume on this scattering.

    MicroBooNE’s first neutrino-beam-based physics result, submitted to the journal Physics Review D this spring, launches the experiment’s journey along this path.

    3
    This plot shows the azimuthal angle difference distribution for events with an observed multiplicity of two for data (points with error bars) and model (histogram). The peaks near positive and negative pi indicate presence of the quasielastic scattering process, while the distribution between the peaks is consistent with predicted contributions from resonance production. The shaded blue area is the estimated cosmic ray background.

    The paper first describes a technique to extract neutrino events from a cosmic ray background-dominated sample using fully automatic reconstruction tools. Then it presents the number of charged particles that emerge from a neutrino interaction point — the charged-particle multiplicity — and compares it against three different versions of the neutrino event generator GENIE. Hints at a discrepancy with model are observed in higher multiplicities, where models predict more events than are observed in data. Finally, it compares many charged-particle kinematic distributions from different multiplicities to GENIE models, providing indications of interesting nuclear physics effects on the scattering. In the end, despite discrepancies here and there, MicroBooNE data agree reasonably well with all three GENIE models.

    This measurement starts up the MicroBooNE neutrino interactions physics program. It validates the use of GENIE, an important analysis tool, but it also points out areas where models can be improved.

    In addition to their intrinsic scientific interest, neutrino interaction measurements at MicroBooNE will be very useful for many detectors, such as SBND, ICARUS, and DUNE, that will use the same technology and target.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 5:54 pm on May 17, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Five (more) fascinating facts about DUNE, FNAL, , LBNF/DUNE, , ,   

    From Symmetry: “Five (more) fascinating facts about DUNE” 

    Symmetry Mag
    From Symmetry

    05/17/18
    Lauren Biron

    Engineering the incredible, dependable, shrinkable Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, designed to solve mysteries about tiny particles called neutrinos, is growing by the day. More than 1000 scientists from over 30 countries are now collaborating on the project. Construction of prototype detectors is well underway.

    Engineers are getting ready to carve out space for the mammoth particle detector a mile below ground.

    The international project is hosted by the Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory outside of Chicago—and it has people cracking engineering puzzles all around the globe. Here are five incredible engineering and design feats related to building the biggest liquid-argon neutrino experiment in the world.

    1. The DUNE detector modules can (and will) shrink by about half a foot (16.5 centimeters) when filled with liquid argon.
    2
    Artwork by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova

    Each of the large DUNE detector modules in South Dakota will be about 175 feet (58 meters) long, but everything has to be able to comfortably shrink when chilled to negative 300 degrees Fahrenheit (negative 184 degrees Celsius). The exterior box that holds all of cold material and detector components, also known as the cryostat, will survive thanks to something akin to origami. It will be made of square panels with folds on all sides, creating raised bumps or corrugations around each square. As DUNE cools by hundreds of degrees to liquid argon temperatures, the vessel can actually stay the same size because of those folds; the corrugation provides extra material that can spread out as the flat areas shrink. But inside, the components will be on the move. Many of the major detector components within the cryostat will be attached to the ceiling with a dynamic suspension system that allows them to move up to half a foot as they chill.

    2. Researchers must engineer a new kind of target to withstand the barrage of particles it will take to make the world’s most intense high-energy neutrino beam for DUNE.

    3
    Artwork by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova
    Targets are the material that a proton beam interacts with to produce neutrinos. The Fermilab accelerator complex is being upgraded with a new superconducting linear collider at the start of the accelerator chain to produce an even more powerful proton beam for DUNE—and that means engineers need a more robust target that can stand up to the intense onslaught of particles. Current neutrino beamlines at Fermilab use different targets—one with meter-long rows of water-cooled graphite tiles called fins, another with air-cooled beryllium. But engineers are working on a new helium-gas-cooled cylindrical rod target to meet the higher intensity. How intense is it? The new accelerator chain’s beam power will be delivered in short pulses with an instantaneous power of about 150 gigawatts, equivalent to powering 15 billion 100-watt lightbulbs at the same time for a fraction of a second.

    3. A single DUNE test detector component requires almost 15 miles of wire.
    4
    Artwork by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova
    Before scientists start building the liquid-argon neutrino detectors a mile under the surface in South Dakota, they want to be sure their technology is going to work as expected. In a ProtoDUNE test detector being constructed at CERN, they are testing pieces called “anode plane assemblies.”

    ProtoDune

    CERN Proto DUNE Maximillian Brice

    ProtoDune

    Each of these panels is made of almost 15 miles (24 kilometers) of precisely tensioned wire that has to lay flat—within a few millimeters. The wire is a mere 150 microns thick—about the width of two hairs. This panel of wires will attract and detect particles produced when neutrinos interact with the liquid argon in the detector—and hundreds will be needed for DUNE.

    4. DUNE will be the highest voltage liquid-argon experiment in the world.

    6
    Artwork by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova

    The four DUNE far detector modules, which will sit a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota, will use electrical components called field cages. These will capture particle tracks set in motion by a neutrino interaction. The different modules will feature different field cage designs, one of which has a target voltage of around 180,000 volts—about 1500 times as much voltage as you’d find in your kitchen toaster—while the other design is planning for 600,000 volts. This is much more than was produced by previous liquid-argon experiments like MicroBooNE and ICARUS (now both part of Fermilab’s short-baseline neutrino program), which typically operate between 70,000 and 80,000 volts. Building such a high-voltage experiment requires design creativity. Even “simple” things, from protecting against power surges and designing feedthroughs—the fancy plugs that bring this high voltage from the power supply to the detector—have to be carefully considered and, in some cases, built from scratch.

    5. Researchers expect DUNE’s data system to catch about 10 neutrinos per day—but must be able to catch thousands in seconds if a star goes supernova nearby.

    6
    Artwork by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova

    A supernova is a giant explosion that occurs when a star collapses in on itself. Most people imagine the dramatic burst of light and heat, but much of the energy (around 99 percent) is carried away by neutrinos that can then be recorded here on Earth in neutrino detectors. On an average day, DUNE will typically see a handful of neutrinos coming from the world’s most intense high-energy neutrino beam—around 10 per day at the start of the experiment. Because neutrinos interact very rarely with other matter; scientists must send trillions to their distant detectors to catch even a few. But so many neutrinos are released by a supernova that the detector could see several thousand neutrinos within seconds if a star explodes in our Milky Way galaxy. A dedicated group within DUNE is working on how best to rapidly record the enormous amount of data from a supernova, which will be about 50 terabytes in ten seconds.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    stem

    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 9:52 pm on April 29, 2018 Permalink | Reply
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    From Symmetry : “Putting the puzzle together” 

    Symmetry Mag
    Symmetry

    [While this article was written for a journal specializing in Physics, everything in it is true for all Basic and Applied Science. Soemwhere in my archives is an article from Natural History Magazine by Stephen Jay Gould in which he states that many new scientific ideas arise out of the existence of the devices built by technicians for the last experimental project. So it will be with the HL-LHC and the ILC.]

    11/21/17 [in social media today]
    Ali Sundermier

    1
    Photos by Fermilab and CERN

    Successful physics collaborations rely on cooperation between people from many different disciplines.

    So, you want to start a physics experiment. Maybe you want to follow hints of an as yet unseen particle. Or maybe you want to learn something new about a mysterious process in the universe. Either way, your next step is to find people who can help you.

    In large science collaborations, such as the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider; the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE); and Fermilab’s NOvA, hundreds to thousands of people spread out across many institutions and countries keep things operating smoothly. Whether they’re senior scientists, engineers, technicians or administrators, each of them has an important role to play.

    CERN/ATLAS detector

    CERN CMS detector

    LHC

    CERN/LHC Map

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    CERN LHC Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector


    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    Think of it like a jigsaw puzzle: This list will give you an idea about how their work fits together to create the big picture.

    Dreaming up the experiment

    Many particle physics experiments begin with a fundamental question. Why do objects have mass? Or, why is the universe made of matter?

    When scientists encounter these big, seemingly inscrutable questions, part of their job is to identify possible ways to answer them. A large part of this is breaking down the big questions into a program of smaller, answerable questions.

    In the case of the LHC, scientists who wondered about things such as undiscovered particles and the origin of mass designed a 27-kilometer particle collider and four giant detectors to learn more.

    Each scientist in a collaboration brings their own unique perspective and skill set to the table, whether it’s providing an understanding of the physics or offering expertise in operations or detector design.


    CERN/ALICE Detector

    CERN/LHCb detector

    (ATLAS and CMS detectors are depicted above.]

    Perfecting the design

    Once scientists have an idea about the experiment they want to do and the approach they want to take, it’s the job of the engineers to turn the concepts into pieces of hardware that can be built, function and meet the experiment’s requirements.

    For example, engineers might have to figure out how the experiment should be supported mechanically or how to connect all the electrical systems and make signals available in a detector.

    In the case of NOvA [depicted above], which investigates neutrino oscillations, scientists needed a detector that was huge and free of dense materials, which made conventional construction techniques unworkable. They had to work with engineers who could understand plastic as a building material so they could be confident about using it to build a gigantic, free-standing structure that fit the requirements.

    Keeping things running

    Technicians come in when the experimental apparatus and instrumentation are being built and often have complementary knowledge about what they’re working on. They build the hardware and coordinate the integration of components. It’s their work that, in the end, pulls everything together so the experiment functions.

    Once the experiment is built, technicians are responsible for keeping everything humming along at top performance. When physicists notice things going wrong with the detectors, the technicians usually have first eyes on it. It’s a vital task, since every second counts when it comes to collecting data.

    Doing the heavy lifting

    When designing and constructing the experiment, the scientists also recruit postdocs and grad students, who do the bulk of the data analysis.

    Grad students, who are still working on their PhDs, have to balance their own coursework with the real-world experiment, learning their way around running simulations, analyzing data and developing algorithms. They also make sure that every part of the detector is working up to par. In addition, they may work in instrumentation, developing new instruments and electronics.

    Postdocs, on the other hand, have already worked on experiments and obtained their PhDs, so they typically assume more of a leadership role in these collaborations. Part of their role is to guide the grad students in a sort of apprenticeship.

    Postdocs are often in charge of certain types of analysis or detector operations. Because they’ve worked on previous experiments, they have a tool kit and experience to draw on to solve problems when they crop up.

    Postdocs and grad students often work with technicians and engineers to ensure everything is properly built.

    Making the data accessible

    The LHC produces about 25 petabytes of data every year, or 25 billion megabytes. If the average size of an MP3 is about one megabyte per minute, then it would take almost 50,000 years to play 25 petabytes of songs. In physics collaborations, computer scientists and engineers have to organize the computing networks to ensure against bottlenecks or traffic jams when this massive amount of data is shared.

    They also maintain the software framework, which takes care of data handling and archiving. Say a scientist wants to know what happened on Feb. 27, 2015, at 3 a.m. Computing experts have to be able to go into the data catalogue and find, among the petabytes of data, where that event is stored.

    Sorting out the logistics

    One often overlooked group is the administrators.

    It’s up to the administrators to sequence all the different projects so they get the funds they need to make progress. They sort the logistics to make sure the right people are in the right places working on the right things.

    Administrators manage a group of people who are constantly coming and going. Is someone traveling to a site from a different institution? The administrators make sure that people get connected, work out itineraries and schedule where visiting scientists will live and work.

    Administrators also organize collaboration meetings, transfer money, and procure and ship equipment.

    Translating discoveries to the public

    While every single person involved in an experiment has a responsibility to effectively communicate with others, it can be challenging to communicate about research in a way that’s relatable to people from different backgrounds. That’s where the professional communicators come in.

    Communicators can translate a paper full of jargon and complicated science into a fascinating story that the rest of the world can get excited about.

    In addition to doing outreach for the public and writing press releases and pitching stories for the media, communicators offer coaching to people in a scientific collaboration on how to relay the science to a general audience, which is important for generating public interest. [Everyone involved need to remember that all of this work is publicly funded with tax dollars, except in places like China where it is virtually the same thing.]

    [One of the main reasons I started this blog was that I found out that 30% of the scientists on the LHC are USA scientists and the US press does not write about science except the rare person like Dennis Overbye of the New York Times. I had seen the PBS video Creation of the Universe by Timothy Ferris (music by Brian Eno); The PBS video The Atom Smashers, centered on but not limited to the Tevatron at Fermilab and hints of what was to come in Europe in stead of Waxahachie, Texas; and The Big Bang Machine, with (Sir) Brian Cox, all about the LHC, with a nod back to the Tevatron. Someone at Quantum Diaries put me on to the Greybook which lists every institution in the world processing data from the LHC. I collected as much of their social media as I could and that was my start. Of course by now my source list has grown considerably and my subjects have also increased.]

    Fitting the pieces

    Now that you know many of the pieces that must fall into place for a large physics collaboration to be successful, also know that none of these roles is performed in a vacuum. For an experiment to work, there must be a synergy of tasks: Each relies on the success of the others. Now go start that experiment!

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 2:59 pm on April 29, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Anything to declare?, FNAL, , , , , , Transporting valuable cargo one piece at a time   

    From Symmetry and FNAL: “Anything to declare?” 

    Symmetry Mag
    Symmetry

    01/05/17 [Just brought forward now in social media]
    Sarah Charley

    1
    A scientist at CERN removes a delicate half-disk of pixels from its custom-made box. The box was designed to fit snugly in an airplane seat. Photo courtesy of John Conway

    Sometimes being a physicist means giving detector parts the window seat.

    John Conway knows the exact width of airplane aisles (15 inches). He also personally knows the Transportation Security Administration operations manager at Chicago’s O’Hare Airport. That’s because Conway has spent the last decade transporting extremely sensitive detector equipment in commercial airline cabins.

    “We have a long history of shipping particle detectors through commercial carriers and having them arrive broken,” says Conway, who is a physicist at the University of California, Davis. “So in 2007 we decided to start carrying them ourselves. Our equipment is our baby, so who better to transport it than the people whose work depends on it?”

    Their instrument isn’t musical, but it’s just as fragile and irreplaceable as a vintage Italian cello, and it travels the same way. Members of the collaboration for the CMS experiment at CERN research center tested different approaches for shipping the instrument by embedding accelerometers in the packages.

    CERN CMS Tracker for HL-LHC

    Their best method for safety and cost-effectiveness? Reserving a seat on the plane for the delicate cargo.

    In November Conway accompanied parts of the new CMS pixel detector from the Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Chicago to CERN in Geneva. [See lead image.]The pixels are very thin silicon chips mounted inside a long cylindrical tube. This new part will sit in the heart of the CMS experiment and record data from the high-energy particle collisions generated by the Large Hadron Collider.

    “It functions like the sensor inside a digital camera,” Conway said, “except it has 45 megapixels and takes 40 million pictures every second.”

    Scientists and engineers assembled and tested these delicate silicon disks at Fermilab before Conway and two colleagues escorted them to Geneva. The development and construction of the component pieces took place at Fermilab and universities around the United States.

    Conway and his colleagues reserved each custom-made container its own economy seat and then accompanied these precious packages through check-in, security and all the way to their final destination at CERN. And although these packages did not leave Fermilab through the shipping department, each carried its own official paperwork.

    “We’d get a lot of weird looks when rolling them onto the airplane,” Conway says. “One time the flight crew kept joking that we were transporting dinosaur eggs.”

    After four trips by three people across the Atlantic, all 12 components of the US-built pixel detectors are at CERN and ready for integration with their European counterparts. This winter the completed new pixel detector will replace its time-worn predecessor currently inside the CMS detector.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 1:52 pm on April 20, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , FNAL, , ,   

    From FNAL: “Turning up the luminosity: Fermilab contributes important CMS upgrades” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    April 19, 2018
    Sarah Lawhun

    Fermilab is developing and testing a revolutionary particle detector concept, one that will enable the CMS detector at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider to handle 10 times the number of particle collisions currently being produced at the European machine — a virtual avalanche. This upgrade will make the LHC the world’s highest-energy proton smasher in the next decades.

    CERN CMS

    CERN CMS Higgs Event

    CERN CMS pre-Higgs Event

    At the LHC, two beams of protons are accelerated to nearly the speed of light around the collider’s 18-mile ring in opposite directions, colliding inside one of four detectors, including one called CMS. The protons smash together in the detector’s core, producing a plethora of subatomic particles that fly off in all directions.

    The detector — a gigantic, barrel-shaped device that could surround a whale if the instrument were hollow — is packed with layers of detectors that surround the collision site. Think of it as a superhigh-tech onion — a 14,000-ton onion equipped with billions of sensors in its core, buried 100 meters underground. These layers collect data from the particles emerging from the collisions, tracking their paths as they shoot away from the center.

    Higher luminosity for the Higgs

    In the late 2020s, CERN will turn up the LHC’s beam luminosity, or the number of protons packed into its beams, resulting in showers of even more particles.

    This increased abundance will give scientists more opportunities to reveal new particles and processes, helping us refine our understanding of how the universe works.

    The CMS and ATLAS co-discovered the Higgs boson in 2012, a discovery that led to a Nobel Prize. Now, both experiments are working to learn more about the Higgs and how it behaves — and in the process to maybe reveal something unexpected.

    CERN/ATLAS detector

    “There’s the possibility of not only making very precise measurements of phenomena that will allow us to test our assumptions about the Standard Model, but also gaining an increased scope for new physics that might be just beyond where we’re reaching now,” said Ron Lipton, a Fermilab scientist on the CMS experiment who is coordinating the detector project at national level.

    Of course, the LHC’s high luminosity won’t do much good if the detector isn’t equipped to handle it.

    4
    CMS tracker for HL-LHC

    CERN CMS Tracker for HL-LHC

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 1:24 pm on April 20, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , FNAL, , , , ,   

    From FNAL: “CMS experiment at the LHC sees first 2018 collisions” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    April 19, 2018
    Cecilia Gerber
    Sergo Jindariani

    Cecilia Gerber and Sergo Jindariani are co-coordinators of the LHC Physics Center at Fermilab.

    After months of winter shutdown, the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is once again seeing collisions and is ready to take data.

    CERN CMS

    CERN CMS Higgs Event

    CERN CMS pre-Higgs Event

    The shutdown months have been very busy for CMS physicists, who used this downtime to improve the performance of the detector by completing upgrades and repairs of detector components. The LHC will continue running until December 2018 and is expected to deliver an additional 50 inverse femtobarns of integrated luminosity to the ATLAS and CMS experiments. This year of data-taking will conclude Run-2, after which the collider and its experiment will go into a two-year long shutdown for further upgrades.

    Run-2 of the LHC has been highly successful, with close to 100 inverse femtobarns of integrated luminosity already delivered to the experiments in 2016 and 2017. These data sets enabled CMS physicists to perform many measurements of Standard Model parameters and searches for new physics. New data will allow CMS to further advance into previously uncharted territory. Physicists from the LHC Physics Center at Fermilab have been deeply involved in the work during the winter shutdown. They are now playing key roles in processing and certification of data recorded by the CMS detector, while looking forward to analyzing the new data sets for a chance to discover new physics.


    This is an event display of one of the early 2018 collisions that took place at the CMS experiment at CERN.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 5:42 pm on April 11, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , FNAL, , , , ,   

    From Symmetry: “Right on target” 

    Symmetry Mag
    Symmetry

    04/11/18
    Sarah Lawhun

    1
    Patrick Hurh

    These hardy physics components live at the center of particle production.

    For some, a target is part of a game of darts. For others, it’s a retail chain. In particle physics, it’s the site of an intense, complex environment that plays a crucial role in generating the universe’s smallest components for scientists to study.

    The target is an unsung player in particle physics experiments, often taking a back seat to scene-stealing light-speed particle beams and giant particle detectors. Yet many experiments wouldn’t exist without a target. And, make no mistake, a target that holds its own is a valuable player.

    Scientists and engineers at Fermilab [FNAL] are currently investigating targets for the study of neutrinos—mysterious particles that could hold the key to the universe’s evolution.

    Intense interactions

    The typical particle physics experiment is set up in one of two ways. In the first, two energetic particle beams collide into each other, generating a shower of other particles for scientists to study.

    In the second, the particle beam strikes a stationary, solid material—the target. In this fixed-target setup, the powerful meeting produces the particle shower.

    As the crash pad for intense beams, a target requires a hardy constitution. It has to withstand repeated onslaughts of high-power beams and hold up under hot temperatures.

    You might think that, as stalwart players in the play of particle production, targets would look like a fortress wall (or maybe you imagined dartboard). But targets take different shapes—long and thin, bulky and wide. They’re also made of different materials, depending on the kind of particle one wants to make. They can be made of metal, water or even specially designed nanofibers.

    In a fixed-target experiment, the beam—say, a proton beam—races toward the target, striking it. Protons in the beam interact with the target material’s nuclei, and the resulting particles shoot away from the target in all directions. Magnets then funnel and corral some of these newly born particles to a detector, where scientists measure their fundamental properties.

    The particle birthplace

    The particles that emerge from the beam-target interaction depend in large part on the target material. Consider Fermilab neutrino experiments.

    In these experiments, after the protons strike the target, some of the particles in the subsequent particle shower decay—or transform—into neutrinos.

    The target has to be made of just the right stuff.

    “Targets are crucial for particle physics research,” says Fermilab scientist Bob Zwaska. “They allow us to create all of these new particles, such as neutrinos, that we want to study.”

    Graphite is a goldilocks material for neutrino targets. If kept at the right temperature while in the proton beam, the graphite generates particles of just the right energy to be able to decay into neutrinos.

    For neutron targets, such as that at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL], heavier metals such as mercury are used instead.

    ORNL Spallation Neutron Source


    ORNL Spallation Neutron Source

    Maximum interaction is the goal of a target’s design. The target for Fermilab’s NOvA neutrino experiment, for example, is a straight row—about the length of your leg—of graphite fins that resemble tall dominoes.

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector


    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    The proton beam barrels down its axis, and every encounter with a fin produces an interaction. The thin shape of the target ensures that few of the particles shooting off after collision are reabsorbed back into the target.

    Robust targets

    “As long as the scientists have the particles they need to study, they’re happy. But down the line, sometimes the targets become damaged,” says Fermilab engineer Patrick Hurh. In such cases, engineers have to turn down—or occasionally turn off—the beam power. “If the beam isn’t at full capacity or is turned off, we’re not producing as many particles as we can for science.”

    The more protons that are packed into the beam, the more interactions they have with the target, and the more particles that are produced for research. So targets need to be in tip-top shape as much as possible. This usually means replacing targets as they wear down, but engineers are always exploring ways of improving target resistance, whether it’s through design or material.

    Consider what targets are up against. It isn’t only high-energy collisions—the kinds of interactions that produce particles for study—that targets endure.

    Lower-energy interactions can have long-term, negative impacts on a target, building up heat energy inside it. As the target material rises in temperature, it becomes more vulnerable to cracking. Expanding warm areas hammer against cool areas, creating waves of energy that destabilize its structure.

    Some of the collisions in a high-energy beam can also create lightweight elements such as hydrogen or helium. These gases build up over time, creating bubbles and making the target less resistant to damage.

    A proton from the beam can even knock off an entire atom, disrupting the target’s crystal structure and causing it to lose durability.

    Clearly, being a target is no picnic, so scientists and engineers are always improving targets to better roll with a punch.

    For example, graphite, used in Fermilab’s neutrino experiments, is resistant to thermal strain. And, since it is porous, built-up gases that might normally wedge themselves between atoms and disrupt their arrangement may instead migrate to open areas in the atomic structure. The graphite is able to remain stable and withstand the waves of energy from the proton beam.

    Engineers also find ways to maintain a constant target temperature. They design it so that it’s easy to keep cool, integrating additional cooling instruments into the target design. For example, external water tubes help cool the target for Fermilab’s NOvA neutrino experiment.

    Targets for intense neutrino beams

    At Fermilab, scientists and engineers are also testing new designs for what will be the lab’s most powerful proton beam—the beam for the laboratory’s flagship Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility and Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, known as LBNF/DUNE.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    LBNF/DUNE is scheduled to begin operation in the 2020s. The experiment requires an intense beam of high-energy neutrinos—the most intense in the world. Only the most powerful proton beam can give rise to the quantities of neutrinos LBNF/DUNE needs.

    Scientists are currently in the early testing stages for LBNF/DUNE targets, investigating materials that can withstand the high-power protons. Currently in the running are beryllium and graphite, which they’re stretching to their limits. Once they conclusively determine which material comes out on top, they’ll move to the design prototyping phase. So far, most of their tests are pointing to graphite as the best choice.

    Targets will continue to evolve and adapt. LBNF/DUNE provides just one example of next-generation targets.

    “Our research isn’t just guiding the design for LBNF/DUNE,” Hurh says. “It’s for the science itself. There will always be different and more powerful particle beams, and targets will evolve to meet the challenge.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
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