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  • richardmitnick 1:10 pm on March 15, 2019 Permalink | Reply
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    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Fermilab, international partners break ground on new state-of-the-art particle accelerator” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    March 15, 2019
    Andre Salles, Fermilab Office of Communication
    asalles@fnal.gov
    630-840-6733

    With a ceremony held today, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory officially broke ground on a major new particle accelerator project that will power cutting-edge physics experiments for many decades to come.

    The new 700-foot-long linear accelerator, part of the laboratory’s Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II), will be the first accelerator project built in the United States with significant contributions from international partners. When complete, the new machine will become the heart of the laboratory’s accelerator complex, vastly improving what is already the world’s most powerful particle beam for neutrino experiments and providing for the long-term future of Fermilab’s diverse research program.

    The new PIP-II accelerator will make use of the latest superconducting technology, a key research area for Fermilab. Its flexible design will enable it to work as a new first stage for Fermilab’s chain of accelerators, powering both the laboratory’s flagship project — the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), hosted by Fermilab — and its extensive suite of on-site particle physics experiments, including searches for new particles and new forces in our universe.

    1
    On Friday, March 15, Fermilab broke ground on the PIP-II accelerator project, joined by dignitaries from the United States and international partners on the project. From left: Senator Tammy Duckworth (IL), Senator Dick Durbin (IL), Rep. Sean Casten (IL-6), Rep. Robin Kelly (IL-2), Rep. Bill Foster (IL-11), Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer, Rep. Lauren Underwood (IL-14), Illinois Governor JB Pritzker, DOE Under Secretary for Science Paul Dabbar, PIP-II Project Director Lia Merminga, DOE Associate Director for High Energy Physics Jim Siegrist, University of Chicago President Robert Zimmer, Consul General of India Neeta Bhushan, British Consul General John Saville, Consul General of Italy Giuseppe Finocchiaro, Consul General of France Guillaume Lacroix, DOE Fermi Site Office Manager Mike Weis, DOE PIP-II Federal Project Director Adam Bihary and Consul General of Poland Piotr Janicki. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    DUNE is under construction now and will be the most advanced experiment in the world studying ghostly, invisible particles called neutrinos. These particles may hold the key to cosmic mysteries that have baffled scientists for decades. The DUNE collaboration brings together more than 1,000 scientists from over 180 institutions in more than 30 countries, all with a single goal: to better understand these elusive particles and what they can tell us about the universe.

    The PIP-II accelerator will enable the beam that will send trillions of neutrino particles 800 miles (1,300 kilometers) through the earth to the four-story-high DUNE detector, to be built a mile beneath the surface at the Sanford Underground Research Facility [SURF] in Lead, South Dakota. With the improved particle beam enabled by PIP-II, scientists will use the DUNE detector to capture the most vivid 3-D images of neutrino interactions ever seen.

    3
    Shortly after breaking ground on the PIP-II accelerator project on Friday, March 15, Fermilab employees were joined by the governor of Illinois, six members of Congress and partners from around the world in this group photo. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    PIP-II is itself a groundbreaking scientific instrument, and its construction is pioneering a new paradigm for accelerator projects supported by DOE. The accelerator would not be possible without the contributions and world-leading expertise of partners in France, India, Italy and the UK. Scientists in each country are building components of the accelerator, to be assembled at Fermilab. This will be the first accelerator project in the United States completed using this approach.

    With PIP-II at the center of the laboratory’s accelerator complex, Fermilab will remain at the forefront of particle physics research and accelerator science for the foreseeable future.

    Today’s groundbreaking ceremony for the PIP-II accelerator was attended by dignitaries from around the globe. Speakers included Sen. Dick Durbin (IL), Sen. Tammy Duckworth (IL), Rep. Lauren Underwood (IL-14), Rep. Bill Foster (IL-11), Rep. Robin Kelly (IL-2), Rep. Sean Casten (IL-6), DOE Under Secretary for Science Paul Dabbar, University of Chicago President Robert Zimmer, and national and international partners in the project.

    4
    This architectural rendering shows the buildings that will house the new PIP-II accelerators. Architectural rendering: Gensler. Image: Diana Brandonisio.

    See the full article here .


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    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

    FNAL MINERvA front face Photo Reidar Hahn

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL MINOS Far Detector in the Soudan Mine in northern Minnesota

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 1:29 pm on March 8, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , And finally theywill be shipped to CERN, “The need to go beyond the already excellent performance of the LHC is at the basis of the scientific method” said Giorgio Apollinari Fermilab scientist and HL-LHC AUP project manager., , , , Each magnet will have four sets of coils making it a quadrupole., Earlier this month the AUP earned approval for both Critical Decisions 2 and 3b from DOE., Fermilab will manufacture 43 coils and Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York will manufacture another 41, FNAL, , In its current configuration on average an astonishing 1 billion collisions occur every second at the LHC., It’s also the reason behind the collider’s new name the High-Luminosity LHC., LHC AUP began just over two years ago and on Feb. 11 it received key approvals allowing the project to transition into its next steps., , , , Superconducting niobium-tin magnets have never been used in a high-energy particle accelerator like the LHC., The AUP calls for 84 coils fabricated into 21 magnets., The first upgrade is to the magnets that focus the particles., The magnets will be sent to Brookhaven to be tested before being shipped back to Fermilab., The new technologies developed for the LHC will boost that number by a factor of 10., The second upgrade is a special type of accelerator cavity., The U.S. Large Hadron Collider Accelerator Upgrade Project is the Fermilab-led collaboration of U.S. laboratories in partnership with CERN and a dozen other countries., These new magnets will generate a maximum magnetic field of 12 tesla roughly 50 percent more than the niobium-titanium magnets currently in the LHC., This means that significantly more data will be available to experiments at the LHC., This special cavity called a crab cavity is used to increase the overlap of the two beams so that more protons have a chance of colliding., Those will then be delivered to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to be formed into accelerator magnets, Twenty successful magnets will be inserted into 10 containers which are then tested by Fermilab, U.S. Department of Energy projects undergo a series of key reviews and approvals referred to as “Critical Decisions” that every project must receive., U.S. physicists and engineers helped research and develop two technologies to make this upgrade possible.   

    From Brookhaven National Lab: “Large Hadron Collider Upgrade Project Leaps Forward” 

    From Brookhaven National Lab

    March 4, 2019
    Caitlyn Buongiorno

    1
    Staff members of the Superconducting Magnet Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory next to the “top hat”— the interface between the room temperature components of the magnet test facility and the LHC high-luminosity magnet to be tested. The magnet is attached to the bottom of the top hat and tested in superfluid helium at temperatures close to absolute zero. Left to right: Joseph Muratore, Domenick Milidantri, Sebastian Dimaiuta, Raymond Ceruti, and Piyush Joshi. Credit: Brookhaven National Laboratory

    The U.S. Large Hadron Collider Accelerator Upgrade Project is the Fermilab-led collaboration of U.S. laboratories that, in partnership with CERN and a dozen other countries, is working to upgrade the Large Hadron Collider.

    LHC AUP began just over two years ago and, on Feb. 11, it received key approvals, allowing the project to transition into its next steps.

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    U.S. Department of Energy projects undergo a series of key reviews and approvals, referred to as “Critical Decisions” that every project must receive. Earlier this month, the AUP earned approval for both Critical Decisions 2 and 3b from DOE. CD-2 approves the performance baseline — the scope, cost and schedule — for the AUP. In order to stay on that schedule, CD-3b allows the project to receive the funds and approval necessary to purchase base materials and produce final design models of two technologies by the end of 2019.

    The LHC, a 17-mile-circumference particle accelerator on the French-Swiss border, smashes together two opposing beams of protons to produce other particles. Researchers use the particle data to understand how the universe operates at the subatomic scale.

    In its current configuration, on average, an astonishing 1 billion collisions occur every second at the LHC. The new technologies developed for the LHC will boost that number by a factor of 10. This increase in luminosity — the number of proton-proton interactions per second — means that significantly more data will be available to experiments at the LHC. It’s also the reason behind the collider’s new name, the High-Luminosity LHC.

    2
    This “crab cavity” is designed to maximize the chance of collision between two opposing particle beams. Photo: Paolo Berrutti

    “The need to go beyond the already excellent performance of the LHC is at the basis of the scientific method,” said Giorgio Apollinari, Fermilab scientist and HL-LHC AUP project manager. “The endorsement and support received for this U.S. contribution to the HL-LHC will allow our scientists to remain at the forefront of research at the energy frontier.”

    U.S. physicists and engineers helped research and develop two technologies to make this upgrade possible. The first upgrade is to the magnets that focus the particles. The new magnets rely on niobium-tin conductors and can exert a stronger force on the particles than their predecessors. By increasing the force, the particles in each beam are driven closer together, enabling more proton-proton interactions at the collision points.

    The second upgrade is a special type of accelerator cavity. Cavities are structures inside colliders that impart energy to the particle beam and propel them forward. This special cavity, called a crab cavity, is used to increase the overlap of the two beams so that more protons have a chance of colliding.

    “This approval is a recognition of 15 years of research and development started by a U.S. research program and completed by this project,” said Giorgio Ambrosio, Fermilab scientist and HL-LHC AUP manager for magnets.

    3
    This completed niobium-tin magnet coil will generate a maximum magnetic field of 12 tesla, roughly 50 percent more than the niobium-titanium magnets currently in the LHC. Photo: Alfred Nobrega

    Magnets help the particles go ’round

    Superconducting niobium-tin magnets have never been used in a high-energy particle accelerator like the LHC. These new magnets will generate a maximum magnetic field of 12 tesla, roughly 50 percent more than the niobium-titanium magnets currently in the LHC. For comparison, an MRI’s magnetic field ranges from 0.5 to 3 tesla, and Earth’s magnetic field is only 50 millionths of one tesla.

    There are multiple stages to creating the niobium-tin coils for the magnets, and each brings its challenges.

    Each magnet will have four sets of coils, making it a quadrupole. Together the coils conduct the electric current that produces the magnetic field of the magnet. In order to make niobium-tin capable of producing a strong magnetic field, the coils must be baked in an oven and turned into a superconductor. The major challenge with niobium-tin is that the superconducting phase is brittle. Similar to uncooked spaghetti, a small amount of pressure can snap it in two if the coils are not well supported. Therefore, the coils must be handled delicately from this point on.

    The AUP calls for 84 coils, fabricated into 21 magnets. Fermilab will manufacture 43 coils, and Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York will manufacture another 41. Those will then be delivered to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to be formed into accelerator magnets. The magnets will be sent to Brookhaven to be tested before being shipped back to Fermilab. Twenty successful magnets will be inserted into 10 containers, which are then tested by Fermilab, and finally shipped to CERN.

    With CD-2/3b approval, AUP expects to have the first magnet assembled in April and tested by July. If all goes well, this magnet will be eligible for installation at CERN.

    Crab cavities for more collisions

    Cavities accelerate particles inside a collider, boosting them to higher energies. They also form the particles into bunches: As individual protons travel through the cavity, each one is accelerated or decelerated depending on whether they are below or above an expected energy. This process essentially sorts the beam into collections of protons, or particle bunches.

    HL-LHC puts a spin on the typical cavity with its crab cavities, which get their name from how the particle bunches appear to move after they’ve passed through the cavity. When a bunch exits the cavity, it appears to move sideways, similar to how a crab walks. This sideways movement is actually a result of the crab cavity rotating the particle bunches as they pass through.

    Imagine that a football was actually a particle bunch. Typically, you want to throw a football straight ahead, with the pointed end cutting through the air. The same is true for particle bunches; they normally go through a collider like a football. Now let’s say you wanted to ensure that your football and another football would collide in mid-air. Rather than throwing it straight on, you’d want to throw the football on its side to maximize the size of the target and hence the chance of collision.

    Of course, turning the bunches is harder than turning a football, as each bunch isn’t a single, rigid object.

    To make the rotation possible, the crab cavities are placed right before and after the collision points at two of the particle detectors at the LHC, called ATLAS and CMS. An alternating electric field runs through each cavity and “tilts” the particle bunch on its side. To do this, the front section of the bunch gets a “kick” to one side on the way in and, before it leaves, the rear section gets a “kick” to the opposite side. Now, the particle bunch looks like a football on its side. When the two bunches meet at the collision point, they overlap better, which makes the occurrence of a particle collision more likely.

    After the collision point, more crab cavities straighten the remaining bunches, so they can travel through the rest of the LHC without causing unwanted interactions.

    With CD-2/3b approval, all raw materials necessary for construction of the cavities can be purchased. Two crab cavity prototypes are expected by the end of 2019. Once the prototypes have been certified, the project will seek further approval for the production of all cavities destined to the LHC tunnel.

    After further testing, the cavities will be sent out to be “dressed”: placed in a cooling vessel. Once the dressed cavities pass all acceptance criteria, Fermilab will ship all 10 dressed cavities to CERN.

    “It’s easy to forget that these technological advances don’t benefit just accelerator programs,” said Leonardo Ristori, Fermilab engineer and an HL-LHC AUP manager for crab cavities. “Accelerator technology existed in the first TV screens and is currently used in medical equipment like MRIs. We might not be able to predict how these technologies will appear in everyday life, but we know that these kinds of endeavors ripple across industries.”

    See the full article here .


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    BNL Campus

    BNL NSLS-II


    BNL NSLS II

    BNL RHIC Campus

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector

    BNL RHIC PHENIX

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.
    i1

     
  • richardmitnick 9:39 am on March 7, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL, , , , ,   

    From Symmetry: “Japan defers ILC decision” 

    Symmetry Mag
    From Symmetry

    03/07/19
    Kathryn Jepsen

    Proponents of building the next big particle collider in Japan expressed their disappointment today at the latest statements on the topic from government officials.

    Scientists have proposed building the International Linear Collider, which would be the longest linear collider in the world, in the Kitakami mountains in the Iwate prefecture of northern Japan.


    ILC schematic, being planned for the Kitakami highland, in the Iwate prefecture of northern Japan

    Scientists had called on the Japanese government to come to a decision about whether they support hosting the ILC by today’s meeting of the International Committee for Future Accelerators, or ICFA.

    Government officials spoke positively about the proposed collider and recommended Japanese research organization KEK approach governments and funding agencies in other countries to discuss options for sharing its associated costs, the chair of ICFA said today in a press conference in Tokyo.


    KEK lab, situated in Tsukuba, Ibaraki prefecture, Japan

    But the officials did not go as far as declaring their interest in hosting the ILC.

    Scientists set today’s decision deadline in the hopes of having a clearer picture of the future of the ILC as physicists in Europe begin the process of updating their regional strategy for particle physics. “We were hoping that for this strategy discussion that we would know whether Japan was going to be hosting it or not,” said Geoffrey Taylor, chair of ICFA and director of CoEPP in Australia. “We were hoping that there would be a definite statement. We don’t have a positive statement like that.”

    However, he said, “the fact that it is not going to be made in time for this discussion in Europe is not the end of the story.”

    The ILC would be a tool to study in detail the Higgs boson, discovered at experiments at the Large Hadron Collider in 2012. The ILC is designed to be a precision machine, capable of generating the same type of collisions over and over. This would allow it to mass-produce particles like the Higgs; scientists call it a “Higgs factory.”

    Mass-producing Higgs bosons would allow scientists to investigate with great precision the particle’s properties. Any deviations from scientists’ predictions could point the way to new discoveries, such as additional Higgs bosons, supersymmetric particles or dark matter.

    The ILC is not the only Higgs factory that scientists have proposed to build, but so far it is the most developed idea, giving it a competitive advantage, said Tatsuya Nakada, chair of ICFA’s Linear Collider Board and a professor at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland. “If we wait, then the situation will change, but right at the moment, it is the most advanced.”

    [Fermilab stated that they would be willing to house the ILC. Let’s get on with it. Undated FNAL article “ILC Detector R&D at Fermilab” ‘As a candidate host laboratory, Fermilab intends to increase the laboratory’s effort in hosting ILC-related activities including collaborative work on detector R&D and test beam facilities and strengthening its support role.’ ]

    See the full article here .


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    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 1:58 pm on February 14, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A design history from the Tevatron's CDF and DZero, , , FNAL, Muon tomography   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Using Fermilab detector expertise for award-winning project success” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    February 13, 2019
    Ron Lipton

    1
    Fermilab and the Nevada National Security Site designed this award-winning silicon strip detectors to be used for muon tomography. Muon tomography takes advantage of muons’ ability to traverse solid objects to view what’s inside them, much like an X-ray machine. Photo: Ron Lipton

    The recent R&D 100 Award given to the Fermilab and the Nevada National Security Site’s Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) is an example of how the depth of experience and infrastructure at the lab can enable an efficient approach to innovative projects. Andrew Green of RSL, who had earned his Ph.D. working on the DZero experiment at the Tevatron, approached me about collaborating on a demonstration of a silicon tracking system that could be used for muon tomography, providing a more compact and maintainable system than the current approach, which uses drift tubes.

    Muon tomography takes advantage of muons’ ability to traverse solid objects to view what’s inside them, much like an X-ray machine. Our group was in a period between large projects when resources were available, and the laboratory agreed to work with RSL. We formed a collaboration where Fermilab provided the mechanical and electrical design and assembly work, and the Remote Sensing Laboratory provided simulation, overall design, analysis software and funding.

    Fermilab has enormous experience in building silicon detectors, starting with fixed-target experiments that demonstrated the technology in the 1980s, through the CDF and DZero vertex detectors, followed by the CMS outer tracker and pixel detectors. Because of this, we were able to quickly put together a design that made efficient use of both people and materials.

    We chose sensors we had “on the shelf” that were rejected by CMS because of production flaws but were adequate for a technology demonstration. These sensors set the scale and characteristics of the planes to be produced. Greg Selberg built some early design prototypes. Bill Cooper, a physicist who led the DZero silicon detector mechanical design, came out of retirement to work part-time to design the planes and associated support structure. A crucial part of the design was the carbon fiber support structure with embedded copper that acts both as a support and a ground plane following a technique pioneered in DZero layer 0. The carbon fiber structure and other support parts were fabricated by Dave Butler, Otto Alvarez and his group in the PPD mechanical shop, based on their long experience of carbon fiber fabrication.

    At that time Paul Rubinov’s group in PPD Electrical Engineering was supporting CMS high-granularity calorimeter (HGCAL) test beam prototypes. They had developed hardware and software to read out HGCAL modules in the test beam with what’s called a SKIROC chip. We chose to use that chip for the muon tomography project to take advantage of the design expertise and software experience in Paul’s group. Paul developed the conceptual design of the system. Cristian Gingu adapted and refined his SKIROC readout firmware for the muon application. Mike Utes designed the readout boards, debugged the overall system, and managed the day-to-day production and testing work. Johnny Green managed parts procurement. Other boards were adapted from parts designed by the University of Minnesota for the HGCAL testing.

    The actual assembly was done at SiDet. Bert Gonzalez, who has been a part of the CDF, DZero, CMS and many other construction projects, provided the precision assembly of the planes. He was able to achieve a precision of 10 microns without the use of specialized jigs or fixtures. Michelle Jonas and Tammy Hawke provided the precision wire bonding of the large area sensors to each other and to the readout board. Vale Glasser and Rich Prokop, summer students from the Community College Internship program, worked during the last two summers to test and analyze data from the assembled devices.

    As you can see, this work was a real team effort. It is a team with levels of experience and capabilities that lead the world. That such people were available is the result of more than 30 years of detector design, assembly and testing at the laboratory. We are fortunate to have people with this level of experience, knowledge and breadth of skill available at Fermilab.

    See the full article here .


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    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:14 pm on February 5, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: ArgoNeuT collaboration, ArgoNeuT hits a home run with measurements of neutrinos in liquid argon, , FNAL, High-energy particle physics, liquid-argon technology-ArgoNeuT was a neutrino detector filled with 170 liters of liquid argon, ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “ArgoNeuT hits a home run with measurements of neutrinos in liquid argon” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    February 1, 2019
    Giacomo Scanavini
    Tingjun Yang

    All baseball fans know that probability is a huge component of their favorite sport. Just as, when you roll a die, you know that a certain outcome has a one in six chance of showing up, in baseball, each batter has a certain probability of hitting the ball based on their skills. Analogously, physicists are aware of the probabilistic nature of the interactions between particles and want to measure these probabilities to understand how nature works. A particle in a beam moving toward a fixed target can be imagined as a baseball, thrown by a pitcher, heading to a batter. The particle will not “hit” (interact) with a certainty of 100 percent. Depending on both the particle and the target, that probability changes, and it may be very low.

    What do physicists do in that case? They simply throw a lot of identical particles at a specific target in order to collect a reasonable number of interactions to investigate. Studying how particles interact with different targets in a statistical way can unveil nature’s secrets.

    Fermilab ArgoNeuT

    ArgoNeuT detector at Fermilab used liquid argon to detect mysterious particles called neutrinos. Photo ArgoNeuT collaboration

    The impact

    The particle known as the neutrino interacts very rarely with matter. It comes in three types, and while traveling, there is a probability they morph from one of their types into another. This process is known as neutrino oscillation, and it’s one of the most active research topics related to these curious particles today.

    Neutrino-nucleus interaction probabilities are a fundamental prerequisite for every neutrino oscillation experiment. In high-energy particle physics, such probability is expressed in terms of an area, called cross-section. In order to correctly interpret the outcome of neutrino oscillation experiments, researchers need precise neutrino cross-section measurements in the desired energy range.

    Neutrinos that interact with a nucleus produce other particles that scientists study to learn more about the neutrino responsible for the interaction.

    ArgoNeuT was a neutrino detector filled with 170 liters of liquid argon. It was designed to study neutrinos produced in a beam, but more specifically to exploit and fully understand what scientists now call liquid-argon technology, because it makes use of the liquid argon as the neutrino’s target.

    Using data collected over six months by this detector at Fermilab, ArgoNeuT researchers measured the probability for a neutrino to interact with a nucleus of argon to produce a particular result: one muon, exactly one charged pion and any number of nucleons (protons and neutrons).

    During the analysis of the ArgoNeuT data, scientists made fundamental improvements in the software that reconstructs the particles in the detector. These tools use the data to reconstruct – create a picture – and identify the particles produced in the interaction. The same reconstruction tools will be used by current and future neutrino experiments that use liquid argon as the detection material, such as the MicroBooNE and SBND experiments at Fermilab.

    FNAL/MicroBooNE

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector

    Moreover, these measurements provide new information about the neutrino single-pion production and can be used to improve the modeling of neutrino interactions with the argon nucleus.

    1
    A negative muon and positive pion candidate event in ArgoNeuT. The figure shows the 2-D projections in the two wire planes. The color of the track respects the charge read by the wire planes, wire by wire.

    Summary

    The ArgoNeuT experiment was the first ever to make cross-section measurements of neutrino and antineutrino (the neutrino’s antimatter counterpart) interactions resulting in a muon, a charged pion and any number of nucleons in the final state using argon as the target.

    Charged particles moving in the detector leave behind marks of their passage that can be read and recorded. Because of the structure of the detector, this information can be interpreted as a quantity of electric charge, proportional to the particle’s energy, divided into small dots along the particle’s path. In order to consider a particle “reconstructed,” all the dots must be grouped in a cluster, more or less like solving a connect-the-dots puzzle (without the help given by numbered labels arranged in ascending order!).

    Scientists can identify the types of particles that move through the detector based on their tracks.

    Researchers on ArgoNeuT managed to solve a series of issues. One was to account for the pesky presence of muons that happened to have no affiliation with any neutrino interaction in the detector. Such muons would arise from neutrino interactions with the environment surrounding the detector. They also took on the challenge of optimizing the reconstruction software for this analysis. The improved software was able to clusterize all the dots in the neutrino events in a more consistent and realistic way.

    Besides a chain of cuts able to remove the events that clearly didn’t respected the desired event structure, ArgoNeuT researchers implemented a boosted decision tree. This is a technique for creating a model that separates events according to several carefully chosen parameters given as inputs from the user. The boosted decision tree was trained using simulated signal and background samples, further improving the separation between signal and background data.

    After correcting for selection efficiency, scientists carried out the measurements and compared them with four of the most commonly used neutrino event simulators. The comparison showed a mismatch between data and most of the neutrino simulation predictions, showing how much physicists still have to understand about neutrino-argon and neutrino-nucleus interactions. The results obtained in these measurements can help improve the simulators taking into account more recent data from neutrino-argon interactions. Furthermore, because of the software’s great performance, ArgoNeuT will aid larger neutrino experiments in their quest to understand the nature of the subtle neutrino.

    See the full article here .


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    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

    FNAL MINERvA front face Photo Reidar Hahn

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 5:12 pm on February 4, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , FNAL, ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “CSI: Neutrinos cast no shadows” 

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    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    February 4, 2019
    Xianguo Lu

    Scientists solve neutrino mysteries by watching them interact with detectors — specifically, with the atomic nuclei in the detector material. Most of the time, a neutrino does not even shake hands with a nucleus. But when it does, the lightweight, neutral particle can transform into a charged particle and knock things out of the nucleus as it escapes — leaving a crime scene behind. It is the job of scientists at Fermilab’s MINERvA [see below] experiment to reconstruct the crime scene and figure out what has happened during the interaction.

    The impact

    Neutrinos are lightweight particles that rarely interact with matter. Their reluctance to interact makes them difficult to study, but they’re also the very particles that could answer longstanding questions about the creation of the cosmos, so they’re worth the pursuit. And it’s a tough one, since the neutrino can’t be studied directly. Rather, scientists must study the traces it leaves behind. The more information they can gather about the meaning of those traces, the better their neutrino measurements — not just at MINERvA, but at other neutrino experiments as well.

    Summary

    Neutrinos are lightweight, neutral particles, and they usually sail through matter without bumping into it. But once in a while, it does shake hands with a nucleus, and sometimes the handshake takes a destructive turn: A charged lepton (an electron or muon, sometimes called a “heavy electron”) is produced, while the constituents of the nucleus are knocked out. The traces of the charged lepton and the knock-out are collected by a particle detector.

    MINERvA scientists study the resultant particles’ traces to reconstruct the interaction between the neutrinos and the nuclei. So far, this has not been an easy task: Nuclear effects have obscured much of the evidence of the intruding neutrinos, leaving researchers with complex and seemingly irrelevant information. Not all neutrinos misbehave but, unfortunately, the neutrinos we care about – those with energy comparable to the mass of the constituents of the nuclei and could possibly tell us about the creation of the cosmos – all have this modus operandi.

    1
    The transverse boosting angle δαT represents the direction of the net transverse motion of the charged lepton and the knock-out.

    To reconstruct the resulting crime scene, scientists need a complete understanding of how the nuclear effects work.

    Both the charged lepton and the knock-out retain partial fingerprints from the original neutrino, and those partial fingerprints lie ambiguously on top of the nuclear effect background.

    Researchers have found that the fingerprints can be lifted via a novel neutrino CSI technique known as “final-state correlations.” Just as the sun’s corona is visible only during a solar eclipse, the fine details of the nuclear effects become clear only when other effects are removed.

    To get a sense of the “final-state correlations” technique, let’s take a step back and look at the events leading to the crime scene: A neutrino bumps into a nucleus. The interaction produces other particles. Those new particles — charged lepton and knock-out — fly off in opposite directions, leaving traces of themselves in the detector.

    In the absence of nuclear effects, the charged lepton and the knock-out would fly off in separate, roughly back-to-back paths, away from the incoming neutrino path. Picture a neutrino entering through, say, the south entrance of some tiny, subatomic building. It bumps into a nucleus. The resulting charged lepton flees through an east exit, and the knock-out particle flees through some west exit.

    With no nuclear effects, the charged lepton heads east with as much determination as the knock-out particle heads west. That is, the charge lepton’s east-pointing momentum matches the knock-out particle’s west-pointing momentum.

    But in reality, there are nuclear effects, and that means that the charged lepton’s eastward motion does not match the knock-out particle’s westward motion. These subtle momentum differences are clues; they reflect everything that happens inside the nucleus, like a shadow of the crime scene cast by the flashlight carried by the neutrino. Thus, neutrinos cast no shadows – only nuclear effects do.

    The final-state correlations technique matches the nuclear effects with the postinteraction particles’ departures from the paths of equal east-west momenta.

    In a recent MINERvA neutrino investigation, researchers used the new technique. They laid out a detailed reconstruction of the nuclear effects. The underlying phenomena – such as the initial state of the nucleus, additional knock-out mechanism, and final-state interactions between the knock-out and the rest of the nucleus – are now separated. New insights on the workings of nuclear effects have been reported in Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 022504. Those interested are much encouraged to review MINERvA’s findings.

    Xianguo Lu is a physicist at the University of Oxford.

    See the full article here .


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    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

    FNAL MINERvA front face Photo Reidar Hahn

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

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  • richardmitnick 11:46 am on January 29, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Fermilab scientists help push AI to unprecedented speeds, FNAL, , , ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Fermilab scientists help push AI to unprecedented speeds” 

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    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    January 29, 2019

    Javier Duarte
    Sergo Jindariani
    Ben Kreis
    Nhan Tran

    1
    Researchers at Fermilab are taking cues from industry to improve their own “big data” processing challenges.

    Machine learning is revolutionizing data analysis across academia and industries and is having an impact on our daily lives. Recent leaps in driverless car navigation and the voice recognition features of personal assistants are possible because of this form of artificial intelligence. As data sets in the Information Age continue to grow, companies such as Google and Microsoft are building tools that make machine learning faster and more efficient.

    Researchers at Fermilab are taking cues from industry to improve their own “big data” processing challenges.

    Data sets in particle physics are growing at unprecedented rates as accelerators are upgraded to higher performance and detectors become more fine-grained and complex. More sophisticated methods for analyzing these large data sets that also avoid losses in computing efficiency are required. For well over two decades, machine learning has already proven to be useful in a wide range of particle physics applications.

    To fully exploit the power of modern machine learning algorithms, Fermilab CMS scientists are preparing to deploy these algorithms in the first level of data filtering in their experiment, that is, in the “trigger.”

    CERN/CMS

    In particle physics lingo, a trigger occurs when a series of electronics and algorithms are used to select which collisions are recorded and which are discarded.

    Fermilab scientists are exploring a new approach that uses high-throughput, low-latency programmable microchips called field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The trigger algorithms have to operate in a daunting environment, which requires them to process events at the collision rate of 40 MHz at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and complete it in as little as hundreds of nanoseconds.

    LHC

    CERN map


    CERN LHC Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    In a growing collaboration with CERN, MIT, University of Florida, University of Illinois at Chicago and other institutions, Fermilab researchers have recently developed a software tool, called hls4ml, that helps users implement their own custom machine learning algorithms on FPGAs. hls4ml translates industry-standard machine learning algorithms, such as Keras, TensorFlow and PyTorch, into instructions for the FPGA, called firmware. This tool leverages a new way to create firmware called high-level synthesis (HLS), which is similar to writing standard software and reduces development time. hls4ml also allows users to take advantage of the capabilities of FPGAs to speed up computations, such as the ability to do many multiplications in parallel with reduced (but sufficient) precision.

    The first proof-of-concept implementation of the tool showed that a neural network with over 100 hidden neurons could classify jets originating from different particles, such as quarks, gluons, W bosons, Z bosons or top quarks, in under 75 nanoseconds. Neural networks can also be used for iterative tasks, such as determining the momentum of a muon passing through the CMS endcap detectors. Using hls4ml, CMS collaborators have shown that the ability to reject fake muons was up to 80 percent better than previous methods.

    Ultrafast, low-latency machine learning inference in FPGA hardware has much broader implications. Beyond real-time LHC data processing, applications can be found in neutrino and dark matter experiments and particle accelerator beamline controls. Even more broadly, accelerating machine learning with specialized hardware such as FPGAs and dedicated circuits called ASICs (application-specific integrated circuits) is an area of active development for large-scale computing challenges. Industry drivers such as Amazon Web Services with Xilinx FPGAs, Microsoft Azure and Intel have invested heavily in FPGAs, while Google has developed its own ASIC (a tensor processing unit, TPU). Specialized hardware platforms coupled with CPUs, referred to as co-processors, are driving the heterogeneous computing revolution. hls4ml can be applied in such co-processor platforms. Combining heterogeneous computing and hls4ML for low-latency machine learning inference could lead to an exciting potential to solve future computing challenges in particle physics.

    The authors are members of the Fermilab CMS Department.

    See the full article here .


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    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

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    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

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  • richardmitnick 3:40 pm on January 10, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , ArgoNeuT, FNAL, Liquid-argon detectors, ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Identifying lower-energy neutrinos with a liquid-argon particle detector” 

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    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    An experiment at the Department of Energy’s Fermilab has made a significant advance in the detection of neutrinos that hide themselves at lower energies.

    The ArgoNeuT experiment recently demonstrated for the first time that a particular class of particle detector — those that use liquid argon ­— can identify signals in an energy range that particle physicists call the “MeV range.”

    Fermilab ArgoNeuT

    It’s the first substantive step in confirming that researchers will be able to detect a wide energy range of neutrinos — even those at the harder-to-catch, lower energies — with the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, or DUNE, hosted by Fermilab. DUNE is scheduled to start up in the mid-2020s.

    Neutrinos are lightweight, elusive and subtle particles that travel close to the speed of light and hold clues about the universe’s evolution. They are produced in radioactive decays and other nuclear reactions, and the lower their energy, the harder they are to detect.

    In general, when a neutrino strikes an argon nucleus, the interaction generates other particles that then leave detectable trails in the argon sea. These particles vary in energy.

    2
    This is a visual display of an ArgoNeuT event showing a long trail left behind by a high energy particle traveling through the liquid argon accompanied by small blips, indicated by the arrows, caused by low energy particles.

    Scientists are fairly adept at teasing out higher-energy particles — those with more than 100 MeV (or megaelectronvolts) — from their liquid-argon detector data. These particles zip through the argon, leaving behind what look like long trails in visual displays of the data.

    Sifting out particles in the lower, single-digit-MeV range is tougher, like trying to extract the better hidden needles in the proverbial haystack. That’s because lower-energy particles don’t leave as much of a trace in the liquid argon. They don’t so much zip as blip.

    Indeed, after simulating neutrino interactions with liquid argon, ArgoNeuT scientists predicted that MeV-energy particles would be produced and would be visible as tiny blips in the visual data. Where higher-energy particles show as streaks in the argon, the MeV particles’ telltale signature would be small dots.

    And this was the challenge ArgoNeuT researchers faced: How do you locate the tiny blips and dots in the data? And how do you check that they signify actual particle interactions and are not merely noise? The typical techniques, the methods for identifying long tracks in liquid argon, wouldn’t apply here. Researchers would have to come up with something different.

    And so they did: ArgoNeuT developed a method to identify and reveal blip-like signals from MeV particles. They started by comparing two different categories: blips accompanied by known neutrino events and blips unaccompanied by neutrino events. Finally, they developed a new low-energy-specific reconstruction technique to analyze ArgoNeuT’s actual experimental data to look for them.

    And they found them. They observed the blip signals, which matched the simulated results. Not only that, but the signals came through loud and clear: ArgoNeuT identified MeV signals as a 15 sigma excess, far higher than the standard for claiming an observation in particle physics, which is 5 sigma (which means that there’s a 1 in 3.5 million chance that the signal is a fluke.)

    ArgoNeuT’s result demonstrates a capacity of crucial importance for measuring MeV neutrino events in liquid argon.

    Intriguingly, neutrinos born inside a supernova also fall into MeV range. ArgoNeuT’s result gives DUNE scientists a leg up in one of its research goals: to improve our understanding of supernovae by studying the torrent of neutrinos that escape from inside the exploding star as it collapses.

    The enormous DUNE particle detector, to be located underground at Sanford Lab in South Dakota, will be filled with 70,000 tons of liquid argon. When neutrinos from a supernova traverse the massive volume of argon below Earth’s surface, some will bump into the argon atoms, producing signals collected by the DUNE detector. Scientists will use the data amassed by DUNE to measure supernova neutrino properties and fill in the picture of the star that produced them, and even potentially witness the birth of a black hole.

    Particle detectors picked up a handful of neutrino signals from a supernova in 1987, but none of them were liquid-argon detectors. (Other neutrino experiments use, for example, water, oil, carbon or plastic as their detection material of choice.) DUNE scientists need to understand what the lower-energy signals from a supernova would look like in argon.

    The ArgoNeuT collaboration is the first experiment to help answer that question, providing a kind of first chapter in the guidebook on what to look for when a supernova neutrino meets argon. Its achievement could bring us a little closer to learning what these messengers from outer space will have to tell us.

    Learn more.

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

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  • richardmitnick 1:53 pm on January 8, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , DES remains one of the most sensitive and comprehensive surveys of distant galaxies ever performed, DES scientists also spotted the first visible counterpart of gravitational waves ever detected, FNAL, , Now the job of analyzing that data takes center stage, Recently DES issued its first cosmology results based on supernovae, Scientists on DES took data on 758 nights over six years, They recorded data from more than 300 million distant galaxies   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Dark Energy Survey completes six-year mission” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    January 8, 2019

    Scientists’ effort to map a portion of the sky in unprecedented detail is coming to an end, but their work to learn more about the expansion of the universe has just begun.

    Dark Energy Survey


    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL


    NOAO/CTIO Victor M Blanco 4m Telescope which houses the DECam at Cerro Tololo, Chile, housing DECam at an altitude of 7200 feet

    After scanning in depth about a quarter of the southern skies for six years and cataloguing hundreds of millions of distant galaxies, the Dark Energy Survey (DES) will finish taking data tomorrow, on Jan. 9.

    The survey is an international collaboration that began mapping a 5,000-square-degree area of the sky on Aug. 31, 2013, in a quest to understand the nature of dark energy, the mysterious force that is accelerating the expansion of the universe. Using the Dark Energy Camera, a 520-megapixel digital camera funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science and mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at the National Science Foundation’s Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile, scientists on DES took data on 758 nights over six years.

    Over those nights, they recorded data from more than 300 million distant galaxies. More than 400 scientists from over 25 institutions around the world have been involved in the project, which is hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The collaboration has already produced about 200 academic papers, with more to come.

    According to DES Director Rich Kron, a Fermilab and University of Chicago scientist, those results and the scientists who made them possible are where much of the real accomplishment of DES lies.

    “First generations of students and postdoctoral researchers on DES are now becoming faculty at research institutions and are involved in upcoming sky surveys,” Kron said. “The number of publications and people involved are a true testament to this experiment. Helping to launch so many careers has always been part of the plan, and it’s been very successful.”

    2

    DES remains one of the most sensitive and comprehensive surveys of distant galaxies ever performed. The Dark Energy Camera is capable of seeing light from galaxies billions of light-years away and capturing it in unprecedented quality.

    According to Alistair Walker of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, a DES team member and the DECam instrument scientist, equipping the telescope with the Dark Energy Camera transformed it into a state-of-the-art survey machine.

    “DECam was needed to carry out DES, but it also created a new tool for discovery, from the solar system to the distant universe,” Walker said. “For example, 12 new moons of Jupiter were recently discovered with DECam, and the detection of distant star-forming galaxies in the early universe, when the universe was only a few percent of its present age, has yielded new insights into the end of the cosmic dark ages.”

    The survey generated 50 terabytes (that’s 50 million megabytes) of data over its six observation seasons. That data is stored and analyzed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

    “Even after observations are ended, NCSA will continue to support the scientific productivity of the collaboration by making refined data releases and serving the data well into the 2020s,” said Don Petravick, senior project manager for the Dark Energy Survey at NCSA.

    Now the job of analyzing that data takes center stage. DES has already released a full range of papers based on its first year of data, and scientists are now diving into the rich seam of catalogued images from the first several years of data, looking for clues to the nature of dark energy.

    The first step in that process, according to Fermilab and University of Chicago scientist Josh Frieman, former director of DES, is to find the signal in all the noise.

    “We’re trying to tease out the signal of dark energy against a background of all sorts of noncosmological stuff that gets imprinted on the data,” Frieman said. “It’s a massive ongoing effort from many different people around the world.”

    The DES collaboration continues to release scientific results from their storehouse of data, and scientists will discuss recent results at a special session at the American Astronomical Society winter meeting in Seattle today, Jan. 8. Highlights from the previous years include:

    the most precise measurement of dark matter structure in the universe, which, when compared with cosmic microwave background results, allows scientists to trace the evolution of the cosmos.
    the discovery of many more dwarf satellite galaxies orbiting our Milky Way, which provide tests of theories of dark matter.
    the creation of the most accurate dark matter map of the universe.
    the spotting of the most distant supernova ever detected.
    the public release of the survey’s first three years of data, enabling astronomers around the world to make additional discoveries.

    DES scientists also spotted the first visible counterpart of gravitational waves ever detected, a collision of two neutron stars that occurred 130 million years ago. DES was one of several sky surveys that detected this gravitational wave source, opening the door to a new kind of astronomy.

    Recently DES issued its first cosmology results based on supernovae (207 of them taken from the first three years of DES data) using a method that provided the first evidence for cosmic acceleration 20 years ago. More comprehensive results on dark energy are expected within the next few years.

    The task of amassing such a comprehensive survey was no small feat. Over the course of the survey, hundreds of scientists were called on to work the camera in nightly shifts supported by the staff of the observatory. To organize that effort, DES adopted some of the principles of high-energy physics experiments, in which everyone working on the experiment is involved in its operation in some way.

    “This mode of operation also afforded DES an educational opportunity,” said Fermilab scientist Tom Diehl, who managed the DES operations. “Senior DES scientists were paired with inexperienced ones for training and, in time, would pass that knowledge on to more junior observers.”

    The organizational structure of DES was also designed to give early-career scientists valuable opportunities for advancement, from workshops on writing research proposals to mentors who helped review and edit grant and job applications.

    Antonella Palmese, a postdoctoral researcher associate at Fermilab, arrived at Cerro Tololo as a graduate student from University College London in 2015. She quickly came up to speed and returned in 2017 and 2018 as an experienced observer. She also served as a representative for early-career scientists, helping to assist those first making their mark with DES.

    “Working with DES has put me in contact with many remarkable scientists from all over the world,” Palmese said. “It’s a special collaboration because you always feel like you are a necessary part of the experiment. There is always something useful you can do for the collaboration and for your own research.”

    The Dark Energy Camera will remain mounted on the Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo for another five to 10 years and will continue to be a useful instrument for scientific collaborations around the world. Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Director Steve Heathcote foresees a bright future for DECam.

    “Although the data-taking for DES is coming to an end, DECam will continue its exploration of the universe from the Blanco telescope and is expected remain a front-line ‘engine of discovery’ for many years,” Heathcote said.

    The DES collaboration will now focus on generating new results from its six years of data, including new insights into dark energy. With one era at an end, the next era of the Dark Energy Survey is just beginning.

    Follow the Dark Energy Survey online at http://www.darkenergysurvey.org and connect with the survey on Facebook at http://www.facebook.com/darkenergysurvey, on Twitter at http://www.twitter.com/theDESurvey and on Instagram at http://www.instagram.com/darkenergysurvey.

    The Dark Energy Survey is a collaboration of more than 400 scientists from 26 institutions in seven countries. Funding for the DES Projects has been provided by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, U.S. National Science Foundation, Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities of Spain, Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, Higher Education Funding Council for England, ETH Zurich for Switzerland, National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics at Ohio State University, Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University, Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and the collaborating institutions in the Dark Energy Survey, the list of which can be found at http://www.darkenergysurvey.org/collaboration.

    Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. NSF is an independent federal agency created by Congress in 1950 to promote the progress of science. NSF supports basic research and people to create knowledge that transforms the future.

    NCSA at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign provides supercomputing and advanced digital resources for the nation’s science enterprise. At NCSA, University of Illinois faculty, staff, students and collaborators from around the globe use advanced digital resources to address research grand challenges for the benefit of science and society. NCSA has been advancing one third of the Fortune 50® for more than 30 years by bringing industry, researchers and students together to solve grand challenges at rapid speed and scale. For more information, please visit http://www.ncsa.illinois.edu.

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 5:48 pm on December 17, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A Repository for Large Sets of Valuable Scientific Data, , FNAL, HEPCloud, Pushing the Envelope on High-Throughput Computing,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab via HostingAdvice.com: “The World-Class Computing Resources Behind the DOE’s Fermilab” 

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    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    via

    2

    HostingAdvice.com

    December 14, 2018
    Christine Preusler

    Fermilab, a DOE-sponsored particle physics and accelerator laboratory, is raising the bar on innovative and cost-effective computing solutions that help researchers explore high-energy physics. As a repository for massive sets of scientific data, the national laboratory is at the forefront of new computing approaches, including HEPCloud, a paradigm for provisioning computing resources.

    It’s common knowledge that Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989. But if you’re not a quantum physicist, you may be surprised to learn that he accomplished the feat while working at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), a prominent scientific organization that operates the largest particle physics lab on the globe.

    “It was the field of high-energy physics for which the web was started to provide a way for physicists to exchange documents,” said Marc Paterno, Assistant Head for R&D and Architecture at Fermilab, a premier national laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research that serves as the American counterpart to CERN.

    Marc told us the particle physics field as a whole has been testing the limits of large-scale data analyzation since it first gained access to high-throughput computational resources. Furthermore, the high-energy physics community is responsible for developing some of the first software and computing tools suitable to meet the demands of the field.

    “Of course, Google has now surpassed us in that its data is bigger than any particular set of experimental data; but even a small experiment at Fermilab produces tens of terabytes of data, and the big ones we are involved with produce hundreds of thousands of petabytes of data over the course of the experiment,” Marc said. “Then there are a few thousand physicists wanting to do analysis on that data.”

    The lab is named after Nobel Prize winner Enrico Fermi, who made significant contributions to quantum theory and created the world’s first nuclear reactor. Located near Chicago, Fermilab is one of 17 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science laboratories across the country. Though many DOE-funded labs serve multiple purposes, Marc said Fermilab works toward a single mission: “To bring the world together to solve the mysteries of matter, energy, space, and time.”

    And that mission, he said, is made possible through high-powered computing. “For scientists to understand the huge amounts of raw information coming from particle physics experiments, they must process, analyze, and compare the information to simulations,” Marc said. “To accomplish these feats, Fermilab hosts high-performance computing, high-throughput (grid) computing, and storage and networking systems.”

    In addition to leveraging high-performance computing systems to analyze complex datasets, Fermilab is a repository for massive sets of priceless scientific data. With plans to change the way computing resources are used to produce experimental results through HEPCloud, Fermilab is continuing to deploy innovative computing solutions to support its overarching scientific mission.

    Pushing the Envelope on High-Throughput Computing

    While Fermilab wasn’t built to develop computational resources, Marc told us “nothing moves forward in particle physics without computing.” That wasn’t always the case: When the lab was first founded, bubble chambers were used to detect electrically charged particles.

    “They were analyzed by looking at pictures of the bubble chamber, taking a ruler, and measuring curvatures of trails to figure out what the particles were doing inside of a detector,” he said. “Now, detectors are enormous, complicated contraptions that cost tens of millions to billions of dollars to make.”

    3
    Experiments at Fermilab typically involve massive datasets.

    Marc said Fermilab is in possession of a large amount of computing resources and is heavily involved with CERN’s Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), a general-purpose detector at the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

    CERN/CMS Detector

    LHC

    CERN map


    CERN LHC Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    The CMS has an extensive physics agenda ranging from researching the Standard Model of particle physics to searching for extra dimensions and particles that possibly make up dark matter.

    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.


    Standard Model of Particle Physics from Symmetry Magazine

    “Fermilab provides one of the largest pools of resources for the CMS experiment and their worldwide collection,” Marc said.

    Almost every experiment at Fermilab includes significant international involvement from universities and laboratories in other countries. “Fermilab’s upcoming Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) for neutrino science and proton decay studies, for example, will feature contributions from scientists in dozens of countries,” Marc said.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    These international particle physics collaborations require Fermilab to transport large amounts of data around the globe quickly through high-throughput computing. To that end, Fermilab features 100Gbit connectivity with local, national, and international networks. The technology empowers researchers to quickly process these data to facilitate scientific discoveries.

    A Repository for Large Sets of Valuable Scientific Data

    Marc told us Fermilab also has mind-boggling storage capacity. “We’re the primary repository for all the data for all of the experiments here at the laboratory,” he said.

    Fermilab’s tape libraries, fully automated and manned by robotic arms, provide more than 100 petabytes of storage capacity for data from particle physics and astrophysics experiments. “This includes a copy of the entire CMS experiment dataset and a copy of the dataset for every Fermilab experiment,” Marc said.

    Fermilab also houses the entire dataset of The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), a collaborative international effort to build the most detailed 3D map of the universe in existence.

    Universe map Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey

    The data-rich project has measured compositions and distances of more than 3 million stars and galaxies and captured multicolor images of one-third of the sky.

    4
    The lab’s data management capabilities protect precious scientific data.

    “SDSS was the first time there was an astronomical survey in which all data were digitized, much bigger than any survey done before,” Marc said. “In fact, even though the data collection has stopped, people are still actively using that dataset for current analysis.”

    Marc said much of the particle physics research is done in concert with the academic community and can involve a significantly lengthy process.

    “For example, the DUNE experiment is a worldwide collaboration that researchers have been developing for more than 10 years,” he said. “We are starting on the facility where the detector will go. The lifetime of a big experiment these days is measured in tens of years; even a small experiment with 100 collaborators easily takes 10 years to move forward.”

    HEPCloud: A New Paradigm for Provisioning Computing Resources
    5
    HEPCloud will enable scientists to put computing resources to better use.

    Particle physics has historically required extensive computing resources from sources such as local batch farms, grid sites, private clouds, commercial clouds, and supercomputing centers — plus the knowledge required to access and use the resources efficiently. Marc told us all that changes with HEPCloud, a new paradigm Fermilab is pursuing in particle physics computing. The HEPCloud facility will allow Fermilab to provision computing resources through a single managed portal efficiently and cost-effectively.

    “HEPCloud is a significant initiative to both simplify how we use these systems and make the process more cost-effective,” Marc said. “Here at Fermilab, trying to provision enough resources to meet demand peaks is just too expensive, and when we’re not on peak, there’d be lots of unused resources.”

    The technology will change the way physics experiments use computing resources by elastically expanding resource pools on short notice — for example, by renting temporary resources on commercial clouds. This will allow the facility to respond to peaks without over-provisioning local resources.

    “HEPCloud is not a cloud provider,” Marc said. “It’s an intelligent brokerage system that can take a request for a certain amount of resources with a certain amount of data; a portal to use cloud resources, the open science grid, and even supercomputing centers such as the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).”

    Marc said the DOE funds a number of supercomputing sites across the country, and Fermilab’s goal is to make better use of those resources. “It’s not feasible for us to keep on growing larger with traditional computing resources,” Marc said. “So a good deal of our applied computing research is looking at how to do the kind of analysis we need to do on those machines.”

    At the end of the day, Marc recognizes the importance of letting the public know how scientists, engineers, and programmers at Fermilab are tackling today’s most challenging computational problems. “This is taxpayer money, and we ought to be able to provide evidence that what we are doing is valuable and should be supported,” he said.

    Ultimately, its solutions will help America stay at the forefront of innovation.

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

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    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
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