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  • richardmitnick 1:19 pm on September 12, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Becky Thompson, FNAL,   

    From Symmetry: Women in STEM “Q&A: Becky Thompson” 

    Symmetry Mag
    From Symmetry

    09/12/19
    Lauren Biron

    1
    Illustration by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova

    Meet the comic-creating, triathlete, Hufflepuff physicist who’s also the new head of Fermilab’s Office of Education and Public Outreach.

    2
    FNAL’s Becky Thompson

    Fermilab’s current suite of education and outreach is broad, reaching students and the public both locally and around the globe. At the lab itself, opportunities include a science education center, public tours, K-12 visits, and the lab’s famous bison. There are programs such as Ask-A-Scientist, the Fermilab Arts and Lecture Series, and events including the annual STEM Career Expo and Family Open House. Fermilab also reaches beyond the boundaries of the site to local fairs and festivals, talks at organizations and schools, the QuarkNet program, and much more.

    This is all now the purview of Becky Thompson, Fermilab’s new head of the Office of Education and Public Outreach. Previously the head of public outreach for the American Physical Society, her work has ranged from writing books about the science of Game of Thrones to building beds of nails for science expos. She sat down with Symmetry writer Lauren Biron to discuss physics, outreach, and life beyond the lab.

    We hear your recent wedding had science experiments as the centerpieces.
    BT: We did a DIY wedding and I went a little overboard. The reception was in a brewery. There were big tables and each had a different experiment. One had drinking birds, one had fake snow, one had a Chinese spouting bowl, one had density beads. I wanted something that people could interact with so that it wasn’t awkward, because receptions can be awkward! I brought in a smoke cannon trash can and put it aside with the fog machine. My friends from APS used it – until my aunt got confused that there was a fire and unplugged the smoke machine, so we stopped that. We had a really good time interacting with the experiments and with each other.

    Can you take us on a quick journey of how you got into physics outreach?
    BT: When I was in grad school, my advisor one day walked into my office and said, “What are you doing? I’m teaching professional development and I need the least intimidating physicist I can find.” I said, “I can do that.” He pushed me to do more education things, and teachers asked me to do demo shows. I started working more with the UTeach program at [the University of Texas] Austin, which gets undergrads teaching right away. When I was getting ready to graduate, my advisor and I talked about what I should do. He said, “You could go on in physics, but the skillset you have with the ability to connect with the audience and the public, not everyone has that.” From there I went to the American Physical Society and, over 11 years, expanded what they were doing. As part of that I started writing the Spectra comic book series.

    Tell us more about Spectra, the superhero with the powers of a laser. Why did you decide to make a comic? Is she based on you?
    BT: PhysicsQuest was a program where we made a kit with experiments and sent it out around the country. It was originally based on a physicist’s life, and you learned a bit about them as you worked through the kit. We made a comic book for it about Nikola Tesla, and people liked it. The next year was LaserFest, and we wanted to do something related to lasers. We did the obvious thing and invented a superhero.

    I sent a character sheet to our artist laying out how I envisioned her, and her powers – but let him design everything else. I used to wear red Converse high tops to work all the time, and when I got the first draft of Spectra I realized instantly what he had done: she had red Converse on. As for her personality, the story has been fun because it’s based on my middle school experience – but I get to rewrite it with the ending I wanted. It was neat to have something to pull on and make it very centered in middle school and what that felt like. This was all great until I went to my high school reunion. A bunch of the people I based characters on had kids that read Spectra.

    Do you have a favorite outreach project that you’ve worked on?
    BT: There are so many. One of my favorite things we’ve done with APS was the USA Science and Engineering festival. We had a 20-by-40-foot booth – it was huge! I built a bed of nails, and watching people be impressed and then understand why it works was really rewarding.

    Obviously, I’ve also loved making the comic books, and going to San Diego Comic Con was wonderful. I learned that one kid dressed up as Spectra for Halloween and it was the greatest thing ever.

    What are the most challenging – and rewarding – things about doing physics outreach?

    BT:If I’m on a plane or a bar and chatting with someone, they’ll usually ask me what I do. If I want to keep talking, I’ll tell them that I’m a comic book author, but if I want them to go away, I’ll say I’m a physicist. My career goal is to change that reaction.

    One of the most challenging things is that people have already decided that they don’t understand it. But they can understand it. The first step is breaking down that barrier. They think all physicists are like on The Big Bang Theory, and so smart, and that they could never get there. But I like to teach them that they already understand certain things that are based in physics – so they can learn to understand new things.

    One of the most rewarding things is seeing someone who was afraid of science or physics to start asking amazing detailed questions that make me really think. I got to teach at a girls’ STEM camp this summer and they asked questions that I never would have thought of. That moment of understanding when they get it is great, but that step forward of getting it enough to ask incredible questions is awesome.

    What are your first impressions of Fermilab, and what’s your vision for Fermilab education and outreach?

    BT:Everyone has been so welcoming. You go down to the cafeteria and everyone says “hi” to everyone. Everything Fermilab has done to make me part of the team so quickly has been incredible. I really am impressed with how focused the lab is on making sure everyone can be the best they can. I’m still learning everything EPO is doing – there’s so much and I’m excited about that.

    I want to make sure that we’re really highlighting where the lab is going, the science of the next 20 years at Fermilab, the experiments that are coming online, and what we’re doing now. Everybody outside needs to know that it’s cutting-edge science and cutting-edge high energy physics. I want to make sure that diversity and inclusion are reflected in everything we do. And I want to make sure that we’re aligned with the lab’s goals – and also the goals that Wilson set out when he started the place.

    Can you share a few facts that your new colleagues might not know about you?

    BT:There’s a lot of weird stuff. I make amazing brownies. In high school, I was the youngest person (in Delaware, at least) to get my skydiving license. When Felix Baumgartner did his jump for Red Bull, I got to talk to a lot of reporters about the physics of skydiving, because I could talk about it from both perspectives. Once, for Gizmodo, I got to calculate how many laser pointers it would take to kill someone. I love calculations like that. I did more of them for my Game of Thrones book.

    I also do triathlons. I’ve done eight Iron Mans. I took a break this year but did the Chicago Triple Challenge. It was fun. I’ve been eating a lot since then; I had three lunches yesterday. I love riding my bike, I was a swimmer in college, and I hate running – but it gets me to the finish line. I’ll do anything for a free t-shirt. And I knit.

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 4:41 pm on September 9, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Fermilab achieves world-record field strength for accelerator magnet", , , Designing for a future collider that could serve as a potential successor to the powerful 17-mile-around Large Hadron Collider operating at CERN laboratory since 2009., FNAL, , , ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Fermilab achieves world-record field strength for accelerator magnet” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    September 9, 2019
    Leah Hesla

    To build the next generation of powerful proton accelerators, scientists need the strongest magnets possible to steer particles close to the speed of light around a ring. For a given ring size, the higher the beam’s energy, the stronger the accelerator’s magnets need to be to keep the beam on course.

    Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Fermilab have announced that they achieved the highest magnetic field strength ever recorded for an accelerator steering magnet, setting a world record of 14.1 teslas, with the magnet cooled to 4.5 kelvins or minus 450 degrees Fahrenheit. The previous record of 13.8 teslas, achieved at the same temperature, was held for 11 years by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

    That’s more than a thousand times stronger magnet than the refrigerator magnet that’s holding your grocery list to your refrigerator.

    The achievement is a remarkable milestone for the particle physics community, which is studying designs for a future collider that could serve as a potential successor to the powerful 17-mile-around Large Hadron Collider operating at CERN laboratory since 2009. Such a machine would need to accelerate protons to energies several times higher than those at the LHC.

    And that calls for steering magnets that are stronger than the LHC’s, about 15 teslas.

    “We’ve been working on breaking the 14-tesla wall for several years, so getting to this point is an important step,” said Fermilab scientist Alexander Zlobin, who leads the project at Fermilab. “We got to 14.1 teslas with our 15-tesla demonstrator magnet in its first test. Now we’re working to draw one more tesla from it.”

    The success of a future high-energy hadron collider depends crucially on viable high-field magnets, and the international high-energy physics community is encouraging research toward the 15-tesla niobium-tin magnet.

    1
    Fermilab recently achieved a magnetic field strength of 14.1 teslas at 4.5 kelvins on an accelerator steering magnet — a world record. Photo: Thomas Strauss

    At the heart of the magnet’s design is an advanced superconducting material called niobium-tin.

    Electrical current flowing through the material generates a magnetic field. Because the current encounters no resistance when the material is cooled to very low temperature, it loses no energy and generates no heat. All of the current contributes to the creation of the magnetic field. In other words, you get lots of magnetic bang for the electrical buck.

    The strength of the magnetic field depends on the strength of the current that the material can handle. Unlike the niobium-titanium used in the current LHC magnets, niobium-tin can support the amount of current needed to make 15-tesla magnetic fields. But niobium-tin is brittle and susceptible to break when subject to the enormous forces at work inside an accelerator magnet.

    So the Fermilab team developed a magnet design that would shore up the coil against every stress and strain it could encounter during operation. Several dozen round wires were twisted into cables in a certain way, enabling it to meet the requisite electrical and mechanical specifications. These cables were wound into coils and heat-treated at high temperatures for approximately two weeks, with a peak temperature of about 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit, to convert the niobium-tin wires into superconductor at operation temperatures. The team encased several coils in a strong innovative structure composed of an iron yoke with aluminum clamps and a stainless-steel skin to stabilize the coils against the huge electromagnetic forces that can deform the brittle coils, thus degrading the niobium-tin wires.

    The Fermilab group took every known design feature into consideration, and it paid off.

    “This is a tremendous achievement in a key enabling technology for circular colliders beyond the LHC,” said Soren Prestemon, a senior scientist at Berkeley Lab and director of the multilaboratory U.S. Magnet Development Program, which includes the Fermilab team. “This is an exceptional milestone for the international community that develops these magnets, and the result has been enthusiastically received by researchers who will use the beams from a future collider to push forward the frontiers of high-energy physics.”

    And the Fermilab team is geared up to make their mark in the 15-tesla territory.

    “There are so many variables to consider in designing a magnet like this: the field parameters, superconducting wire and cable, mechanical structure and its performance during assembly and operation, magnet technology, and magnet protection during operation,” Zlobin said. “All of these issues are even more important for magnets with record parameters.”

    Over the next few months, the group plans to reinforce the coil’s mechanical support and then retest the magnet this fall. They expect to achieve the 15-tesla design goal.

    And they’re setting their sights even higher for the further future.

    “Based on the success of this project and the lessons we learned, we’re planning to advance the field in niobium-tin magnets for future colliders to 17 teslas,” Zlobin said.

    It doesn’t stop there. Zlobin says they may be able to design steering magnets that reach a field of 20 teslas using special inserts made of new advanced superconducting materials.

    Call it a field goal.

    The project is supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science.

    It is a key part of the U.S. Magnet Development Program, which includes Fermilab, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory.

    See the full here.


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:31 pm on August 29, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , FNAL, , IOTA will become the first facility in the world with the ability to precisely redirect synchrotron light back on the particle that generated it., IOTA-The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator, Nonlinear integrable optics, , , ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Fermilab’s newest accelerator delivers first results” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    August 14, 2019
    Bailey Bedford

    Fermilab’s newest particle accelerator is small but mighty. The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator [IOTA], designed to be versatile and flexible, is enabling researchers to push the frontiers of accelerator science.

    Instead of smashing beams together to study subatomic particles like most high-energy physics research accelerators, IOTA is dedicated to exploring and improving the particle beams themselves.

    IOTA researchers say they are excited by the observation of single-electron beams near the speed of light and the first results on decreasing beam instabilities. They are eager to use their single-electron technique to probe aspects of quantum science and see future breakthroughs in accelerator science.

    “The scientists who designed the accelerator are also the scientists that use it,” said Vladimir Shiltsev, a Fermilab distinguished scientist and one of the founders of IOTA. “It’s an opportunity to get great insight into the physics of beams at relatively small cost.”

    1
    Scientists using the 40-meter-circumference Integrable Optics Test Accelerator saw their first results from IOTA this summer. Photo: Giulio Stancari

    Versatility is the mother of innovation

    In the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology facility, a particle accelerator delivers intense bursts of electrons that are then stored in IOTA’s 40-meter-circumference ring, where they circulate about 7.5 million times every second at near the speed of light. The system’s design enables a small team to adjust or exchange components in the beamline to perform a variety of experiments on the frontier of accelerator science.

    “This machine was designed with a lot of flexibility in mind,” said Fermilab scientist Alexander Valishev, head of the team that developed and constructed IOTA.

    Consider the accelerator magnets, which are responsible for the size and shape of the particle beam’s profile. At IOTA, every magnet is powered separately so that researchers can reconfigure the machine for completely different experiments in a few minutes. At other accelerator facilities, a comparable change could require a lengthy shutdown of weeks or months.

    For research accelerators that serve researchers, the focus is typically on maximizing running time and maintaining well-understood, established beam parameters. In contrast, the IOTA team expects the accelerator to be routinely shut down, reconfigured and restarted. Its technical and operational flexibilities make it easier for outside teams to use IOTA to conduct their own experiments, exploring a variety of topics at the frontier of accelerator and beam physics.

    IOTA’s versatility has already attracted groups from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Northern Illinois University; SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; University of California, Berkeley; University of Chicago and other institutions. Not only are they conducting exciting science, but early-career researchers are also receiving valuable practical training in accelerator and beam science that can be challenging to come by.

    “If you wanted to have a comparable scientific program at a more traditional facility, it would be very difficult, if not prohibitive. Typically, those facilities are designed for a narrow range of research, aren’t easily modified and require nearly continuous operation,” said Fermilab scientist Jonathan Jarvis, who works on IOTA. “But here at IOTA, we are a purpose-built facility for frontier topics in accelerator research and development, and we have those flexibilities by design.”

    2
    Fermilab scientist Alexander Valishev inspects the specially designed nonlinear insert that produces the nonlinear magnetic fields for IOTA experiments. Photo: Giulio Stancari

    First results: Testing IOTA’s IO

    As part of the only dedicated ring-based accelerator R&D facility for high-intensity beam physics in the United States, IOTA is designed to develop technologies to increase the number of particles in a beam without increasing the beam’s size and thus the size and cost of the accelerator. Since all particles in the beam have an identical charge, they electrically repel each other, and as more particles are packed into the beam, it can become unstable. Particles may behave chaotically and escape. It takes expertise and innovative technology to tame a dense particle beam.

    To that end, IOTA researchers are investigating a novel technique called nonlinear integrable optics. The technique uses specially designed sets of magnets configured to prevent beam instabilities, significantly better than the configurations of magnets used over the past 50 years.

    To test the nonlinear integrable optics technique, IOTA researchers deliberately produced instability in the beam. They then measured how difficult it was to provoke unstable behavior in IOTA’s electron beam both with and without the influence of the magnetic fields

    The technique was a winner: Scientists observed that these specialized magnets significantly decreased the instability.

    During the next run of the system, the team plans to more rigorously study this effect.

    “The first result is merely a demonstration,” Valishev said. “But I think it’s already a big accomplishment.”

    3
    IOTA’s nonlinear magnets help prevent instabilities in high-intensity particle beams. Photo: Giulio Stancari

    Watching a single electron near the speed of light

    In a first for Fermilab, the researchers have also observed the circulation of a single electron.

    The IOTA beam, when injected into the storage ring, can contain about a billion electrons. As the beam circulates, electrons tend to escape the beam due to collisions with one another or with stray gas molecules in the beam pipe. So if you want to see an electron fly solo around the ring, it is just a matter of waiting.

    The real trick is being able to observe the last electron left “standing.”

    The fast-moving electrons emit visible light as they travel along the curves of the ring. This light is synchrotron radiation, which is emitted when charged particles moving near the speed of light change direction. The light provides researchers with information about the beam, including how many electrons are in it.

    IOTA researchers used the synchrotron radiation to observe the loss of electrons, one by one, until they finally witnessed a solitary electron.

    4
    This plot illustrates the decrease in the amount of measured synchrotron light every time an electron was knocked out of the particle beam.

    On their next round, rather than play the waiting game to get down to a beam of one electron, the team tried a faster, more deliberate approach. They devised a way to instead inject single electrons into IOTA on demand. It worked. The method reliably saw lone particles traveling around the ring.

    The wait was over.

    This feat is more than just a novel curiosity. The ability to store and observe a single electron, or even a very small number of electrons moving around at high speeds, creates opportunities to probe interesting quantum science.

    “Everything we do is rather macroscopic, so you wouldn’t think of any of this facility, let alone a 40-meter ring, as a quantum instrument,” Jarvis said. “But we’ve got this situation where there’s an individual particle circulating in the ring at nearly the speed of light, and it gives us fascinating opportunities to do something that is very quantum in nature.”

    For instance, in its upcoming run, IOTA will become the first facility in the world with the ability to precisely redirect synchrotron light back on the particle that generated it.

    This capability opens the door to a wide variety of fundamental quantum experiments and will also enable Fermilab scientists to attempt the world’s first demonstration of a powerful technique called optical stochastic beam cooling. Generally, beam cooling methods sap accelerated particles of their chaotic or frenetic motion. Optical stochastic cooling is expected to be thousands of times stronger than the current state of the art and is a perfect example of the high-impact returns that IOTA is targeting.

    Accelerating into the future: proton beams, electron lenses and more

    IOTA is currently set up to circulate electrons, and this work sets the stage for future, more challenging experiments with protons.

    The high-energy electron beam naturally shrinks to a smaller size due to synchrotron radiation, which makes it a well-behaved system for IOTA researchers to confirm important parts of beam physics theories.

    In contrast to IOTA’s electron beam, its forthcoming experiments with protons will see beam circulate at low velocity, be significantly larger and be strongly affected by the repulsive forces between beam particles. Research into the behavior of such proton beams will be integral to understanding how nonlinear integrable optics can be effectively applied in the high-power accelerators of the future.

    And with both electrons and protons in the mix, scientists can also advance to another exciting phase in IOTA’s research program: electron lenses. Electron lenses are yet another technique that researchers are investigating in their quest to create stable particle beams. This technique uses the negative charge of electrons to oppose the positive charges of protons to pull the protons into a compact, stable beam. The electron lens will also allow IOTA scientists to demonstrate the nonlinear integrable optics concept using special charge distributions rather than the specialized nonlinear magnets.

    With its breadth of unique capabilities, IOTA and its team are ready for several years of exciting research.

    “Frontier science requires frontier research and development, and at IOTA, we are focused on realizing those major innovations that could invigorate accelerator-based high-energy physics for the next several decades,” Jarvis said.

    This work is supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science.

    See the full here.


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:46 am on August 28, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Balloon technology, , Before cutting the metal jacket off a laborious time-consuming task- enter the balloon technology. Enter the balloon technology., Before most cavities can be installed they must be fitted with a metal jacket so the cavity can be cooled to extremely low temperatures with liquid helium., FNAL, If a cavity becomes misshaped during or after the process of putting the jacket on the traditional tuning method can’t be applied without cutting the metal jacket off., Many particle accelerators use structures called cavities which provide the kick needed to accelerate particles to higher and higher energies as the particles barrel through one after the other., Most acceleration cavities are a series of round hollow cells that look like a giant strand of metal beads., The innovative use of balloons provides a new patented way for engineers to shape the metal heart of particle accelerators.   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Under pressure: balloons for particle acceleration” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    August 28, 2019
    Bailey Bedford

    Balloons can help make a space perfect for a party. Now they also can help when it comes to accelerating particles to near the speed of light.

    The innovative use of balloons provides a new, patented way for engineers to shape the metal heart of particle accelerators.

    Many particle accelerators use structures called cavities, which provide the kick needed to accelerate particles to higher and higher energies as the particles barrel through one after the other. Situated deep inside an accelerator and cooled by a shell containing liquid helium, cavities have to be just the right shape and size to boost particles to the desired energies. Even small differences in the shape of these metal chambers make large differences in the electric fields that are generated inside the cavities to push particles to greater speeds.

    Faced with one particular cavity that was too misshaped to use and inaccessible because of its metal shell, Fermilab engineers Mohamed Hassan and Donato Passarelli got an idea: What if you could reshape a cavity without removing the surrounding shell? They went to work, developing an innovative process called balloon tuning.

    “I hope balloon tuning is an example for the accelerator community — that we should think out of the box and not always stick with the standard and common technique,” said Passarelli.

    The patented balloon tuning process is a new option in the suite of techniques used to prepare cavities before they’re installed in an accelerator.

    1
    Fermilab engineers Mohamed Hassan, left, and Donato Passarelli stand near an accelerator cavity and the patented balloons used to tune, or reshape, the cavity from the inside. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    Most acceleration cavities are a series of round, hollow cells that look like a giant strand of metal beads. Before any cavity is installed, it is carefully tested and tuned using an automated machine that grasps the edges of each cell to make small, precise adjustments: a little push here, a little stretch there. The process continues until the cavity is adjusted so that, once the cavity is up and running inside an accelerator, it’s in the shape to produce the perfect electric field to propel charged particles.

    But before most cavities can be installed, they must also be fitted with a metal jacket so the cavity can be cooled to extremely low temperatures with liquid helium. After that, the only easy way to apply forces to the cells is to push or pull on the ends of the cavity, rather than targeting each cell individually. If a cavity becomes misshaped during or after the process of putting the jacket on, the traditional tuning method can’t be applied without cutting the metal jacket off — a laborious, time-consuming task.

    Hassan and Passarelli started contemplating this challenge after an old test cavity deformed during a pressure test.

    “After the pressure test, I was determined to find a way to fix this cavity and thought, ‘Why not access it from the inside, which is accessible even with a jacket?’” Hassan said.

    The need to apply the force inside the cavities without scratching the inner surface or introducing unacceptable levels of contamination led them to using specially designed balloons made of rubberized nylon.

    A pump fills each balloon with air until it applies about two bars of pressure — a little less than what’s recommended for standard car tires. This isn’t enough pressure to reshape a cavity cell on its own, but that pressure can be used to influence which cell deforms when forces are applied to the ends of a cavity at room temperature. Balloons let you single out a particular cell, either stretching or squeezing it.

    If a particular cell needs to be stretched, a balloon inflated inside it provides an extra nudge for it to expand as the flanges are pulled apart. Whereas if a cell needs to be squeezed, a series of balloons can support all the other cells as the two ends are pushed together.

    2
    To stretch one cell of an accelerator cavity, a balloon is placed inside it and inflated. Image: Diana Brandonisio

    3
    To squeeze a particular cavity cell, balloons are placed inside the cells surrounding it. The balloons support these cells, resulting in the unoccupied cell being reshaped as forces are applied to each end of the cavity. Image: Diana Brandonisio

    The engineers and their team demonstrated the concept by tuning an unjacketed cavity. Then they turned their attention to the misshaped cavity that had inspired them to develop the process. They succeeded in returning it to usable condition.

    “Balloon tuning will be a nice additional tool for cavity production that can save quite a bit of money and time,” Hassan said.

    High-performing cavities are crucial components in Fermilab’s upcoming PIP-II accelerator and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory’s LCLS-II X-ray laser, and they are a major part of a current Fermilab project to extend the time that a qubit can maintain information.

    The balloon-tuning technique was recently patented, speeding through the patent office in record time for Fermilab, said Aaron Sauers, the lab’s patent and licensing executive.

    “Mohamed and Donato developed a truly beautiful method and apparatus to tune dressed cavities,” Sauers said. “I was excited to file the patent application on their invention.”

    Hassan and Passarelli see automated balloon tuning as a possibility, which could make it as convenient to use as the current method is for unjacketed cavities. The technique may also find applications in other fields that use similar cavities.

    “The hope is that people looking at this idea will get inspired and either adapt or use this technique in their own application,” Passarelli said.

    See the full here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:41 pm on August 27, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Department of Energy awards Fermilab $3.5 million for quantum science", Cryogenic engineering, , FNAL, QuantISED-Quantum Information Science-Enabled Discovery program, , , ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Department of Energy awards Fermilab $3.5 million for quantum science” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    August 27, 2019
    Edited by Leah Hesla

    The U.S. Department of Energy has awarded researchers at its Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory more than $3.5 million to boost research in the fast-emerging field of Quantum Information Science.

    “Few pursuits have the revolutionary potential that quantum science presents,” said Fermilab Chief Research Officer Joe Lykken. “Fermilab’s expertise in quantum physics and cryogenic engineering is world-class, and combined with our experience in conventional computing and networks, we can advance quantum science in directions that not many other places can.”

    As part of a number of grants to national laboratories and universities offered through its Quantum Information Science-Enabled Discovery (QuantISED) program, DOE’s recent round of funding to Fermilab covers three initiatives related to quantum science. It also funds Fermilab’s participation in a fourth initiative led by Argonne National Laboratory.

    1
    The DOE QuantISED grants will fund initiatives related to quantum computing. These include the simulation of advanced quantum devices that will improve quantum computing simulations and the development of novel electronics to work with large arrays of ultracold qubits.

    For a half-century, Fermilab researchers have closely studied the quantum realm and provided the computational and engineering capabilties needed to zoom in on nature at its most fundamental level. The projects announced by the Department of Energy will build on those capabilities, pushing quantum science and technology forward and leading to new discoveries that will enhance our picture of the universe at its smallest scale.

    “Fermilab is well-versed in engineering, algorithmic development and recruiting massive computational resources to explore quantum-scale phenomena,” said Fermilab Head of Quantum Science Panagiotis Spentzouris. “Now we’re wrangling those competencies and capabilities to advance quantum science in many areas, and in a way that only a leading physics laboratory could.”

    _________________________________________________
    The Fermilab-led initiatives funded through these DOE QuantISED grants are:

    Large Scale Simulations of Quantum Systems on High-Performance Computing with Analytics for High-Energy Physics Algorithms
    Lead principal investigator: Adam Lyon, Fermilab

    The large-scale simulation of quantum computers has plenty in common with simulations in high-energy physics: Both must sweep over a large number of variables. Both organize their inputs and outputs similarly. And in both cases, the simulation has to be analyzed and consolidated into results. Fermilab scientists, in collaboration with scientists at Argonne National Laboratory, will use tools from high-energy physics to produce and analyze simulations using high-performance computers at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility. Specifically, they will simulate the operation of a qubit device that uses superconducting cavities (which are also used as components in particle accelerators) to maintain quantum information over a relatively long time. Their results will determine the device’s impact on high-energy physics algorithms using an Argonne-developed quantum simulator.

    Partner institution: Argonne National Laboratory

    Research Technology for Quantum Information Systems
    Lead principal investigator: Gustavo Cancelo, Fermilab

    One of the main challenges in quantum information science is designing an architecture that solves problems of massive interconnection, massive data processing and heat load. The electronics must be able to operate and interface with other electronics operating both at 4 kelvins and at near absolute zero. Fermilab scientists and engineers are designing novel electronic circuits as well as massive control and readout electronics to be compatible with quantum devices, such as sensors and quantum qubits. These circuits will enable many applications in the quantum information science field.

    Partner institutions: Argonne National Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Chicago

    MAGIS-100 – co-led by Stanford University and Fermilab
    Lead Fermilab principal investigator: Rob Plunkett

    Fermilab will host a new experiment to test quantum mechanics on macroscopic scales of space and time. Scientists on the MAGIS-100 experiment will drop clouds of ultracold atoms down a 100-meter-long vacuum pipe on the Fermilab site, and use a stable laser to create an atom interferometer which will look for dark matter made of ultralightweight particles. They will also advance a technique for gravitational-wave detection at relatively low frequencies.

    This is a joint venture under the collaboration leadership of Stanford University Professor Jason Hogan, who is funded by grant GBMF7945 from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Rob Plunkett of Fermilab serves as the project manager.

    Other participating institutions: Northern Illinois University, Northwestern University, Stanford University, Johns Hopkins University, University of Liverpool

    _________________________________________________

    Fermilab was also funded to participate in another initiative led by Argonne National Laboratory:

    Quantum Sensors for Wide Band Axion Dark Matter Detection
    Lead principal investigator: Peter Barry, Argonne

    Researchers are searching high and low for dark matter, the mysterious substance that makes up a quarter of our universe. One theory proposes that it could be made of particles called axions, which would signal their presence by converting into particles of light, called photons. Fermilab researchers are part of a team developing specialized detectors that look for photons in the terahertz range — at frequencies just below the infrared. The development of these detectors will widen the range of frequencies where axions may be discovered. To bring the faint signals to the fore, the team is using supersensitive quantum amplifiers.

    Other participating institutions: National Institute of Standards and Technology, University of Colorado

    See the full here.


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:42 pm on August 26, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL, , , ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “USCMS completes phase 1 upgrade program for CMS detector at CERN” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    August 26, 2019
    James Wetzel

    The CMS experiment at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider has achieved yet another significant milestone in its already storied history as a leader in the field of high-energy experimental particle physics.

    The U.S. contingent of the CMS collaboration, known as USCMS and managed by Fermilab, has been granted the Department of Energy’s final Critical Decision- 4 approval for its multiyear Phase 1 Detector Upgrade program, formally signifying the completion of the project after having met every stated goal — on time and under budget.

    “Getting CD-4 approval is a tremendous vote of confidence for the many people involved in CMS,” said Fermilab scientist Steve Nahn, U.S. project manager for the CMS detector upgrade. “The LHC is the best tool we have for further explication of the particle nature of the universe, and there are still mysteries to solve, so we have to have the best apparatus we can to continue the exploration.”

    LHC

    CERN map


    CERN LHC Maximilien Brice and Julien Marius Ordan


    CERN LHC particles

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS

    CERN ATLAS Image Claudia Marcelloni CERN/ATLAS

    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    The CMS experiment is a generation-spanning effort to build, operate and upgrade a particle-detecting behemoth that observes its protean prey in a large but cramped cavern 300 feet beneath the French countryside. CMS is one of four large experiments situated along the LHC accelerator complex, operated by CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The LHC is a 17-mile-round ring of magnets that accelerates two beams of protons in opposite directions, each to 99.999999999% the speed of light, and forces them to collide at the centers of CMS and the LHC’s other experiments: ALICE, LHCb and ATLAS.

    1
    Fermilab scientists Nadja Strobbe and Jim Hirschauer test chips for the CMS detector upgrades. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    The main goal of CMS (and the other LHC experiments) is to keep track of which particles emerge from the rapture of pure energy created from the collisions in order to search for new particles and phenomena. In catching sight of such new phenomena, scientists aim to answer some of the most fundamental questions we have about how the universe works.

    The global CMS collaboration comprises more than 5,000 professionals — including roughly 1,000 students — from over 200 institutes and universities across more than 50 countries. This international team collaborates to design, build, commission and operate the CMS detector, whose data is then distributed to dedicated centers in 40 nations for analysis. And analysis is their raison d’etre. By sussing out patterns in the data, CMS scientists search for previously unseen or unconfirmed phenomena and measure the properties of elementary particles that make up the universe with greater precision. To date, CMS has published over 900 papers.

    The USCMS collaboration is the single largest national group in CMS, involving 51 American universities and institutions in 24 states and Puerto Rico, over 400 Ph.D. physicists, and more than 200 graduate students and other professionals. USCMS has played a primary role in much of the CMS experiment’s original design and construction, including a wide network of eight CMS computing centers located across the United States, and in the experiment’s data analysis. USCMS is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation and has played an integral role in the success of the CMS collaboration as a whole from its founding.

    The CMS experiment, the LHC and the other LHC experiments became operational in 2009 (17 years after the CMS letter of intent), beginning a 10-year data-taking period referred to as Phase 1.

    Phase 1 was divided into four major epochs, alternating two periods of data-taking with two periods of maintenance and upgrade operations. The two data-taking periods are referred to as Run 1 (2009-2013) and Run 2 (2015-2018). It was during Run 1 (in 2012) that the CMS and ATLAS collaborations jointly announced they each had observed the long predicted Higgs boson, resulting in a Nobel Prize awarded a year later to scientists Peter Higgs and François Englert, and a further testament to the strength of the Standard Model of particle physics, the theory within which the Higgs boson was first hypothesized in 1964.

    Peter Higgs

    CERN CMS Higgs Event

    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event

    “That prize was a historic triumph of every individual, institution and nation involved with the LHC project, not only validating the Higgs conjecture, a cornerstone of the Standard Model, but also giving science a new particle to use as a tool for further exploration,” Nahn said. “This discovery and every milestone CMS has achieved since then is encouragement to continue working toward further discovery. That goes for our latest approval milestone.”

    Standard Model of Particle Physics

    2
    Fermilab scientist Maral Alyari and Stephanie Timpone conduct CMS pixel detector work. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    During the entirety of Phase 1, the wizard-like LHC particle accelerator experts were continually ramping up the collision energy and intensity, or in particle physics parlance, the luminosity of the LHC beam. The CMS technical team was charged with fulfilling the Phase 1 Upgrade plan, a series of hardware upgrades to the detector that allowed it to fully profit from the gains the LHC team was providing.

    While the LHC accelerator folks were prepping to push 20 times as many particles through the experiments per second, the experiments were busy upgrading their systems to handle this major influx of particles and the resulting data. This meant updating many of the readout electronics with faster and more capable brains to manage and process the data produced by CMS.

    With support from the Department of Energy’s Office of Science and the National Science Foundation, USCMS implemented $40 million worth of these strategic upgrades on time and under budget.

    With these upgrades complete, the CMS detector is now ready for LHC Run 3, which will go from 2021-23, and the collaboration is starting the stage of data taking on a solid foundation.

    Still, USCMS isn’t taking a break: The collaboration is already gearing up for its next, even more ambitious set of upgrades, planned for installation after Run 3. This USCMS upgrade phase will prepare the detector for an even higher luminosity, resulting in a data set 10 times greater than what the LHC provides currently.

    Every advance in the CMS detector ensures that it will support the experiment through 2038, when the LHC is planned to complete its final run.

    “For the last decade, we’ve worked to improve and enhance the CMS detector to squeeze everything we can out of the LHC’s collisions,” Nahn said. “We’re prepared to do the same for the next two decades to come.”

    See the full here.


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:20 pm on August 19, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A new era for the Fermilab accelerator complex- the era of superconducting radio-frequency acceleration., , By the time the beam exits the final cavity of the last PIP-II cryomodule it will have gained 800 million electronvolts of energy and travel at 84% of the speed of light., Cavities and cryomodules built in France; India; Italy; the United Kingdom; and the United States., Cryomodules, FNAL, More than 1000 scientists from dozens of countries participate in LBNF/DUNE which will start in the mid-2020s., PIP-II is the first particle accelerator project in the United States with significant international contribution., PIP-II superconducting linear accelerator, PIP-II’s internationality reflects the biggest experiment it will power- the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment supported by the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility at Fermilab., The accelerator will generate high-power beams of protons which will in turn produce the world’s most powerful neutrino beam for the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment., The cryomodule effort at Argonne began in 2012., The half-wave resonator cryomodule is a stellar example of how DOE labs work together to execute major projects that involve technological aptitude that no single lab has by itself.   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “First major superconducting component for new high-power particle accelerator arrives at Fermilab” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    August 19, 2019
    Leah Hesla

    1
    The first cryomodule of the PIP-II superconducting linear accelerator is lifted off the truck that delivered it from Argonne National Laboratory to Fermilab on Aug. 16. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago.

    From about 12:30-3 a.m. on Friday, Aug. 16, the first major superconducting section of a particle accelerator that will power the biggest neutrino experiment in the world made its way along a series of Chicagoland roadways at a deliberate 10 miles per hour.

    Hauled on a special carrier created just for its 25-mile journey, at 3:07 a.m. the nine-ton structure pulled into its permanent home at the Department of Energy’s Fermilab. It arrived from nearby Argonne National Laboratory, also a DOE national laboratory.

    The high-tech component is the first completed cryomodule for the PIP-II particle accelerator, a powerful machine that will become the heart of Fermilab’s accelerator complex. The accelerator will generate high-power beams of protons, which will in turn produce the world’s most powerful neutrino beam, for the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, hosted by Fermilab and provides for the long-term future of the Fermilab research program.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    PIP-II is the first particle accelerator project in the United States with significant international contribution, with cavities and cryomodules built in France, India, Italy, the United Kingdom and the United States.

    The cryomodule effort at Argonne began in 2012. Scientists and engineers at Argonne led its design, working with a Fermilab team. The Argonne group also built the cryomodule, tested its subcomponents and assembled it, evolving a design used in one of Argonne’s particle accelerators.

    And now it’s arrived.

    “There is a profound significance in the arrival of the first PIP-II cryomodule: it ushers in a new era for the Fermilab accelerator complex, the era of superconducting radio-frequency acceleration,” said Fermilab PIP-II Project Director Lia Merminga.

    The PIP-II accelerator blueprint

    A cryomodule is the major unit of a particle accelerator. Like the cars of a train, cryomodules are hitched together end-to-end. The PIP-II linear accelerator will comprise 23 of them, adding up to a roughly 200-meter, near-light-speed runway for powerful protons.

    Very powerful protons. The new accelerator will enable a 1.2-megawatt proton beam for the lab’s experiments. That’s 60% more power than the lab’s current accelerator chain can provide.

    And it’s put together one cryomodule at a time. Each houses a string of superconducting acceleration cavities. These shiny metal tubes impart energy to the beam, and they too are placed end-to-end. As the proton beam shoots through one cavity after the next, it picks up energy, thanks to the electromagnetic fields inside the cavities, propelling the beam forward.

    By the time the beam exits the final cavity of the last PIP-II cryomodule, it will have gained 800 million electronvolts of energy and travel at 84% of the speed of light.

    Then it’s really off to the races: After the beam leaves the PIP-II linac, it will continue down any of a number of paths, charging through Fermilab’s accelerators and eventually smashing into a block of material. The resulting shower of particles will be sorted and routed to various experiments, where scientists study these morsels of matter to better understand how our universe operates at its most fundamental level.

    The 60% boost in PIP-II power — with the potential to increase power into the multimegawatt range at a later time — will provide more particles for scientists to study, accelerating the path to discovery.

    The PIP-II accelerator is expected to be integrated into the Fermilab accelerator complex in 2026.

    3
    This architectural rendering shows the buildings that will house the new PIP-II accelerators. Credit: Fermilab

    Riding the half-wave

    The Argonne-designed PIP-II cryomodule contains eight accelerating cavities that look like big balloon bow ties. They’re a special type, called half-wave resonators. (“Half-wave,” because the profile of the electromagnetic field inside it resembles half of a standing wave.)

    The half-wave resonator cryomodule will be first in the line of 23 and the only one of its kind at PIP-II.

    The job of the half-wave resonator cryomodule is to get the beam going almost as soon as it comes out of the gate, taking it from 2 to 10 million electronvolts. Each cryomodule after that takes its turn ramping up the beam to its final energy of 800 million electronvolts.

    Its design is based on those used in Argonne’s ATLAS particle accelerator, which accelerates heavy ions for nuclear physics research.

    3
    Argonne ATLAS Linear Accelerator Control & Monitoring Equipment

    The PIP-II version features a few improvements. For one, the cavity performance is top-notch, thanks to advances in acceleration technology. The cavities are made of superconducting niobium. Refinements over the past decade in both niobium treatment and cavity manufacture have made it possible for PIP-II cavities to kick the beam to higher energies over shorter distances compared to ATLAS and other comparable cavities. They’re also more energy-efficient.

    “We’re proud of the cavities we’ve built and their performance,” said Argonne physicist Zack Conway, who led the effort to build the cavities. “They’re truly world-leading.”

    The cryomodule keeps the cavities at a cool 2 kelvins, or minus 270 degrees Celsius. Niobium superconducts at 9.2 K, but its performance soars at 2 K. Advanced cryogenics (the “cryo” in cryomodule) ensure that the PIP-II cavities maintain their chill temperature.

    The result is a high-performance vehicle for beam.

    “It’s been good to collaborate with one of our sister labs,” said Fermilab scientist Joe Ozelis, who oversees the cryomodule project. “This model of collaborative effort with our partners is key to the continued future success of PIP-II. It’s gratifying to now know that it can indeed work.”

    4
    Scientists and engineers at Argonne led the design of these eight accelerator cavities, of a type called half-wave resonators, for the PIP-II accelerator. The Argonne team worked with Fermilab in the design. Photo: Argonne National Laboratory

    Time to test

    The recently arrived cryomodule has a way to go before it will be permanently installed as part of the PIP-II linear accelerator. For the next several months, Fermilab’s PIP-II group will perform a series of tests to make sure it meets specifications. Then, next year, a Fermilab group will test it with beam, putting the cryomodule through its paces.

    “The first of anything in a project like this is always exciting, but there’s more to this for me personally,” said Genfa Wu, Fermilab physicist and a PIP-II SRF and cryogenics system manager. “This is the first low-beta superconducting cryomodule I’ll get to test in my professional experience.”

    It’s also an initial run-through for the PIP-II cryomodule collaboration more generally. Twenty-two cryomodules are yet to be built and tested at Fermilab, of which 15 will arrive from outside the United States, including one prototype.

    “PIP-II is an international collaboration,” Wu said. “We’re actively working with our international partners to make sure all the cryomodules work together.”

    Partners in global science

    PIP-II’s internationality reflects the biggest experiment it will power, the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, supported by the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility at Fermilab. The flagship science project aims to unlock the mysteries of neutrinos, subtle particles that may carry the imprint of the universe’s beginnings.

    Protons from the PIP-II beam will produce a beam of neutrinos, which will be sent 800 miles straight through Earth’s crust from Fermilab to particle detectors located a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota. DUNE scientists will study how the neutrinos change over that long distance. Their findings aim to tell us why we live in a universe dominated by matter.

    More than 1,000 scientists from dozens of countries participate in LBNF/DUNE, which will start in the mid-2020s. It’s a global project with the ambitious research goals to match. And four of the LBNF/DUNE international partners also contribute to PIP-II. For the United States, the international nature of the PIP-II project is a new way of building large accelerator projects.

    “The half-wave resonator cryomodule is a stellar example of how DOE labs work together to execute major projects that involve technological aptitude that no single lab has by itself,” Merminga said. “By leveraging Argonne’s experience in half-wave resonator technology, Fermilab is taking a major step in realizing its future while paving the road for even more collaboration. Exactly the same principle applies to our international partnerships, making PIP-II a very powerful new paradigm for future accelerator projects.”

    And in some ways, it is all starting to come together when a truck with a huge, high-tech metal container rolls down a street in the middle of the night.

    “The collaboration between has been very smooth, from design through fabrication,” Conway said. “That’s been wonderful.”

    It pays dividends in other dimensions, too.

    “We’ve learned so much from this for future collaborations, and those lessons are going to be vital for the linac project as a whole,” Ozelis said. “This is more than institutional. It’s a human endeavor as well.”

    This work is supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science.

    See the full here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:37 am on August 15, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Azure ML, , , Every proton collision at the Large Hadron Collider is different but only a few are special. The special collisions generate particles in unusual patterns — possible manifestations of new rule-break, Fermilab is the lead U.S. laboratory for the CMS experiment., FNAL, , , , , , The challenge: more data more computing power   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab- “A glimpse into the future: accelerated computing for accelerated particles” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    August 15, 2019
    Leah Hesla

    Every proton collision at the Large Hadron Collider is different, but only a few are special. The special collisions generate particles in unusual patterns — possible manifestations of new, rule-breaking physics — or help fill in our incomplete picture of the universe.

    Finding these collisions is harder than the proverbial search for the needle in the haystack. But game-changing help is on the way. Fermilab scientists and other collaborators successfully tested a prototype machine-learning technology that speeds up processing by 30 to 175 times compared to traditional methods.

    Confronting 40 million collisions every second, scientists at the LHC use powerful, nimble computers to pluck the gems — whether it’s a Higgs particle or hints of dark matter — from the vast static of ordinary collisions.

    Rifling through simulated LHC collision data, the machine learning technology successfully learned to identify a particular postcollision pattern — a particular spray of particles flying through a detector — as it flipped through an astonishing 600 images per second. Traditional methods process less than one image per second.

    The technology could even be offered as a service on external computers. Using this offloading model would allow researchers to analyze more data more quickly and leave more LHC computing space available to do other work.

    It is a promising glimpse into how machine learning services are supporting a field in which already enormous amounts of data are only going to get bigger.

    1
    Particles emerging from proton collisions at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider travel through through this stories-high, many-layered instrument, the CMS detector. In 2026, the LHC will produce 20 times the data it does currently, and CMS is currently undergoing upgrades to read and process the data deluge. Photo: Maximilien Brice, CERN

    The challenge: more data, more computing power

    Researchers are currently upgrading the LHC to smash protons at five times its current rate.

    By 2026, the 17-mile circular underground machine at the European laboratory CERN will produce 20 times more data than it does now.

    LHC

    CERN map


    CERN LHC Maximilien Brice and Julien Marius Ordan


    CERN LHC particles

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS

    CERN ATLAS Image Claudia Marcelloni CERN/ATLAS

    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    CMS is one of the particle detectors at the Large Hadron Collider, and CMS collaborators are in the midst of some upgrades of their own, enabling the intricate, stories-high instrument to take more sophisticated pictures of the LHC’s particle collisions. Fermilab is the lead U.S. laboratory for the CMS experiment.

    If LHC scientists wanted to save all the raw collision data they’d collect in a year from the High-Luminosity LHC, they’d have to find a way to store about 1 exabyte (about 1 trillion personal external hard drives), of which only a sliver may unveil new phenomena. LHC computers are programmed to select this tiny fraction, making split-second decisions about which data is valuable enough to be sent downstream for further study.

    Currently, the LHC’s computing system keeps roughly one in every 100,000 particle events. But current storage protocols won’t be able to keep up with the future data flood, which will accumulate over decades of data taking. And the higher-resolution pictures captured by the upgraded CMS detector won’t make the job any easier. It all translates into a need for more than 10 times the computing resources than the LHC has now.

    The recent prototype test shows that, with advances in machine learning and computing hardware, researchers expect to be able to winnow the data emerging from the upcoming High-Luminosity LHC when it comes online.

    “The hope here is that you can do very sophisticated things with machine learning and also do them faster,” said Nhan Tran, a Fermilab scientist on the CMS experiment and one of the leads on the recent test. “This is important, since our data will get more and more complex with upgraded detectors and busier collision environments.”

    2
    Particle physicists are exploring the use of computers with machine learning capabilities for processing images of particle collisions at CMS, teaching them to rapidly identify various collision patterns. Image: Eamonn Maguire/Antarctic Design

    Machine learning to the rescue: the inference difference

    Machine learning in particle physics isn’t new. Physicists use machine learning for every stage of data processing in a collider experiment.

    But with machine learning technology that can chew through LHC data up to 175 times faster than traditional methods, particle physicists are ascending a game-changing step on the collision-computation course.

    The rapid rates are thanks to cleverly engineered hardware in the platform, Microsoft’s Azure ML, which speeds up a process called inference.

    To understand inference, consider an algorithm that’s been trained to recognize the image of a motorcycle: The object has two wheels and two handles that are attached to a larger metal body. The algorithm is smart enough to know that a wheelbarrow, which has similar attributes, is not a motorcycle. As the system scans new images of other two-wheeled, two-handled objects, it predicts — or infers — which are motorcycles. And as the algorithm’s prediction errors are corrected, it becomes pretty deft at identifying them. A billion scans later, it’s on its inference game.

    Most machine learning platforms are built to understand how to classify images, but not physics-specific images. Physicists have to teach them the physics part, such as recognizing tracks created by the Higgs boson or searching for hints of dark matter.

    Researchers at Fermilab, CERN, MIT, the University of Washington and other collaborators trained Azure ML to identify pictures of top quarks — a short-lived elementary particle that is about 180 times heavier than a proton — from simulated CMS data. Specifically, Azure was to look for images of top quark jets, clouds of particles pulled out of the vacuum by a single top quark zinging away from the collision.

    “We sent it the images, training it on physics data,” said Fermilab scientist Burt Holzman, a lead on the project. “And it exhibited state-of-the-art performance. It was very fast. That means we can pipeline a large number of these things. In general, these techniques are pretty good.”

    One of the techniques behind inference acceleration is to combine traditional with specialized processors, a marriage known as heterogeneous computing architecture.

    Different platforms use different architectures. The traditional processors are CPUs (central processing units). The best known specialized processors are GPUs (graphics processing units) and FPGAs (field programmable gate arrays). Azure ML combines CPUs and FPGAs.

    “The reason that these processes need to be accelerated is that these are big computations. You’re talking about 25 billion operations,” Tran said. “Fitting that onto an FPGA, mapping that on, and doing it in a reasonable amount of time is a real achievement.”

    And it’s starting to be offered as a service, too. The test was the first time anyone has demonstrated how this kind of heterogeneous, as-a-service architecture can be used for fundamental physics.

    5
    Data from particle physics experiments are stored on computing farms like this one, the Grid Computing Center at Fermilab. Outside organizations offer their computing farms as a service to particle physics experiments, making more space available on the experiments’ servers. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    At your service

    In the computing world, using something “as a service” has a specific meaning. An outside organization provides resources — machine learning or hardware — as a service, and users — scientists — draw on those resources when needed. It’s similar to how your video streaming company provides hours of binge-watching TV as a service. You don’t need to own your own DVDs and DVD player. You use their library and interface instead.

    Data from the Large Hadron Collider is typically stored and processed on computer servers at CERN and partner institutions such as Fermilab. With machine learning offered up as easily as any other web service might be, intensive computations can be carried out anywhere the service is offered — including off site. This bolsters the labs’ capabilities with additional computing power and resources while sparing them from having to furnish their own servers.

    “The idea of doing accelerated computing has been around decades, but the traditional model was to buy a computer cluster with GPUs and install it locally at the lab,” Holzman said. “The idea of offloading the work to a farm off site with specialized hardware, providing machine learning as a service — that worked as advertised.”

    The Azure ML farm is in Virginia. It takes only 100 milliseconds for computers at Fermilab near Chicago, Illinois, to send an image of a particle event to the Azure cloud, process it, and return it. That’s a 2,500-kilometer, data-dense trip in the blink of an eye.

    “The plumbing that goes with all of that is another achievement,” Tran said. “The concept of abstracting that data as a thing you just send somewhere else, and it just comes back, was the most pleasantly surprising thing about this project. We don’t have to replace everything in our own computing center with a whole bunch of new stuff. We keep all of it, send the hard computations off and get it to come back later.”

    Scientists look forward to scaling the technology to tackle other big-data challenges at the LHC. They also plan to test other platforms, such as Amazon AWS, Google Cloud and IBM Cloud, as they explore what else can be accomplished through machine learning, which has seen rapid evolution over the past few years.

    “The models that were state-of-the-art for 2015 are standard today,” Tran said.

    As a tool, machine learning continues to give particle physics new ways of glimpsing the universe. It’s also impressive in its own right.

    “That we can take something that’s trained to discriminate between pictures of animals and people, do some modest amount computation, and have it tell me the difference between a top quark jet and background?” Holzman said. “That’s something that blows my mind.”

    This work is supported by the DOE .

    See the full here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:02 am on August 13, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: FNAL, Neutrino scientists are looking for something called “charge-parity violation” often shortened to CP violation., , Neutrinos could play a key role in why our universe is made of matter., , Physics is driven by symmetries. One key symmetry dictates that matter and antimatter are handled the same. In physics everything is invariant under charge; parity; and time., Researchers have proposed a process that treats matter and antimatter slightly differently- a process that does not conserve the charge and parity parts of CPT., Scientists already know that CP is violated for one major building block of the universe: the quarks., , The abundance of matter means that after the particles and antiparticles annihilate with each other somehow there was extra matter leftover which now makes up the universe that we live in.   

    From FNAL Via SURF: “All Things Neutrino” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    via

    SURF logo
    Sanford Underground levels

    Sanford Underground Research Facility

    Do neutrinos violate the symmetries of physics?

    The basics

    2
    Credit: Symmetry Magazine / Sandbox Studio, Chicago

    One of the biggest mysteries in neutrino research is whether neutrinos and their antimatter twins, antineutrinos, behave the same way. This turns out to be a very important question—if the answer is no, it could explain how our universe full of matter came to exist.

    Scientists think that matter and antimatter should have been created in equal proportions at the birth of the universe, yet when the two interact, they annihilate into pure energy. This should have left an empty universe. However, you’ve probably noticed all of the stuff made of matter around you. This kind of asymmetry is fascinating. It makes us want to know: How did this imbalance arise?

    Neutrino scientists are looking for something called “charge-parity violation,” often shortened to CP violation. This complicated-sounding term really just asks if neutrinos and antineutrinos can pull off “the old switcheroo.” That is, does the universe treat the matter and antimatter particles identically? Scientists know neutrinos change flavors as they travel, a phenomenon known as oscillation. If the oscillations of neutrinos are fundamentally different from the oscillations of antineutrinos, then CP is broken.

    Scientists already know that CP is violated for one major building block of the universe: the quarks. However, the discrepancy is not enough to account for the matter-rich world around us. But if CP were also violated among neutrinos, it could point us towards the answer.

    More Info

    Neutrinos could play a key role in why our universe is made of matter.

    Physics is driven by symmetries. One key symmetry dictates that matter and antimatter are handled the same. In physics everything is invariant under charge, parity, and time; this is called the CPT theorem. This means if you were to change all of these things together, the universe would still react exactly the same. Therefore, for every process that produces a particle, there is a mirror process that produces an antiparticle. So during the Big Bang, we would have expected that the universe was formed with equal amounts of particles and antiparticles that would then annihilate with each other into pure energy.

    Yet we know that the universe is full of matter and that everything in it, every star, planet, and galaxy, is made of matter and not antimatter. This abundance of matter means that after the particles and antiparticles annihilate with each other, somehow there was extra matter leftover, which now makes up the universe that we live in.

    How this happened is a big mystery. In fact, this is one of the biggest mysteries that physicists are trying to solve. This question is fundamental to our understanding of how we came to exist.

    3
    Credit: Symmetry Magazine / Fermilab / Sandbox Studio, Chicago

    Researchers have proposed a process that treats matter and antimatter slightly differently, a process that does not conserve the charge and parity parts of CPT. If this were the case, it would mean that a tiny bit more matter than antimatter was produced in the Big Bang.

    In 1967 Andrei Sakharov, A Russian physicist, came up with three conditions that must be met in order for matter and antimatter to be produced at different rates. These are:

    That the number of baryons (particles made of three quarks) produced in an interaction must not be conserved
    That the charge and parity of particles produced in an interaction must not be conserved
    These interactions must be out of thermal equilibrium

    Physicists have searched for particles that do not conserve baryon number and, while they have found examples, they have not found this on a scale that can solve this problem. But there is another way to achieve this: if the number of leptons (the class of particles that include neutrinos as well as the charged electron, muon, and tau) produced in an interaction aren’t conserved, this can lead to a difference in the number of baryons.

    4
    The NOvA experiment studies beams of neutrinos and antineutrinos at Fermilab and again 500 miles away in Minnesota. NOvA collaborators hope to learn the mass ordering of the neutrinos and find any differences between neutrinos and their antimatter partners. Credit: NOvA collaboration / Fermilab

    Physics have been searching for this process that treats leptons and antileptons differently to help explain matter’s dominance in our universe. This process is called leptogenesis. And neutrinos, one kind of lepton, are a prime candidate.

    Some neutrino models contain heavy right-handed neutrinos, never before seen by scientists, that could have existed early in the universe’s history. These could have decayed in a way that did not conserve lepton number.

    A variety of experiments, including NOvA, T2K, and DUNE, will search for the answer to a big part of this puzzle. They’ll look to see if neutrinos and antineutrinos conserve charge and parity. If it’s found that neutrinos don’t conserve CP, it could help us understand how the universe evolved to what we see today.

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    T2K map, T2K Experiment, Tokai to Kamioka, Japan

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    Even More

    Physicists are particularly interested in symmetries of nature and whether those symmetries ever break. When scientists say “neutrinos might violate CP,” this is really just shorthand for asking if a particular kind of symmetry, charge-parity symmetry, is broken. Do neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently, and does nature have a preference for one over the other? From the point of view of neutrino oscillations, this means that neutrinos and antineutrinos might oscillate at different rates—something many experiments have seen hints of and are searching for.

    Neutrino oscillations are characterized by “mixing parameters,” which dictate how the mass states add up to form the particular flavor states. (Mixing parameters also look at the differences between the squares of the three mass states.)

    The particular quantum combination of neutrino mass states that make up the neutrino flavor states is controlled via the so-called Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (PMNS) mixing matrix.

    4
    The left image shows the sizes of the the CKM matrix elements for quark mixing, and the right image shows the PMNS matrix elements for neutrino mixing. Credit: Sheldon Stone

    With three flavors (families) of neutrinos, the mixing matrix can be reduced to four independent components. These components are often written in a convenient format for experimentalists as three “mixing angles” and a CP-violating phase. Almost all of these mixing parameters have been measured to some degree, thanks to a suite of different neutrino oscillation experiments around the globe that use neutrinos from reactors, accelerators, and the sun. The one exception is the CP-violating phase. That phase could have any value, and if it turns out to be non-zero, then neutrinos and antineutrinos really do behave differently in ways that scientists did not expect.

    Neutrinos are not the first kind of particle where scientists have observed “mixing” between flavors. A similar kind of mixing was discovered in the 1960s with quarks, the point-like particles that make up protons, neutrons, and all other nuclei. A long and storied campaign ensued to measure the mixing parameters of the quark mixing matrix, often referred to as the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix.

    After 30 years of very precise measurements, scientists know that the CKM mixing angles are relatively small, and that there is a striking lack of CP violation that many had hoped could explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe. In contrast, the PMNS matrix consists of relatively large (perhaps maximal) mixing angles, but the actual values of the mixing angles have not been precisely determined. These large but imprecise mixing angles are a driving force behind the desire to make more precise measurements, as such measurements could help rule out or support hints of physics beyond the Standard Model—bringing us one step closer to understanding our universe.

    See the full here.


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

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    About us.
    The Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota, advances our understanding of the universe by providing laboratory space deep underground, where sensitive physics experiments can be shielded from cosmic radiation. Researchers at the Sanford Lab explore some of the most challenging questions facing 21st century physics, such as the origin of matter, the nature of dark matter and the properties of neutrinos. The facility also hosts experiments in other disciplines—including geology, biology and engineering.

    The Sanford Lab is located at the former Homestake gold mine, which was a physics landmark long before being converted into a dedicated science facility. Nuclear chemist Ray Davis earned a share of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2002 for a solar neutrino experiment he installed 4,850 feet underground in the mine.

    Homestake closed in 2003, but the company donated the property to South Dakota in 2006 for use as an underground laboratory. That same year, philanthropist T. Denny Sanford donated $70 million to the project. The South Dakota Legislature also created the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to operate the lab. The state Legislature has committed more than $40 million in state funds to the project, and South Dakota also obtained a $10 million Community Development Block Grant to help rehabilitate the facility.

    In 2007, after the National Science Foundation named Homestake as the preferred site for a proposed national Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) began reopening the former gold mine.

    In December 2010, the National Science Board decided not to fund further design of DUSEL. However, in 2011 the Department of Energy, through the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, agreed to support ongoing science operations at Sanford Lab, while investigating how to use the underground research facility for other longer-term experiments. The SDSTA, which owns Sanford Lab, continues to operate the facility under that agreement with Berkeley Lab.

    The first two major physics experiments at the Sanford Lab are 4,850 feet underground in an area called the Davis Campus, named for the late Ray Davis. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is housed in the same cavern excavated for Ray Davis’s experiment in the 1960s.

    LBNL LZ project at SURF, Lead, SD, USA, will replace LUX at SURF

    In October 2013, after an initial run of 80 days, LUX was determined to be the most sensitive detector yet to search for dark matter—a mysterious, yet-to-be-detected substance thought to be the most prevalent matter in the universe. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment, also on the 4850 Level, is searching for a rare phenomenon called “neutrinoless double-beta decay” that could reveal whether subatomic particles called neutrinos can be their own antiparticle. Detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay could help determine why matter prevailed over antimatter. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment is adjacent to the original Davis cavern.

    LUX’s mission was to scour the universe for WIMPs, vetoing all other signatures. It would continue to do just that for another three years before it was decommissioned in 2016.

    In the midst of the excitement over first results, the LUX collaboration was already casting its gaze forward. Planning for a next-generation dark matter experiment at Sanford Lab was already under way. Named LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ), the next-generation experiment would increase the sensitivity of LUX 100 times.

    SLAC physicist Tom Shutt, a previous co-spokesperson for LUX, said one goal of the experiment was to figure out how to build an even larger detector.
    “LZ will be a thousand times more sensitive than the LUX detector,” Shutt said. “It will just begin to see an irreducible background of neutrinos that may ultimately set the limit to our ability to measure dark matter.”
    We celebrate five years of LUX, and look into the steps being taken toward the much larger and far more sensitive experiment.

    Another major experiment, the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE)—a collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and Sanford Lab, is in the preliminary design stages. The project got a major boost last year when Congress approved and the president signed an Omnibus Appropriations bill that will fund LBNE operations through FY 2014. Called the “next frontier of particle physics,” LBNE will follow neutrinos as they travel 800 miles through the earth, from FermiLab in Batavia, Ill., to Sanford Lab.

    FNAL LBNE/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    LBNE

    U Washington Majorana Demonstrator Experiment at SURF

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will contain 40 kg of germanium; up to 30 kg will be enriched to 86% in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will be deployed deep underground in an ultra-low-background shielded environment in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. The goal of the DEMONSTRATOR is to determine whether a future 1-tonne experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a 4-keV region of interest around the 76Ge 0νββ Q-value at 2039 keV. MAJORANA plans to collaborate with GERDA for a future tonne-scale 76Ge 0νββ search.

    LBNL LZ project at SURF, Lead, SD, USA


    CASPAR at SURF


    CASPAR is a low-energy particle accelerator that allows researchers to study processes that take place inside collapsing stars.

    The scientists are using space in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, to work on a project called the Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR). CASPAR uses a low-energy particle accelerator that will allow researchers to mimic nuclear fusion reactions in stars. If successful, their findings could help complete our picture of how the elements in our universe are built. “Nuclear astrophysics is about what goes on inside the star, not outside of it,” said Dan Robertson, a Notre Dame assistant research professor of astrophysics working on CASPAR. “It is not observational, but experimental. The idea is to reproduce the stellar environment, to reproduce the reactions within a star.”

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:18 am on August 12, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Cryomodules and Cavities, Fermilab modified a cryomodule design from DESY in Germany, FNAL, , , LCLS-II will provide a staggering million pulses per second., Lined up end to end 37 cryomodules will power the LCLS-II XFEL., , , , , SLAC’s linear particle accelerator, ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “A million pulses per second: How particle accelerators are powering X-ray lasers” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    August 12, 2019
    Caitlyn Buongiorno

    About 10 years ago, the world’s most powerful X-ray laser — the Linac Coherent Light Source — made its debut at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Now the next revolutionary X-ray laser in a class of its own, LCLS-II, is under construction at SLAC, with support from four other DOE national laboratories.

    SLAC LCLS-II

    Researchers in biology, chemistry and physics will use LCLS-II to probe fundamental pieces of matter, creating 3-D movies of complex molecules in action, making LCLS-II a powerful, versatile instrument at the forefront of discovery.

    The project is coming together thanks largely to a crucial advance in the fields of particle and nuclear physics: superconducting accelerator technology. DOE’s Fermilab and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility are building the superconducting modules necessary for the accelerator upgrade for LCLS-II.

    1
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is upgrading its Linac Coherent Light Source, an X-ray laser, to be a more powerful tool for science. Both Fermilab and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility are contributing to the machine’s superconducting accelerator, seen here in the left part of the diagram. Image: SLAC

    A powerful tool for discovery

    Inside SLAC’s linear particle accelerator today, bursts of electrons are accelerated to energies that allow LCLS to fire off 120 X-ray pulses per second. These pulses last for quadrillionths of a second – a time scale known as a femtosecond – providing scientists with a flipbook-like look at molecular processes.

    “Over time, you can build up a molecular movie of how different systems evolve,” said SLAC scientist Mike Dunne, director of LCLS. “That’s proven to be quite remarkable, but it also has a number of limitations. That’s where LCLS-II comes in.”

    Using state-of-the-art particle accelerator technology, LCLS-II will provide a staggering million pulses per second. The advance will provide a more detailed look into how chemical, material and biological systems evolve on a time scale in which chemical bonds are made and broken.

    To really understand the difference, imagine you’re an alien visiting Earth. If you take one image a day of a city, you would notice roads and the cars that drive on them, but you couldn’t tell the speed of the cars or where the cars go. But taking a snapshot every few seconds would give you a highly detailed picture of how cars flow through the roads and would reveal phenomena like traffic jams. LCLS-II will provide this type of step-change information applied to chemical, biological and material processes.

    To reach this level of detail, SLAC needs to implement technology developed for particle physics – superconducting acceleration cavities – to power the LCLS-II free-electron laser, or XFEL.

    3
    This is an illustration of the electron accelerator of SLAC’s LCLS-II X-ray laser. The first third of the copper accelerator will be replaced with a superconducting one. The red tubes represent cryomodules, which are provided by Fermilab and Jefferson Lab. Image: SLAC

    Accelerating science

    Cavities are structures that impart energy to particle beams, accelerating the particles within them. LCLS-II, like modern particle accelerators, will take advantage of superconducting radio-frequency cavity technology, also called SRF technology. When cooled to 2 Kelvin, superconducting cavities allow electricity to flow freely, without any resistance. Like reducing the friction between a heavy object and the ground, less electrical resistance saves energy, allowing accelerators to reach higher power for less cost.

    “The SRF technology is the enabling step for LCLS-II’s million pulses per second,” Dunne said. “Jefferson Lab and Fermilab have been developing this technology for years. The core expertise to make LCLS-II possible lives at these labs.”

    Fermilab modified a cryomodule design from DESY, in Germany, and specially prepared the cavities to draw the record-setting performance from the cavities and cryomodules that will be used for LCLS-II.

    The cylinder-shaped cryomodules, about a meter in diameter, act as specialized containers for housing the cavities. Inside, ultracold liquid helium continuously flows around the cavities to ensure they maintain the unwavering 2 Kelvin essential for superconductivity. Lined up end to end, 37 cryomodules will power the LCLS-II XFEL.

    See the full here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
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