Tagged: FNAL PIP-II Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • richardmitnick 1:10 pm on March 15, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , FNAL PIP-II, , ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Fermilab, international partners break ground on new state-of-the-art particle accelerator” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    March 15, 2019
    Andre Salles, Fermilab Office of Communication
    asalles@fnal.gov
    630-840-6733

    With a ceremony held today, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory officially broke ground on a major new particle accelerator project that will power cutting-edge physics experiments for many decades to come.

    The new 700-foot-long linear accelerator, part of the laboratory’s Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II), will be the first accelerator project built in the United States with significant contributions from international partners. When complete, the new machine will become the heart of the laboratory’s accelerator complex, vastly improving what is already the world’s most powerful particle beam for neutrino experiments and providing for the long-term future of Fermilab’s diverse research program.

    The new PIP-II accelerator will make use of the latest superconducting technology, a key research area for Fermilab. Its flexible design will enable it to work as a new first stage for Fermilab’s chain of accelerators, powering both the laboratory’s flagship project — the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), hosted by Fermilab — and its extensive suite of on-site particle physics experiments, including searches for new particles and new forces in our universe.

    1
    On Friday, March 15, Fermilab broke ground on the PIP-II accelerator project, joined by dignitaries from the United States and international partners on the project. From left: Senator Tammy Duckworth (IL), Senator Dick Durbin (IL), Rep. Sean Casten (IL-6), Rep. Robin Kelly (IL-2), Rep. Bill Foster (IL-11), Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer, Rep. Lauren Underwood (IL-14), Illinois Governor JB Pritzker, DOE Under Secretary for Science Paul Dabbar, PIP-II Project Director Lia Merminga, DOE Associate Director for High Energy Physics Jim Siegrist, University of Chicago President Robert Zimmer, Consul General of India Neeta Bhushan, British Consul General John Saville, Consul General of Italy Giuseppe Finocchiaro, Consul General of France Guillaume Lacroix, DOE Fermi Site Office Manager Mike Weis, DOE PIP-II Federal Project Director Adam Bihary and Consul General of Poland Piotr Janicki. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    DUNE is under construction now and will be the most advanced experiment in the world studying ghostly, invisible particles called neutrinos. These particles may hold the key to cosmic mysteries that have baffled scientists for decades. The DUNE collaboration brings together more than 1,000 scientists from over 180 institutions in more than 30 countries, all with a single goal: to better understand these elusive particles and what they can tell us about the universe.

    The PIP-II accelerator will enable the beam that will send trillions of neutrino particles 800 miles (1,300 kilometers) through the earth to the four-story-high DUNE detector, to be built a mile beneath the surface at the Sanford Underground Research Facility [SURF] in Lead, South Dakota. With the improved particle beam enabled by PIP-II, scientists will use the DUNE detector to capture the most vivid 3-D images of neutrino interactions ever seen.

    3
    Shortly after breaking ground on the PIP-II accelerator project on Friday, March 15, Fermilab employees were joined by the governor of Illinois, six members of Congress and partners from around the world in this group photo. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    PIP-II is itself a groundbreaking scientific instrument, and its construction is pioneering a new paradigm for accelerator projects supported by DOE. The accelerator would not be possible without the contributions and world-leading expertise of partners in France, India, Italy and the UK. Scientists in each country are building components of the accelerator, to be assembled at Fermilab. This will be the first accelerator project in the United States completed using this approach.

    With PIP-II at the center of the laboratory’s accelerator complex, Fermilab will remain at the forefront of particle physics research and accelerator science for the foreseeable future.

    Today’s groundbreaking ceremony for the PIP-II accelerator was attended by dignitaries from around the globe. Speakers included Sen. Dick Durbin (IL), Sen. Tammy Duckworth (IL), Rep. Lauren Underwood (IL-14), Rep. Bill Foster (IL-11), Rep. Robin Kelly (IL-2), Rep. Sean Casten (IL-6), DOE Under Secretary for Science Paul Dabbar, University of Chicago President Robert Zimmer, and national and international partners in the project.

    4
    This architectural rendering shows the buildings that will house the new PIP-II accelerators. Architectural rendering: Gensler. Image: Diana Brandonisio.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

    FNAL MINERvA front face Photo Reidar Hahn

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL MINOS Far Detector in the Soudan Mine in northern Minnesota

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 12:35 pm on December 4, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: 176-meter-long 800-million-electronvolt superconducting linear accelerator at FNAL, , , FNAL PIP-II, INFN-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Laboratory for Accelerators and Applied Superconductivity   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “U.S. Department of Energy and Italy’s Ministry of Education, Universities and Research to collaborate on particle accelerator construction at Fermilab” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    December 4, 2018

    1
    Jim Siegrist, associate director of the DOE Office of High-Energy Physics, and Maurizio Greganti, deputy chief of mission for the Embassy of Italy to the United States, sign an agreement to collaborate on Fermilab’s PIP-II project.

    Today the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Italy’s Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR) signed an agreement to collaborate on the development and production of technical components for PIP-II, a major U.S. particle accelerator project to be located at DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois. The signing took place at the Embassy of Italy in Washington.

    Italy and its National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) will provide major contributions to the construction of the 176-meter-long superconducting particle accelerator that is the centerpiece of the PIP-II (Proton Improvement Plan-II) project. The new accelerator will become the heart of the Fermilab accelerator complex and provide the proton beam to power a broad program of accelerator-based particle physics research for many decades to come. In particular, PIP-II will enable the world’s most powerful high-energy neutrino beam to power the international Fermilab-hosted Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE).

    FNAL Particle Accelerator

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    “It is with great appreciation that the Department of Energy enters into this agreement with our partners at MIUR and INFN,” said DOE Undersecretary for Science Paul Dabbar. “We’re proud that Fermilab’s PIP-II accelerator project, designed to create one of the most advanced machines for enabling discovery in the United States, is attracting major contributions from international partners for its construction.”

    The INFN Laboratory for Accelerators and Applied Superconductivity is expected to build components for the PIP-II accelerator. Based in Segrate, Italy, the laboratory is a center of excellence on an international scale for the development of advanced particle accelerators technologies.

    “The Agreement signed today by the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research and DOE is the latest example of the scope and breadth of the scientific and technological cooperation between our two countries and of the importance of international cooperation,” said Armando Varricchio, ambassador of Italy to the United States. “This new step in our cooperation comes at a very significant time as we celebrate the 30th anniversary of the U.S.-Italy Agreement on Scientific and Technological Cooperation and renew our bilateral projects portfolio for the next three years.”

    At the signing, representatives from both countries recognized the long tradition of collaboration between Italian scientists and Fermilab, named after Italy’s own Enrico Fermi.

    “Following a long tradition of collaboration, the engagement of INFN on the construction of the PIP-II accelerator constitutes an important step in the context of unraveling neutrino properties through the ambitious DUNE project,” said INFN President Fernando Ferroni.

    The centerpiece of the PIP-II project will be an 800-million-electronvolt superconducting linear accelerator, which will modernize the front end of the existing Fermilab accelerator chain and provide a platform for future enhancements. The new accelerator will feature acceleration cavities made of niobium and double the beam energy of its predecessor. Such a boost will enable the Fermilab accelerator complex to achieve megawatt-scale proton beam power.

    “Our Italian partners are critical to the successful completion of Fermilab’s PIP-II superconducting accelerator,” said PIP-II Project Director Lia Merminga of Fermilab. “It takes a global community to build advanced, state-of-the-art accelerators like the one we’re developing for PIP-II.”

    In addition to Italy, other international partners are making significant contributions to PIP-II. They include India, the United Kingdom, and France. DOE’s Argonne and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories are also contributing key components to the project.

    “At the INFN Laboratory for Accelerators and Applied Superconductivity, we have a great experience of fruitful collaboration with Fermilab on advanced technologies for superconducting particle accelerators,” said Carlo Pagani of the University of Milan, Italian PIP-II project manager. “We are colleagues and friends, and I am excited for the opportunity that PIP-II is giving both for further growing together.”

    The partnership is one example of the increasingly global character of particle physics-related projects. The PIP-II accelerator complex will be made available to the international particle physics community and will extend the scientific discovery potential beyond that which currently can be reached.

    “It’s exciting to think that, in just a few years, the new PIP-II accelerator will produce some of the world’s most intense neutrino beams, which could give us a clearer picture of our universe’s evolution,” said Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer. “This bright future is thanks in large part to our Italian partners. And since these partnerships strengthen over time, we could very well build on the relationship for future exciting projects in fundamental science.”


    This 40-second animation provides an overview of the PIP-II project. To learn more, visit pip2.fnal.gov.

    The DOE Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit science.energy.gov.

    INFN, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, is the public Italian research institute dedicated to the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. INFN conducts theoretical and experimental research in the fields of subnuclear, nuclear and astroparticle physics. Fundamental research in these areas requires the use of cutting-edge technology and instruments, developed by the INFN at its own laboratories and in collaboration with industries. All of the INFN’s research activities are conducted in close collaboration with Italian universities and undertaken within an international framework.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 10:02 am on July 24, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Accelerating superconducting technology, , , , , FNAL PIP-II, ,   

    From Fermilab: “Fermilab gets ready to upgrade accelerator complex for more powerful particle beams” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermilab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    More powerful particle beams

    July 24, 2018
    Andre Salles,
    Fermilab Office of Communication
    asalles@fnal.gov
    630-840-6733

    Fermilab’s accelerator complex has achieved a major milestone: The U.S. Department of Energy formally approved Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to proceed with its design of PIP-II, an accelerator upgrade project that will provide increased beam power to generate an unprecedented stream of neutrinos — subatomic particles that could unlock our understanding of the universe — and enable a broad program of physics research for many years to come.

    The PIP-II (Proton Improvement Plan II) accelerator upgrades are integral to the Fermilab-hosted Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), which is the largest international science experiment ever to be conducted on U.S. soil.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    DUNE requires enormous quantities of neutrinos to study the mysterious particle in exquisite detail and, with the latest approval for PIP-II, Fermilab is positioned to be the world leader in accelerator-based neutrino research. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), which will also support DUNE, had its groundbreaking ceremony in July 2017.

    The opportunity to contribute to PIP-II has drawn scientists and engineers from around the world to Fermilab: PIP-II is the first accelerator project on U.S. soil that will have significant contributions from international partners. Fermilab’s PIP-II partnerships include institutions in India, Italy, France and the UK, as well as the United States.

    PIP-II capitalizes on recent particle accelerator advances developed at Fermilab and other institutions that will allow its accelerators to generate particle beams at higher powers than previously available. The high-power particle beams will in turn create intense neutrino beams, providing scientists with an abundance of these subtle particles.

    “PIP-II’s high-power accelerators and its national and multinational partnerships reinforce Fermilab’s position as the accelerator-based neutrino physics capital of the world,” said DOE Undersecretary for Science Paul Dabbar. “LBNF/DUNE, the Fermilab-based megascience experiment for neutrino research, has already attracted more than 1,000 collaborators from 32 countries. With the accelerator side of the experiment ramping up in the form of PIP-II, not only does Fermilab attract collaborators worldwide to do neutrino science, but U.S. particle physics also gets a powerful boost.”

    The Department of Energy’s Argonne and Lawrence Berkeley national laboratories are also major PIP-II participants.

    1
    This architectural rendering shows the buildings that will house the new PIP-II accelerators. Architectural rendering: Gensler. Image: Diana Brandonisio

    A major milestone

    The DOE milestone is formally called Critical Decision 1 approval, or CD-1. In granting CD-1, DOE approves Fermilab’s approach and cost range. The milestone marks the completion of the project definition phase and the conceptual design. The next step is to move the project toward establishing a performance baseline.

    “We think of PIP-II as the heart of Fermilab: a platform that provides multiple capabilities and enables broad scientific programs, including the most powerful accelerator-based neutrino source in the world,” said Fermilab PIP-II Project Director Lia Merminga. “With the go-ahead to refine our blueprint, we can focus designing the PIP-II accelerator complex to be as powerful and flexible as it can possibly be.”

    PIP-II’s powerful neutrino stream

    Neutrinos are ubiquitous yet fleeting particles, the most difficult to capture of all of the members of the subatomic particle family. Scientists capture them by sending neutrino beams generated from particle accelerators to large, stories-high detectors. The greater the number of neutrinos sent to the detectors, the greater the chances the detectors will catch them, and the more opportunity there is to study these subatomic escape artists.

    That’s where PIP-II comes in.

    Fermilab’s upgraded PIP-II accelerator complex will generate proton beams of significantly greater power than is currently available. The increase in beam power translates into more neutrinos that can be sent to the lab’s various neutrino experiments. The result will be the world’s most intense high-energy neutrino beam.

    The goal of PIP-II is to produce a proton beam of more than 1 megawatt, about 60 percent higher than the existing accelerator complex supplies. Eventually, enabled by PIP-II, Fermilab could upgrade the accelerator to double that power to more than 2 megawatts.

    “At that power, we can just flood the detectors with neutrinos,” said DUNE co-spokesperson and University of Chicago physicist Ed Blucher. “That’s what so exciting. Every neutrino that stops in our detectors adds a bit of information to our picture of the universe. And the more neutrinos that stop, the closer we get to filling in the picture.”

    The largest and most ambitious of these detectors are those in DUNE, which is scheduled to start up in the mid-2020s. DUNE will use two detectors separated by a distance of 800 miles (1,300 kilometers) — one at Fermilab and a second, much larger detector situated one mile underground in South Dakota at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. Prototypes of those technologically advanced neutrino detectors are now under construction at the European particle physics laboratory CERN, which is a major partner in LBNF/DUNE, and are expected to take data later this year.

    Fermilab’s accelerators, enhanced according to the PIP-II plan, will send a beam of neutrinos to the DUNE detector at Fermilab. The beam will continue its path straight through Earth’s crust to the detector in South Dakota. Scientists will study the data gathered by both detectors, comparing them to get a better handle on how neutrino properties change over the long distance.

    The detector located in South Dakota, known as the DUNE far detector, is enormous. It will stand four stories high and occupy an area equivalent to a soccer field. With its supporting platform LBNF, DUNE is designed to handle a neutrino deluge.

    And, with the cooperation of international partners, PIP-II is designed to deliver it.

    2
    The PIP-II project will supply powerful neutrino beams for the LBNF/DUNE experiment. Image: Diana Brandonisio

    Partners in PIP-II

    The development of a major particle accelerator with international participation represents a new paradigm in U.S. accelerator projects: PIP-II is the first U.S.-based accelerator project with multinational partners. Currently these include laboratories in India (BARC, IUAC, RRCAT, VECC) and institutions funded in Italy by the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), France (CEA and IN2P3), and in the UK by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC).

    In an agreement with India, four Indian Department of Atomic Energy institutions are authorized to contribute equipment, with details to be formalized in advance of the start of construction.

    “The international scientific community brings world-leading expertise and capabilities to the project. Their engagement and shared sense of ownership in the project’s success are among the most compelling strengths of PIP-II,” Merminga said.

    PIP-II partners contribute accelerator components, pursuing their development jointly with Fermilab through regular exchanges of scientists and engineers. The collaboration is mutually beneficial. For some international partners, this collaboration presents an opportunity for development of their own facilities and infrastructure as well as local accelerator industry.

    3
    Fermilab is currently developing the front end of the PIP-II linear accelerator for tests of the relevant technology. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    Accelerating superconducting technology

    The centerpiece of the PIP-II project is the construction of a new superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) linear accelerator, which will become the initial stage of the upgraded Fermilab accelerator chain. It will replace the current Fermilab Linac.

    4
    This is a view of the high energy end of the linac

    5
    This is an aerial view showing the smaller machines in the Fermilab accelerator complex.There is a good view of the Pre-accelerator (Cockroft-Walton), the Linac, the Booster ring, and the Antiproton source (Accumulator and Debuncher).Courtesy Fermilab Visual media services.

    6
    This is a schematic of FNAL accelerator complex; the arrows give a sense of how the beams (proton or anti proton) move from one machine to the next. Courtesy Fermilab Visual media services
    (“Linac” is a common abbreviation for “linear accelerator,” in which the particle beam proceeds along a straight path.) The plan is to install the SRF linac under 25 feet of dirt in the infield of the now decommissioned Tevatron ring.

    FNAL/Tevatron map

    The new SRF linac will provide a big boost to its particle beam from the get-go, doubling the beam energy of its predecessor from 400 million to 800 million electronvolts. That boost will enable the Fermilab accelerator complex to achieve megawatt-scale beam power.

    Superconducting materials carry zero electrical resistance, so current sails through them effortlessly. By taking advantage of superconducting components, accelerators minimize the amount of power they draw from the power grid, channeling more of it to the beam. Beams thus achieve higher energies at less cost than in normal-conducting accelerators, such as Fermilab’s current Linac.

    In the linac, superconducting components called accelerating cavities will impart energy to the particle beam. The cavities, which look like strands of jumbo, silver pearls, are made of niobium and will be lined up end to end. The particle beam will accelerate down the axis of one cavity after another, picking up energy as it goes.

    “Fermilab is one of the pioneers in superconducting accelerator technology,” Merminga said. “Many of the advances developed here are going into the PIP-II SRF linac.”

    The linac cavities will be encased in 25 cryomodules, which house cryogenics to keep the cavities cold (to maintain superconductivity).

    Many current and future particle accelerators are based on superconducting technology, and the advances that help scientists study neutrinos have multiplying effects outside fundamental science. Researchers are developing superconducting accelerators for medicine, environmental cleanup, quantum computing, industry and national security.

    The beam scheme

    In PIP-II, a beam of protons will be injected into the linac. Over the course of its 176 meters — six-and-a-half Olympic-size pool lengths — the beam will accelerate to an energy of 800 million electronvolts. Once it passes through the superconducting linac, it will enter the rest of Fermilab’s current accelerator chain — a further three accelerators — which will also undergo significant upgrades over the next few years to handle the higher-energy beam from the new linac. By the time the beam exits the final accelerator, it will have an energy of up to 120 billion electronvolts and more than 1 megawatt of power.

    After the proton beam exits the chain, it will strike a segmented cylinder of carbon. The beam-carbon collision will create a shower of other particles, which will be routed to various Fermilab experiments. Some of these post-collision particles will become — will “decay into,” in physics lingo — neutrinos, which will by this point already be on the path toward their detectors.

    PIP-II’s initial proton beam — which scientists will be able to distribute between LBNF/DUNE and other experiments — can be delivered in pulses or as a continuous proton stream.

    The front-end components for PIP-II — those upstream from the superconducting linac — are already developed and undergoing testing.

    “We are very happy to have been able to design PIP-II to meet the requirements of the neutrino program while providing flexibility for future development of the Fermilab experimental program in any number of directions,” said Fermilab’s Steve Holmes, former PIP-II project director.

    Fermilab expects to complete the project by the mid-2020s, in time for the startup of LBNF/DUNE.

    “Many people worked tirelessly to design the best machine for the science we want to do,” Merminga said. “The recognition of their excellent work through CD-1 approval is encouraging for us. We look forward to building this forefront accelerator.”

    Department of Energy funding for the project is provided through DOE’s Office of Science.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 10:15 am on June 7, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), FNAL PIP-II   

    From FNAL: “Transoceanic collaboration begins bearing fruit for PIP-II” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    June 6, 2016
    Leah Hesla

    1
    They stand by their work: PIP-II collaborators stand next to the doublet magnet, built by BARC, for the PIP-II medium-energy beam transport. From left: Michael Tartaglia (Fermilab), Joseph DiMarco (Fermilab), Vikas Teotia (BARC), Alexander Shemyakin (Fermilab), Curtis Baffes (Fermilab), Shekhar Mishra (Fermilab). Photo: Reidar Hahn

    2
    BARC’s two preproduction quadrupoles (with labels B and C) and dipole (with the copper winding) for PIP-II are visible toward the right of the picture. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    Building particle accelerators for high-energy physics is an international affair, and Fermilab’s future PIP-II accelerator is no exception. Week in and week out, two teams of accelerator scientists and engineers two oceans apart work to design and produce components for two future machines, one in India, and one at Fermilab.

    The partnership recently bore its first, tangible fruit: preproduction magnets designed and built at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), in Mumbai, India. The magnets were installed and tested at the Fermilab PIP-II Injector Test Accelerator in late March.

    The installation of these magnets – four quadrupole focusing lenses and two dipole correctors – is just the start of an important collaboration with BARC on PIP-II, drawing together research groups from opposite sides of the world.

    Since January 2015, the two laboratories have been regularly accommodating the half-day time difference, making late-night or early-morning conference calls, to realize dreams of two countries for high-power accelerators.

    “BARC has really stepped up in taking the responsibility for designing and fabricating these magnets, delivering them in a timely manner,” said Shekhar Mishra, deputy project manager for PIP-II. “We gain a great deal from the partnership with Indian laboratories, which is critical to the success of our accelerator-based physics program.”

    More BARC magnets will find a home in a section of PIP-II called the Medium-Energy Beam Transport (MEBT), through which a beam of negatively charged hydrogen ions will travel at 2.1 million electronvolts. BARC is building a total of 16 dipole and 34 quadrupole magnets, which will guide and focus the particle beam.

    BARC rigorously tested the first set of magnets for their magnetic, electric and thermal qualifications, making sure they met PIP-II specifications before they delivered them to Fermilab, where both BARC and Fermilab scientists tested them once again.

    The magnets worked as expected. The beam, guided by the magnets, went through the first portion of the MEBT with no measurable losses.

    The collaboration between BARC and Fermilab extends well beyond accelerator magnet development to include all key areas of the PIP-II Superconducting Linac. BARC scientists and engineers – many of whom are young, early-career scientists – have wide-ranging skills that dovetail with Fermilab expertise in superconducting radio-frequency technology, on which most future high-energy accelerators are based.

    “This will help us gear up for meeting future challenges,” said Sanjay Malhotra, subproject coordinator at BARC for the Indian Institutions and Fermilab Collaboration. They include developing components for accelerator applications in Indian industry.

    BARC plans to send the next batch of magnets in July and finish the delivery by the end of 2016.

    The Fermilab-BARC partnership is part of the umbrella Indian Institutions and Fermilab Collaboration, which Mishra helped establish. The IIFC works with the U.S. Department of Energy to develop research facilities at Fermilab and accelerator projects at Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) laboratories. Thirteen subprojects at Fermilab are conducted under the aegis of IIFC, and all are on schedule.

    “Thanks to the excellent support and vision of the management and international coordinators at DAE and Fermilab, our collaborative programs have been running quite smoothly,” Malhotra said. “The technical teams on both sides have worked diligently to ensure that the collaboration runs seamlessly on both sides.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:04 pm on November 17, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , FNAL PIP-II,   

    From FNAL- “PIP-II: Renewing Fermilab’s accelerator complex” 

    FNAL II photo

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Nov. 17, 2015
    Ali Sundermier

    1
    The PIP-II accelerator will provide Fermilab with the high-power beams needed to carry out a world-class neutrino program. Image: Fermilab

    Even accelerator complexes can use some good, old-fashioned makeovers every now and then. The Proton Improvement Plan II, or PIP-II, is a proposed project to improve Fermilab’s particle accelerator complex with a major hardware overhaul and a powerful boost in its capabilities.

    “Every forefront research facility has to be continually renewing itself,” said Steve Holmes, project manager for PIP-II. “Yesterday’s performance is not going to be competitive tomorrow. We’ve done a lot with the Fermilab accelerator complex over the years, but eventually you reach a point where you’ve got to retire some of the really old stuff.”

    The headliner for this upgrade is neutrino physics, Holmes said. The next generation of neutrino programs is going to be bigger and more capable than current experiments. With more beam power, Holmes said, the physics reach will be substantial. When PIP-II achieves its design goal, it will deliver the world’s most intense neutrino beam just in time for the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility to start operations in 2025. The facility will support Fermilab’s flagship research program, the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment.

    “We want high power to support our neutrino program,” said Paul Derwent, deputy project manager. “That means lots of particles at high energy and frequently. To increase the power, we need to be able to increase the number of particles right from beginning.”

    PIP-II will allow physicists to accelerate more protons and help them achieve higher energy over a shorter distance. The project will involve retiring Fermilab’s 400-MeV copper linac and building a new 800-MeV superconducting radio-frequency linac as well as replacing the beam transport to the Booster. There will also be upgrades to the laboratory’s Booster, Main Injector and Recycler.

    The most ambitious part of the PIP-II upgrade will be the new 800-MeV linear accelerator, which will be built in the infield of the decommissioned Tevatron accelerator and take advantage of significant existing accelerator infrastructure at Fermilab. The location will provide access to existing utilities, while allowing construction to proceed independent of ongoing accelerator operations and retaining possibilities for upgrade paths down the road. The linac design also provides an option for continuous-wave operations, which means delivery of an uninterrupted, rather than pulsed, stream of particles, providing physicists with more beam for other experiments, such as Mu2e.

    A large part of this effort involves an international collaboration with India. The Department of Atomic Energy in India has offered to contribute hardware in exchange for the experience of building high-intensity superconducting radio-frequency proton linacs, which they hope to construct in their own country.

    “I’m excited to have the chance to retire a bunch of accelerators that were old when I started here 30 years ago,” Holmes joked. “But more seriously, what I find most attractive about this project is the opportunity to do something that will improve the performance of the Fermilab accelerator complex in a manner that will allow us to remain at the forefront both of accelerator-based neutrino physics and our other programs for decades.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:51 am on September 29, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , FNAL PIP-II   

    From FNAL: From the Accelerator Division – Progress on the Indian Institutions and Fermilab Collaboration” 

    FNAL II photo

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Sept. 29, 2015
    1
    Shekhar Mishra, deputy project manager of PIP-II, wrote this column.

    Fermilab’s proposed construction of PIP-II (Proton Improvement Plan II) as part of the laboratory’s long-term strategy is to transform its accelerator complex to support 1.2 megawatts of beam power for the world-leading Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE).

    FNAL Dune & LBNF
    DUNE

    PIP-II R&D is being jointly carried out by the Indian Institutions and Fermilab Collaboration, which includes the Inter-University Accelerator Center (IUAC) and three Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) laboratories: the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC) and Variable Energy Cyclotron Center (VECC). Both RRCAT and BARC have proposed construction of two accelerators that will rely heavily on advances in Fermilab’s program in superconducting radio-frequency technology, known as SRF.

    FNAL SRF
    SRF

    The Indian Institutions and Fermilab Collaboration (IIFC), established in 2009 for the joint development of superconducting radio-frequency proton accelerator technology, has made significant progress. Hardware developed by our Indian partners under IIFC is starting to arrive at Fermilab for integration into R&D programs. Here are some recent highlights:

    1. As a part of the PIP-II R&D program, Fermilab is constructing the PIP-II Injector Experiment, or PXIE. BARC is responsible for the design, construction and testing of all PXIE normal-conducting (room temperature) magnets. In April, Fermilab received two prototype magnets from BARC for testing. After recertification of the magnetic measurement by Fermilab, which were also measured at BARC, the magnets are now installed in the PXIE beamline.

    2
    This medium-energy beam transport magnet is now installed in PXIE beamline. From left: Mike Tartaglia (Fermilab), Joe DeMarco (Fermilab), Vikas Teotia (BARC), Alexander Shemyakin (Fermilab), Curtis Baffes (Fermilab), Shekhar Mishra (Fermilab). Photo: Reidar Hahn

    2. In May Fermilab received two 325-MHz single-spoke resonator (SSR1) cavities from IUAC. The construction and tests (with beam) of a prototype SSR1 cryomodule incorporating eight cavities is an important goal of the PXIE program. IIFC plans to incorporate these two cavities into this prototype cryomodule. One cavity has been processed and tested by Fermilab. The performance of this cavity is similar to those produced by U.S. industry.

    3
    This single-spoke resonator cavity was fabricated at IUAC. From left: Sundaram Sonti (IUAC), P.N. Prakash (IUAC), Shekhar Mishra and Abhishek Rai (IUAC). Photo: IUAC Media

    3. In July, Fermilab received one cryogenic feedcap and one endcap from BARC. These will be used to test the 1.3-GHz cryomodule that Fermilab is currently fabricating for LCLS-II, a future light source based at SLAC. The design was jointly developed by BARC and Fermilab, with Fermilab primarily in a guiding role and BARC assuming responsibility for design, manufacturing and testing. This project required close cooperation between Fermilab and BARC to promote the development of expertise and capabilities crucial to successful implementation of technologies needed for the design and construction cavities and cryomodules for PIP-II.

    4
    Fermilab scientist Rich Stanek, DOE Office of High Energy Physics Director Jim Siegrist and Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer stand by the BARC-fabricated feedcap and endcap. Photo: Shekhar Mishra, AD

    Under the Indian Institution and Fermilab collaboration, RRCAT and VECC have also installed significant SRF cavity design and fabrication infrastructure. A jointly designed and U.S.-fabricated test stand has been made operational at RRCAT. Several prototype cavities have been fabricated, processed and tested.

    4. Both BARC and RRCAT have developed 325- and 650-MHz solid-state RF amplifiers for application to PIP-II. These units have been tested. Under IIFC, BARC has developed a new design of the RF protection system. It has also initiated the design of a new low-level RF system. These systems, along with 650 MHz solid-state RF amplifiers, will be commissioned with test stands.

    All these efforts will continue to grow over the next several years as PIP-II completes the R&D required to support construction.

    Strengthening the collaboration, Fermilab will welcome the arrival of seven Indian scientists and engineers to Fermilab this fall. They will be directly embedded in our Fermilab teams for two years, working on the critical technology development that will allow Fermilab and India to construct PIP-II starting later in this decade.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:44 am on September 10, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL PIP-II, , ,   

    From FNAL: “Successful test of single-spoke cavity gives SSR1 team a reason to smile” 

    FNAL II photo

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Sept. 10, 2015
    Ali Sundermier

    Temp 1
    Donato Passarelli, Leonardo Ristori, Sergey Kazakov and Oleg Pronitchev, all of the Technical Division, stand next to the recently tested SSR1 cavity. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    Eight cavities might sound like a nightmare to the average person. But when it comes to speeding up particles, it’s an aspiration.

    In July, a team of scientists and engineers finished designing, building and testing the first of a series of eight special cavities for the planned PIP-II project.

    FNAL PIP-II Home
    PIP-II Home at FNAL

    All components of the cavity were designed at Fermilab and were built in U.S. industry. The team anticipates completing and testing all eight cavities, plus two cavities received by Indian collaborators, by summer 2016.

    The cavities will fit into the first single-spoke resonator cryomodule, SSR1, to be tested with particle beam in the next few years. Altogether the PIP-II project would require 116 cavities of five different types to propel protons to 800 MeV, or 84 percent the speed of light.

    “This milestone is exciting because it was really the last step in R&D for this type of cavity,” said Leonardo Ristori, task manager for the spoke resonator section of PIP-II. “We spent all these years designing, building and testing prototypes. Now we feel comfortable that we can produce these single-spoke cavities.”

    Not to be confused with the painful tooth decay that comes from eating too much sugar, accelerator cavities are meticulously designed metal structures, pumped with radio-frequency power, that give particles a boost using rapidly oscillating electric fields.

    SSR1 cavities are cylindrical, about the size and build of car tires. They are called “single-spoke” because individual cavities are divided by a hollow hourglass-shaped partition that resembles the spoke of a wheel. They are fashioned from pure niobium, a superconducting metal that, when kept under 9.3 Kelvin (or minus 443 degrees Fahrenheit), presents no electrical resistance when a voltage is applied.

    The most recent cavity test simulated the configuration of the full SSR1 cryomodule using the same pieces that would be used in the PIP-II superconducting linac.

    FNAL SSR1 Cryomodule
    SSR1 cryomodule

    In this integrated test, the team tested the performance of the power coupler and the frequency-tuning system, making sure they didn’t interfere or degrade the performance of the cavity. The team was interested in measurements of how large of an accelerating electric field the cavity could support, called the gradient, and how efficiently it uses the power put into it, referred to as the quality factor.

    Ristori said that the cavity, the coupler and the tuner all passed the tests, meeting and exceeding project requirements.

    One of the main challenges in designing the cavity was desensitizing it to helium pressure variations and other sources of vibration. This was for the most part achieved by developing a state-of-the-art, self-compensating behavior.

    “This is an encouraging result,” Ristori said. “Everybody did an excellent job in each portion, and it all came together. It motivates the team to move forward and push the design to the limits for the other sections of the planned accelerator.”

    Once all eight are complete, the team will assemble the SSR1 cryomodule in Lab 2, where they are currently installing cleanrooms. It will be the first spoke cryomodule ever completed in the United States.

    “It’s our first fully equipped cavity, tested at full power for PIP-II,” said Slava Yakovlev, head of the SRF Development Department. “We will use all the lessons we learned from this cavity in order to develop and build all the other cavities in the project and put them into operation.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:46 pm on January 7, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , FNAL PIP-II,   

    From FNAL: Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) 

    FNAL Home

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    12/18/2014
    No Writer Credit

    Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) is Fermilab’s plan for providing powerful, high-intensity proton beams to the laboratory’s experiments. The increased beam power will position Fermilab as the leading laboratory in the world for accelerator-based neutrino experiments. PIP-II will also provide a flexible platform for further enhancement of the Fermilab accelerator complex to extend this leadership to the full range of particle physics research based on intense beams in the decades to come.

    The heart of PIP-II is a 800-MeV superconducting linear accelerator, which capitalizes on the lab’s expertise in superconducting radio-frequency technologies. Along with modest improvements to Fermilab’s existing Main Injector and Recycler accelerators, the superconducting linac, called SCL, will provide the megawatt proton beam that is needed for the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility.

    PIP-II is planned to deliver beam in the early part of the next decade.

    p

    How PIP-II Works

    Fermilab’s Proton Improvement Plan II, or PIP-II, will enable the world’s most intense neutrino beam and help scientists search for rare particle physics processes. These investigations will require intense beams of protons, which will produce gushers of other neutrinos that scientists can then study in greater detail.

    Scheme

    The raw material for experiments at PIP-II is protons, lots of them, which are used to generate other types of particles for multiple experiments.

    Protons are first emitted from a source and formed into a beam. The proton beam then speeds down a 250-meter superconducting linear accelerator, or linac, to an energy of 800 million electronvolts (or 800 megaelectronvolts, MeV). The PIP-II linac is situated on the infield of the (decommissioned) Tevatron accelerator on the Fermilab site. This siting takes advantage of existing cryogenic, electrical and water infrastructure. Once it exits the 800-MeV linac, the proton beam is steered towards the existing Booster accelerator, where it is accelerated to 8 billion electronvolts (or gigaelectronvolts, GeV).

    Some of the protons exiting the Booster will head directly toward a variety of targets, striking them. These will initiate strings of newly produced particles, of which some fraction eventually decay into muons. The muons will be captured within the MC-1 Building, right on the Fermilab site. There they will enter a detector, where scientists can make measurements of this short-lived particle.

    The other protons exiting the Booster will take a different path, continuing down the accelerator chain. They will be transferred and accelerated within the existing Main Injector-Recycler complex — a set of 3.3-kilometer-circumference rings that will produce a beam of protons at an energy of 120 billion electronvolts (or 120 gigaelectronvolts, GeV). These protons then strike a target, eventually producing neutrinos. The neutrinos will then fly through the Earth at nearly light speed. Under the PIP-II scheme, they will be directed to the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility experimental area, planned to be built at Homestake, South Dakota, 1,300 kilometers away. The LBNF detectors will help researchers better understand the behavior of neutrinos, which are notoriously difficult to observe because of their flighty nature.

    Read the PIP-II white paper.

    Superconducting radio-frequency technology

    At the heart of the PIP-II accelerator is a technology that provides for a highly efficient way to accelerate particle beams. Superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities make it possible to accelerate intense proton beams to higher energies in relatively short distances.

    PIP-II SRF cavities come in a number of shapes and sizes, but the engineering principle of particle acceleration is the same for all of them.

    Cavities are highly polished, perfectly shaped niobium structures whose task is to generate electric fields that propel the particle beam forward. As a superconducting metal, niobium can generate these electric fields without creating wasted heat, as would be generated if one were to use a normal-conducting metal such as copper. So long as the niobium’s temperature is kept to a few kelvin —a few degrees above absolute zero – it can accelerate particles with supreme efficiency.

    c

    A string comprising several of these cavities nestles in a vessel called a cryomodule, which bathes them in liquid helium and keeps them at the ultracold temperature that is key to their operation and efficiency.

    Cavities are constructed from one or more cells, compartments that enclose one cycle of an oscillating electric field. Cells can be strung together to form cavities. Their number and shape depend on acceleration requirements.

    The electric field runs down the center of the single-cell and multicell cavities. It oscillates between positive and negative, swelling to a peak and sinking to a valley within the space of a single cell; it is as if each cell rapidly switches between a positive and negative charge.

    The cycles are timed to kick charged particles riding the wave from cell to cell. Each time a positively charged proton enters a cell, the cell’s charge changes to negative, which attracts the proton. As the proton leaves the cell, the cell’s charge changes to positive and pushes the proton forward. Traversing the next cell, the proton is propelled in the same fashion. This process continues until the particle has shot all the way through the accelerator.

    PIP -II Collaboration

    Argonne National Laboratory
    Bhaba Atomic Research Center, Mumbai
    Brookhaven National Laboratory
    Cornell University
    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
    International Linear Collider
    Inter University Accelerator Center, Delhi
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
    Michigan State University
    North Carolina State University
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory/SNS
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
    Raja Ramanna Center of Advanced Technology, Indore
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility
    Variable Energy Cyclotron Center, Kolkota

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.

     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel
%d bloggers like this: