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  • richardmitnick 8:23 pm on May 24, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL LBNF, ,   

    From SURF: “DUNE building prototype cryostats” 

    SURF logo
    Sanford Underground levels

    Sanford Underground Research facility

    May 24, 2016
    Connie Walker

    SURF DUNE Cryostats

    In the next frontier of particle physics, scientists with the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility and associated Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (LBNF/DUNE) hope to make discoveries about neutrinos that could answer fundamental questions about the origins of the universe, learn more about the properties of neutrinos and do further studies in proton decay. They will do this by sending a beam of neutrinos 800 miles through the Earth from Fermi National Accelerator Lab [FNAL] in Batavia, Ill., to underground detectors at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, S.D.

    But before they can begin that work, they need to be sure the detectors and cryogenic systems will work the way they need them to. That’s where engineer David Montanari comes in.

    Montanari, the cryogenics infrastructure project manager for the LBNF Far Site Facilities and the U.S. liaison at CERN for LBNF, oversees the design of the cryogenic systems that will cool and
    purify the detectors. It’s a big experiment—DUNE will be 100 times bigger than any liquid-argon particle detectors that have come before—that requires big prototypes.

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF
    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE
    FNAL LBNF/DUNE

    “Large cryogenis systems are not a mystery. They have been done before and they exist in the industry,” Montanari said. For example, he said, the gas industry uses large tanks to store and cool natural gas and move the liquefied version around the world. “There are large air separation plants where they’ve produced liquid argon and liquid nitrogen—the liquid gases that we use in our
    experiments—and they can make it pure. The point is always that we want to make it super pure; that is what separates us from industry.”

    DUNE scientists chose liquid argon for its ability to detect the different types of neutrinos. To keep it in a liquid state, it must be cooled to minus 300 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 184 degrees Celsius or 88 degrees Kelvin).

    The large DUNE prototypes being designed now are not be the first. Scientists built and tested a small, 35-ton at Fermilab.

    “This proves that that we can make a cryostat and we can put a detector inside and we can achieve the purity we need,” Montanari said. “Now, we want to do it bigger and and make sure the bigger
    one is pure as well.”

    The new prototypes will consist of a dual-phase detector that will contain argon in both its liquid and gaseous forms, and a single-phase detector that will need liquid argon only. Although the cryostats will be identical dimensionwise, they will have independent cryogenic systems designed to accommodate the needs of each.

    “This is important because we want to optimize the design and construction,” Montanari said. “So, by the time we go to LBNF/DUNE, we know how to make it and how to make it faster and better.”

    In a presentation at the recent DUNE Collaboration meeting, co-spokesperson Mark Thomson, professor of physics at the Universityof Cambridge, said the goal is to have the prototypes completed by the fall of 2018. “In comparison,” he said, “the Empire State Building was built in 400 days.”

    It’s an aggressive timeline, but one with a purpose, Montanari said. The prototypes will be built at CERN and the Collaboration plans to use a particle beam producedby a particle accelerator to
    test the prototypes. “The timing is essential because the DUNE collaboration wants to take physics data with the beam as long as there is a beam.”

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    About us.
    The Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota, advances our understanding of the universe by providing laboratory space deep underground, where sensitive physics experiments can be shielded from cosmic radiation. Researchers at the Sanford Lab explore some of the most challenging questions facing 21st century physics, such as the origin of matter, the nature of dark matter and the properties of neutrinos. The facility also hosts experiments in other disciplines—including geology, biology and engineering.

    The Sanford Lab is located at the former Homestake gold mine, which was a physics landmark long before being converted into a dedicated science facility. Nuclear chemist Ray Davis earned a share of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2002 for a solar neutrino experiment he installed 4,850 feet underground in the mine.

    Homestake closed in 2003, but the company donated the property to South Dakota in 2006 for use as an underground laboratory. That same year, philanthropist T. Denny Sanford donated $70 million to the project. The South Dakota Legislature also created the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to operate the lab. The state Legislature has committed more than $40 million in state funds to the project, and South Dakota also obtained a $10 million Community Development Block Grant to help rehabilitate the facility.

    In 2007, after the National Science Foundation named Homestake as the preferred site for a proposed national Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) began reopening the former gold mine.

    In December 2010, the National Science Board decided not to fund further design of DUSEL. However, in 2011 the Department of Energy, through the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, agreed to support ongoing science operations at Sanford Lab, while investigating how to use the underground research facility for other longer-term experiments. The SDSTA, which owns Sanford Lab, continues to operate the facility under that agreement with Berkeley Lab.

    The first two major physics experiments at the Sanford Lab are 4,850 feet underground in an area called the Davis Campus, named for the late Ray Davis. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is housed in the same cavern excavated for Ray Davis’s experiment in the 1960s.
    LUX/Dark matter experiment at SURFLUX/Dark matter experiment at SURF

    In October 2013, after an initial run of 80 days, LUX was determined to be the most sensitive detector yet to search for dark matter—a mysterious, yet-to-be-detected substance thought to be the most prevalent matter in the universe. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment, also on the 4850 Level, is searching for a rare phenomenon called “neutrinoless double-beta decay” that could reveal whether subatomic particles called neutrinos can be their own antiparticle. Detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay could help determine why matter prevailed over antimatter. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment is adjacent to the original Davis cavern.

    Another major experiment, the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE)—a collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and Sanford Lab, is in the preliminary design stages. The project got a major boost last year when Congress approved and the president signed an Omnibus Appropriations bill that will fund LBNE operations through FY 2014. Called the “next frontier of particle physics,” LBNE will follow neutrinos as they travel 800 miles through the earth, from FermiLab in Batavia, Ill., to Sanford Lab.

    Fermilab LBNE
    LBNE

     
  • richardmitnick 1:04 pm on November 17, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL LBNF, ,   

    From FNAL- “PIP-II: Renewing Fermilab’s accelerator complex” 

    FNAL II photo

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Nov. 17, 2015
    Ali Sundermier

    1
    The PIP-II accelerator will provide Fermilab with the high-power beams needed to carry out a world-class neutrino program. Image: Fermilab

    Even accelerator complexes can use some good, old-fashioned makeovers every now and then. The Proton Improvement Plan II, or PIP-II, is a proposed project to improve Fermilab’s particle accelerator complex with a major hardware overhaul and a powerful boost in its capabilities.

    “Every forefront research facility has to be continually renewing itself,” said Steve Holmes, project manager for PIP-II. “Yesterday’s performance is not going to be competitive tomorrow. We’ve done a lot with the Fermilab accelerator complex over the years, but eventually you reach a point where you’ve got to retire some of the really old stuff.”

    The headliner for this upgrade is neutrino physics, Holmes said. The next generation of neutrino programs is going to be bigger and more capable than current experiments. With more beam power, Holmes said, the physics reach will be substantial. When PIP-II achieves its design goal, it will deliver the world’s most intense neutrino beam just in time for the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility to start operations in 2025. The facility will support Fermilab’s flagship research program, the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment.

    “We want high power to support our neutrino program,” said Paul Derwent, deputy project manager. “That means lots of particles at high energy and frequently. To increase the power, we need to be able to increase the number of particles right from beginning.”

    PIP-II will allow physicists to accelerate more protons and help them achieve higher energy over a shorter distance. The project will involve retiring Fermilab’s 400-MeV copper linac and building a new 800-MeV superconducting radio-frequency linac as well as replacing the beam transport to the Booster. There will also be upgrades to the laboratory’s Booster, Main Injector and Recycler.

    The most ambitious part of the PIP-II upgrade will be the new 800-MeV linear accelerator, which will be built in the infield of the decommissioned Tevatron accelerator and take advantage of significant existing accelerator infrastructure at Fermilab. The location will provide access to existing utilities, while allowing construction to proceed independent of ongoing accelerator operations and retaining possibilities for upgrade paths down the road. The linac design also provides an option for continuous-wave operations, which means delivery of an uninterrupted, rather than pulsed, stream of particles, providing physicists with more beam for other experiments, such as Mu2e.

    A large part of this effort involves an international collaboration with India. The Department of Atomic Energy in India has offered to contribute hardware in exchange for the experience of building high-intensity superconducting radio-frequency proton linacs, which they hope to construct in their own country.

    “I’m excited to have the chance to retire a bunch of accelerators that were old when I started here 30 years ago,” Holmes joked. “But more seriously, what I find most attractive about this project is the opportunity to do something that will improve the performance of the Fermilab accelerator complex in a manner that will allow us to remain at the forefront both of accelerator-based neutrino physics and our other programs for decades.”

    See the full article here .

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    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:41 am on October 7, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL LBNF,   

    From FNAL: “From the Deputy Director for LBNF – New LBNF organization” 

    FNAL II photo

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Oct. 7, 2015

    Temp 1
    Chris Mossey

    In May our director, Nigel Lockyer, announced his intent to form an organization to support the U.S. flagship neutrino program based at Fermilab. This program includes the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), which will provide the support infrastructure, and the high-intensity neutrino beam necessary to enable the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) to proceed.

    FNAL Dune & LBNF
    LBNF/DUNE

    LBNF will require unique facilities to support DUNE’s far site detectors at the Sanford Underground Research Laboratory, in Lead, South Dakota, as well as here at Fermilab, the so-called “near site.”

    Sanford Underground levels
    Sanford Underground Research Laboratory

    In recognition of this, the LBNF organization includes two new divisions — Far-Site Facilities and Near-Site Facilities — as well as a project office, all led by the LBNF project director. Although this organization has been on the Fermilab organization chart for some time, as of Monday, personnel actions to stand up the new organization, including transfers between divisions and changes to FermiWorks and Kronos, have been implemented. A detailed LBNF project organization chart indicates the reporting structure for this new line organization.

    FNAL LBNF DUNE Organization Chart

    This change represents another significant step in Fermilab’s accelerating progress to serve as the host for the first international megascience project sponsored by DOE in the United States.

    This new organization will allow us to continue to focus on our next major milestone — the upcoming DOE CD-3a review — scheduled for the first week of December at the Sanford Lab in South Dakota.

    It is an exciting time, and we intend to keep you updated on the progress of these projects. For more information, please refer to the LBNF and DUNE websites. On behalf of the LBNF team, thank you for your strong support of this flagship initiative!

    See the full article here .

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    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:57 pm on July 21, 2015 Permalink | Reply
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    From FNAL: “DUNE and LBNF on the move” 

    FNAL Home


    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    July 21, 2015
    1
    Joe Lykken

    Last week a distinguished committee of 24 experts conducted a comprehensive Critical Decision 1 review of the DUNE and LBNF projects for the Department of Energy. Steve Meador, head of the Office of Project Assessment for the DOE Office of Science, chaired the review, with Jim Siegrist and Mike Procario of the Office of High Energy Physics observing.

    FNAL DUNE
    DUNE

    FNAL LBNF
    LBNF

    Fermilab has participated in quite a few critical decision reviews in the year since the P5 report, “Building for Discovery,” set the course for U.S. particle physics. But last week’s event was not “just another review.” DUNE, combined with LBNF, is the largest new initiative at Fermilab since the Tevatron and would be the first truly international megascience project ever hosted in the United States. In short, this review was a really, really big deal.

    The project teams were led by Elaine McCluskey, LBNF project manager, and Eric James, DUNE technical coordinator, along with DUNE spokespeople André Rubbia and Mark Thomson and DUNE resource coordinator Chang Kee Jung. Also on hand were Sergio Bertolucci and Marzio Nessi of CERN, and leadership of the former LBNO and LBNE collaborations, including Dario Autiero and Jim Strait. The new LBNF far-site project manager, Mike Headley, led a contingent from the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority.

    Reviewers for DOE critical decisions are not selected for their propensity to be nice. On the final day closeout, even the most experienced project team perches on their seats in trepidation, expecting to have their ears boxed. Thursday’s closeout for DUNE and LBNF was a dense hour of findings, comments, and recommendations, but the tone was highly positive. Here are a few quotes from the closeout slides:

    DUNE: “The DUNE collaboration is growing and well engaged and led by a strong, well-organized management team. An impressive CDR document has been produced.”

    Beamline: “The beamline design team is highly qualified and was well prepared. Many have worked on the previous neutrino beamlines and bring that world-leading experience to the table.”

    Far-site conventional facilities: Strong team with an in-depth knowledge of the site and facilities.

    Cost and schedule: “All DOE and non-DOE scope is included in the preliminary baseline and is consistent with LHC (CERN) costing practices … The committee found the preliminary baseline to be complete and comprehensive. In some areas, maturity is beyond CD-1.”

    Management: “Very (very) strong management team members in place on both projects.”

    The next morning, Friday at 7:45 a.m., the “very (very) strong management team” assembled for their daily meeting with Pepin Carolan, the DOE federal project director for DUNE/LBNF. Time for a few minutes of relaxed self-congratulation? Absolutely not — instead a laser-like focus on the path to the next major hurdle: a CD3a review later this year enabling a construction start for the far-site facilities.

    A strong week for the future of neutrino science.

    See the full article here.

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    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:46 pm on December 9, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL LBNF,   

    From FNAL- “Director’s Corner: Toward a strong, international neutrino collaboration” 


    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Tuesday, Dec. 9, 2014
    nl
    Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer

    Fermilab has always been an international laboratory. With the proposed Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility based here at Fermilab, we’re about to enter a bold new era of global cooperation.

    This Friday, Dec. 12, Fermilab will host the second of two open meetings about LBNF. These meetings are a big step toward forming a strong collaboration with partners across the globe, with the goal of building the best neutrino experiment of its kind in the world.

    Last Friday, the first of these meetings took place at CERN. We introduced CERN’s Director of Research Sergio Bertolucci as the interim chair of the International Institutional Board of the new collaboration, and we explained the organizational structure that we plan to put in place, with input and participation from international funding agencies. Rob Roser walked us through the current draft of the letter of intent for the experiment. Meeting participants discussed how to optimize the design of the experiment and started to discuss the scientific strategy. Many aspects of the experiment are still under discussion, and we are actively seeking input from all interested scientists. The goal is to finalize the letter of intent by Dec. 21 and submit it for review by the Fermilab Physics Advisory Committee, which will meet in January.

    This Friday it’s our turn to host the second meeting, which has an agenda identical to the first one. It will be held in One West from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. All interested scientists, from graduate students to engineers to principal investigators, are encouraged to attend. Please register for the meeting so that we know approximately how many people to expect.

    The meeting will be a chance to voice your questions and ideas. There will be a panel discussion with an extended Q&A. An agenda with call-in information can be found online.

    The next major event in forming a new collaboration for long-baseline neutrino physics will be the PAC meeting on Jan. 15 and 16 at Fermilab. Sergio Bertolucci will present the letter of intent to the PAC on behalf of the nascent collaboration.

    See the full article here.

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    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.

     
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