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  • richardmitnick 1:49 pm on November 28, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, , , The Ross Shaft   

    From SURF: “The Ross Shaft” 

    SURF logo
    Sanford Underground levels

    Sanford Underground Research facility

    11.28.17
    Constance Walter
    Communications Director
    Office: 605.722.4025 • Mobile: 402-560-6116
    Sanford Underground Research Facility
    630 E. Summit St. Lead, SD 57754
    http://www.sanfordlab.org

    1

    Historical sources for this article include Steve Mitchell’s Nuggets to Neutrinos

    Historical images were provided by Black Hills Mining Museum

    Other information provided by Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory [FNAL]

    Reaching the 4850 Level is a major milestone that moves the team—and science—one step closer to a larger goal.

    For more than five years, Ross Shaft crews have been stripping out old steel and lacing, cleaning out decades of debris, adding new ground support and installing new steel to prepare the shaft for its future role in world-leading science. On Oct. 12, all that hard work paid off when the team, which worked its way down from the surface, reached a major milestone: the 4850 Level.

    “As we got closer to the station and we could see the lights off the 4850, there was a lot of excitement from the crew,” said Mike Johnson, Ross Shaft foreman. “It was like, ‘Man, we’re finally here.’”

    Mike Headley, executive director for the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority, praised the Ross Shaft team. “The Ross Shaft is critical to the future of Sanford Lab and I am incredibly proud of the hard work and dedication shown by this team.”

    Refurbishing the shaft is just one step toward a much larger goal, said Chris Mossey, Fermilab’s deputy director for LBNF.

    “Completion of the Ross Shaft renovation to the 4850 Level is critical to support construction of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility [LBNF]. Thanks to the Sanford Lab crews, who have worked since August 2012, to reach this significant milestone.”

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    A team effort. On Oct. 12, 2017, the team reached a major milestone by finishing the Ross Shaft down to the 4850-foot level. Pictured from left: Ross foreman Mike L. Johnson, infrastructure technicians Rodney Hanson, Dan James, Jerry Hinker, Dave Leatherman, Derek Lucero, Frank Gabel, Mike Mergen, Eli Atkinson, Clint Morrison, James Gregory, Will Roberts, Curtis Jones, engineering technician Kip Johnson, and infrastructure technician Kyle Ennis.

    LBNF will house the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), which will be built and operated by a collaboration of more than 1,000 scientists and engineers from 31 countries.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford

    Fermilab will shoot a beam of neutrinos 800 miles through the earth from Fermilab to massive particle detectors deep underground at Sanford Lab’s 4850 Level.

    When complete, the Fermilab-hosted LBNF/DUNE project will be the largest experiment ever built in the United States to study the properties of mysterious particles called neutrinos. Unlocking the mysteries of these particles could help explain more about how the universe works and why matter exists at all.

    But before scientists begin installing the DUNE detectors, the shaft needs to be completed to the 5000-foot level and a rock conveyor system installed to excavate the caverns that will house DUNE. Still, there’s much to celebrate.

    “This is a great accomplishment,” Johnson said. “We’ve got a team with different experiences and talents and they really worked together to reach this milestone.” But Johnson said credit goes to a lot people who have never set foot in the shaft.

    “Engineers, fabricators, vendors, electricians, procurement—everyone played a part in getting us to this point,” he said. “It takes a lot of planning and support. It was a real team effort.

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    A historic shaft
    The Ross Shaft was named for Homestake Superintendent Alec J. M. Ross. Construction began in 1932, with the first ore hoisted in 1934. The shaft used conventional sinking methods from 137 feet down to the tramway level. Below the tramway, pilot raises were driven at various depths to complete the shaft down to the 3050 Level. The Ross was deepened to nearly 3,800 feet in 1935 but wouldn’t reach the 5000 Level until the end of 1956.
    The Ross Shaft was designed to meet production requirements for Homestake, when the Ellison, the main production shaft, began to suffer from subsidence. The new shaft was closer to the south-plunging ore body, providing access to an additional 6.5 million tons of ore in an area known as 9 Ledge. The ore averaged 0.269 ounces of gold per ton. In 1938, the average price for an ounce of gold was $20.67.

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    Built for production
    The Ross Shaft is 19 feet 3 inches by 14 feet and is divided into several compartments: two skips, a cage, a counter weight, a cable compartment, a pipe compartment and an access compartment (called a manway during mining days). Two sections of the shaft were lined with concrete for added ground support: the first 308 feet of the shaft and a section between the 2900 and 4100 levels.
    Homestake built the shaft using steel sets spaced 6 feet apart. The “H” beam configuration served the purpose of gold mining very well, said Syd De Vries, project engineer for the current Ross Shaft project.
    For nearly 70 years, the Ross Shaft served as a main conduit for thousands of miners and millions of tons of ore. But debris, water and time took their toll on the structure. When the facility reopened as an underground research laboratory in 2008, the structure needed to be replaced to meet the needs of science.

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    The SDSTA called on G.L. Tiley and Associates to develop a design that could meet the new requirements for world-leading science. De Vries coordinated the design efforts.
    “We looked at options that included partial refurbishment. In the end, we concluded that a complete strip and equip was the right approach to take,” De Vries said. That included a more modern design that incorporated the use of hollow structural steel with set intervals of 18 feet.
    “Essentially, using these larger sets speeds up the process of steel refurbishment. But it also gives us a much stronger design than the old-style steel sets and improves the structural integrity of the shaft,” De Vries added.
    Above: Old steel sets at the 300 Level station. Note: near the top of the station, a new steel set is visible.

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    Two parts of the project required specialized structural design after the rehabilitation had begun to accommodate LBNF. Those areas include the brow at the 4850 Level and the spill collection area on the 5000 Level. De Vries worked closely with G.L. Tiley on the new designs—and sought the expertise of the crews on installation plans.
    “I’ve always found that when we do that, when we incorporate the expertise the crews have with respect to steel construction, we can work out any challenge and do a much better job.”
    And even with the changes in structural design, De Vries said it won’t hold up the project.
    Above: New steel at the 2000 Level station. Watch a short time-lapse of the completion of the 800 Level station below.

    800 Level station rehabilitation time lapse from Sanford Lab on Vimeo.

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    Meeting challenges
    The Ross Shaft is a unique construction project that included a unique set of challenges. Of particular concern? A design that allowed continued access to critical systems like the pumping stations and ventilation, while providing emergency egress.
    “From a construction point of view, it would have been easier and faster if we didn’t have to worry about ongoing access,” De Vries said. “We wouldn’t have had to shut down for shaft inspections of the lower sections or pump stations.”
    Another challenge was the Ross Pillar, a 1,200-foot concrete zone within the shaft used as additional ground support during mining days. Over the years, normal ground movement caused misalignment from the 2900 Level to the 4100 Level. In some areas, the encroaching concrete bowed the steel, making it difficult to move the cage through the shaft.
    “There was a lot of work that went into redoing this section and creating more room for the conveyances,” De Vries said. “In some places, the crews had to chip out the concrete liner with chipping hammers. They did a great job and I’m really proud of the work that was done.”
    Above: Looking down the Ross Shaft where a new set meets an old set.

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    Safety first
    Throughout construction of the Ross Shaft, safety has been of the utmost concern, said Johnson. “This is hard work with a lot of challenges, so safety is a big deal.”
    To mitigate risks, the team uses Job Hazard Analyses (JHAs) and follows Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). The team starts its day with a tool-box talk. They go through the JHAs step by step and make sure they have everything they need to do the job safely.
    Recently Johnson incorporated a “mid-shift” safety talk, something he used while working in the oil fields in North Dakota. “Things can change throughout the day, so we talk about the job mid-shift to see if we need to make any adjustments.”
    “You know, we’ve got our families at home and our family at work. Taking this extra step takes time, but if it keeps people safe, it’s worth it,” Johnson said.
    Above: Technicians install ground support in the Ross Shaft.

    The future

    On Aug. 9, 2007 Fermi Research Alliance LLC, which operates Fermilab, awarded Kiewit/Alberici Joint Venture (KAJV) a contract to begin laying the groundwork for the excavation of LBNF, the facility that will support DUNE.

    Approximately 875,000 tons of rock will be removed and conveyed to the surface, then moved to the Open Cut using a rock conveyor system. When installation of LBNF and DUNE equipment begins, every component, including the massive steel beams that will be used to build the cryostats, will go down the Ross Shaft.

    “It’s kind of like building a ship in a bottle,” said Fermilab’s Chris Mossey. “We’re using a narrow shaft to move all the excavated rock up, and then all the parts and pieces of the very large cryostats and detectors for DUNE down to the 4850 level, about a mile underground.”

    Construction on pre-excavation projects, including additional work on the brow at the 4850 Level and the rock conveyor system, is expected to begin in 2018. The main excavation for LBNF/DUNE is planned for 2019 and is expected to take three years.

    Installation of the cryogenic infrastructure and the four detector modules for the experiment is expected to take about 10 years and will operate for more than 20 years. The Ross Shaft will play a role throughout, just as it did for many decades when Homestake mined for gold.

    “Now it has a new purpose,” said Sanford Lab’s Headley. “It will support world-leading science for decades to come.”

    See the full article here .

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    About us.
    The Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota, advances our understanding of the universe by providing laboratory space deep underground, where sensitive physics experiments can be shielded from cosmic radiation. Researchers at the Sanford Lab explore some of the most challenging questions facing 21st century physics, such as the origin of matter, the nature of dark matter and the properties of neutrinos. The facility also hosts experiments in other disciplines—including geology, biology and engineering.

    The Sanford Lab is located at the former Homestake gold mine, which was a physics landmark long before being converted into a dedicated science facility. Nuclear chemist Ray Davis earned a share of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2002 for a solar neutrino experiment he installed 4,850 feet underground in the mine.

    Homestake closed in 2003, but the company donated the property to South Dakota in 2006 for use as an underground laboratory. That same year, philanthropist T. Denny Sanford donated $70 million to the project. The South Dakota Legislature also created the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to operate the lab. The state Legislature has committed more than $40 million in state funds to the project, and South Dakota also obtained a $10 million Community Development Block Grant to help rehabilitate the facility.

    In 2007, after the National Science Foundation named Homestake as the preferred site for a proposed national Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) began reopening the former gold mine.

    In December 2010, the National Science Board decided not to fund further design of DUSEL. However, in 2011 the Department of Energy, through the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, agreed to support ongoing science operations at Sanford Lab, while investigating how to use the underground research facility for other longer-term experiments. The SDSTA, which owns Sanford Lab, continues to operate the facility under that agreement with Berkeley Lab.

    The first two major physics experiments at the Sanford Lab are 4,850 feet underground in an area called the Davis Campus, named for the late Ray Davis. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is housed in the same cavern excavated for Ray Davis’s experiment in the 1960s.
    LUX/Dark matter experiment at SURFLUX/Dark matter experiment at SURF

    In October 2013, after an initial run of 80 days, LUX was determined to be the most sensitive detector yet to search for dark matter—a mysterious, yet-to-be-detected substance thought to be the most prevalent matter in the universe. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment, also on the 4850 Level, is searching for a rare phenomenon called “neutrinoless double-beta decay” that could reveal whether subatomic particles called neutrinos can be their own antiparticle. Detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay could help determine why matter prevailed over antimatter. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment is adjacent to the original Davis cavern.

    Another major experiment, the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE)—a collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and Sanford Lab, is in the preliminary design stages. The project got a major boost last year when Congress approved and the president signed an Omnibus Appropriations bill that will fund LBNE operations through FY 2014. Called the “next frontier of particle physics,” LBNE will follow neutrinos as they travel 800 miles through the earth, from FermiLab in Batavia, Ill., to Sanford Lab.

    Fermilab LBNE
    LBNE

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  • richardmitnick 3:22 pm on November 21, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, , , , , , ,   

    From Symmetry: “Putting the puzzle together” 

    Symmetry Mag
    Symmetry

    11/21/17
    Ali Sundermier

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    Photos by Fermilab and CERN

    Successful physics collaborations rely on cooperation between people from many different disciplines.

    So, you want to start a physics experiment. Maybe you want to follow hints of an as yet unseen particle. Or maybe you want to learn something new about a mysterious process in the universe. Either way, your next step is to find people who can help you.

    In large science collaborations, such as the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider; the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE); and Fermilab’s NOvA, hundreds to thousands of people spread out across many institutions and countries keep things operating smoothly. Whether they’re senior scientists, engineers, technicians or administrators, each of them has an important role to play.

    CERN/ATLAS detector

    CERN/CMS Detector

    LHC

    CERN/LHC Map

    CERN LHC Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector


    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    Think of it like a jigsaw puzzle: This list will give you an idea about how their work fits together to create the big picture.

    Dreaming up the experiment

    Many particle physics experiments begin with a fundamental question. Why do objects have mass? Or, why is the universe made of matter?

    When scientists encounter these big, seemingly inscrutable questions, part of their job is to identify possible ways to answer them. A large part of this is breaking down the big questions into a program of smaller, answerable questions.

    In the case of the LHC, scientists who wondered about things such as undiscovered particles and the origin of mass designed a 27-kilometer particle collider and four giant detectors to learn more.

    Each scientist in a collaboration brings their own unique perspective and skill set to the table, whether it’s providing an understanding of the physics or offering expertise in operations or detector design.

    Perfecting the design

    Once scientists have an idea about the experiment they want to do and the approach they want to take, it’s the job of the engineers to turn the concepts into pieces of hardware that can be built, function and meet the experiment’s requirements.

    For example, engineers might have to figure out how the experiment should be supported mechanically or how to connect all the electrical systems and make signals available in a detector.

    In the case of NOvA, which investigates neutrino oscillations, scientists needed a detector that was huge and free of dense materials, which made conventional construction techniques unworkable. They had to work with engineers who could understand plastic as a building material so they could be confident about using it to build a gigantic, free-standing structure that fit the requirements.

    Keeping things running

    Technicians come in when the experimental apparatus and instrumentation are being built and often have complementary knowledge about what they’re working on. They build the hardware and coordinate the integration of components. It’s their work that, in the end, pulls everything together so the experiment functions.

    Once the experiment is built, technicians are responsible for keeping everything humming along at top performance. When physicists notice things going wrong with the detectors, the technicians usually have first eyes on it. It’s a vital task, since every second counts when it comes to collecting data.

    Doing the heavy lifting

    When designing and constructing the experiment, the scientists also recruit postdocs and grad students, who do the bulk of the data analysis.

    Grad students, who are still working on their PhDs, have to balance their own coursework with the real-world experiment, learning their way around running simulations, analyzing data and developing algorithms. They also make sure that every part of the detector is working up to par. In addition, they may work in instrumentation, developing new instruments and electronics.

    Postdocs, on the other hand, have already worked on experiments and obtained their PhDs, so they typically assume more of a leadership role in these collaborations. Part of their role is to guide the grad students in a sort of apprenticeship.

    Postdocs are often in charge of certain types of analysis or detector operations. Because they’ve worked on previous experiments, they have a tool kit and experience to draw on to solve problems when they crop up.

    Postdocs and grad students often work with technicians and engineers to ensure everything is properly built.

    Making the data accessible

    The LHC produces about 25 petabytes of data every year, or 25 billion megabytes. If the average size of an MP3 is about one megabyte per minute, then it would take almost 50,000 years to play 25 petabytes of songs. In physics collaborations, computer scientists and engineers have to organize the computing networks to ensure against bottlenecks or traffic jams when this massive amount of data is shared.

    They also maintain the software framework, which takes care of data handling and archiving. Say a scientist wants to know what happened on Feb. 27, 2015, at 3 a.m. Computing experts have to be able to go into the data catalogue and find, among the petabytes of data, where that event is stored.

    Sorting out the logistics

    One often overlooked group is the administrators.

    It’s up to the administrators to sequence all the different projects so they get the funds they need to make progress. They sort the logistics to make sure the right people are in the right places working on the right things.

    Administrators manage a group of people who are constantly coming and going. Is someone traveling to a site from a different institution? The administrators make sure that people get connected, work out itineraries and schedule where visiting scientists will live and work.

    Administrators also organize collaboration meetings, transfer money, and procure and ship equipment.

    Translating discoveries to the public

    While every single person involved in an experiment has a responsibility to effectively communicate with others, it can be challenging to communicate about research in a way that’s relatable to people from different backgrounds. That’s where the professional communicators come in.

    Communicators can translate a paper full of jargon and complicated science into a fascinating story that the rest of the world can get excited about.

    In addition to doing outreach for the public and writing press releases and pitching stories for the media, communicators offer coaching to people in a scientific collaboration on how to relay the science to a general audience, which is important for generating public interest.

    Fitting the pieces

    Now that you know many of the pieces that must fall into place for a large physics collaboration to be successful, also know that none of these roles is performed in a vacuum. For an experiment to work, there must be a synergy of tasks: Each relies on the success of the others. Now go start that experiment!

    See the full article here .

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    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 8:41 am on November 1, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, , ,   

    From FNAL: “Fermilab expands international partnerships” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    October 31, 2017
    Katie Yurkewicz

    The global neutrino physics community is coming together to develop a leading-edge, dual-site experiment for neutrino science called the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), hosted at Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    The facility required for this experiment, the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), will comprise the world’s highest-intensity neutrino beam at Fermilab and the infrastructure necessary to support massive cryogenic detectors installed deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility 1,300 kilometers away in Lead, South Dakota, as well as detectors at Fermilab.

    Scientists from more than 175 institutions in 31 countries make up the DUNE scientific collaboration, which is conducting R&D and designing the experiment’s massive detectors. Two large prototype liquid-argon detectors (called protoDUNEs) are under construction at CERN and will be tested with that lab’s particle beam in the fall of 2018.

    CERN Proto DUNE Maximillian Brice

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    Inside ProtoDune – CERN

    And a high-level science and technology agreement was recently signed with the United Kingdom that supports participation by that country in LBNF/DUNE.

    In parallel, Fermilab and the Department of Energy’s Office of Science have been working with international partners to develop and execute agreements that pave the way towards greater scientific collaboration, from the exchange of personnel to the joint design and delivery of components for accelerators and detectors.

    In October 2016, Fermilab signed an agreement with the Australian Research Council’s Centre of Excellence in Particle Physics at the Terascale, a consortium of four universities.

    Since then, agreements that establish joint interest and activities in particle physics research have been signed by Fermilab with additional institutions including the Federal University of ABC in Brazil, the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz in Germany, the National Autonomous University of Mexico and the University of Colima in Mexico. A student exchange program was also established with the Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular in Spain.

    And the pace of the development of new partnerships continues to increase. Two agreements were recently signed in the same week: The first on Oct. 17 between Fermilab and Canada’s York University establishing a joint faculty position; and the second on Oct. 19 with France’s Institute for Nuclear and Particle Physics , part of the country’s National Center for Scientific Research.

    As construction continues for the laboratory’s Short-Baseline Neutrino program and ramps up for LBNF/DUNE, keep an eye on Fermilab’s website and Twitter feed for news of even more international agreements toward joint research in neutrino science.

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    See the full article here .

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    FNAL Icon
    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 7:12 am on October 24, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, , ,   

    From CERN: “Meet the DUNEs” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    23 Oct 2017
    Sarah Charley, Symmetry

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    Inside one of the protoDUNE detectors, currently under construction at CERN (Image: Max Brice/CERN)

    A new duo is living in CERN’s test beam area. On the outside, they look like a pair of Rubik’s Cubes that rubbed a magic lamp and transformed into castle turrets. But on the inside, they’ve got the glamour of a disco ball.

    These 12m x 12m x 12m boxes are two prototypes for the massive detectors of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). DUNE, an international experiment hosted by Fermilab [FNAL] in the United States, will live deep underground and trap neutrinos: tiny fundamental particles that rarely interact with matter.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    “Learning more about neutrinos could help us better understand how the early Universe evolved and why the world is made of matter and not antimatter,” said Stefania Bordoni, a CERN researcher working on neutrino detector development.

    These DUNE prototypes are testing two variations of a detection technique first developed by Nobel laureate Carlo Rubbia. Each cube is a chilled thermos that will hold approximately 800 of liquid argon. When a neutrino bumps into an atom of argon, it will release a flash of light and a cascade of electrons, which will glide through the electrically charged chamber to detectors lining the walls.

    Inside their reinforced walls sits a liquid-tight metallic balloon, which can expand and contract to accommodate the changing volume of the argon as it cools from a gas to a liquid.

    Even though theses cubes are huge, they are mere miniature models of the final detectors, which will be 20 times larger and hold a total of 72 000 tonnes of liquid argon.

    In the coming months, these prototypes will be cooled down so that their testing can begin using a dedicated beam line at CERN’s SPS accelerator complex.

    See the full article here.

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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

     
  • richardmitnick 12:15 pm on September 22, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, groundwork for additional collaboration between the U.S. DOE its national laboratories (including Fermilab) and the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council, , UK labs and universities were important partners in the main Tevatron experiments CDF and DZero, UK Minister of State for Universities Science Research and Innovation Jo Johnson, UK science   

    From FNAL: “UK science minister announces $88 million for LBNF/DUNE, visits Fermilab” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    1
    Jo Johnson learns about accelerator technologies at Fermilab. From left: Fermilab Chief Strategic Partnerships Officer Alison Markovitz; Fermilab scientist Anna Grassellino; Andrew Price of the UK Science and Innovation Network; DUNE co-spokesperson Mark Thomson; STFC Chief Executive Brian Bowsher; UK Minister of State for Universities, Science, Research and Innovation Jo Johnson. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    UK minister Jo Johnson traveled to the United States this week to sign the first ever umbrella science and technology agreement between the two nations and to announce approximately $88 million in funding for the international Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility and Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    On Thursday, he visited the host laboratory for LBNF/DUNE, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, emphasizing the importance of the project and the strong scientific partnership between the two countries.

    Johnson, the UK minister of state for universities, science, research and innovation, signed the agreement on Wednesday in Washington, D.C. Signing for the United States was Judith G. Garber, acting assistant secretary of state for oceans and international environmental and scientific affairs.

    This new agreement lays the groundwork for additional collaboration between the U.S. DOE, its national laboratories (including Fermilab) and the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. STFC funds research in particle physics, nuclear physics, space science and astronomy in the United Kingdom. The U.S. DOE is the largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States.

    “Our continued collaboration with the U.S. on science and innovation benefits both nations,” said Johnson, “and this agreement will enable us to share our expertise to enhance our understanding of many important topics that have the potential to be world changing.”

    LBNF/DUNE will be a world-leading international neutrino experiment based in the United States. Fermilab’s powerful particle accelerators will create the world’s most intense beam of neutrinos and send it 800 miles through Earth to massive particle detectors, which will be built a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota.

    The UK research community is already a major contributor to the DUNE collaboration, providing expertise and components to the facility and the experiment. UK contributions range from the high-power neutrino production target to the data acquisition systems to the software that reconstructs particle interactions into visible 3-D readouts.

    DUNE will be the first large-scale experiment hosted in the United States that runs as a truly international project, with more than 1,000 scientists and engineers from 31 countries building and operating the facility. Its goal is to learn more about ghostly particles called neutrinos, which may provide insight into why we live in a matter-dominated universe that survived the Big Bang.

    2
    The UK delegation visits the Fermilab underground neutrino experimental area. UK Minister Jo Johnson stands in the center. Immediately to his left is Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    In addition to Johnson, the UK delegation to Fermilab included Brian Bowsher, chief executive of STFC; Andrew Price of the UK Science and Innovation Network; and Martin Whalley, deputy consul general from the Great Britain Consulate in Chicago.

    They toured several areas of the lab, including the underground cavern that houses the NOvA neutrino detector, and the Cryomodule Test Facility, where components of the accelerator that will power DUNE are being tested. The UK will contribute world-leading expertise in particle accelerators to the upgrade of Fermilab’s neutrino beam and accelerator complex.

    “This investment is part of a long history of UK research collaboration with the U.S.,” said Bowsher. “International partnerships are the key to building these world-leading experiments, and I am looking forward to seeing our scientists work with our colleagues in the U.S. in developing this experiment and the exciting science that will happen as a result.”

    UK institutions have been a vital part of Fermilab’s 50-year history, from the earliest days of the laboratory. UK labs and universities were important partners in the main Tevatron experiments, CDF and DZero, in the 1980s and 1990s. UK institutions have been involved with accelerator research and development, are partners in Fermilab’s muon experiments and are at the forefront of Fermilab’s focus on neutrino physics.

    Sixteen UK institutions (14 universities and two STFC-funded labs) are contributors to the DUNE collaboration, the U.S.-hosted centerpiece for a world-class neutrino experiment. The collaboration is led by Mark Thomson, professor of experimental particle physics at the University of Cambridge, and Ed Blucher, professor and chair of the Department of Physics at the University of Chicago.

    “Our colleagues in the United Kingdom have been critical partners for Fermilab, for LBNF/DUNE and for the advancement of particle physics around the world,” said Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer. “We look forward to the discoveries that these projects will bring.”

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon
    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 6:15 pm on September 18, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, , ,   

    From BNL: “Three Brookhaven Lab Scientists Selected to Receive Early Career Research Program Funding” 

    Brookhaven Lab

    August 15, 2017 [Just caught up with this via social media.]
    Karen McNulty Walsh,
    kmcnulty@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-8350
    Peter Genzer,
    genzer@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-3174

    Three scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory have been selected by DOE’s Office of Science to receive significant research funding through its Early Career Research Program.

    The program, now in its eighth year, is designed to bolster the nation’s scientific workforce by providing support to exceptional researchers during the crucial early career years, when many scientists do their most formative work. The three Brookhaven Lab recipients are among a total of 59 recipients selected this year after a competitive review of about 700 proposals.

    The scientists are each expected to receive grants of up to $2.5 million over five years to cover their salary plus research expenses. A list of the 59 awardees, their institutions, and titles of research projects is available on the Early Career Research Program webpage.

    This year’s Brookhaven Lab awardees include:

    1
    Sanjaya Senanayake

    Brookhaven Lab chemist Sanjaya D. Senanayake was selected by DOE’s Office of Basic Energy Sciences to receive funding for “Unraveling Catalytic Pathways for

    Low Temperature Oxidative Methanol Synthesis from Methane.” His overarching goal is to study and improve catalysts that enable the conversion of methane (CH4), the primary component of natural gas, directly into methanol (CH3OH), a valuable chemical intermediate and potential renewable fuel.

    This research builds on the recent discovery of a single step catalytic process for this reaction that proceeds at low temperatures and pressures using inexpensive earth abundant catalysts. The reaction promises to be more efficient than current multi-step processes, which are energy-intensive, and a significant improvement over other attempts at one-step reactions where higher temperatures convert most of the useful hydrocarbon building blocks into carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide rather than methanol. With Early Career funding, Senanayake’s team will explore the nature of the reaction, and build on ways to further improve catalytic performance and specificity.

    The project will exploit unique capabilities of facilities at Brookhaven Lab, particularly at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), that make it possible to study catalysts in real-world reaction environments (in situ) using x-ray spectroscopy, electron imaging, and other in situ methods.

    BNL NSLS-II


    BNL NSLS II

    Experiments using well defined model surfaces and powders will reveal atomic level catalytic structures and reaction dynamics. When combined with theoretical modeling, these studies will help the scientists identify the essential interactions that take place on the surface of the catalyst. Of particular interest are the key features that activate stable methane molecules through “soft” oxidative activation of C-H bonds so methane can be converted to methanol using oxygen (O2) and water (H2O) as co-reactants.

    This work will establish and experimentally validate principles that can be used to design improved catalysts for synthesizing fuel and other industrially relevant chemicals from abundant natural gas.

    “I am grateful for this funding and the opportunity to pursue this promising research,” Senanayake said. “These fundamental studies are an essential step toward overcoming key challenges for the complex conversion of methane into valued chemicals, and for transforming the current model catalysts into practical versions that are inexpensive, durable, selective, and efficient for commercial applications.”

    Sanjaya Senanayake earned his undergraduate degree in material science and Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Auckland in New Zealand in 2001 and 2006, respectively. He worked as a research associate at Oak Ridge National Laboratory from 2005-2008, and served as a local scientific contact at beamline U12a at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven Lab from 2005 to 2009. He joined the Brookhaven staff as a research associate in 2008, was promoted to assistant chemist and associate chemist in 2014, while serving as the spokesperson for NSLS Beamline X7B. He has co-authored over 100 peer reviewed publications in the fields of surface science and catalysis, and has expertise in the synthesis, characterization, reactivity of catalysts and reactions essential for energy conversion. He is an active member of the American Chemical Society, North American Catalysis Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the New York Academy of Science.

    3
    Alessandro Tricoli

    Brookhaven Lab physicist Alessandro Tricoli will receive Early Career Award funding from DOE’s Office of High Energy Physics for a project titled “Unveiling the Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Mechanism at ATLAS and at Future Experiments with Novel Silicon Detectors.”

    CERN/ATLAS detector

    His work aims to improve, through precision measurements, the search for exciting new physics beyond what is currently described by the Standard Model [SM], the reigning theory of particle physics.

    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    The discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland confirmed how the quantum field associated with this particle generates the masses of other fundamental particles, providing key insights into electroweak symmetry breaking—the mass-generating “Higgs mechanism.”

    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event

    But at the same time, despite direct searches for “new physics” signals that cannot be explained by the SM, scientists have yet to observe any evidence for such phenomena at the LHC—even though they know the SM is incomplete (for example it does not include an explanation for gravity).

    Tricoli’s research aims to make precision measurements to test fundamental predictions of the SM to identify anomalies that may lead to such discoveries. He focuses on the analysis of data from the LHC’s ATLAS experiment to comprehensively study electroweak interactions between the Higgs and particles called W and Z bosons. Any discovery of anomalies in such interactions could signal new physics at very high energies, not directly accessible by the LHC.

    This method of probing physics beyond the SM will become even more stringent once the high-luminosity upgrade of ATLAS, currently underway, is completed for longer-term LHC operations planned to begin in 2026.

    Tricoli’s work will play an important role in the upgrade of ATLAS’s silicon detectors, using novel state-of-the art technology capable of precision particle tracking and timing so that the detector will be better able to identify primary particle interactions and tease out signals from the background events. Designing these next-generation detector components could also have a profound impact on the development of future instruments that can operate in high radiation environments, such as in future colliders or in space.

    “This award will help me build a strong team around a research program I feel passionate about at ATLAS and the LHC, and for future experiments,” Tricoli said.

    “I am delighted and humbled by the challenge given to me with this award to take a step forward in science.”

    Alessandro Tricoli received his undergraduate degree in physics from the University of Bologna, Italy, in 2001, and his Ph.D. in particle physics from Oxford University in 2007. He worked as a research associate at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK from 2006 to 2009, and as a research fellow and then staff member at CERN from 2009 to 2015, receiving commendations on his excellent performance from both institutions. He joined Brookhaven Lab as an assistant physicist in 2016. A co-author on multiple publications, he has expertise in silicon tracker and detector design and development, as well as the analysis of physics and detector performance data at high-energy physics experiments. He has extensive experience tutoring and mentoring students, as well as coordinating large groups of physicists involved in research at ATLAS.

    4
    Chao Zhang

    Brookhaven Lab physicist Chao Zhang was selected by DOE’s Office of High Energy Physics to receive funding for a project titled, “Optimization of Liquid Argon TPCs for Nucleon Decay and Neutrino Physics.” Liquid Argon TPCs (for Time Projection Chambers) form the heart of many large-scale particle detectors designed to explore fundamental mysteries in particle physics.

    Among the most compelling is the question of why there’s a predominance of matter over antimatter in our universe. Though scientists believe matter and antimatter were created in equal amounts during the Big Bang, equal amounts would have annihilated one another, leaving only light. The fact that we now have a universe made almost entirely of matter means something must have tipped the balance.

    A US-hosted international experiment scheduled to start collecting data in the mid-2020s, called the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), aims to explore this mystery through the search for two rare but necessary conditions for the imbalance: 1) evidence that some processes produce an excess of matter over antimatter, and 2) a sizeable difference in the way matter and antimatter behave.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    The DUNE experiment will look for signs of these conditions by studying how protons (one of the two “nucleons” that make up atomic nuclei) decay as well as how elusive particles called neutrinos oscillate, or switch identities, among three known types.

    The DUNE experiment will make use of four massive 10-kiloton detector modules, each with a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) at its core. Chao’s aim is to optimize the performance of the LArTPCs to fully realize their potential to track and identify particles in three dimensions, with a particular focus on making them sensitive to the rare proton decays. His team at Brookhaven Lab will establish a hardware calibration system to ensure their ability to extract subtle signals using specially designed cold electronics that will sit within the detector. They will also develop software to reconstruct the three-dimensional details of complex events, and analyze data collected at a prototype experiment (ProtoDUNE, located at Europe’s CERN laboratory) to verify that these methods are working before incorporating any needed adjustments into the design of the detectors for DUNE.

    “I am honored and thrilled to receive this distinguished award,” said Chao. “With this support, my colleagues and I will be able to develop many new techniques to enhance the performance of LArTPCs, and we are excited to be involved in the search for answers to one of the most intriguing mysteries in science, the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe.”

    Chao Zhang received his B.S. in physics from the University of Science and Technology of China in 2002 and his Ph.D. in physics from the California Institute of Technology in 2010, continuing as a postdoctoral scholar there until joining Brookhaven Lab as a research associate in 2011. He was promoted to physics associate III in 2015. He has actively worked on many high-energy neutrino physics experiments, including DUNE, MicroBooNE, Daya Bay, PROSPECT, JUNO, and KamLAND, co-authoring more than 40 peer reviewed publications with a total of over 5000 citations. He has expertise in the field of neutrino oscillations, reactor neutrinos, nucleon decays, liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator detectors, and liquid argon time projection chambers. He is an active member of the American Physical Society.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    BNL Campus

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.
    i1

     
  • richardmitnick 1:51 pm on September 13, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, ,   

    From FNAL: “Contract awarded for LBNF preconstruction services” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    September 13, 2017
    Leah Poffenberger

    On July 21, a group of dignitaries broke ground on the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) 4,850 feet underground in a former goldmine, making a small dent in the 875,000 tons of rock that will ultimately be excavated for Fermilab’s flagship experiment.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    But a groundbreaking ceremony doesn’t always mean you can get straight to digging.

    Removing 875,000 tons of rock from a mile underground and assembling a massive particle detector in its place is a big job. Many months of careful design and preparatory construction work have to happen before the main excavation can even start at the future site of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) at Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota.

    On Aug. 9, a new team officially signed on to help prepare for the excavation and construction of DUNE. Fermi Research Alliance LLC, which operates Fermilab, awarded Kiewit/Alberici Joint Venture (KAJV) a contract to begin laying the groundwork for the excavation for LBNF, the facility that will support DUNE.

    “Our team is excited and honored to serve as the construction manager/general contractor on a project like the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility,” said KAJV Project Manager Scott Lundgren. “We look forward to working with Fermi Research Alliance to support this groundbreaking physics experiment.”

    Under the contract, over the next 12 months, KAJV will assist in the final design and excavation planning for LBNF/DUNE.

    “We’re all very excited about this partnership,” said Troy Lark, LBNF procurement manager. “It’s great to be working with two premier international contracting companies on this project.”

    The four-story-high, 70,000-ton DUNE detector at LBNF will catch neutrinos — subatomic particles that rarely interact with matter — sent through the Earth’s mantle from Fermilab, 800 miles away. This international megascience experiment will work to unravel some of the mysteries surrounding neutrinos, possibly leading to a better understanding of how the universe began.

    Building such an ambitious experiment has some unique challenges.

    “It’s kind of like building a ship in a bottle,” said Chris Mossey, Fermilab’s deputy director for LBNF. “We’re using a narrow shaft to move all the excavated rock up, and then all the parts and pieces of very large cryostats and detectors down to the 4850 level, about a mile underground.”

    KAJV will have two main tasks. The first is to help finalize design and excavation plans for LBNF. The second is to use the finalized designs to create what are known as bid packages: specific projects that KAJV or other contractors will work on.

    These bid packages will include jobs such as building site infrastructure and ensuring the structural integrity of the building above the shaft through which everything will enter or exit the mine.

    “Before you excavate 875,000 tons of rock, there’s a lot of things you’ve got to do. You have to have a system to move the rock safely from where it’s excavated to the surface, then horizontally about 3,700 feet to the large open pit where it will be deposited,” Mossey said. “All that has to be built.”

    Construction on pre-excavation projects — such as the conveyor system to move the rock — is expected to begin in 2018. The main excavation for LBNF/DUNE is planned to start in 2019.

    “We’re really happy to get this contract awarded,” Mossey said. “It was a lot of work to get to this point — a lot by the project, the lab and the DOE team. Everybody worked to be able to get this big, complicated contract in place.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon
    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:01 pm on August 28, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, Neutrino science,   

    From CERN: “Construction of the protoDUNE detectors begins” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    28 Aug 2017
    Stefania Bordoni

    1
    The first Anode Plane Assembly module, which will collect signals from particles passing through the protoDUNE single-phase detector, has recently arrived at CERN. (Image: Julien Marius Ordan/CERN)

    Two large neutrino detectors, the single- and dual-phase protoDUNE modules, are being built at CERN. They are prototypes of the future Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) detector, the construction of which has recently begun in the United States.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    Each of these detectors is a 10x10x10-metre Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber, with a single- (SP) or dual-phase (DP) configuration, containing about 800 tonnes of liquid argon. While the two big cryostats housing the detectors are about to be completed, the construction of the protoDUNE-SP detector has just started, following the arrival of two key components.

    The first Anode Plane Assembly module, which will collect signals from particles passing through the detector, has recently arrived at CERN. It will be tested, together with its electronics, before being installed in its final position inside the cryostat. The protoDUNE-SP detector will have six of these modules, which are 6 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. They are currently being built in the UK and US and will be shipped to CERN within the next few months.

    2
    The first field-cage module of the protoDUNE-SP detector has been fully assembled at CERN. (Image: Julien Marius Ordan/CERN)

    In parallel, other parts of the protoDUNE-SP detector are being assembled at CERN, including the field cage, which keeps the electrical field uniform inside the volume of the detector, where particles are revealed. This is important because the electrical signal released by ionising particles crossing the detector is extremely small, so a perfectly uniform electrical field is needed to avoid introducing spurious signals. Four of the 28 field-cage modules have already been assembled and are stored in the EHN1 hall, ready to be installed.

    The assembly and installation of the detector parts is expected to be completed by spring next year, in order to have protoDUNE-SP ready to take data in autumn 2018, before the two-year scheduled shutdown of the LHC.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

     
  • richardmitnick 7:58 am on August 10, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, , , , ,   

    From ScienceNews: “Neutrino experiment may hint at why matter rules the universe” 

    ScienceNews bloc

    ScienceNews

    1
    NEUTRINO CLUES The T2K experiment found clues that neutrinos may behave differently than their antimatter partners. In a possible sighting of an electron neutrino at the Super-Kamiokande detector in Hida, Japan (shown), colored spots represent sensors that observed light from the interacting neutrino. Kamioka Observatory/ICRR/The University of Tokyo

    A new study hints that neutrinos might behave differently than their antimatter counterparts. The result amplifies scientists’ suspicions that the lightweight elementary particles could help explain why the universe has much more matter than antimatter.

    In the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago, matter and antimatter were created in equal amounts. To tip that balance to the universe’s current, matter-dominated state, matter and antimatter must behave differently, a concept known as CP, or “charge parity,” violation.

    In neutrinos, which come in three types — electron, muon and tau — CP violation can be measured by observing how neutrinos oscillate, or change from one type to another. Researchers with the T2K experiment found that muon neutrinos morphed into electron neutrinos more often than expected, while muon antineutrinos became electron antineutrinos less often. That suggests that the neutrinos were violating CP, the researchers concluded August 4 at a colloquium at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK, in Tsukuba, Japan.

    T2K scientists had previously presented a weaker hint [Physical Review Letters]of CP violation. The new result is based on about twice as much data, but the evidence is still not definitive. In physicist parlance, it is a “two sigma” measurement, an indicator of how statistically strong the evidence is. Physicists usually require five sigma to claim a discovery.

    Even three sigma is still far away — T2K could reach that milestone by 2026. A future experiment, DUNE, now under construction at the Sanford Underground Research Laboratory in Lead, S.D., may reach five sigma.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    It is worth being patient, says physicist Chang Kee Jung of Stony Brook University in New York, who is a member of the T2K collaboration. “We are dealing with really profound problems.”

    See the full article here .

    Science News is edited for an educated readership of professionals, scientists and other science enthusiasts. Written by a staff of experienced science journalists, it treats science as news, reporting accurately and placing findings in perspective. Science News and its writers have won many awards for their work; here’s a list of many of them.

    Published since 1922, the biweekly print publication reaches about 90,000 dedicated subscribers and is available via the Science News app on Android, Apple and Kindle Fire devices. Updated continuously online, the Science News website attracted over 12 million unique online viewers in 2016.

    Science News is published by the Society for Science & the Public, a nonprofit 501(c) (3) organization dedicated to the public engagement in scientific research and education.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

     
  • richardmitnick 3:30 pm on August 4, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, , , , , ,   

    From Symmetry: “The birth of a black hole, live” 09/09/15 

    Symmetry Mag

    Symmetry

    09/09/15 [this is old, but a lot of sites are featuring it again.]
    Lauren Biron

    1
    NASA/CXC/M.Weiss

    Scientists hope to use neutrino experiments to watch a black hole form.

    Black holes fascinate us. We easily conjure up images of them swallowing spaceships, but we know very little about these strange objects. In fact, we’ve never even seen a black hole form. Scientists on neutrino experiments such as the upcoming Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment hope to change that.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    “You’ve got to be a bit lucky,” says Mark Thomson, DUNE co-spokesperson. “But it would be one of the major discoveries in science. It would be absolutely incredible.”

    Black holes are sometimes born when a massive star, typically more than eight times the mass of our own sun, collapses. But there are a lot of questions about what exactly happens during the process: How often do these collapsing stars give rise to black holes? When in the collapse does the black hole actually develop?

    What scientists do know is that deep in the dense core of the star, protons and electrons are squeezed together to form neutrons, sending ghostly particles called neutrinos streaming out. Matter falls inward. In the textbook case, matter rebounds and erupts, leaving a neutron star. But sometimes, the supernova fails, and there’s no explosion; instead, a black hole is born.

    DUNE’s gigantic detectors, filled with liquid argon, will sit a mile below the surface in a repurposed goldmine. While much of their time will be spent looking for neutrinos sent from Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory 800 miles away, the detectors will also have the rare ability to pick up a core collapse in our Milky Way galaxy – whether or not that leads to a new black hole.

    The only supernova ever recorded by neutrino detectors occurred in in 1987, when scientists saw a total of 19 neutrinos. Scientists still don’t know if that supernova formed a black hole or a neutron star—there simply wasn’t enough data. Thomson says that if a supernova goes off nearby, DUNE could see up to 10,000 neutrinos.

    DUNE will look for a particular signature in the neutrinos picked up by the detector. It’s predicted that a black hole will form relatively early in a supernova. Neutrinos will be able to leave the collapse in great numbers until the black hole emerges, trapping everything—including light and neutrinos—in its grasp. In data terms, that means you’d get a big burst of neutrinos with a sudden cutoff.

    Neutrinos come in three types, called flavors: electron, muon and tau. When a star explodes, it emits all the various types of neutrinos, as well as their antiparticles.

    They’re hard to catch. These neutrinos arrive with 100 times less energy than those arriving from an accelerator for experiments, which makes them less likely to interact in a detector.

    Most of the currently running, large particle detectors capable of seeing supernova neutrinos are best at detecting electron antineutrinos—and not great at detecting their matter equivalents, electron neutrinos.

    “It would be a tragedy to not be ready to detect the neutrinos in full enough detail to answer key questions,” says John Beacom, director of the Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics at The Ohio State University.

    Luckily, DUNE is unique. “The only one that is sensitive to a huge slug of electron neutrinos is DUNE, and that’s a function of using argon [as the detector fluid],” says Kate Scholberg, professor of physics at Duke University.

    It will take more than just DUNE to get the whole picture, though. Getting an entire suite of large, powerful detectors of different types up and running is the best way to figure out the lives of black holes, Beacom says.

    There is a big scintillator detector, JUNO, in the works in China, and plans for a huge water-based detector, Hyper-K, in Japan.

    JUNO Neutrino detector, at Kaiping, Jiangmen in Southern China

    Hyper-Kamiokande, a neutrino physics laboratory located underground in the Mozumi Mine of the Kamioka Mining and Smelting Co. near the Kamioka section of the city of Hida in Gifu Prefecture, Japan.

    Gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO could pick up additional information about the density of matter and what’s happening in the collapse.


    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo Hanford, WA, USA installation


    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo detector installation Livingston, LA, USA

    Cornell SXS, the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) project


    Gravitational waves. Credit: MPI for Gravitational Physics/W.Benger-Zib

    ESA/eLISA the future of gravitational wave research

    “My dream is to have a supernova with JUNO, Hyper-K and DUNE all online,” Scholberg says. “It would certainly make my decade.”

    The rate at which neutrinos arrive after a supernova will tell scientists about what’s happening at the center of a core collapse—but it will also provide information about the mysterious neutrino, including how they interact with each other and potential insights as to how much the tiny particles actually weigh.

    Within the next three years, the rapidly growing DUNE collaboration will build and begin testing a prototype of the 40,000-ton liquid argon detector. This 400-ton version will be the second-largest liquid-argon experiment ever built to date. It is scheduled for testing at CERN starting in 2018.

    DUNE is scheduled to start installing the first of its four detectors in the Sanford Underground Research Facility in 2021.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
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