Tagged: FNAL LBNF/ DUNE Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • richardmitnick 1:10 pm on March 15, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, , , ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Fermilab, international partners break ground on new state-of-the-art particle accelerator” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    March 15, 2019
    Andre Salles, Fermilab Office of Communication
    asalles@fnal.gov
    630-840-6733

    With a ceremony held today, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory officially broke ground on a major new particle accelerator project that will power cutting-edge physics experiments for many decades to come.

    The new 700-foot-long linear accelerator, part of the laboratory’s Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II), will be the first accelerator project built in the United States with significant contributions from international partners. When complete, the new machine will become the heart of the laboratory’s accelerator complex, vastly improving what is already the world’s most powerful particle beam for neutrino experiments and providing for the long-term future of Fermilab’s diverse research program.

    The new PIP-II accelerator will make use of the latest superconducting technology, a key research area for Fermilab. Its flexible design will enable it to work as a new first stage for Fermilab’s chain of accelerators, powering both the laboratory’s flagship project — the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), hosted by Fermilab — and its extensive suite of on-site particle physics experiments, including searches for new particles and new forces in our universe.

    1
    On Friday, March 15, Fermilab broke ground on the PIP-II accelerator project, joined by dignitaries from the United States and international partners on the project. From left: Senator Tammy Duckworth (IL), Senator Dick Durbin (IL), Rep. Sean Casten (IL-6), Rep. Robin Kelly (IL-2), Rep. Bill Foster (IL-11), Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer, Rep. Lauren Underwood (IL-14), Illinois Governor JB Pritzker, DOE Under Secretary for Science Paul Dabbar, PIP-II Project Director Lia Merminga, DOE Associate Director for High Energy Physics Jim Siegrist, University of Chicago President Robert Zimmer, Consul General of India Neeta Bhushan, British Consul General John Saville, Consul General of Italy Giuseppe Finocchiaro, Consul General of France Guillaume Lacroix, DOE Fermi Site Office Manager Mike Weis, DOE PIP-II Federal Project Director Adam Bihary and Consul General of Poland Piotr Janicki. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    DUNE is under construction now and will be the most advanced experiment in the world studying ghostly, invisible particles called neutrinos. These particles may hold the key to cosmic mysteries that have baffled scientists for decades. The DUNE collaboration brings together more than 1,000 scientists from over 180 institutions in more than 30 countries, all with a single goal: to better understand these elusive particles and what they can tell us about the universe.

    The PIP-II accelerator will enable the beam that will send trillions of neutrino particles 800 miles (1,300 kilometers) through the earth to the four-story-high DUNE detector, to be built a mile beneath the surface at the Sanford Underground Research Facility [SURF] in Lead, South Dakota. With the improved particle beam enabled by PIP-II, scientists will use the DUNE detector to capture the most vivid 3-D images of neutrino interactions ever seen.

    3
    Shortly after breaking ground on the PIP-II accelerator project on Friday, March 15, Fermilab employees were joined by the governor of Illinois, six members of Congress and partners from around the world in this group photo. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    PIP-II is itself a groundbreaking scientific instrument, and its construction is pioneering a new paradigm for accelerator projects supported by DOE. The accelerator would not be possible without the contributions and world-leading expertise of partners in France, India, Italy and the UK. Scientists in each country are building components of the accelerator, to be assembled at Fermilab. This will be the first accelerator project in the United States completed using this approach.

    With PIP-II at the center of the laboratory’s accelerator complex, Fermilab will remain at the forefront of particle physics research and accelerator science for the foreseeable future.

    Today’s groundbreaking ceremony for the PIP-II accelerator was attended by dignitaries from around the globe. Speakers included Sen. Dick Durbin (IL), Sen. Tammy Duckworth (IL), Rep. Lauren Underwood (IL-14), Rep. Bill Foster (IL-11), Rep. Robin Kelly (IL-2), Rep. Sean Casten (IL-6), DOE Under Secretary for Science Paul Dabbar, University of Chicago President Robert Zimmer, and national and international partners in the project.

    4
    This architectural rendering shows the buildings that will house the new PIP-II accelerators. Architectural rendering: Gensler. Image: Diana Brandonisio.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

    FNAL MINERvA front face Photo Reidar Hahn

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL MINOS Far Detector in the Soudan Mine in northern Minnesota

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 12:09 pm on January 25, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, , ,   

    From Symmetry: “Success after a three-year sprint” 

    Symmetry Mag
    From Symmetry

    01/25/19
    Lauren Biron

    1
    Photo by CERN

    After a rush to start up the first large prototype detector, stellar results show the technology for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment is ready to shine.

    When scientists plan to build a new particle detector, they run simulations to get a picture of what the particle interactions will look like. After constructing and starting up the real thing, they expect a period of tuning, adjusting, fiddling, and fixing to get things running smoothly. They normally don’t expect to turn the detector on and see particle tracks of a quality that exceeds their idealized simulations, especially when it is a prototype detector.

    And then there is ProtoDUNE.

    “It was fantastic, with neater tracks and less noise from electronics than we expected,” says Flavio Cavanna, a scientist at the US Department of Energy’s Fermilab and the co-coordinator for the first ProtoDUNE detector that came to life this fall. “The entire technology operated as we wanted it to, which is beyond what one can dream.”

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is an international endeavor to unlock the mysteries of particles called neutrinos, which could hold the key to one of the biggest unsolved mysteries in physics: why matter exists in the universe.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    While the DUNE detector modules ultimately will be 20 times larger, this first prototype detector, ProtoDUNE-SP, is still the largest liquid-argon neutrino detector ever brought to life – and a crucial step in making sure DUNE will work as expected.

    For Cavanna and hundreds of others from DUNE institutions in North America, Latin America, Europe, and Asia, these exceptional results are the culmination of three years of hard work and fitful nights. In that short stretch of time, an international team of people had to coalesce; transform a chunk of land into an experimental facility; construct buildings, infrastructure, and an enormous cryogenic container; and design and fabricate the pieces for a house-sized detector that would be assembled inside of that container like a ship in a bottle.

    “You build a detector, but never know if it really works until you see the first track,” says Roberto Acciarri, assembly and run coordinator for the detector at CERN, the European Center for Nuclear Research. “You always have that small doubt inside your heart: Is this really going to work?”

    A late-night phone call

    In December 2015, Cavanna was in Japan for work. One night, he received a call from Fermilab’s director asking if he would like to be a coordinator on a new detector. Only a few things at the time were certain, Cavanna says.

    First, the new experiment had been approved by CERN and Fermilab, and CERN agreed that it could live at the Neutrino Platform, a brand-new experimental facility. The detector would use argon, an element found in the air we breathe that becomes a liquid at very cold temperatures. It would serve as one of two test beds (both called ProtoDUNE) for technologies to be used in the Fermilab-hosted Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment.

    Second, while many institutions from around the world had formally signed on to participate in DUNE, a full-fledged scientific community dedicated to ProtoDUNE had yet to be identified and organized – and was essential to building a detector of such huge size and scope.

    Finally, there was a looming deadline: The detector ideally would be up and running before the start of the long shutdown of the particle accelerator complex at CERN in fall 2018. This was the only way the team could use CERN’s proton beam to make additional measurements in the detector.

    “The schedule was tight,” says Fermilab scientist Gina Rameika, the construction coordinator for ProtoDUNE. “Everyone knew the schedule was almost impossible. We had to get it installed and buttoned up in order to get it filled [with liquid argon] and take beam.”

    So they got to work.

    Build it bigger

    Putting together the world’s biggest liquid-argon detector required smart minds and helping hands. The first step was identifying and convincing scientists and engineers willing to make ProtoDUNE-SP the center of their world for the coming three years, working together as a global team.

    “DUNE is conceived and set up as an international project. It’s planetary,” Cavanna says. People signed on to ProtoDUNE-SP from institutions in North America, Europe, Latin America, and Asia. “ProtoDUNE was a prototype of DUNE technologically, but also from this collaborative structure perspective.”

    Of course, ProtoDUNE-SP is not the first liquid-argon detector ever constructed. The technology was pioneered at the large scale for the ICARUS detector, which ran from 2010 to 2013 at the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics’ Gran Sasso National Laboratory under the leadership of Nobel laureate Carlo Rubbia. The team could also look to other liquid-argon experiments, such as MicroBooNE and LArIAT at Fermilab.

    FNAL/ICARUS

    FNAL/MicroBooNE

    Fermilab LArIAT

    “We had a solid foundation from previous efforts, but DUNE will take liquid-argon technology to the yet unexplored multi-kiloton scale,” says CERN’s Francesco Pietropaolo, convener of the ProtoDUNE high-voltage consortium. “We knew ProtoDUNE would be essential for us to test new technologies and see how we could scale up to the much larger volume needed for DUNE.”

    As groups around the globe made design decisions and mock-ups and eventually started fabricating their individual pieces, construction got under way at CERN, with Marzio Nessi as the head of CERN’s Neutrino Platform. The wooded plot of land was transformed as crews extended a nearby facility and carved out a giant pit where ProtoDUNE-SP and its sister detector would live. CERN’s experts built a beamline that would funnel in the particle beam.

    Within the pit, welders got to work on a gigantic red steel frame, the external structure that would house the container with the detector components and the liquid argon needed to capture particle interactions. Researchers adapted algorithms and built up the software and hardware that would capture the electronic signals when a particle from the beam smashed into an argon nucleus in the detector. Things started coming together.

    Pieces of ProtoDUNE-SP began flowing in from around the world. Researchers from the Physical Sciences Lab at the University of Wisconsin-Madison sent the first of six crucial components called anode plane assemblies, special panels of wire that record particle interactions. On July 14, 2017, Cavanna sat in front of that very large APA shipping box at CERN and wondered how they would produce, test, and install five more before their stringent deadline just a bit more than a year ahead. The teams went into high gear. Detector parts came faster and faster.

    4
    An anode plane assembly (APA) is prepared for installation into ProtoDUNE.
    Photo by CERN

    “There were rumors that we would never make the schedule and we’d be lucky to put in two APAs,” Rameika says. “We were driven to prove we could deliver all of them, and we did.”

    Shipments of APAs from Wisconsin and a group of universities supported by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council arrived. Teams tested detector components, then slid them through a narrow opening in the steel structure to an inner space where only a few people could work at a time. Fragile photo-sensors were added into the APAs. Electronics came together, cables were strung, and soon the temporary entrance in the side of the container was welded shut.

    To complete the final installation, technicians slid into the detector through a one-meter diameter manhole in the roof. CERN’s cryogenic experts filled the detector with 800 metric tons of liquid argon and turned on the purifiers, letting the detector cycle the clear liquid and remove any stray bits of non-argon material. The components within were cut off from any rescue should something go wrong. When the filling was completed almost eight weeks later, ProtoDUNE scientists checked the equipment. CERN’s particle accelerator operators sent streams of protons toward the detector, and researchers turned up the power on the high-voltage system.

    “The run started with this critical step that was keeping me up every night for three years,” Cavanna says. “It was the moment of bringing the detector to life, and I didn’t know what to expect.”

    Current flowed through the high-voltage system at a whopping 180,000 volts – exactly what it was supposed to do, “like it would be written in a textbook,” Cavanna says. Particle tracks showed up on the display, and soon after, celebratory champagne flowed in the ProtoDUNE control room at CERN. People around the world toasted their victory over video connections.

    Non-stop data

    When you have limited beam time, every second counts. Particles from the accelerator bombarded the ProtoDUNE detector 24 hours a day, seven days a week, but the deadline for shutting down the beam to prepare for a 2-year-long upgrade to the CERN accelerator complex loomed large.

    “You basically set aside your life when there’s beam,” Acciarri says. “You are always thinking and making sure everything is working properly. It’s very stressful.”

    After beam and detector tuning, between October 2 and November 12, ProtoDUNE-SP researchers collected more than 4 million gorgeous images of particle interactions. Members from participating institutions took shifts in the control rooms to make sure systems were operating as they should and watched the data roll in.

    “This is the first time we have had a live, 3-D event display for a liquid-argon detector,” says Tingjun Yang, co-convener for the data reconstruction and analysis group. Starting with the software used for the data analysis of another neutrino experiment, MicroBooNE, multiple groups collaborated to create a package to convert live data into the right format for quick, 3-D images that researchers on shift could use to monitor the detector.

    “We recognized this was a really powerful tool that DUNE will want to use,” Yang says. “We developed it, and the data worked. It was very beautiful.”


    This 3-D display shows a particle event at ProtoDUNE. The video shows the full size of the ProtoDUNE-SP detector (white box) and the direction of the particle beam (yellow arrow). Particles from other sources (such as cosmic rays) can be seen throughout the white box, while the red box highlights the region of interest: in this case, an interaction resulting from the particle beam passing through the detector. Event information, such as the momentum of particles in the beam and time of interaction, are located in the lower left corner. A selection of 3-D events from ProtoDUNE-SP are available in an online gallery for curious minds that want to play with the interface.

    Over the course of the run, researchers collected data about all sorts of different particles that might come out of a neutrino interaction in a detector: pions, kaons, photons, electrons, protons, and more. Because ProtoDUNE-SP sits on Earth’s surface, it also sees a high number of cosmic rays that the final DUNE detector won’t see from its mile-deep home at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota.

    “It makes ProtoDUNE a great stress test for the detector and reconstruction capability,” Yang says. If the software tested at ProtoDUNE can handle the high number of particle interactions, it will be almost overqualified for the more serene environment of DUNE. Fermilab’s accelerator complex will send trillions of neutrinos through 800 miles of earth, but the far detectors will see only a handful every day. However, ProtoDUNE-SP’s robust data handling capabilities are needed to search for rare subatomic phenomena, such as the hypothesized decay of protons. It also ensures that DUNE can handle thousands of neutrino interactions in a few seconds if, say, a star explodes in the Milky Way.

    ProtoDUNE-SP also collected particles at the full range of energies DUNE expects to see: from 1 to 7 gigaelectronvolts (GeV). In fact, data-taking went so smoothly at these planned energies that researchers even had extra time to capture lower-energy particles, from 0.3 GeV up to 1 GeV. With precise control over the beam, scientists were able to carefully study how particles interact with the argon atoms – important physics studies in their own right – and test the detector components within.

    “The technology is here, and it’s ready for DUNE,” Acciarri says. “We’ll take this opportunity to change a few things, both on the hardware and software side, to make things go even smoother, but I do believe we reached more than what we were expecting or asking for this detector to show.”

    Looking ahead

    There is plenty still to do, Acciarri notes. DUNE will run for decades, so researchers aim to operate the prototype for as long as possible to monitor how the pieces of the detector fare over time. There also are plans for a series of tests on all the subsystems: things like the light detection system, electronics, and high-voltage system. They plan to test their models of fluid dynamics, seeing how the argon circulates in the detector, and how each subsystem affects the others. Two consortia are already working on improvements for the crucial anode plane assemblies for DUNE. On the software side, researchers will work to improve the stability of the system and the speed at which it captures events. And scientists are working to complete a second ProtoDUNE detector at CERN, known as the dual-phase ProtoDUNE.

    DUNE already has around 1,000 members from more than 30 countries and continues to grow. With all the ongoing planning, construction, and testing taking place around the world, the team of DUNE scientists and engineers, it seems, will have a busy and collaborative 2019.

    “That was something that was quite important beyond the technological success,” Cavanna says. “Technology without the right people is just a piece of material that is dead. We grew a community that will bring DUNE to life.”

    5
    An APA hangs from a crane in CERN’s Neutrino Platform
    Photo by CERN

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 1:01 pm on December 25, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "United States and France express interest to collaborate on construction of superconducting particle accelerator at Fermilab and the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, , , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, , , ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “United States and France express interest to collaborate on construction of superconducting particle accelerator at Fermilab and the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    December 19, 2018

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) have signed statements this month expressing interest to collaborate on high-tech international particle physics projects that are planned to be hosted at DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

    The three agencies indicated plans to work together on the development and production of technical components for PIP-II (Proton Improvement Plan-II), a major DOE particle accelerator project with substantial international contributions. In addition, CNRS and CEA also plan to collaborate on the construction of the Fermilab-hosted Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), an international flagship science project that will unlock the mysteries of neutrinos — subatomic particles that travel close to the speed of light and have almost no mass.

    1
    DOE Undersecretary for Science Paul Dabbar (left) and Vincent Berger, Director of Fundamental Research at the CEA, at the signing ceremony in France on Dec. 11. The signing with CNRS took place on Dec. 19.

    The construction of a 176-meter-long superconducting particle accelerator is the centerpiece of the PIP-II project. The new accelerator upgrade will become the heart of the Fermilab accelerator complex and provide the proton beam to power a broad program of accelerator-based particle physics research for many decades to come. In particular, PIP-II will enable the world’s most powerful high-energy neutrino beam to power DUNE. The experiment requires enormous quantities of neutrinos to discover the role these particles played in the formation of the early universe. The first delivery of particle beams to DUNE is scheduled for 2026.

    “The collaboration on PIP-II and DUNE is a win-win situation for France and the U.S. Department of Energy,” said DOE Undersecretary for Science Paul Dabbar. “Scientists in France and the United States have a wealth of experience building components for superconducting particle accelerators and are contributing substantially to developing key technologies for DUNE. France’s expression of interest brings into the fold for the projects a partnership that has already seen great interest and contributions from across the globe.”

    Two French institutions — the departments of the Institute of Research into the Fundamental Laws of the Universe (Irfu), part of the French Atomic Energy Commission, and the CNRS IN2P3 laboratories: Institute of Nuclear Physics (IPN) and Linear Accelerator Laboratory (LAL) — are expected to build components for PIP-II. They both have extensive experience in the development of superconducting radio-frequency acceleration, which is the enabling technology for PIP-II, and are contributors to two major superconducting particle accelerator projects in Europe: the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) and the (ESS).


    European XFEL campus

    ESS European Spallation Source, currently under construction in Lund, Sweden.

    “For IN2P3, the DUNE experiment is of major scientific interest for the next decade, and this interest naturally extends to the PIP-II project, which actually aligns perfectly well with our experience on superconducting linac technologies,” said IN2P3 Director Reynald Pain. “Our scientific and technical teams are very excited to start this collaboration.”

    At the heart of the PIP-II project is the construction of an 800-million-electronvolt superconducting linear accelerator. The new accelerator will feature acceleration cavities made of niobium and double the beam energy of its predecessor. That boost will enable the Fermilab accelerator complex to achieve megawatt-scale proton beam power.

    “Irfu physicists are strongly involved in neutrino physics,” said Vincent Berger, Director of Fundamental Research at the CEA. “In this field, the DUNE experiment is particularly promising. In that context, contributing to the PIP-II project would be very interesting for our accelerator teams, who have strong experience in superconducting linacs. Our first discussions with Fermilab staff have been very stimulating.”

    In addition to France, other international partners are making significant contributions to PIP-II: India, the United Kingdom and Italy. DOE’s Argonne and Lawrence Berkeley National laboratories are also contributing key components to the project.

    France brings world-leading expertise and capabilities to the PIP-II project,” said PIP-II Project Director Lia Merminga. “It is a tremendous opportunity and honor to work with them and apply their demonstrated excellence to our project.”

    French scientists also plan to contribute to building the DUNE detector, a massive stadium-sized neutrino detector that will be located 1.5 kilometers underground at Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota. Construction of prototype detectors are currently under way at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the European particle physics laboratory located near the French-Swiss border. These prototypes include key contributions from French institutions in developing the dual-phase technology for one of the two ProtoDUNE detectors.

    “French scientists were among the founders of the DUNE experiment,” said Ed Blucher, DUNE collaboration co-spokesperson and professor at the University of Chicago. “Their enormous experience in detector and electronics development will be crucial to successful construction of the DUNE detectors.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 3:23 pm on November 20, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “How to build a towering millikelvin thermometer” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    November 15, 2018
    Jim Daley

    Cary Kendziora had expected the long, slender temperature profile monitor to droop a bit, but not as much as this. As part of a joint project with the University of Hawaii at Manoa, Kendziora, a mechanical engineer at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermilab, had designed the device to measure the variation in temperature inside a massive neutrino detector located at the European laboratory CERN. The detector, the size of a small house, is filled with liquid argon. The temperature profile monitor is a solid piece of metal about 8 meters tall — about two stories tall — and as thin as a curtain rod. It bowed considerably when it was horizontal.

    Kendziora said he’d never worked with such a long, solid piece of metal that was also so narrow.

    “It turned out to be a lot more flexible than I imagined because of its length,” Kendziora said. “That was a surprise.”

    As a workaround, he helped build an exoskeleton support to keep the device rigid while it was being installed.

    The detector, one of two known as the ProtoDUNE detectors, contains 770 tons of liquid argon maintained at temperatures around 90 Kelvin.

    CERN Proto Dune

    Cern ProtoDune

    That’s a chilling minus 300 degrees Fahrenheit. As particles pass through the detector, they occasionally smash into the nuclei of argon atoms. The particles emerging from these collisions release electrons from argon atoms as they pass by. These electrons drift toward sensors that record their tracks. The tracks, in turn, give scientists information about the particle that started the reaction.

    2
    The temperature profiler from one of the ProtoDUNE detectors stands 8 meters tall. Photo: Cary Kendziora

    The ProtoDUNE detectors are prototypes for the international, Fermilab-hosted Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. The DUNE detector, expected to be complete in the mid-2020s, will be mammoth, comprising four modules that are each nearly as long as a football field.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    SURF DUNE LBNF Caverns at Sanford Lab

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    In liquid-argon detectors like DUNE and the ProtoDUNE detector, monitoring the variation in internal temperature is important because it’s correlated to the argon’s purity. ProtoDUNE contains 770 tons of liquid argon. DUNE will hold 70,000 tons. At this scale, the purification efficiency has to be checked regularly. If the argon doesn’t mix properly, it begins to stratify into layers of different temperatures, which can affect how far electrons can drift.

    “If the argon is pure, the electrons can drift the distance to the ProtoDUNE sensors, no problem,” said Jelena Maricic, an associate professor of physics at the University of Hawaii at Manoa who leads the group that worked on the design, construction and installation of the ProtoDUNE dynamic temperature profile monitor, along with Kendziora.

    But impurities have a great affinity for electrons and can trap them on their way to the sensors. And if they’re trapped, they won’t be detected, or at least not as easily.

    The temperature profile monitor hangs vertically from the detector’s ceiling near one corner of the detector, taking readings of the circulating liquid argon. By monitoring the argon’s temperature, scientists will be able to tell right away whether any problems are developing in the detector.

    Calibration by cross-reference

    Designing and building a temperature profile monitor that is accurate to within tens of millikelvin inside a massive liquid-argon detector is no small feat. While the degree of bowing was an unexpected problem, it was hardly the most difficult challenge to overcome. Kendziora ticked off a laundry list of them.

    “It had to be electrically and thermally isolated, and leak-tight,” he said. “And it’s a high-purity application, so all the materials had to be selected based on their not contributing any contaminants to the liquid. All the little threaded holes that the components are screwed into had to be vented so they wouldn’t trap any gas that would give off oxygen over a long period of time. All the parts had to be cleaned.”

    The entire design of the profile monitor also needed to address a unique question: How do you calibrate a probe that is sealed inside a giant box full of liquid argon? Erik Voirin, an engineer at Fermilab, and Yujing Sun, a postdoc in Maricic’s lab, independently hit upon the same, elegant idea.

    The team designed the profile monitor with an array of 23 motor-driven, remotely moveable sensors along its 8-meter height. Each takes a reading of the argon immediately surrounding it. And since they’re moveable, not only can a sensor take the temperature in multiple locations, but a single location’s temperature can be read out by more than one sensor.

    4
    The profile monitor is outfitted with an array of 23 motor-driven, remotely moveable sensors along its 8-meter height. Each takes a reading of the argon immediately surrounding it. Photo: Cary Kendziora

    Voirin, a thermal-fluids engineer, performed the computational fluid dynamics simulations for ProtoDUNE. Sun tested and demonstrated the idea to work with the prototype using just four sensors in 2017, deploying the rod in the 35-ton liquid-argon detector.

    “Our system allows you to move the sensors along the vertical axis and perform cross-calibration,” Maricic said.

    One could use sensor A to take the temperature at, say, the 3-meter mark, and then check its reading against sensor B’s at the same location. That way, scientists can determine if any sensor is out of whack.

    Maricic said that the University of Hawaii group team, will be performing the cross-calibration in the late November or early December.

    The DUNE far detector will require a similar temperature profile monitor that adheres to the same set of strict requirements that the ProtoDUNE detector needed – but with one difference. DUNE is much larger than ProtoDUNE, so its profile monitor needs to be scaled up accordingly. It will be 15 meters long — nearly double the length of the prototype profile monitor.

    “I don’t have a solution for the long length,” Kendziora says, other than to construct another extensive support infrastructure.

    Another engineering effort for DUNE— and he’s on top of it.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 10:24 am on October 11, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , , , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, , ,   

    From Don Lincoln via CNN: “The ultimate mystery of the universe” 

    1
    From CNN

    September 21, 2018

    FNAL’s Don Lincoln

    This might win an award for “most obvious statement ever,” but the universe is big. And with its size comes big questions. Perhaps the biggest is “What makes the universe, well…the universe?”
    Researchers have made a crucial step forward in their effort to build scientific equipment that will help us answer that fundamental question.

    An international group of physicists collaborating on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) have announced that a prototype version of their equipment, called ProtoDUNE, is now operational.
    ProtoDUNE will validate the technology of the much larger DUNE experiment, which is designed to detect neutrinos, subatomic particles most often created in violent nuclear reactions like those that occur in nuclear power plants or the Sun. While they are prodigiously produced, they can pass, ghost-like, through ordinary matter. There are three distinct types of neutrinos, as different as the strawberry, vanilla, and chocolate flavors of Neapolitan ice cream.

    Further, through the always-confusing rules of quantum mechanics, these three types of neutrinos experience a startling behavior — they literally change their identity. Following the ice cream analogy, this would be like starting to eat a scoop of vanilla and, a few spoonfuls in, it magically changes to chocolate. It is through this morphing behavior that scientists hope to explain why our universe looks the way it does, rather than like a featureless void, full of energy and nothing else.

    2
    View of the interior of the ProtoDUNE experiment

    CERN Proto DUNE Maximillian Brice

    Large enough to encompass a three-story house, ProtoDUNE is located at the CERN laboratory, just outside Geneva, Switzerland. Years in the making, ProtoDUNE is filled with 800 tons of chilled liquid argon, which detects the passage of subatomic particles like neutrinos. Neutrinos hit the nuclei of the argon atoms in the ProtoDUNE detector, causing particles with electrical charge to be produced. Those particles then move through the detector, banging into argon atoms and knocking their electrons off. Scientists then detect the electrons.
    It’s similar to how you can know an airplane recently passed overhead because you observe contrails, the white streaks in the sky it briefly leaves behind. The ProtoDUNE detector has now observed particles coming from space — what scientists call cosmic rays — which has validated the effectiveness of the particle detector.

    Though considerably large, ProtoDUNE pales in comparison to the size of the DUNE apparatus, which is still being developed. DUNE will be based at two locations: Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), which is America’s flagship particle physics laboratory located just outside Chicago, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), located in Lead, South Dakota.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford

    The biggest part of the DUNE experiment will ultimately consist of four large modules, each of which will be twenty times larger than ProtoDUNE. Because neutrinos interact very rarely with ordinary matter, bigger is better. And with an eighty times increase in volume, the DUNE detector will be able to detect eighty times as many neutrinos as ProtoDUNE.
    These large modules will be located nearly a mile underground at SURF. That depth is required to protect them from the same cosmic rays seen by ProtoDUNE.
    Fermilab will use its highest energy particle accelerator to generate a beam of neutrinos, which it will then shoot through the Earth to the waiting detectors over 800 miles away in western South Dakota.

    This beam of neutrinos will pass through a ProtoDUNE-like detector located at Fermilab to establish their characteristics as they leave the site. When the neutrinos arrive in South Dakota, the much bigger detectors again measure the neutrinos and look to see how much they have changed their identity as they traveled. It’s this identity-changing behavior that DUNE is designed to study. Scientists call this phenomenon “neutrino oscillations” because the neutrinos change from one type to another and then back again, over and over.
    While investigating and characterizing neutrino oscillations is the direct goal of the DUNE experiment, the deeper goal is to use those studies to shed light on one of those fundamental questions of the universe. This will be made possible because the DUNE experiment not only will study the oscillation behavior of neutrinos, it can also study the oscillation of antimatter neutrinos.

    A strong runner-up in the “most obvious statement ever” award is “our universe is made of matter.” But researchers have long known of a cousin substance called “antimatter.”

    Antimatter is the opposite of ordinary matter and will annihilate into pure energy when combined with matter. Alternatively, energy can simultaneously convert into matter and antimatter in equal quantities. This has been established beyond any credible doubt.

    Yet, with that observation, comes a mystery. Scientists generally accept that the universe came into existence through an event called the Big Bang. According to this theory, the universe was once much smaller, hotter, and full of energy. As the universe expanded, that energy should have converted into matter and antimatter in exactly equal quantities, which leads us to a very vexing question.

    Where the heck is the antimatter?

    Our universe consists only of matter, which means that something made the antimatter of the early universe disappear. Had this not happened, the matter and antimatter would have annihilated, and the universe would consist of nothing more than a bath of energy, without matter — without us.

    Which brings us back to the DUNE experiment. Fermilab will make not only neutrino beams, it will also make antimatter neutrino beams. The exact mix of neutrino “flavors” leaving the Fermilab campus will be established by the closer detector, and then again when they arrive at SURF, so that the changes due to neutrino oscillation can be measured. Then the same process will be done with antimatter neutrinos. If the matter and antimatter neutrinos oscillate differently, that will likely be a huge clue toward answering the question of why the universe exists as it does.

    With the completion of the new ProtoDUNE technology that will be used in the DUNE detector, the race is on to build the full facility. The first of the detector modules is scheduled to begin operations in 2026.

    While Fermilab has long made substantial contributions to the CERN research program, the DUNE experiment marks the first time that CERN has invested in scientific infrastructure in the United States. DUNE is a product of a unified international effort.
    Modern science is truly staggering in its accomplishments. We can cure deadly diseases and we’ve put men on the moon. But perhaps the grandest accomplishment of all is our ability to innovate in our effort to study in detail some of the oldest and most mind-boggling questions of our universe. And, with the success of ProtoDUNE, we’re that much closer to finding the answers.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

     
  • richardmitnick 2:04 pm on September 12, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, , , , ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “MicroBooNE demonstrates use of convolutional neural networks on liquid-argon TPC data for first time” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    Fermi National Accelerator Lab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    September 12, 2018
    Victor Genty, Kazuhiro Terao and Taritree

    It is hard these days not to encounter examples of machine learning out in the world. Chances are, if your phone unlocks using facial recognition or if you’re using voice commands to control your phone, you are likely using machine learning algorithms — in particular deep neural networks.

    What makes these algorithms so powerful is that they learn relationships between high-level concepts we wish to find in an image (faces) or sound wave (words) with sets of low-level patterns (lines, shapes, colors, textures, individual sounds), which represent them in the data. Furthermore, these low-level patterns and relationships do not have to be conceived of or hand-designed by humans, but instead are learned directly from examples of the data. Not having to come up with new patterns to find for each new problem is why deep neural networks have been able to advance the state of the art for so many different types of problems: from analyzing video for self-driving cars to assisting robots in learning how to manipulate objects.

    Here at Fermilab, there has been a lot of effort in having these deep neural networks help us analyze the data from our particle detectors so that we can more quickly and effectively use it to look for new physics. These applications are a continuation of the high-energy physics community’s long history in adopting and furthering the use of machine learning algorithms.

    Recently, the MicroBooNE neutrino experiment published a paper describing how they used convolutional neural networks — a particular type of deep neural network — to sort individual pixels coming from images made by a particular type of detector known as a liquid-argon time projection (LArTPC) chamber. The experiment designed a convolutional neural network called U-ResNet to distinguish between two types of pixels: those that were a part of a track-like particle trajectory from those that were a part of a shower-like particle trajectory.

    1
    This plot shows a comparison of U-ResNet performance on data and simulation, where the true pixel labels are provided by a physicist. The sample used is 100 events that contain a charged-current neutrino interaction candidate with neutral pions produced at the event vertex. The horizontal axis shows the fraction of pixels where the prediction by U-ResNet differed from the labels for each event. The error bars indicate only a statistical uncertainty.

    Track-like trajectories, made by particles such as a muon or proton, consist of a line with small curvature. Shower-like trajectories, produced by particles such as an electron or photon, are more complex topological features with many branching trajectories. This distinction is important because separating these type of topologies is known to be difficult for traditional algorithms. Not only that, shower-like shapes are produced when electrons and photons interact in the detector, and these two particles are often an important signal or background in physics analyses.

    MicroBooNE researchers demonstrated that these networks not only performed well but also worked in a similar fashion when presented with simulated data and real data. The latter is the first time this has been demonstrated for data from LArTPCs.

    Showing that networks behave the same on simulated and real data is critical, because these networks are typically trained on simulated data. Recall that these networks learn by looking at many examples. In industry, gathering large “training” data sets is an arduous and expensive task. However, particle physicists have a secret weapon — they can create as much simulated data as they want, since all experiments produce a highly detailed model of their detectors and data acquisition systems in order to produce as faithful a representation of the data as possible.

    However, these models are never perfect. And so a big question was, “Is the simulated data close enough to the real data to properly train these neural networks?” The way MicroBooNE answered this question is by performing a Turing test that compares the performance of the network to that of a physicist. They demonstrated that the accuracy of the human was similar to the machine when labeling simulated data, for which an absolute accuracy can be defined. They then compared the labels for real data. Here the disagreement between labels was low, and similar between machine and human (See the top figure. See the figure below for an example of how a human and computer labeled the same data event.) In addition, a number of qualitative studies looked at the correlation between manipulations of the image and the label provided by the network. They showed that the correlations follow human-like intuitions. For example, as a line segment gets shorter, the network becomes less confident if the segment is due to a track or a shower. This suggests that the low-level correlations being used are the same physically motivated correlations a physicist would use if engineering an algorithm by hand.

    2
    This example image shows a charged-current neutrino interaction with decay gamma rays from a neutral pion (left). The label image (middle) is shown with the output of U-ResNet (right) where track and shower pixels are shown in yellow and cyan color respectively.

    Demonstrating this simulated-versus-real data milestone is important because convolutional neural networks are valuable to current and future neutrino experiments that will use LArTPCs. This track-shower labeling is currently being employed in upcoming MicroBooNE analyses. Furthermore, for the upcoming Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), convolutional neural networks are showing much promise toward having the performance necessary to achieve DUNE’s physics goals, such as the measurement of CP violation, a possible explanation of the asymmetry in the presence of matter and antimatter in the current universe.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    The more demonstrations there are that these algorithms work on real LArTPC data, the more confidence the community can have that convolutional neural networks will help us learn about the properties of the neutrino and the fundamental laws of nature once DUNE begins to take data.

    Science paper:
    A Deep Neural Network for Pixel-Level Electromagnetic Particle Identification in the MicroBooNE Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber
    https://arxiv.org/abs/1808.07269

    Victor Genty, Kazuhiro Terao and Taritree Wongjirad are three of the scientists who analyzed this result. Victor Genty is a graduate student at Columbia University. Kazuhiro Terao is a physicist at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Taritree Wongjirad is an assistant professor at Tufts University.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 2:52 pm on August 7, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, , ,   

    From Symmetry: “A dual-phase DUNE” 

    Symmetry Mag
    From Symmetry

    08/07/18
    Lauren Biron

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment is advancing technology commonly used in dark matter experiments—and scaling it up to record-breaking sizes.

    1
    Photo by CERN

    It’s an exciting time in particle physics. Puzzles abound. There are hints of things that don’t fit with scientists’ best model of the universe—and researchers are taking inspiration from one another as they investigate them all.

    One recent example comes from the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, an international megascience project with more than 1100 scientists from 32 countries. It’s hosted by the Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois. Fermilab will send a beam of particles called neutrinos straight through 800 miles (1300 km) of earth to a huge particle detector—four modules holding 70,000 total tons of liquid argon—to be housed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota. Scientists hope to learn more about the properties of these mysterious particles, which might have something to do with why matter exists.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    One of the prototypes for the huge DUNE detector modules will use a concept that’s relatively new for neutrino science but familiar to researchers from other parts of particle physics: the dual-phase detector.

    Learning from dark matter searches

    Matter comes in different phases, the most familiar of which are solid, liquid and gas. All dual-phase particle detectors to date have one thing in common: They use a combination of liquid and gas phases. This will also be true for DUNE, whose dual-phase module of liquid and gaseous argon will make it the largest dual-phase detector ever created when it comes online in the mid-2020s.

    Dual-phase detectors can record a particle interaction twice: first when the collision occurs in the liquid, creating a flash of light, and again when the resulting spray of particles enters the area filled with gas and produces even more signals. Having these two indicators allows for an especially precise and clear reconstruction of the original interaction.

    2
    Researcher Jae Yu checks components within the dual-phase ProtoDUNE detector. Photo by CERN.

    Neutrino experiments using dual-phase technology have started cropping up only in the past few years, but it’s been an industry standard for dark matter experiments for much longer.

    Neutrinos and dark matter are two of the biggest mysteries in particle physics today. Neutrinos rarely interact with matter, and it took about 25 years from the theoretical “invention” of neutrinos to their actual detection in 1956. Today, neutrinos intrigue scientists with their tiny yet unexpected masses and their ability to morph between at least three different types as they travel throughout the universe. Dark matter has never been directly observed, but scientists infer the existence of these proposed particles from indirect evidence such as the unlikely speed at which galaxies spin without coming apart.

    Dual-phase technology for dark matter detectors, originally proposed in the 1970s, is well established and has helped produce leading dark matter results for the past decade, says Cristian Galbiati, a physicist at Princeton and spokesperson for the DarkSide-50 dark matter experiment currently collecting data at INFN’s Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy.

    Dark Side-50 Dark Matter Experiment at Gran Sasso

    Gran Sasso LABORATORI NAZIONALI del GRAN SASSO, located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy

    Like DUNE, DarkSide uses argon as a detection medium. But each experiment faces its own particular challenges. For one, unlike DUNE, DarkSide must have no background noise—signals that could be misinterpreted as a dark matter particle discovery.

    “As soon as you have one event of background, you are toast,” Galbiati says. “Dual-phase detectors are proven to deliver a completely background-free condition if the argon is clean.”

    This means that the experiment has to use argon with very low radioactivity, specially procured and distilled from an underground source in Colorado. It will also be true for the next generation of the experiment, DarkSide-20k, which will require 20 tons of the ultrapure argon. Researchers working on multiple small-scale dark matter detectors that use argon, including DEAP 3600, ARDM, MiniCLEAN, and DarkSide-50, have joined together and formed the Global Dark Matter Argon Collaboration to work on that next-generation detector, scheduled to come online at Gran Sasso in 2022. It will be followed by an even larger version around 2027.

    DEAP Dark Matter detector, The DEAP-3600, suspended in the SNOLAB deep in Sudbury’s Creighton Mine

    ARDM experiment at the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (LSC) in Spain

    MiniCLEAN detector


    MiniCLEAN Dark Matter experiment at SNOLAB, Canada

    Argon isn’t the only game in town. Other dual-phase dark matter detectors use different noble gases, such as the xenon in LUX or the next-generation LUX-ZEPLIN experiment. LZ will use 10 tons of the material and should see “first dark” in 2020.

    LBNL Lux Zeplin project at SURF

    LUX dark matter experiment Photomultiplier tubes, which collect light, were installed in this frame for the experiment

    Like DUNE’s dual-phase prototype, the LZ detector is a big, complicated instrument with lots of different systems that have to come together, says Dan McKinsey, co-spokesperson of LUX and a scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and UC Berkeley who is working on LZ. He lists off a few of the technological advances the project is working on that are also relevant to dual-phase neutrino detectors like DUNE: “High voltage, light collection, purity—these challenges all scale. They become bigger challenges as detectors grow.”

    Pushing technologies with a dual-phase DUNE

    DUNE will make use of both single-phase and dual-phase detector modules at the experiment’s far site in South Dakota.

    Single-phase argon technology, which uses only liquid argon, has already been demonstrated in short-distance neutrino experiments—like MicroBooNE at Fermilab, which uses a school-bus-sized detector—and in long-distance experiments—like ICARUS, a 760-ton detector that previously operated at Gran Sasso using a neutrino beam that traveled 450 miles (725 km) from CERN, the European Center for Nuclear Research. And dual-phase neutrino tech made significant progress with the WA105 3X1X1 detector.

    Proto Dune WA105 3X1X1 detector at CERN

    Nevertheless, when you’re building up to something as big as DUNE, you want to run tests to make sure everything works as expected. To that end, collaborators are building enormous single-phase and dual-phase testbeds called the ProtoDUNE detectors at CERN. At the laboratory’s new neutrino platform, led by Marzio Nessi, scientists are now completing the two 800-ton detectors to give the technologies for DUNE a final test.

    3
    The two ProtoDUNE detectors are housed at CERN’s neutrino platform. Photo by CERN

    “The goal of these devices is to develop the technology and be sure we do things the right way,” says Filippo Resnati, technical coordinator of the neutrino facility at CERN. “But it’s also very nice to know that despite these being tests, these are the two biggest liquid-argon time projection chambers that have ever been built, and by far in the shortest time.”

    The single-phase prototype should finish filling with liquid argon and be commissioned by the end of summer, seeing first particle tracks in the fall. The dual-phase prototype recently finished the first test of a key component called the charge readout plane, or CRP, which will amplify the electrons into the gas and collect their signals. The CRPs and other components should be installed this fall.

    “We have to make sure we are working together as a team and that each of these technologies can work,” says Jae Yu, a physicist at the University of Texas at Arlington who works on the dual-phase ProtoDUNE. “It’s always better to have different technologies so we can cross check each other.”

    Some of the advantages of using the dual-phase technology are, compared to the single-phase setup, stronger and cleaner signals and a lower energy threshold, meaning the detector can see lower-energy neutrinos. Amplifying the electrons in the gas makes the signal stand out from background noise. Single-phase detectors try to collect the signal as soon as possible, meaning the electronics are usually inside the detector, within the liquid argon at a cryogenic temperature. In contrast, the dual-phase detector’s electronics will be housed in special chimneys that are accessible from the outside.

    “You can access the electronics at any moment needed, without contaminating the liquid argon,” says Dario Autiero, DUNE project leader for the French National Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics (IN2P3) groups. “This concept and the design of the electronics are innovative, and it took a long time to develop them.”

    Another bonus: almost all of the liquid argon inside the dual-phase detector is one large, signal-producing region, making the data analysis less complicated. In contrast, single-phase detectors are segmented into chunks, meaning the different sections later have to be combined together for data analysis, and gaps accounted for.

    But with those benefits come challenges for the dual-phase design of DUNE.

    The cathode of the field cage—the electrical component which draws the electrons towards the signal-recording pieces—must be operated at a mind-boggling voltage of around 600,000 volts. In addition, the CRPs must lie perfectly level at the border of the liquid and gas phases of argon and function stably, without sparking.

    “We are pioneers, in a sense,” says Inés Gil Botella, leader of the CIEMAT group in Spain that is working on the elements that will capture the light within the dual-phase detector. “This is a technology challenge at these scales because it has never been done before. It’s a very exciting time, but also a very critical time. We are advancing the technology.”

    The overlap between dual-phase technologies for dark matter and neutrino experiments will continue for the foreseeable future. The Global Argon Dark Matter Collaboration already is looking at the design of the ProtoDUNE cryostat as a potential casing for their 20-ton experiment, and ProtoDUNE collaborators are looking at how the dual-phase prototype detector could be used to look for a particular kind of dark matter.

    “The more I think about it, the more I fall in love with this technology,” Yu says. “It’s beautiful. It’s mesmerizing. It’s a piece of art. It’s elegant. And it’s just the beginning. There’s a lot more work to be done.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 10:02 am on July 24, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Accelerating superconducting technology, , , , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, , ,   

    From Fermilab: “Fermilab gets ready to upgrade accelerator complex for more powerful particle beams” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermilab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    More powerful particle beams

    July 24, 2018
    Andre Salles,
    Fermilab Office of Communication
    asalles@fnal.gov
    630-840-6733

    Fermilab’s accelerator complex has achieved a major milestone: The U.S. Department of Energy formally approved Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to proceed with its design of PIP-II, an accelerator upgrade project that will provide increased beam power to generate an unprecedented stream of neutrinos — subatomic particles that could unlock our understanding of the universe — and enable a broad program of physics research for many years to come.

    The PIP-II (Proton Improvement Plan II) accelerator upgrades are integral to the Fermilab-hosted Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), which is the largest international science experiment ever to be conducted on U.S. soil.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    DUNE requires enormous quantities of neutrinos to study the mysterious particle in exquisite detail and, with the latest approval for PIP-II, Fermilab is positioned to be the world leader in accelerator-based neutrino research. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), which will also support DUNE, had its groundbreaking ceremony in July 2017.

    The opportunity to contribute to PIP-II has drawn scientists and engineers from around the world to Fermilab: PIP-II is the first accelerator project on U.S. soil that will have significant contributions from international partners. Fermilab’s PIP-II partnerships include institutions in India, Italy, France and the UK, as well as the United States.

    PIP-II capitalizes on recent particle accelerator advances developed at Fermilab and other institutions that will allow its accelerators to generate particle beams at higher powers than previously available. The high-power particle beams will in turn create intense neutrino beams, providing scientists with an abundance of these subtle particles.

    “PIP-II’s high-power accelerators and its national and multinational partnerships reinforce Fermilab’s position as the accelerator-based neutrino physics capital of the world,” said DOE Undersecretary for Science Paul Dabbar. “LBNF/DUNE, the Fermilab-based megascience experiment for neutrino research, has already attracted more than 1,000 collaborators from 32 countries. With the accelerator side of the experiment ramping up in the form of PIP-II, not only does Fermilab attract collaborators worldwide to do neutrino science, but U.S. particle physics also gets a powerful boost.”

    The Department of Energy’s Argonne and Lawrence Berkeley national laboratories are also major PIP-II participants.

    1
    This architectural rendering shows the buildings that will house the new PIP-II accelerators. Architectural rendering: Gensler. Image: Diana Brandonisio

    A major milestone

    The DOE milestone is formally called Critical Decision 1 approval, or CD-1. In granting CD-1, DOE approves Fermilab’s approach and cost range. The milestone marks the completion of the project definition phase and the conceptual design. The next step is to move the project toward establishing a performance baseline.

    “We think of PIP-II as the heart of Fermilab: a platform that provides multiple capabilities and enables broad scientific programs, including the most powerful accelerator-based neutrino source in the world,” said Fermilab PIP-II Project Director Lia Merminga. “With the go-ahead to refine our blueprint, we can focus designing the PIP-II accelerator complex to be as powerful and flexible as it can possibly be.”

    PIP-II’s powerful neutrino stream

    Neutrinos are ubiquitous yet fleeting particles, the most difficult to capture of all of the members of the subatomic particle family. Scientists capture them by sending neutrino beams generated from particle accelerators to large, stories-high detectors. The greater the number of neutrinos sent to the detectors, the greater the chances the detectors will catch them, and the more opportunity there is to study these subatomic escape artists.

    That’s where PIP-II comes in.

    Fermilab’s upgraded PIP-II accelerator complex will generate proton beams of significantly greater power than is currently available. The increase in beam power translates into more neutrinos that can be sent to the lab’s various neutrino experiments. The result will be the world’s most intense high-energy neutrino beam.

    The goal of PIP-II is to produce a proton beam of more than 1 megawatt, about 60 percent higher than the existing accelerator complex supplies. Eventually, enabled by PIP-II, Fermilab could upgrade the accelerator to double that power to more than 2 megawatts.

    “At that power, we can just flood the detectors with neutrinos,” said DUNE co-spokesperson and University of Chicago physicist Ed Blucher. “That’s what so exciting. Every neutrino that stops in our detectors adds a bit of information to our picture of the universe. And the more neutrinos that stop, the closer we get to filling in the picture.”

    The largest and most ambitious of these detectors are those in DUNE, which is scheduled to start up in the mid-2020s. DUNE will use two detectors separated by a distance of 800 miles (1,300 kilometers) — one at Fermilab and a second, much larger detector situated one mile underground in South Dakota at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. Prototypes of those technologically advanced neutrino detectors are now under construction at the European particle physics laboratory CERN, which is a major partner in LBNF/DUNE, and are expected to take data later this year.

    Fermilab’s accelerators, enhanced according to the PIP-II plan, will send a beam of neutrinos to the DUNE detector at Fermilab. The beam will continue its path straight through Earth’s crust to the detector in South Dakota. Scientists will study the data gathered by both detectors, comparing them to get a better handle on how neutrino properties change over the long distance.

    The detector located in South Dakota, known as the DUNE far detector, is enormous. It will stand four stories high and occupy an area equivalent to a soccer field. With its supporting platform LBNF, DUNE is designed to handle a neutrino deluge.

    And, with the cooperation of international partners, PIP-II is designed to deliver it.

    2
    The PIP-II project will supply powerful neutrino beams for the LBNF/DUNE experiment. Image: Diana Brandonisio

    Partners in PIP-II

    The development of a major particle accelerator with international participation represents a new paradigm in U.S. accelerator projects: PIP-II is the first U.S.-based accelerator project with multinational partners. Currently these include laboratories in India (BARC, IUAC, RRCAT, VECC) and institutions funded in Italy by the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), France (CEA and IN2P3), and in the UK by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC).

    In an agreement with India, four Indian Department of Atomic Energy institutions are authorized to contribute equipment, with details to be formalized in advance of the start of construction.

    “The international scientific community brings world-leading expertise and capabilities to the project. Their engagement and shared sense of ownership in the project’s success are among the most compelling strengths of PIP-II,” Merminga said.

    PIP-II partners contribute accelerator components, pursuing their development jointly with Fermilab through regular exchanges of scientists and engineers. The collaboration is mutually beneficial. For some international partners, this collaboration presents an opportunity for development of their own facilities and infrastructure as well as local accelerator industry.

    3
    Fermilab is currently developing the front end of the PIP-II linear accelerator for tests of the relevant technology. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    Accelerating superconducting technology

    The centerpiece of the PIP-II project is the construction of a new superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) linear accelerator, which will become the initial stage of the upgraded Fermilab accelerator chain. It will replace the current Fermilab Linac.

    4
    This is a view of the high energy end of the linac

    5
    This is an aerial view showing the smaller machines in the Fermilab accelerator complex.There is a good view of the Pre-accelerator (Cockroft-Walton), the Linac, the Booster ring, and the Antiproton source (Accumulator and Debuncher).Courtesy Fermilab Visual media services.

    6
    This is a schematic of FNAL accelerator complex; the arrows give a sense of how the beams (proton or anti proton) move from one machine to the next. Courtesy Fermilab Visual media services
    (“Linac” is a common abbreviation for “linear accelerator,” in which the particle beam proceeds along a straight path.) The plan is to install the SRF linac under 25 feet of dirt in the infield of the now decommissioned Tevatron ring.

    FNAL/Tevatron map

    The new SRF linac will provide a big boost to its particle beam from the get-go, doubling the beam energy of its predecessor from 400 million to 800 million electronvolts. That boost will enable the Fermilab accelerator complex to achieve megawatt-scale beam power.

    Superconducting materials carry zero electrical resistance, so current sails through them effortlessly. By taking advantage of superconducting components, accelerators minimize the amount of power they draw from the power grid, channeling more of it to the beam. Beams thus achieve higher energies at less cost than in normal-conducting accelerators, such as Fermilab’s current Linac.

    In the linac, superconducting components called accelerating cavities will impart energy to the particle beam. The cavities, which look like strands of jumbo, silver pearls, are made of niobium and will be lined up end to end. The particle beam will accelerate down the axis of one cavity after another, picking up energy as it goes.

    “Fermilab is one of the pioneers in superconducting accelerator technology,” Merminga said. “Many of the advances developed here are going into the PIP-II SRF linac.”

    The linac cavities will be encased in 25 cryomodules, which house cryogenics to keep the cavities cold (to maintain superconductivity).

    Many current and future particle accelerators are based on superconducting technology, and the advances that help scientists study neutrinos have multiplying effects outside fundamental science. Researchers are developing superconducting accelerators for medicine, environmental cleanup, quantum computing, industry and national security.

    The beam scheme

    In PIP-II, a beam of protons will be injected into the linac. Over the course of its 176 meters — six-and-a-half Olympic-size pool lengths — the beam will accelerate to an energy of 800 million electronvolts. Once it passes through the superconducting linac, it will enter the rest of Fermilab’s current accelerator chain — a further three accelerators — which will also undergo significant upgrades over the next few years to handle the higher-energy beam from the new linac. By the time the beam exits the final accelerator, it will have an energy of up to 120 billion electronvolts and more than 1 megawatt of power.

    After the proton beam exits the chain, it will strike a segmented cylinder of carbon. The beam-carbon collision will create a shower of other particles, which will be routed to various Fermilab experiments. Some of these post-collision particles will become — will “decay into,” in physics lingo — neutrinos, which will by this point already be on the path toward their detectors.

    PIP-II’s initial proton beam — which scientists will be able to distribute between LBNF/DUNE and other experiments — can be delivered in pulses or as a continuous proton stream.

    The front-end components for PIP-II — those upstream from the superconducting linac — are already developed and undergoing testing.

    “We are very happy to have been able to design PIP-II to meet the requirements of the neutrino program while providing flexibility for future development of the Fermilab experimental program in any number of directions,” said Fermilab’s Steve Holmes, former PIP-II project director.

    Fermilab expects to complete the project by the mid-2020s, in time for the startup of LBNF/DUNE.

    “Many people worked tirelessly to design the best machine for the science we want to do,” Merminga said. “The recognition of their excellent work through CD-1 approval is encouraging for us. We look forward to building this forefront accelerator.”

    Department of Energy funding for the project is provided through DOE’s Office of Science.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 9:43 am on April 16, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, , , , U.S. and India sign agreement providing for neutrino physics collaboration at Fermilab and in India   

    From FNAL: “U.S., India sign agreement providing for neutrino physics collaboration at Fermilab and in India” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    April 16, 2018

    1
    U.S. Secretary of Energy Rick Perry, left, and Indian Atomic Energy Secretary Sekhar Basu, right, signed an agreement on Monday in New Delhi, opening the door for continued cooperation on neutrino research in both countries. In attendance were Hema Ramamoorthi, chief of staff of the U.S. DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, and U.S. Ambassador to India Kenneth Juster. Photo: Fermilab.

    Earlier today, April 16, 2018, U.S. Secretary of Energy Rick Perry and India’s Atomic Energy Secretary Dr. Sekhar Basu signed an agreement in New Delhi to expand the two countries’ collaboration on world-leading science and technology projects. It opens the way for jointly advancing cutting-edge neutrino science projects under way in both countries: the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) with the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) hosted at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermilab and the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO).

    LBNF/DUNE brings together scientists from around the world to discover the role that tiny particles known as neutrinos play in the universe. More than 1,000 scientists from over 170 institutions in 31 countries work on LBNF/DUNE and celebrated its groundbreaking in July 2017. The project will use Fermilab’s powerful particle accelerators to send the world’s most intense beam of high-energy neutrinos to massive neutrino detectors that will explore their interactions with matter.

    INO scientists will observe neutrinos that are produced in Earth’s atmosphere to answer questions about the properties of these elusive particles. Scientists from more than 20 institutions are working on INO.

    “The LBNF/DUNE project hosted by the Department of Energy’s Fermilab is an important priority for the DOE and America’s leadership in science, in collaboration with our international partners,” said Secretary of Energy Rick Perry. “We are pleased to expand our partnership with India in neutrino science and look forward to making discoveries in this promising area of research.”

    Scientists from the United States and India have a long history of scientific collaboration, including the discovery of the top quark at Fermilab.

    “India has a rich tradition of discoveries in basic science,” said Atomic Energy Secretary Basu. “We are pleased to expand our accelerator science collaboration with the U.S. to include the science for neutrinos. Science knows no borders, and we value our Indian scientists working hand-in-hand with our American colleagues. The pursuit of knowledge is a true human endeavor.”

    This DOE-DAE agreement builds on the two countries’ existing collaboration on particle accelerator technologies. In 2013, DOE and DAE signed an agreement authorizing the joint development and construction of particle accelerator components in preparation for projects at Fermilab and in India. This collaborative work includes the training of Indian scientists in the United States and India’s development and prototyping of components for upgrades to Fermilab’s particle accelerator complex for LBNF/DUNE. The upgrades, known as the Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II), include the construction of a 600-foot-long superconducting linear accelerator at Fermilab. It will be the first ever particle accelerator built in the United States with significant contributions from international partners, including also the UK and Italy. Scientists from four institutions in India – BARC in Mumbai, IUAC in New Delhi, RRCAT in Indore and VECC in Kolkata – are contributing to the design and construction of magnets and superconducting particle accelerator components for PIP-II at Fermilab and the next generation of particle accelerators in India.

    Under the new agreement signed today, U.S. and Indian institutions will expand this productive collaboration to include neutrino research projects. The LBNF/DUNE project will use the upgraded Fermilab particle accelerator complex to send the world’s most powerful neutrino beam 800 miles (1,300 kilometers) through the earth to a massive neutrino detector located at Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota. This detector will use almost 70,000 tons of liquid argon to detect neutrinos and will be located about a mile (1.5 kilometers) underground; an additional detector will measure the neutrino beam at Fermilab as it leaves the accelerator complex. Prototype neutrino detectors already are under construction at the European research center CERN, another partner in LBNF/DUNE.

    “Fermilab’s international collaboration with India and other countries for LBNF/DUNE and PIP-II is a win-win situation for everybody involved,” said Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer. “Our partners get to work with and learn from some of the best particle accelerator and particle detector experts in the world at Fermilab, and we benefit from their contributions to some of the most complex scientific machines in the world, including LBNF/DUNE and the PIP-II accelerator.”

    INO will use a different technology — known as an iron calorimeter — to record information about neutrinos and antineutrinos generated by cosmic rays hitting Earth’s atmosphere. Its detector will feature what could be the world’s biggest magnet, allowing INO to be the first experiment able to distinguish signals produced by atmospheric neutrinos and antineutrinos. The DOE-DAE agreement enables U.S. and Indian scientists to collaborate on the development and construction of these different types of neutrino detectors. More than a dozen Indian institutions are involved in the collaboration on neutrino research.

    Additional quotes:

    Prof. Vivek Datar, INO spokesperson and project director, Taha Institute of Fundamental Research:

    “This will facilitate U.S. participation in building some of the hardware for INO, while Indian scientists do the same for the DUNE experiment. It will also help in building expertise in India in cutting-edge detector technology, such as in liquid-argon detectors, where Fermilab will be at the forefront. At the same time we will also pursue some new ideas.”

    Prof. Naba Mondal, former INO spokesperson, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics:

    “This agreement is a positive step towards making INO a global center for fundamental research. Students working at INO will get opportunities to interact with international experts.”

    Prof. Ed Blucher, DUNE co-spokesperson, University of Chicago, United States:

    “The international DUNE experiment could fundamentally change our understanding of the universe. Contributions from India and other partner countries will enable us to build the world’s most technologically advanced neutrino detectors as we aim to make groundbreaking discoveries regarding the origin of matter, the unification of forces, and the formation of neutron stars and black holes.”

    Prof. Stefan Soldner-Rembold, DUNE co-spokesperson, University of Manchester, UK:

    “DUNE will be the world’s most ambitious neutrino experiment, driven by the commitment and expertise of scientists in more than 30 countries. We are looking forward to the contributions that our colleagues in India will make to this extraordinary project.”

    To learn more about LBNF/DUNE, visit http://www.fnal.gov/dunemedia. More information about PIP-II is available at http://pip2.fnal.gov.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 5:11 pm on January 18, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, , ,   

    From Symmetry: “The biggest little detectors” 

    Symmetry Mag

    Symmetry

    01/18/18
    Leah Hesla

    1
    Photo by Maximilien Brice, CERN

    The ProtoDUNE detectors for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment are behemoths in their own right.

    In one sense, the two ProtoDUNE detectors are small. As prototypes of the much larger planned Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, they are only representative slices, each measuring about 1 percent of the size of the final detector. But in all other ways, the ProtoDUNE detectors are simply massive.

    CERN Proto DUNE Maximillian Brice

    Once they are complete later this year, these two test detectors will be larger than any detector ever built that uses liquid argon, its active material. The international project involves dozens of experimental groups coordinating around the world. And most critically, the ProtoDUNE detectors, which are being installed and tested at the European particle physics laboratory CERN, are the rehearsal spaces in which physicists, engineers and technicians will hammer out nearly every engineering problem confronting DUNE, the biggest international science project ever conducted in the United States.

    Gigantic detector, tiny neutrino

    DUNE’s mission, when it comes online in the mid-2020s, will be to pin down the nature of the neutrino, the most ubiquitous particle of matter in the universe. Despite neutrinos’ omnipresence—they fill the universe, and trillions of them stream through us every second—they are a pain in the neck to capture. Neutrinos are vanishingly small, fleeting particles that, unlike other members of the subatomic realm, are heedless of the matter through which they fly, never stopping to interact.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    Well, almost never.

    Once in a while, scientists can catch one. And when they do, it might tell them a bit about the origins of the universe and why matter predominates over antimatter—and thus how we came to be here at all.

    A global community of more than 1000 scientists from 31 countries are building DUNE, a megascience experiment hosted by the Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The researchers’ plan is to observe neutrinos using two detectors separated by 1300 kilometers—one at Fermilab outside Chicago and a second one a mile underground in South Dakota at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. Having one at each end enables scientists to see how neutrinos transform as they travel over a long distance.

    The DUNE collaboration is going all-in on the bigger-is-better strategy; after all, the bigger the detector, the more likely scientists are to snag a neutrino. The detector located in South Dakota, called the DUNE far detector, will hold 70,000 metric tons (equivalent to about 525,000 bathtubs) of liquid argon to serve as the neutrino fishing net. It comprises four large modules. Each will stand four stories high and, not including the structures that house the utilities, occupy a footprint roughly equal to a soccer field.

    In short, DUNE is giant.

    Lots of room in ProtoDUNE

    The ProtoDUNE detectors are small only when compared to the giant DUNE detector. If each of the four DUNE modules is a 20-room building, then each ProtoDUNE detector is one room.

    But one room large enough to envelop a small house.

    As one repeatable unit of the ultimate detector, the ProtoDUNE detectors are necessarily big. Each is an enormous cube—about two stories high and about as wide—and contains about 800 metric tons of liquid argon.

    Why two prototypes? Researchers are investigating two ways to use argon and so are constructing two slightly different but equally sized test beds. The single-phase ProtoDUNE uses only liquid argon, while the dual-phase ProtoDUNE uses argon as both a liquid and a gas.

    “They’re the largest liquid-argon particle detectors that have ever been built,” says Ed Blucher, DUNE co-spokesperson and a physicist at the University of Chicago.

    As DUNE’s test bed, the ProtoDUNE detectors also have to offer researchers a realistic picture of how the liquid-argon detection technology will work in DUNE, so the instrumentation inside the detectors is also at full, giant scale.

    “If you’re going to build a huge underground detector and invest all of this time and all of these resources into it, that prototype has to work properly and be well-understood,” says Bob Paulos, director of the University of Wisconsin–Madison Physical Sciences Lab and a DUNE engineer. “You need to understand all the engineering problems before you proceed to build literally hundreds of these components and try to transport them all underground.”

    3
    A crucial step for ProtoDUNE was welding together the cryostat, or cold vessel, that will house the detector components and liquid argon. Photo by CERN.

    Partners in ProtoDUNE

    ProtoDUNE is a rehearsal for DUNE not only in its technical orchestration but also in the coordination of human activity.

    When scientists were planning their next-generation neutrino experiment around 2013, they realized that it could succeed only by bringing the international scientific community together to build the project. They also saw that even the prototyping would require an effort of global proportions—both geographically and professionally. As a result, DUNE and ProtoDUNE actively invite students, early-career scientists and senior researchers from all around the world to contribute.

    “The scale of ProtoDUNE, a global collaboration at CERN for a US-based megaproject, is a paradigm change in the way neutrino science is done,” says Christos Touramanis, a physicist at the University of Liverpool and one of the co-coordinators of the single-phase detector. For both DUNE and ProtoDUNE, funding comes from partners around the world, including the Department of Energy’s Office of Science and CERN.

    The successful execution of ProtoDUNE’s assembly and testing by international groups requires a unity of purpose from parties that could hardly be farther apart, geographically speaking.

    Scientists say the effort is going smoothly.

    “I’ve been doing neutrino physics and detector technology for the last 20 or 25 years. I’ve never seen such an effort go up so nicely and quickly. It’s astonishing,” says Fermilab scientist Flavio Cavanna, who co-coordinates the single-phase ProtoDUNE project. “We have a great collaboration, great atmosphere, great willingness to make it. Everybody is doing his or her best to contribute to the success of this big project. I used to say that ProtoDUNE was mission impossible, because—in the short time we were given to make the two detectors, it looked that way in the beginning. But looking at where we are now, and all the progress made so far, it starts turning out to be mission possible.”

    4
    The anode plane array (APA) [STFC] is prepped for shipment at Daresbury Laboratory in the UK. Christos Touramanis.

    Inside the liquid-argon test bed

    The first signal emerges as a streak of ionization electrons.

    To record the signal, scientists will use something called an anode plane array, or APA. An APA is a screen created using 24 kilometers of precisely tensioned, closely spaced, continuously wound wire. This wire screen is positively charged, so it attracts the negatively charged electrons.

    Much the way a wave front approaches the beach’s shore, the particle track—a string of the ionization electrons—will head toward the positively charged wires inside the ProtoDUNE detectors. The wires will send information about the track to computers, which will record its properties and thus information about the original neutrino interaction.

    A group in the University of Wisconsin–Madison Physical Sciences Lab led by Paulos designed the single-phase ProtoDUNE wire arrays. The Wisconsin group, Daresbury Laboratory in the UK and several UK universities are building APAs for the same detector. The first APA from Wisconsin arrived at CERN last year; the first from Daresbury Lab arrived earlier this week.

    “These are complicated to build,” Paulos says, noting that it currently takes about three months to build just one. “Building these 6-meter-tall anode planes with continuously wound wire—that’s something that hasn’t been done before.”

    The anode planes attract the electrons. Pushing away the electrons will be a complementary set of panels, called the cathode plane. Together, the anode and cathode planes behave like battery terminals, with one repelling electron tracks and the other drawing them in. A group at CERN designed and is building the cathode plane.

    The dual-phase detector will operate on the same principle but with a different configuration of wire arrays. A special layer of electronics near the cathode will allow for the amplification of faint electron tracks in a layer of gaseous argon. Groups at institutions in France, Germany and Switzerland are designing those instruments. Once complete, they will also send their arrays to be tested at CERN.

    Then there’s the business of observing light.

    The flash of light is the result of a release of energy from the electron in the process of getting bumped from an argon atom. The appearance of light is like the signal to start a stopwatch; it marks the moment the neutrino interaction in a detector takes place. This enables scientists to reconstruct in three dimensions the picture of the interaction and resulting particles.

    On the other side of the equator, a group at the University of Campinas in Brazil is coordinating the installation of instruments that will capture the flashes of light resulting from particle interactions in the single-phase ProtoDUNE detector.

    Two of the designs for the single-phase prototype—one by Indiana University, the other by Fermilab and MIT—are of a type called guiding bars. These long, narrow strips work like fiber optic cables: they capture the light, convert it into light in the visible spectrum and finally guide it to an external sensor.

    A third design, called ARAPUCA, was developed by three Brazilian universities and Fermilab and is being partially produced at Colorado State University. Named for the Guaraní word for a bird trap, the efficient ARAPUCA design will be able to “trap” even very low light signals and transmit them to its sensors.

    5
    The ARAPUCA array, designed by three Brazilian universities and Fermilab, was partially produced at Colorado State University. D. Warner, Colorado State University.

    “The ARAPUCA technology is totally new,” says University of Campinas scientist Ettore Segreto, who is co-coordinating the installation of the light detection systems in the single-phase prototype. “We might be able to get more information from the light detection—for example, greater energy resolution.”

    Groups from France, Spain and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology are developing the light detection system for the dual-phase prototype, which will comprise 36 photomultiplier tubes, or PMTs, situated near the cathode plane. A PMT works by picking up the light from the particle interaction and converting it into electrons, multiplying their number and so amplifying the signal’s strength as the electrons travel down the tube.

    With two tricked-out detectors, the DUNE collaboration can test their picture-taking capabilities and prepare DUNE to capture in exquisite detail the fleeting interactions of neutrinos.

    Bringing instruments into harmony

    But even if they’re instrumented to the nines inside, two isolated prototypes do not a proper test bed make. Both ProtoDUNE detectors must be hooked up to computing systems so particle interaction signals can be converted into data. Each detector must be contained in a cryostat, which functions like a thermos, for the argon to be cold enough to maintain a liquid state. And the detectors must be fed particles in the first place.

    CERN is addressing these key areas by providing particle beam, innovative cryogenics and computing infrastructures, and connecting the prototype detectors with the DUNE experimental environment.

    DUNE’s neutrinos will be provided by the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility, or LBNF, which held an underground groundbreaking for the start of its construction in July. LBNF, led by Fermilab, will provide the construction, beamline and cryogenics for the mammoth DUNE detector, as well as Fermilab’s chain of particle accelerators, which will provide the world’s most intense neutrino beam to the experiment.

    CERN is helping simulate that environment as closely as possible with the scaled-down ProtoDUNE detectors, furnishing them with particle beams so researchers can characterize how the detectors respond. Under the leadership of scientist Marzio Nessi, last year the CERN group built a new facility for the test beds, where CERN is now constructing two new particle beamlines that extend the lab’s existing network.

    7
    The recently arrived anode plane array (hanging on the left) is moved by a crane to its new home in the ProtoDUNE cryostat. Photo by CERN.

    In addition, CERN built the ProtoDUNE cryostats—the largest ever constructed for a particle physics experiment—which also will serve as prototypes for those used in DUNE. Scientists will be able to gather and interpret the data generated from the detectors with a CERN computing farm and software and hardware from several UK universities.

    “The very process of building these prototype detectors provides a stress test for building them in DUNE,” Blucher says.

    CERN’s beam schedule sets the schedule for testing. In December, the European laboratory will temporarily shut off beam to its experiments for upgrades to the Large Hadron Collider. DUNE scientists aim to position the ProtoDUNE detectors in the CERN beam before then, testing the new technologies pioneered as part of the experiment.

    “ProtoDUNE is a necessary and fundamental step towards LBNF/DUNE,” Nessi says. “Most of the engineering will be defined there and it is the place to learn and solve problems. The success of the LBNF/DUNE project depends on it.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel
%d bloggers like this: