Tagged: FNAL LBNF/ DUNE Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • richardmitnick 3:09 pm on June 24, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , CERN ProtoDUNE, FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, , , ,   

    From Symmetry: “World’s biggest neutrino experiment moves one step closer” 

    Symmetry Mag

    Symmetry

    06/23/17
    Lauren Biron

    1
    Photo by Maximilien Brice, CERN

    The startup of a 25-ton test detector at CERN advances technology for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    In a lab at CERN sits a very important box. It covers about three parking spaces and is more than a story tall. Sitting inside is a metal device that tracks energetic cosmic particles.

    CERN Proto DUNE Maximillian Brice

    This is a prototype detector, a stepping-stone on the way to the future Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). On June 21, it recorded its first particle tracks.

    So begins the largest ever test of an extremely precise method for measuring elusive particles called neutrinos, which may hold the key to why our universe looks the way it does and how it came into being.

    A two-phase detector

    The prototype detector is named WA105 3x1x1 (its dimensions in meters) and holds five active tons—3000 liters—of liquid argon. Argon is well suited to interacting with neutrinos then transmitting the subsequent light and electrons for collection. Previous liquid argon neutrino detectors, such as ICARUS and MicroBooNE, detected signals from neutrinos using wires in the liquid argon. But crucially, this new test detector also holds a small amount of gaseous argon, earning it the special status of a two-phase detector.

    INFN Gran Sasso ICARUS, since moved to FNAL

    FNAL/ICARUS

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    As particles pass through the detector, they interact with the argon atoms inside. Electrons are stripped off of atoms and drift through the liquid toward an “extraction grid,” which kicks them into the gas. There, large electron multipliers create a cascade of electrons, leading to a stronger signal that scientists can use to reconstruct the particle track in 3D. Previous tests of this method were conducted in small detectors using about 250 active liters of liquid argon.

    “This is the first time anyone will demonstrate this technology at this scale,” says Sebastien Murphy, who led the construction of the detector at CERN.

    The 3x1x1 test detector represents a big jump in size compared to previous experiments, but it’s small compared to the end goal of DUNE, which will hold 40,000 active tons of liquid argon. Scientists say they will take what they learn and apply it (and some of the actual electronic components) to next-generation single- and dual-phase prototypes, called ProtoDUNE.

    The technology used for both types of detectors is a time projection chamber, or TPC. DUNE will stack many large modules snugly together like LEGO blocks to create enormous DUNE detectors, which will catch neutrinos a mile underground at Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota. Overall development for liquid argon TPCs has been going on for close to 40 years, and research and development for the dual-phase for more than a decade. The idea for this particular dual-phase test detector came in 2013.

    “The main goal [with WA105 3x1x1] is to demonstrate that we can amplify charges in liquid argon detectors on the same large scale as we do in standard gaseous TPCs,” Murphy says.

    By studying neutrinos and antineutrinos that travel 800 miles through the Earth from the US Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory [FNAL] to the DUNE detectors, scientists aim to discover differences in the behavior of matter and antimatter. This could point the way toward explaining the abundance of matter over antimatter in the universe. The supersensitive detectors will also be able to capture neutrinos from exploding stars (supernovae), unveiling the formation of neutron stars and black holes. In addition, they allow scientists to hunt for a rare phenomenon called proton decay.

    “All the R&D we did for so many years and now want to do with ProtoDUNE is the homework we have to do,” says André Rubbia, the spokesperson for the WA105 3x1x1 experiment and former co-spokesperson for DUNE. “Ultimately, we are all extremely excited by the discovery potential of DUNE itself.”

    2
    One of the first tracks in the prototype detector, caused by a cosmic ray. André Rubbia

    Testing, testing, 3-1-1, check, check

    Making sure a dual-phase detector and its electronics work at cryogenic temperatures of minus 184 degrees Celsius (minus 300 degrees Fahrenheit) on a large scale is the primary duty of the prototype detector—but certainly not its only one. The membrane that surrounds the liquid argon and keeps it from spilling out will also undergo a rigorous test. Special cryogenic cameras look for any hot spots where the liquid argon is predisposed to boiling away and might cause voltage breakdowns near electronics.

    After many months of hard work, the cryogenic team and those working on the CERN neutrino platform have already successfully corrected issues with the cryostat, resulting in a stable level of incredibly pure liquid argon. The liquid argon has to be pristine and its level just below the large electron multipliers so that the electrons from the liquid will make it into the gaseous argon.

    “Adding components to a detector is never trivial, because you’re adding impurities such as water molecules and even dust,” says Laura Manenti, a research associate at the University College London in the UK. “That is why the liquid argon in the 311—and soon to come ProtoDUNEs—has to be recirculated and purified constantly.”

    While ultimately the full-scale DUNE detectors will sit in the most intense neutrino beam in the world, scientists are testing the WA105 3x1x1 components using muons from cosmic rays, high-energy particles arriving from space. These efforts are supported by many groups, including the Department of Energy’s Office of Science.

    The plan is now to run the experiment, gather as much data as possible, and then move on to even bigger territory.

    “The prospect of starting DUNE is very exciting, and we have to deliver the best possible detector,” Rubbia says. “One step at a time, we’re climbing a large mountain. We’re not at the top of Everest yet, but we’re reaching the first chalet.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 12:37 pm on June 6, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, , ,   

    From FNAL: “Follow the fantastic voyage of the ICARUS neutrino detector” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    June 6, 2017

    Andre Salles
    Fermilab Office of Communication
    asalles@fnal.gov
    630-840-6733

    CERN Press Office
    press.office@cern.ch
    +41227673432
    +41227672141

    Eleonora Cossi
    INFN
    eleonora.cossi@presid.infn.it,
    +39-06-686-8162

    The world’s largest particle hunter of its kind will travel across the ocean from CERN to Fermilab this summer to become an integral part of neutrino research in the United States.

    It’s lived in two different countries, and it’s about to make its way to a third. It’s the largest machine of its kind, designed to find extremely elusive particles and tell us more about them. Its pioneering technology is the blueprint for some of the most advanced science experiments in the world. And this summer, it will travel across the Atlantic Ocean to its new home (and its new mission) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

    2
    The ICARUS detector, seen here in a cleanroom at CERN, is being prepared for its voyage to Fermilab. Photo: CERN

    It’s called ICARUS, and you can follow its journey over land and sea with the help of an interactive map on Fermilab’s website.

    The ICARUS detector measures 18 meters (60 feet) long and weighs 120 tons. It began its scientific life under a mountain at the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics’ (INFN) Gran Sasso National Laboratory in 2010, recording data from a beam of particles called neutrinos sent by CERN, Europe’s premier particle physics laboratory. The detector was shipped to CERN in 2014, where it has been upgraded and refurbished in preparation for its overseas trek.

    INFN Gran Sasso ICARUS, moving to FNAL

    Gran Sasso LABORATORI NAZIONALI del GRAN SASSO, located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy

    When it arrives at Fermilab, the massive machine will take its place as part of a suite of three detectors dedicated to searching for a new type of neutrino beyond the three that have been found. Discovering this so-called “sterile” neutrino, should it exist, would rewrite scientists’ picture of the universe and the particles that make it up.

    “Nailing down the question of whether sterile neutrinos exist or not is an important scientific goal, and ICARUS will help us achieve that,” said Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer. “But it’s also a significant step in Fermilab’s plan to host a truly international neutrino facility, with the help of our partners around the world.”

    First, however, the detector has to get there. Next week it will begin its journey from CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, to a port in Antwerp, Belgium. From there the detector, separated into two identical pieces, will travel on a ship to Burns Harbor, Indiana, in the United States, and from there will be driven by truck to Fermilab, one piece at a time. The full trip is expected to take roughly six weeks.

    An interactive map on Fermilab’s website (IcarusTrip.fnal.gov) will track the voyage of the ICARUS detector, and Fermilab, CERN and INFN social media channels will document the trip using the hashtag #IcarusTrip. The detector itself will sport a distinctive banner, and members of the public are encouraged to snap photos of it and post them on social media.

    3
    The ICARUS neutrino detector prepares for its trip to Fermilab. Follow #IcarusTrip online! Photo: CERN

    Once the ICARUS detector is delivered to Fermilab, it will be installed in a recently completed building and filled with 760 tons of pure liquid argon to start the search for sterile neutrinos.

    The ICARUS experiment is a prime example of the international nature of particle physics and the mutually beneficial cooperation that exists between the world’s physics laboratories. The detector uses liquid-argon time projection technology – essentially a method of taking a 3-D snapshot of the particles produced when a neutrino interacts with an argon atom – which was developed by the ICARUS collaboration and now is the technology of choice for the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), which will be hosted by Fermilab.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    “More than 25 years ago, Nobel Prize winner Carlo Rubbia started a visionary effort with the help and resources of INFN to make use of liquid argon as a particle detector, with the visual power of a bubble chamber but with the speed and efficiency of an electronic detector,” said Fernando Ferroni, president of INFN. “A long series of steps demonstrated the power of this technology that has been chosen for the gigantic future experiment DUNE in the U.S., scaling up the 760 tons of argon for ICARUS to 70,000 tons for DUNE. In the meantime, ICARUS will be at the core of an experiment at Fermilab looking for the possible existence of a new type of neutrino. Long life to ICARUS!”

    CERN’s contribution to ICARUS, bringing the detector in line with the latest technology, expands the renowned European laboratory’s participation in Fermilab’s neutrino program.

    It’s the first such program CERN has contributed to in the United States. Fermilab is the hub of U.S. participation in the CMS experiment on CERN’s Large Hadron Collider, and the partnership between the laboratories has never been stronger.

    CERN CMS Higgs Event


    CERN/CMS

    LHC

    CERN/LHC Map

    CERN LHC Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    ICARUS will be the largest of three liquid-argon neutrino detectors at Fermilab seeking sterile neutrinos. The smallest, MicroBooNE, is active and has been taking data for more than a year, while the third, the Short-Baseline Neutrino Detector, is under construction.

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector

    The three detectors should all be operational by 2019, and the three collaborations include scientists from 45 institutions in six countries.

    Knowledge gained by operating the suite of three detectors will be important in the development of the DUNE experiment, which will be the largest neutrino experiment ever constructed. The international Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) will deliver an intense beam of neutrinos to DUNE, sending the particles 800 miles through Earth from Fermilab to the large, mile-deep detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota. DUNE will enable a new era of precision neutrino science and may revolutionize our understanding of these particles and their role in the universe.

    Research and development on the experiment is under way, with prototype DUNE detectors under construction at CERN, and construction on LBNF is set to begin in South Dakota this year.

    CERN Proto DUNE Maximillian Brice

    A study by Anderson Economic Group, LLC, commissioned by Fermi Research Alliance LLC, which manages the laboratory on behalf of DOE, predicts significant positive impact from the project on economic output and jobs in South Dakota and elsewhere.

    This research is supported by the DOE Office of Science, CERN and INFN, in partnership with institutions around the world.

    Follow the overseas journey of the ICARUS detector at IcarusTrip.fnal.gov. Follow the social media campaign on Facebook and Twitter using the hashtag #IcarusTrip.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon
    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 7:56 pm on June 2, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, Homestake Mine in South Dakota, , Ray Davis,   

    From FNAL: “Neutrinos: the ghost particles” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    June 2, 2017
    Mike Albrow

    1
    Scientist Ray Davis went hunting for neutrinos using a detector in the Homestake Mine in South Dakota. Photo: DOE

    Imagine: It is 1960 and you (or more likely your dad) meet a young man in a pub. He tells you his name is Ray, and you think he must be mad. He says he wants to go down a gold mine a mile underground to try to see inside the sun in the middle of the night. Or day, it doesn’t matter, because he is not using light but “invisible rays,” or particles, that go right through Earth like ghosts. He is a scientist, Ray Davis Jr., and is not mad. Forty years later he wins the Nobel Prize. The particles are called neutrinos, Italian for “little neutral ones”.

    This story starts in Victorian times, with a huge puzzle. Charles Darwin had convinced biologists that all life has been evolving from simple forms for hundreds of millions of years. But, at the rate the sun is shining, without some unknown fuel it would burn out in less than 20 million years.

    By the 1920s we had an answer. Einstein had shown that matter can be converted into energy. Nuclear reactions like those in a hydrogen bomb could be the mystery source. But as often happens in science, getting an answer leads to more mysteries.

    The energy in nuclear reactions studied in the laboratory didn’t add up. Not enough energy came out of a radioactive nucleus. But scientists know that energy cannot just disappear — it is conserved — so something must be taking it away. In 1930 Wolfgang Pauli suggested they could be tiny particles, like electrons without any electric charge, calling them neutrinos.

    In 1956 Pauli got a telegram: Neutrinos had been discovered coming out of a nuclear reactor. Then Ray Davis had that wild idea. Perhaps he could detect neutrinos coming from the nuclear reactions in the sun. Down the mine, he filled a tank with 100,000 gallons of dry-cleaning fluid.

    Eventually he extracted a few radioactive argon atoms from chlorine changed by neutrinos from the sun. But something was wrong. Theoretically he should find about two atoms per day, but he found even fewer. Was the giant nuclear reactor in the center of the sun shutting down? If so, we might not know for thousands of years. Then: serious global freezing!

    The answer is amazing, and next time I will explain. If you can’t wait, check Fermilab’s site, http://www.fnal.gov, about experiments studying these “ghost particles.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon
    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:48 pm on May 8, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Biology opportunities, Engineering, FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, Geology of the site has been well-characterized, Global footprint, Global footprint depth, International investment and cooperation, , , , Science access, Science with national priority, , Surface footprint, Two shafts for safety and redundancy, Us Department of High Energy Physics   

    From SURF: “Science impact” 

    SURF logo
    Sanford Underground levels

    Sanford Underground Research facility

    1

    The Sanford Underground Research Facility supports world-leading research in particle and nuclear physics and other science disciplines. While still a gold mine, the facility hosted Ray Davis’s solar neutrino experiment, which shared the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics. His work is a model for other experiments looking to understand the nature of the universe.

    The Facility’s depth, rock stability and history make it ideal for sensitive experiments that need to escape cosmic rays. The impacts on science can be seen worldwide.

    2

    In 2014, the Department of Energy’s High Energy Physics committee prioritized physics experiments, making neutrino and dark matter projects high-priority. Sanford Lab houses two experiments named in the P-5 report:

    Lux Zeplin project at SURF

    (LZ) and LBNF/DUNE.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford

    FNAL LBNF DUNE Organization Chart


    FNAL/DUNE Near Site Layout

    Science with national priority

    In 2014, the Department of Energy’s High Energy Physics committee prioritized physics experiments, making neutrino and dark matter projects high-priority. Sanford Lab houses two experiments named in the P-5 report: LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) and LBNF/DUNE.

    LZ, a second-generation dark matter experiment, will continue the search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), while LBNF/DUNE, the largest mega-science project ever on U.S. soil, will study the properties of neutrinos.

    3

    International investment and cooperation

    4

    Global footprint

    Competition for underground lab space is fierce. Once the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) construction is complete, Sanford Lab will host approximately 25 percent of the total volume of underground laboratory space in the world.

    The sheer amount of space (7700 acres underground) and existing infrastructure make the site highly attractive for future experiments in a variety of disciplines.

    5

    Global footprint depth

    Sanford Lab is the deepest underground lab in the U.S. at 1,490 meters. The average rock overburden is approximately 4300 meters water equivalent for existing laboratories on the 4850 Level. Space in operating laboratories has a strong track record of meeting experiment needs.

    Surface footprint

    The local footprint of the facility includes 186 acres on the surface. Facilities at both the Yates and Ross surface campuses office researchers administrative support, office space, communications and education and public outreach. The Waste Water Treatment Plant handles and processes waste materials and a warehouse for shipping and receiving.

    Underground footprint

    Of the 370 total miles of underground space, Sanford Lab maintains approximately 12 for science at various levels, including the 300, 800, 1700, 2000, 4100, and 4850 levels. The Davis Campus on the 4850 Level is a world-class laboratory space that houses experiment for neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter.

    Sanford Lab hosts a variety of research projects in many discipline. Researchers from around the globe use the facility to learn more about our universe, life underground and the unique geology of the region. The site also allows scientists to share and foster growth within the science community.

    The site also encourages cooperation between many countries and institutions. For the first time in its history, CERN is investing in an experiment outside of the European Union with its $90 million commitment to LBNF/DUNE.

    8

    Two shafts for safety and redundancy

    Construction on the Ross Shaft began in 1932, with the first skip of ore hoisted in 1934. The steel shaft reaches 5,000 feet and was in operation until 2002 when the Homestake Mine closed. While the Yates Shaft is used for primary access, both the Ross and Yates shafts are conduits for power, optical fiber and ventilation.

    Refurbishment of the Ross Shaft infrastructure is underway and includes the replacement of the steel and ground support. Modernizing the Ross Shaft is critical to carving out the space needed to house LNBF/DUNE. Nearly 850,000 tons of rock will be hoisted through the Ross during excavation for the experiment.

    Science access

    The Yates Shaft, which was raised in 1939 and reaches the 4850 Level, is the primary access point for scientists and others who work underground at Sanford Lab. The hoists convey equipment and materials used to build and maintain experiments, enhance infrastructure and excavate caverns.

    Researchers often have similar requirements for space, power, data connections and other utilities and share common infrastructure throughout the facility.

    9

    Geology of the site has been well-characterized

    Geotechnical properties of some rock formations at Sanford Lab are ideal for large excavations for laboratory space. Before excavating, engineers study the character of the rock using new and existing core drilled from throughout the former Homestake mine.

    7 main rock formations and rhyolite intrusives
    27,870 drill holes throughout the facility
    39,760 boxes of core from 2,688 drill holes
    Sanford Lab maintains a database with more than 58,000 entries representing 1,740 drill holes

    9

    Biology opportunities

    The isolation from surface microorganisms results in different environmental conditions. Temperature, humidity, variety of niches, different rock formations, access to water and seepage from various sources create unique opportunities to study extreme forms of life.

    Research teams from the NASA Astrobiology Institute,the Desert Research Institute, the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology and Black Hills State University and other institutions from around the world, conduct research on several levels of the facility hoping to understand how these life forms survive in such extreme conditions.

    10

    Engineering

    The Sanford Underground Research Facility offers a variety of environments in which engineers can test real-world applications and new technologies. And the rich history of the Homestake Mine, which includes a vast archive of core samples, allows engineers to better understand how to excavate caverns for new experiments.

    LZ, a second-generation dark matter experiment, will continue the search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), while LBNF/DUNE, the largest mega-science project ever on U.S. soil, will study the properties of neutrinos.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.
    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    About us.
    The Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota, advances our understanding of the universe by providing laboratory space deep underground, where sensitive physics experiments can be shielded from cosmic radiation. Researchers at the Sanford Lab explore some of the most challenging questions facing 21st century physics, such as the origin of matter, the nature of dark matter and the properties of neutrinos. The facility also hosts experiments in other disciplines—including geology, biology and engineering.

    The Sanford Lab is located at the former Homestake gold mine, which was a physics landmark long before being converted into a dedicated science facility. Nuclear chemist Ray Davis earned a share of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2002 for a solar neutrino experiment he installed 4,850 feet underground in the mine.

    Homestake closed in 2003, but the company donated the property to South Dakota in 2006 for use as an underground laboratory. That same year, philanthropist T. Denny Sanford donated $70 million to the project. The South Dakota Legislature also created the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to operate the lab. The state Legislature has committed more than $40 million in state funds to the project, and South Dakota also obtained a $10 million Community Development Block Grant to help rehabilitate the facility.

    In 2007, after the National Science Foundation named Homestake as the preferred site for a proposed national Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) began reopening the former gold mine.

    In December 2010, the National Science Board decided not to fund further design of DUSEL. However, in 2011 the Department of Energy, through the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, agreed to support ongoing science operations at Sanford Lab, while investigating how to use the underground research facility for other longer-term experiments. The SDSTA, which owns Sanford Lab, continues to operate the facility under that agreement with Berkeley Lab.

    The first two major physics experiments at the Sanford Lab are 4,850 feet underground in an area called the Davis Campus, named for the late Ray Davis. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is housed in the same cavern excavated for Ray Davis’s experiment in the 1960s.
    LUX/Dark matter experiment at SURFLUX/Dark matter experiment at SURF

    In October 2013, after an initial run of 80 days, LUX was determined to be the most sensitive detector yet to search for dark matter—a mysterious, yet-to-be-detected substance thought to be the most prevalent matter in the universe. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment, also on the 4850 Level, is searching for a rare phenomenon called “neutrinoless double-beta decay” that could reveal whether subatomic particles called neutrinos can be their own antiparticle. Detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay could help determine why matter prevailed over antimatter. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment is adjacent to the original Davis cavern.

    Another major experiment, the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE)—a collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and Sanford Lab, is in the preliminary design stages. The project got a major boost last year when Congress approved and the president signed an Omnibus Appropriations bill that will fund LBNE operations through FY 2014. Called the “next frontier of particle physics,” LBNE will follow neutrinos as they travel 800 miles through the earth, from FermiLab in Batavia, Ill., to Sanford Lab.

    Fermilab LBNE
    LBNE

     
  • richardmitnick 11:31 am on April 13, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, LArIAT   

    From FNAL: “LArIAT upgrade will test DUNE design” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    April 13, 2017
    Dan Garisto

    1
    The LArIAT time projection chamber will be used to conduct a proof-of-concept test for the future DUNE detector. Photo: Jen Raaf

    In particle physics, the difference of a millimeter or two can make or break an experiment. In March, the LArIAT experiment began a proof-of-concept test to make sure the planned Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will work well with that 2-millimeter difference.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL DUNE Detector prototype

    CERN Proto DUNE Maximillian Brice

    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford

    FNAL/DUNE Near Site Layout

    Specifically, scientists are looking at what will happen when you increase the space between detection wires inside the future DUNE detectors.

    DUNE will measure neutrinos, mysterious particles that are ubiquitous but elusive and may hold answers to questions about the origins of the universe.

    Like the future DUNE detectors, LArIAT is filled with liquid argon. When a particle strikes an argon nucleus inside the detector, the interaction creates electrons that float through the argon until they’re captured by a wire, which registers a signal. Scientists measure the signal to learn about the particle interaction.

    Unlike the DUNE detectors, LArIAT does not detect neutrinos. Rather, it uses the interactions of other particle types to make inferences about neutrino interactions. And very unlike DUNE, LArIAT is the size of a mini-fridge, a mere speck compared to DUNE’s detectors, which will hold about 22 Olympic-size swimming pools’ worth of liquid argon.

    LArIAT scientists use a beam of charged particles provided by the Fermilab Test Beam Facility that are fired into the liquid argon. These particles interact with matter far more than neutrinos do, so the beam results in many more interactions than a similar beam of neutrinos, which would mostly pass through the argon. The higher level of interactions is what allows LArIAT to forgo the massive size of DUNE.

    Results from LArIAT may help physicists better understand other liquid-argon neutrino detectors at the DOE Office of Science’s Fermilab such as MicroBooNE and SBND.

    FNAL SBND

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    “The point of the LArIAT experiment is to measure how well we can identify the various types of particles that come out of neutrino interactions and how well we can reconstruct their energy,” said Jen Raaf, LArIAT spokesperson.

    Although LArIAT doesn’t detect neutrinos, the charged-particle interactions can give scientists clues about how neutrinos interact with argon nuclei.

    “Instead of sending a neutrino in and looking at what stuff comes out, you send the other stuff in and see what it does,” Raaf said.

    Interactions in LArIAT are characterized primarily by a mesh of wires that detects the drift electrons. One key factor that affects the accuracy of drift-electron detection is the spacing between each wire.

    “The closer together your wires are, the better spatial resolution you get,” Raaf said. But the more closely spaced the wires are, the more wires that are needed. More wires means more electronics to detect signals from the wires, which can become expensive in a giant detector such as DUNE.

    To keep costs down, scientists are investigating whether DUNE will have a high enough resolution in its measurements of neutrino interactions with wires spaced 5 millimeters apart — larger than the 3-millimeter spacing in smaller Fermilab neutrino experiments such as MicroBooNE.

    Simulations suggest that it should work, but it’s up to Raaf and her team to test whether or not 5-millimeter spacing will do the job.

    LArIAT uses the Fermilab Test Beam Facility, which is an important part of the equation. The facility’s test beam originates from the lab’s accelerators and passes through a set of particle detection instruments before arriving at the LArIAT detector. Scientists can then compare the results from the first set of instruments with the LArIAT results.

    “If you know that it was truly a pion going in to the detector, and then you run your algorithm on it and it says ‘Oh no that was an electron,’ you’re like ‘I know you’re wrong!’” Raaf said. “So you just compare how often you’re wrong with 5 millimeters versus 3 millimeters.”

    She and her team are optimistic, but committed to being thorough.

    “It works in theory, but we always like to measure,” she said.

    This research receives support from the Department of Energy Office of Science and the National Science Foundation.

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon
    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:46 pm on March 7, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: CERN Proto Dune, FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, , Researchers face engineering puzzle, , , Transporting Argon   

    From Symmetry: “Researchers face engineering puzzle” 

    Symmetry Mag

    Symmetry

    03/07/17
    Daniel Garisto

    How do you transport 70,000 tons of liquid argon nearly a mile underground?


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    Nearly a mile below the surface of Lead, South Dakota, scientists are preparing for a physics experiment that will probe one of the deepest questions of the universe: Why is there more matter than antimatter?
    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford Lab

    Because neutrinos interact with matter so rarely and so weakly, DUNE scientists need a lot of material to create a big enough target for the particles to run into. The most widely available (and cost effective) inert substance that can do the job is argon, a colorless, odorless element that makes up about 1 percent of the atmosphere.

    The researchers also need to place the detector full of argon far below Earth’s surface, where it will be protected from cosmic rays and other interference.

    “We have to transfer almost 70,000 tons of liquid argon underground,” says David Montanari, a Fermilab engineer in charge of the experiment’s cryogenics. “And at this point we have two options: We can either transfer it as a liquid or we can transfer it as a gas.”

    Either way, this move will be easier said than done.

    Liquid or gas?

    The argon will arrive at the lab in liquid form, carried inside of 20-ton tanker trucks. Montanari says the collaboration initially assumed that it would be easier to transport the argon down in its liquid form—until they ran into several speed bumps.

    Transporting liquid vertically is very different from transporting it horizontally for one important reason: pressure. The bottom of a mile-tall pipe full of liquid argon would have a pressure of about 3000 pounds per square inch—equivalent to 200 times the pressure at sea level. According to Montanari, to keep these dangerous pressures from occurring, multiple de-pressurizing stations would have to be installed throughout the pipe.

    Even with these depressurizing stations, safety would still be a concern. While argon is non-toxic, if released into the air it can reduce access to oxygen, much like carbon monoxide does in a fire. In the event of a leak, pressurized liquid argon would spill out and could potentially break its vacuum-sealed pipe, expanding rapidly to fill the mine as a gas. One liter of liquid argon would become about 800 liters of argon gas, or four bathtubs’ worth.

    Even without a leak, perhaps the most important challenge in transporting liquid argon is preventing it from evaporating into a gas along the way, according to Montanari.

    To remain a liquid, argon is kept below a brisk temperature of minus 180 degrees Celsius (minus 300 degrees Fahrenheit).

    “You need a vacuum-insulated pipe that is a mile long inside a mine shaft,” Montanari says. “Not exactly the most comfortable place to install a vacuum-insulated pipe.”

    To avoid these problems, the cryogenics team made the decision to send the argon down as gas instead.

    Routing the pipes containing liquid argon through a large bath of water will warm it up enough to turn it into gas, which will be able to travel down through a standard pipe. Re-condensers located underground act as massive air conditioners will then cool the gas until becomes a liquid again.

    “The big advantage is we no longer have vacuum insulated pipe,” Montanari says. “It is just straight piece of pipe.”

    Argon gas poses much less of a safety hazard because it is about 1000 times less dense than liquid argon. High pressures would be unlikely to build up and necessitate depressurizing stations, and if a leak occurred, it would not expand as much and cause the same kind of oxygen deficiency.

    The process of filling the detectors with argon will take place in four stages that will take almost two years, Montanari says. This is due to the amount of available cooling power for re-condensing the argon underground. There is also a limit to the amount of argon produced in the US every year, of which only so much can be acquired by the collaboration and transported to the site at a time.

    1
    Illustration by Ana Kova

    Argon for answers

    Once filled, the liquid argon detectors will pick up light and electrons produced by neutrino interactions.

    Part of what makes neutrinos so fascinating to physicists is their habit of oscillating from one flavor—electron, muon or tau—to another. The parameters that govern this “flavor change” are tied directly to some of the most fundamental questions in physics, including why there is more matter than antimatter. With careful observation of neutrino oscillations, scientists in the DUNE collaboration hope to unravel these mysteries in the coming years.

    “At the time of the Big Bang, in theory, there should have been equal amounts of matter and antimatter in the universe,” says Eric James, DUNE’s technical coordinator. That matter and antimatter should have annihilated, leaving behind an empty universe. “But we became a matter-dominated universe.”

    James and other DUNE scientists will be looking to neutrinos for the mechanism behind this matter favoritism. Although the fruits of this labor won’t appear for several years, scientists are looking forward to being able to make use of the massive detectors, which are hundreds of times larger than current detectors that hold only a few hundred tons of liquid argon.

    Currently, DUNE scientists and engineers are working at CERN to construct Proto-DUNE, a miniature replica of the DUNE detector filled with only 300 tons of liquid argon that can be used to test the design and components.


    CERN Proto DUNE Maximillian Brice

    “Size is really important here,” James says. “A lot of what we’re doing now is figuring out how to take those original technologies which have already being developed… and taking it to this next level with bigger and bigger detectors.”

    To search for that answer, the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, or DUNE, will look at minuscule particles called neutrinos. A beam of neutrinos will travel 800 miles through the Earth from Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to the Sanford Underground Research Facility, headed for massive underground detectors that can record traces of the elusive particles.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 2:04 pm on February 23, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, ,   

    From FNAL: “The global reach of DUNE” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    [This post is dedicated to LH, a writer whose work I dealy love, and CW, the voice of SURF]

    February 23, 2017

    Leah Hesla

    The neutrino, it would seem, has global appeal.

    The mysteries surrounding the renegade particle are attracting a worldwide science community to the future DUNE experiment. DUNE — the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment — is a multinational effort to address the biggest questions in neutrino physics. More than 950 researchers from 30 countries have joined the DUNE collaboration, and both numbers are trending upward: Back in 2015, the collaboration comprised about 560 scientists and engineers from 23 countries.

    It’s currently the largest particle physics project being undertaken anywhere in the world since the Large Hadron Collider at the European laboratory CERN. Modeled after CERN’s ATLAS and CMS experiments, the DUNE collaboration is established as an international organization. The experiment will be hosted in the United States by Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

    The latest countries to join DUNE include Chile and Peru. The most recent new institutes to join DUNE come from Colombia, the UK and the US.

    “It’s the excitement that’s being generated by the science,” said DUNE spokesperson Mark Thomson, a professor of physics at the University of Cambridge in the UK. “Everybody recognizes the DUNE program as strong, and the technology is interesting as well.”

    Collaborators are developing new technologies for DUNE’s two particle detectors, giant instruments that will help capture the experiment’s notoriously elusive quarry, the neutrino.

    FNAL Dune/LBNF
    FNAL Dune/LBNF map

    With DUNE, which is expected to be up and running in the mid-2020s, scientists plan to get a better grip on the neutrino’s subtleties to settle the question of, for instance, why there’s more matter than antimatter in our universe — in other words, how the stars planets and life as we know it were able to form. Also on the DUNE agenda are studies that could bolster certain theories of the unification of all fundamental forces and, with the help of neutrinos born in supernovae, provide a look into the birth of a black hole.

    It’s a tall order that will take a global village to fill, and researchers worldwide are currently building the experiment or signing up to build it, taking advantage of DUNE’s broad scientific and geographic scope.

    “We’re a country that does a lot of theoretical physics but not a lot of experimental physics, because it’s not so cheap to have a particle physics experiment here,” said DUNE collaborator Ana Amelia Machado, a collaborating scientist at the University of Campinas and a professor at the Federal University of ABC in the ABC region of Brazil. “So we participate in big collaborations like DUNE, which is attractive because it brings together theorists and experimentalists.”

    Machado is currently working on a device named Arapuca, which she describes as a photon catcher that could detect particle phenomena that DUNE is interested in, such as supernova neutrino interactions. She’s also working to connect more Latin American universities with DUNE, adding the University Antonio Nariño to the list of DUNE institutions.

    On the opposite side of the world, scientists and engineers from India are working on upgrading the high intensity superconducting proton accelerator at Fermilab, which will provide the world’s most intense neutrino beam to the DUNE experiment. Building on the past collaborations with other Fermilab experiments, the Indian scientists are also proposing to build the near detector for the DUNE experiment. Not only are India’s contributions important for DUNE’s success, they’re also potential seeds for India’s own future particle physics programs.

    2
    More than 950 researchers from 30 countries have joined DUNE. Collaborators are developing new technologies for DUNE’s particle detectors, giant instruments that will help capture the notoriously elusive neutrino.

    “It’s exciting because it’s something that India’s doing for the first time. India has never built a full detector for any particle physics experiment in the world,” said Bipul Bhuyan, a DUNE collaborator at the Indian Institution of Technology Guwahati. “Building a particle detector for an international science experiment like DUNE will bring considerable visibility to Indian institutions and better industry-academia partnership in developing advanced detector technology. It will help us to build our own future experimental facility in India as well.”

    DUNE’s two particle detectors will be separated by 800 miles: a two-story detector on the Fermilab site in northern Illinois and a far larger detector to be situated nearly a mile underground in South Dakota at the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

    surf-building-in-lead-sd-usa
    SURF logo
    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF
    DUNE Argon tank at SURF
    Sanford Underground levels
    Sanford Underground levels
    surf-dune-lbnf-caverns-at-sanford-lab
    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford Lab

    Fermilab particle accelerators, part of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility for DUNE, will create an intense beam of neutrinos that will pass first through the near detector and then continue straight through Earth to the far detector.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE Near Detector
    FNAL/DUNE Near Site Layout

    Scientists will compare measurements from the two detectors to examine how the neutrinos morphed from one of three types into another over their interstate journey. The far detector will contain 70,000 tons of cryogenic liquid argon to capture a tiny fraction of the neutrinos that pass through it. DUNE scientists are currently working on ways to improve liquid-argon detection techniques.

    The near detector, which is close to the neutrino beam source and so sees the beam where it is most intense, will be packed with all kinds of components so that scientists can get as many readings as they can on the tricky particles: their energy, their momentum, the likelihood that they’ll interact with the detector material.

    “This is an opportunity for new collaborators, where new international groups can get involved in a big way,” said Colorado State University professor Bob Wilson, chair of the DUNE Institutional Board. “There’s a broad scope of physics topics that will come out of the near detector.”

    As the collaboration expands, so too does the breadth of DUNE physics topics, and the more research opportunities there are, the more other institutions are likely to join the project.

    “There aren’t that many new, big experiments out there,” Thomson said. “We have 950 collaborators now, and we’re likely to hit 1,000 in the coming months.”

    That will be a notable milestone for the collaboration, one that follows another sign of its international strength: Late last month, for the first time, DUNE held its collaboration meeting away from its home base of Fermilab. CERN served as the meeting host.

    DUNE is supported by funding agencies from many countries, including the Department of Energy Office of Science in the United States.

    “We have people from different countries that haven’t been that involved in neutrino physics before and who bring different perspectives,” Wilson said. “It’s all driven by the interest in the science, and the breadth of interest has been tremendous.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon
    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:03 pm on February 20, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, Neutrino research   

    From CERN Courier: “ProtoDUNE revealed” 

    CERN Courier

    Feb 15, 2017
    Matthew Chalmers

    1
    Outer vessel

    This 11 m-high structure with thick steel walls will soon contain a prototype detector for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), a major international project based in the US for studying neutrinos and proton decay.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA
    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA
    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF
    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    It is being assembled in conjunction with CERN’s Neutrino Platform, which was established in 2014 to support neutrino experiments hosted in Japan and the US (CERN Courier July/August 2016 p21), and is pictured here in December as the roof of the structure was lowered into place. Another almost identical structure is under construction nearby and will house a second prototype detector for DUNE. Both are being built at CERN’s new “EHN1” test facility, which was completed last year at the north area of the laboratory’s Prévessin site.

    3
    CERN’s Neutrino Platform

    DUNE, which is due to start operations in the next decade, will address key outstanding questions about neutrinos. In addition to determining the ordering of the neutrino masses, it will search for leptonic CP violation by precisely measuring differences between the oscillations of muon-type neutrinos and antineutrinos into electron-type neutrinos and antineutrinos, respectively (CERN Courier December 2015 p19). To do so, DUNE will consist of two advanced detectors placed in an intense neutrino beam produced at Fermilab’s Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF). One will record particle interactions near the source of the beam before the neutrinos have had time to oscillate, while a second, much larger detector will be installed deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Laboratory in Lead, South Dakota, 1300 km away.

    SURF logo
    Sanford Underground Research Facility Interior
    Sanford Underground Research Facility Interior

    4
    Technology demonstrator

    In collaboration with CERN, the DUNE team is testing technology for DUNE’s far detector based on large liquid-argon (LAr) time-projection chambers (TPCs). Two different technologies are being considered – single-phase and double-phase LAr TPCs – and the eventual DUNE detectors will comprise four modules, each with a total LAr mass of 17 kt. The single-phase technique is well established, having been deployed in the ICARUS experiment at Gran Sasso…

    INFN Gran Sasso ICARUS
    INFN Gran Sasso ICARUS

    …while the double-phase concept offers potential advantages. Both may be used in the final DUNE far detector. Scaling LAr technology to such industrial levels presents several challenges – in particular the very large cryostats required, which has led the DUNE collaboration to use technological solutions inspired by the liquified-natural-gas (LNG) shipping industry.

    The outer structure of the cryostat (red, pictured at top) for the single-phase protoDUNE module is now complete, and an equivalent structure for the double-phase module is taking shape just a few metres away and is expected to be complete by March. In addition, a smaller technology demonstrator for the double-phase protoDUNE detector is complete and is currently being cooled down at a separate facility on the CERN site (image above). The 3 × 1 × 1 m3 module will allow the CERN and DUNE teams to perfect the double-phase concept, in which a region of gaseous argon situated above the usual liquid phase provides additional signal amplification.

    The large protoDUNE modules are planned to be ready for test beam by autumn 2018 at the EHN1 facility using dedicated beams from the Super Proton Synchrotron. Given the intensity of the future LBNF beam, for which Fermilab’s Main Injector recently passed an important milestone by generating a 700 kW, 120 GeV proton beam for a period of more than one hour, the rate and volume of data produced by the DUNE detectors will be substantial. Meanwhile, the DUNE collaboration continues to attract new members and discussions are now under way to share responsibilities for the numerous components of the project’s vast far detectors (see “DUNE collaboration meeting comes to CERN” in this month’s Faces & Places).

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

     
  • richardmitnick 11:50 am on January 19, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE, ,   

    From SURF: “Ventilation critical to DUNE success” 

    SURF logo
    Sanford Underground levels

    Sanford Underground Research facility

    January 17, 2017
    Constance Walter

    1
    Above: The Oro Hondo shaft exhaust fan is essential to controling airflow underground. Below [?]: A laser scanner was lowered into the shaft to map its integrety. Credit: Matthew Kapust

    Air flows down the Yates and Ross shafts and is pulled through specific areas underground by two air shafts: Number 5 Shaft and the Oro Hondo. With the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) just on the horizon, the reliability of the Oro Hondo ventilation system, in particular, is critical.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA
    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    A direct drive, variable-frequency fan powered by a 3000 horsepower synchronous motor (it currently draws less than 400 hp), the Oro Hondo was built in 1986. Since then, it has undergone repairs and had parts replaced as needed and, in 2010, underwent a significant rebuild as Sanford Lab prepared to install the first physics experiments on the 4850 Level.

    Deterioration of the shaft can inhibit airflow, so it was critical to understand the integrity of the wall rock, said Bryce Pietzyk, underground access director. However, because there is no conveyance in the shaft, Pietzyk turned to experts to find a way to get “eyes on” the rock from the surface to the current muck pile elevation. A special scanning method, developed by Professional Mapping Services, Firmatek and Mine Vision Systems, was lowered into the shaft to collect data on ground conditions.

    “We learned a lot from the baseline scan, and things look good right now,” Pietzyk said. “But we’ll need to do more scans over time to really understand locations of zones where rock wall conditions have deteriorated.” Additional scans will help create a more complete picture of the conditions of the shaft.

    Ventilation surveys helped Sanford Lab engineers determine that while the fan was operating well, the drive system is obsolete and unreliable, and the motor and bearings require preventive maintenance before Long-Baseline Neutrino Facilty (LBNF) starts major construction. Tests also revealed minor corrosion in the ducting, which will be sandblasted and coated to slow further corrosion.

    “But, overall, the entire system is much more efficient than we anticipated,” said Allan Stratman, engineering director.

    Finally, to improve air flow, a borehole needs to be raised from the 4850 to the 3650 Level and improvements made to 31 exhaust, an existing ventilation path. It’s all part of the plans for the LBNF, which will power DUNE.

    Scientists working on DUNE hope to answer questions about the role neutrinos play in the universe, learn more about the formation of neutron stars and black holes and, quite possibly, figure out just how much mass these elusive particles have.

    A neutrino beam will be sent from Fermilab [FNAL] near Chicago, Ill., 800 miles through the earth to Sanford Lab in Lead, S.D. Although no tunnel is required for the neutrino beam, huge caverns must be excavated to house four massive liquid argon detectors on the 4850 Level of Sanford Lab.

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF
    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    Nearly 800,000 tons of rock will be excavated. Proper ventilation is critical when doing construction underground. And that’s why the Oro Hondo is so important to the success of DUNE.

    “This is the only shaft that can provide enough ventilation for the amount of excavation LBNF requires and to remove heat from the DUNE caverns during operations,” said Joshua Willhite, deputy project manager for the LBNF Far Site (Sanford Lab) Conventional Facilities. “The fan has to be highly reliable to reduce risk.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.
    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    About us.
    The Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota, advances our understanding of the universe by providing laboratory space deep underground, where sensitive physics experiments can be shielded from cosmic radiation. Researchers at the Sanford Lab explore some of the most challenging questions facing 21st century physics, such as the origin of matter, the nature of dark matter and the properties of neutrinos. The facility also hosts experiments in other disciplines—including geology, biology and engineering.

    The Sanford Lab is located at the former Homestake gold mine, which was a physics landmark long before being converted into a dedicated science facility. Nuclear chemist Ray Davis earned a share of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2002 for a solar neutrino experiment he installed 4,850 feet underground in the mine.

    Homestake closed in 2003, but the company donated the property to South Dakota in 2006 for use as an underground laboratory. That same year, philanthropist T. Denny Sanford donated $70 million to the project. The South Dakota Legislature also created the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to operate the lab. The state Legislature has committed more than $40 million in state funds to the project, and South Dakota also obtained a $10 million Community Development Block Grant to help rehabilitate the facility.

    In 2007, after the National Science Foundation named Homestake as the preferred site for a proposed national Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) began reopening the former gold mine.

    In December 2010, the National Science Board decided not to fund further design of DUSEL. However, in 2011 the Department of Energy, through the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, agreed to support ongoing science operations at Sanford Lab, while investigating how to use the underground research facility for other longer-term experiments. The SDSTA, which owns Sanford Lab, continues to operate the facility under that agreement with Berkeley Lab.

    The first two major physics experiments at the Sanford Lab are 4,850 feet underground in an area called the Davis Campus, named for the late Ray Davis. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is housed in the same cavern excavated for Ray Davis’s experiment in the 1960s.
    LUX/Dark matter experiment at SURFLUX/Dark matter experiment at SURF

    In October 2013, after an initial run of 80 days, LUX was determined to be the most sensitive detector yet to search for dark matter—a mysterious, yet-to-be-detected substance thought to be the most prevalent matter in the universe. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment, also on the 4850 Level, is searching for a rare phenomenon called “neutrinoless double-beta decay” that could reveal whether subatomic particles called neutrinos can be their own antiparticle. Detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay could help determine why matter prevailed over antimatter. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment is adjacent to the original Davis cavern.

    Another major experiment, the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE)—a collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and Sanford Lab, is in the preliminary design stages. The project got a major boost last year when Congress approved and the president signed an Omnibus Appropriations bill that will fund LBNE operations through FY 2014. Called the “next frontier of particle physics,” LBNE will follow neutrinos as they travel 800 miles through the earth, from FermiLab in Batavia, Ill., to Sanford Lab.

    Fermilab LBNE
    LBNE

     
  • richardmitnick 3:22 pm on January 6, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL LBNF/ DUNE,   

    From Symmetry: “CERN ramps up neutrino program” 

    Symmetry Mag
    Symmetry

    01/06/17
    Sarah Charley

    1
    Maximilien Brice, CERN

    The research center aims to test two large prototype detectors for the DUNE experiment.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF
    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF

    [I know that I am not a scientist and basically know nothing. But it bothers me that CERN is doing ANY work for DUNE. The U.S. Congress killed the Superconducting Super Collider in 1993 and virtually ceded HEP to Europe. I got into this blog when I found out that 30% of the people at CERN were from the U.S. and our press did not cover anything like this. I know that neutrino research virtually saved FNAL from the scrap heap. I just wish that anything being done for DUNE was being done here in the U.S. in one of our great D.O.E. labs or our great universities like MIT, Hopkins, Caltech, Illinois.]

    In the midst of the verdant French countryside is a workshop the size of an aircraft hangar bustling with activity. In a well lit new extension, technicians cut through thick slices of steel with electric saws and blast metal joints with welding torches.

    Inside this building sits its newest occupant: a two-story-tall cube with thick steel walls that resemble castle turrets. This cube will eventually hold a prototype detector for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, or DUNE, the flagship research program hosted at the Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory [FNAL] to better understand the weird properties of neutrinos.

    Neutrinos are the second-most abundant fundamental particle in the visible universe, but because they rarely interact with atoms, little is known about them. The little that is known presents a daunting challenge for physicists since neutrinos are exceptionally elusive and incredibly lightweight.

    They’re so light that scientists are still working to pin down the masses of their three different types. They also continually morph from one of their three types into another—a behavior known as oscillation, one that keeps scientists on their toes.

    “We don’t know what these masses are or have a clear understanding of the flavor oscillation,” says Stefania Bordoni, a CERN researcher working on neutrino detector development. “Learning more about neutrinos could help us better understand how the early universe evolved and why the world is made of matter and not antimatter.”

    In 2015 CERN and the United States signed a new cooperation agreement that affirmed the United States’ continued participation in the Large Hadron Collider research program and CERN’s commitment to serve as the European base for the US-hosted neutrino program. Since this agreement, CERN has been chugging full-speed ahead to build and refurbish neutrino detectors.

    “Our past and continued partnerships have always shown the United States and CERN are stronger together,” says Marzio Nessi, the head of CERN’s neutrino platform. “Our big science project works only because of international collaboration.”

    The primary goal of CERN’s neutrino platform is to provide the infrastructure to test two large prototypes for DUNE’s far detectors. The final detectors will be constructed at Sanford Lab in South Dakota. Eventually they will sit 1.5 kilometers underground, recording data from neutrinos generated 1300 kilometers away at Fermilab.

    Two 8-meter-tall cubes, currently under construction at CERN, will each contain 770 metric tons of liquid argon permeated with a strong electric field. The international DUNE collaboration will construct two smaller, but still large, versions of the DUNE detector to be tested inside these cubes.

    In the first version of the DUNE detector design, particles traveling through the liquid knock out a trail of electrons from argon atoms. This chain of electrons is sucked toward the 16,000 sensors lining the inside of the container. From this data, physicists can derive the trajectory and energy of the original particle.

    In the second version, the DUNE collaboration is working on a new type of technology that introduces a thin layer of argon gas hovering above the liquid argon. The idea is that the additional gas will amplify the signal of these passing particles and give scientists a higher sensitivity to low-energy neutrinos. Scientists based at CERN are currently developing a 3-cubic-meter model, which they plan to scale up into the much larger prototype in 2017.

    In addition to these DUNE prototypes, CERN is also refurbishing a neutrino detector, called ICARUS, which was used in a previous experiment at the Italian Institute for Nuclear Physics’ Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy.

    INFN Gran Sasso ICARUS
    INFN Gran Sasso ICARUS

    FNAL/ICARUS
    FNAL/ICARUS

    ICARUS will be shipped to Fermilab in March 2017 and incorporated into a separate experiment.

    CERN plans to serve as a resource for neutrino programs hosted elsewhere in the world as scientists delve deeper into this enigmatic niche of particle physics.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel
%d bloggers like this: