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  • richardmitnick 1:15 pm on March 30, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "The mystery of the muon’s magnetism", , , FNAL- Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, , , , ,   

    From Symmetry: “The mystery of the muon’s magnetism” 

    Symmetry Mag
    From Symmetry

    03/30/21
    Brianna Barbu

    A super-precise experiment at DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) is carefully analyzing every detail of the muon’s magnetic moment.

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    Modern physics is full of the sort of twisty, puzzle-within-a-puzzle plots you’d find in a classic detective story: Both physicists and detectives must carefully separate important clues from unrelated information. Both physicists and detectives must sometimes push beyond the obvious explanation to fully reveal what’s going on.

    And for both physicists and detectives, momentous discoveries can hinge upon Sherlock Holmes-level deductions based on evidence that is easy to overlook. Case in point: the Muon g-2 experiment currently underway at the US Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

    The current Muon g-2 (pronounced g minus two) experiment is actually a sequel, an experiment designed to reexamine a slight discrepancy between theory and the results from an earlier experiment at DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory(US), which was also called Muon g-2.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) G-2 magnet from DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory(US) finds a new home in the FNAL Muon G-2 experiment. The move by barge and truck.

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Muon g-2 studio. As muons race around a ring at the , their spin axes twirl, reflecting the influence of unseen particles.

    The discrepancy could be a sign that new physics is afoot. Scientists want to know whether the measurement holds up… or if it’s nothing but a red herring.

    The Fermilab Muon g-2 collaboration has announced it will present its first result on April 7. Until then, let’s unpack the facts of the case.

    The mysterious magnetic moment

    All spinning, charged objects—including muons and their better-known particle siblings, electrons—generate their own magnetic fields. The strength of a particle’s magnetic field is referred to as its “magnetic moment” or its “g-factor.” (That’s what the “g” part of “g-2” refers to.)

    To understand the “-2” part of “g-2,” we have to travel a bit back in time.

    Spectroscopy experiments in the 1920s (before the discovery of muons in 1936) revealed that the electron has an intrinsic spin and a magnetic moment. The value of that magnetic moment, g, was found experimentally to be 2. As for why that was the value—that mystery was soon solved using the new but fast-growing field of quantum mechanics.

    In 1928, physicist Paul Dirac—building upon the work of Llewelyn Thomas and others—produced a now-famous equation that combined quantum mechanics and special relativity to accurately describe the motion and electromagnetic interactions of electrons and all other particles with the same spin quantum number. The Dirac equation, which incorporated spin as a fundamental part of the theory, predicted that g should be equal to 2, exactly what scientists had measured at the time.

    The Dirac equation in the form originally proposed by Dirac is

    4

    But as experiments became more precise in the 1940s, new evidence came to light that reopened the case and led to surprising new insights about the quantum realm.

    3
    Credit: Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Steve Shanabruch.

    A conspiracy of particles

    The electron, it turned out, had a little bit of extra magnetism that Dirac’s equation didn’t account for. That extra magnetism, mathematically expressed as “g-2” (or the amount that g differs from Dirac’s prediction), is known as the “anomalous magnetic moment.” For a while, scientists didn’t know what caused it.

    If this were a murder mystery, the anomalous magnetic moment would be sort of like an extra fingerprint of unknown provenance on a knife used to stab a victim—a small but suspicious detail that warrants further investigation and could unveil a whole new dimension of the story.

    Physicist Julian Schwinger explained the anomaly in 1947 by theorizing that the electron could emit and then reabsorb a “virtual photon.” The fleeting interaction would slightly boost the electron’s internal magnetism by a tenth of a percent, the amount needed to bring the predicted value into line with the experimental evidence. But the photon isn’t the only accomplice.

    Over time, researchers discovered that there was an extensive network of “virtual particles” constantly popping in and out of existence from the quantum vacuum. That’s what had been messing with the electron’s little spinning magnet.

    The anomalous magnetic moment represents the simultaneous combined influence of every possible effect of those ephemeral quantum conspirators on the electron. Some interactions are more likely to occur, or are more strongly felt than others, and they therefore make a larger contribution. But every particle and force in the Standard Model takes part.

    The theoretical models that describe these virtual interactions have been quite successful in describing the magnetism of electrons. For the electron’s g-2, theoretical calculations are now in such close agreement with the experimental value that it’s like measuring the circumference of the Earth with an accuracy smaller than the width of a single human hair.

    All of the evidence points to quantum mischief perpetrated by known particles causing any magnetic anomalies. Case closed, right?

    Not quite. It’s now time to hear the muon’s side of the story.

    Not a hair out of place—or is there?

    Early measurements of the muon’s anomalous magnetic moment at Columbia University (US) in the 1950s and at the European physics laboratory CERN [European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire)(EU)] in the 1960s and 1970s agreed well with theoretical predictions. The measurement’s uncertainty shrank from 2% in 1961 to 0.0007% in 1979. It looked as if the same conspiracy of particles that affected the electron’s g-2 were responsible for the magnetic moment of the muon as well.

    But then, in 2001, the Brookhaven Muon g-2 experiment turned up something strange. The experiment was designed to increase the precision from the CERN measurements and look at the weak interaction’s contribution to the anomaly. It succeeded in shrinking the error bars to half a part per million. But it also showed a tiny discrepancy—less than 3 parts per million—between the new measurement and the theoretical value. This time, theorists couldn’t come up with a way to recalculate their models to explain it. Nothing in the Standard Model could account for the difference.

    It was the physics mystery equivalent of a single hair found at a crime scene with DNA that didn’t seem to match anyone connected to the case. The question was—and still is—whether the presence of the hair is just a coincidence, or whether it is actually an important clue.

    Physicists are now re-examining this “hair” at Fermilab, with support from the DOE Office of Science (US), the National Science Foundation (US) and several international agencies in Italy, the UK, the EU, China, Korea and Germany.

    In the new Muon g-2 experiment, a beam of muons—their spins all pointing the same direction—are shot into a type of accelerator called a storage ring. The ring’s strong magnetic field keeps the muons on a well-defined circular path. If g were exactly 2, then the muons’ spins would follow their momentum exactly. But, because of the anomalous magnetic moment, the muons have a slight additional wobble in the rotation of their spins.

    When a muon decays into an electron and two neutrinos, the electron tends to shoot off in the direction that the muon’s spin was pointing. Detectors on the inside of the ring pick up a portion of the electrons flung by muons experiencing the wobble. Recording the numbers and energies of electrons they detect over time will tell researchers how much the muon spin has rotated.

    Using the same magnet from the Brookhaven experiment with significantly better instrumentation, plus a more intense beam of muons produced by Fermilab’s accelerator complex, researchers are collecting 21 times more data to achieve four times greater precision.

    The experiment may confirm the existence of the discrepancy; it may find no discrepancy at all, pointing to a problem with the Brookhaven result; or it may find something in between, leaving the case unsolved.

    Seeking the quantum underworld

    There’s reason to believe something is going on that the Standard Model hasn’t told us about.

    The Standard Model is a remarkably consistent explanation for pretty much everything that goes on in the subatomic world.

    Standard Model of Particle Physics from “Particle Fever” via Symmetry Magazine

    But there are still a number of unsolved mysteries in physics that it doesn’t address.

    Dark matter, for instance, makes up about 27% of the universe. And yet, scientists still have no idea what it’s made of. None of the known particles seem to fit the bill. The Standard Model also can’t explain the mass of the Higgs boson, which is surprisingly small. If the Fermilab Muon g-2 experiment determines that something beyond the Standard Model—for example an unknown particle—is measurably messing with the muon’s magnetic moment, it may point researchers in the right direction to close another one of these open files.

    A confirmed discrepancy won’t actually provide DNA-level details about what particle or force is making its presence known, but it will help narrow down the ranges of mass and interaction strength in which future experiments are most likely to find something new. Even if the discrepancy fades, the data will still be useful for deciding where to look.

    It might be that a shadowy quantum figure lurking beyond the Standard Model is too well hidden for current technology to detect. But if it’s not, physicists will leave no stone unturned and no speck of evidence un-analyzed until they crack the case.

    See the full article here .


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    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 2:03 pm on October 26, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Solid-state technology for big data in particle physics", CMS at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory., FNAL- Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, NVMe or nonvolatile memory express solid-state technology to determine the best way to access stored files when scientists need to retrieve them for analysis.   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory: “Solid-state technology for big data in particle physics” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    October 26, 2020
    Jerald Pinson

    At CERN’s Large Hadron Collider, as many as 40 million particle collisions occur within the span of a single second inside the CMS particle detector’s more than 80 million detection channels.

    CERN (CH)/CMS detector.

    These collisions create an enormous digital footprint, even after computers winnow it to the most meaningful data. The simple act of retrieving information can mean battling bottlenecks.

    CMS physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, which stores a large portion of LHC data, are now experimenting with the use of NVMe, or nonvolatile memory express, solid-state technology to determine the best way to access stored files when scientists need to retrieve them for analysis.

    The trouble with terabytes

    The results of the CMS experiment at CERN have the potential to help answer some of the biggest open-ended questions in physics, such as why there is more matter than antimatter in the universe and whether there are more than three physical dimensions.

    Before scientists can answer such questions, however, they need to access the collision data recorded by the CMS detector, much of which was built at Fermilab. Data access is by no means a trivial task. Without online data pruning, the LHC would generate 40 terabytes of data per second, enough to fill the hard drives of 80 regular laptop computers. An automated selection process keeps only the important, interesting collisions, trimming the number of saved events from 40 million per second to just 1,000.

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    When scientists need to access the stored files to perform analyses, a long robotic arm descends from the ceiling, selects a tape, and transfers the data it stores to a hard drive. Credit: Reidar Hahn, Fermilab.

    “We care about only a fraction of those collisions, so we have a sequence of selection criteria that decide which ones to keep and which ones to throw away in real time,” said Fermilab scientist Bo Jayatilaka, who is leading the NVMe project.

    Still, even with selective pruning, tens of thousands of terabytes of data from the CMS detector alone have to be stored each year. Not only that, but to ensure that none of the information ever gets lost or destroyed, two copies of each file have to be saved. One copy is stored in its entirety at CERN, while the other copy is split between partnering institutions around the world. Fermilab is the main designated storage facility in the U.S. for the CMS experiment, with roughly 40% of the experiment’s data files stored on tape.

    A solid-state solution

    The Feynman Computing Center at Fermilab houses three large data libraries filled with rows upon rows of magnetic tapes that store data from Fermilab’s own experiments, as well as from CMS. If you were to combine all of Fermilab’s tape storage capacity, you’d have roughly the capability to store the equivalent of 13,000 years’ worth of HD TV footage.

    “We have racks full of servers that have hard drives on them, and they are the primary storage medium that scientists are actually reading and writing data to and from,” Jayatilaka said.

    But hard drives — which have been used as storage devices in computers for the last 60 years — are limited in the amount of data they can load into applications in a given time. This is because they load data by retrieving it from spinning disks, which is the only point of access for that information. Scientists are investigating ways to implement new types of technology to help speed up the process.

    To that end, Fermilab recently installed a single rack of servers full of solid-state NVMe drives at its Feynman Computing Center to speed up particle physics analyses.

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    In an attempt to speed up analyses in high-energy physics research, Fermilab recently installed a single rack of servers full of solid state drives called NVMe. Credit: Bo Jayatilaka, Fermilab.

    Generally, solid state drives use compact electrical circuits to quickly transfer data. NVMe is an advanced type of solid-state drive that can handle up to 4,000 megabytes per second. To put that into perspective, the average hard drive caps at around 150 megabytes per second, making solid-state the obvious choice if speed is your main goal.

    But hard drives haven’t been relegated to antiquity just yet. What they lack in speed, they make up for in storage capacity. At present, the average storage limit in solid-state drives is 500 gigabytes, which is the minimum amount of storage you’d commonly find available on modern hard drives. Determining whether or not Fermilab should replace more of their hard drive memory storage with solid-state drives will thus require a careful analysis of cost and benefits.

    Undertaking an analysis

    When researchers analyze their data using large computer servers or supercomputers, they typically do so by sequentially retrieving portions of that data from storage, a task well-suited for hard drives.

    “Up until now, we’ve been able to get away with using hard drives in high-energy physics because we tend to handle millions of events by analyzing each event one at a time,” Jayatilaka said. “So at any given time, you’re asking for only a few pieces of data from each individual hard drive.”

    But newer techniques are changing the way scientists analyze their data. Machine learning, for example, is becoming increasingly common in particle physics, especially for the CMS experiment, where this technology is responsible for the automated selection process that keeps only the small fraction of data scientists are interested in studying.

    But instead of accessing small portions of data, machine learning algorithms need to access the same piece of data repeatedly — whether it’s stored on a hard drive or solid-state drive. This wouldn’t be much of a problem if there were only a few processors trying to access that data point, but in high-energy physics calculations, there are thousands of processors that are vying to access that data point simultaneously.

    This can quickly cause bottlenecking and slow speeds when using traditional hard drives. The end result is slower computing times.

    Fermilab researchers are currently testing NVMe technology for its ability to reduce the number of these data bottlenecks.

    The future of computing at Fermilab

    Fermilab’s storage and computing power are much more than just a powerhouse for the CMS experiment. The CMS computing R&D effort is also setting the foundations for the success of the upcoming High-Luminosity LHC program and enabling the international, Fermilab-hosted Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, both of which will start taking data in the late 2020s.

    Jayatilaka and his team’s work will also allow physicists to prioritize where NVMe drives should be primarily located, whether at Fermilab or at other LHC partner institutions’ storage facilities.

    With the new servers in hand, the team is exploring how to deploy the new solid-state technology in the existing computing infrastructure at Fermilab.

    The CMS experiment and scientific computing at Fermilab are supported by the DOE Office of Science.

    See the full article here.


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  • richardmitnick 12:36 pm on October 5, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "If Betelgeuse goes boom: How DUNE would respond to a nearby supernova", , FNAL- Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory-“If Betelgeuse goes boom: How DUNE would respond to a nearby supernova” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    October 5, 2020
    Scott Hershberger

    In late 2019, Betelgeuse, the star that forms the left shoulder of the constellation Orion, began to noticeably dim, prompting speculation of an imminent supernova.

    Betelgeuse, in the infrared from the Herschel Space Observatory, is a superluminous red giant star 650 light-years away. Stars much more massive, like Betelgeuse, end their lives as supernova.

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    Only once before have scientists detected the neutrinos emitted by a supernova: During SN 1987A (bright star at center), detectors spotted only about two dozen neutrino interactions. The exploding star was in the Large Magellanic Cloud, 240 times more distant from Earth than Betelguese. Photo: ESO

    If it exploded, this cosmic neighbor a mere 700 light-years from Earth would be visible in the daytime for weeks. Yet 99% of the energy of the explosion would be carried not by light, but by neutrinos, ghost-like particles that rarely interact with other matter.

    If Betelgeuse does go supernova soon, detecting the emitted neutrinos would “dramatically enhance our understanding of what’s going on deep inside the core of a supernova,” said Fermilab theorist Sam McDermott. And it would present a unique opportunity to investigate the properties of neutrinos themselves. The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, hosted by Fermilab and planned to begin operation in the late 2020s, is being developed with these goals in mind.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA.


    SURF DUNE LBNF Caverns at Sanford Lab.

    DUNE’s far detector — an enormous tank of liquid argon at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota — will pick up signals left by neutrinos beamed from Fermilab as well as those arriving from space. Since a supernova emits neutrinos evenly in all directions, the number of neutrinos that DUNE could detect falls off as the square of the distance between the supernova and Earth. That is, the number of neutrinos that could be spotted 10,000 light-years away from a supernova is 100 times smaller than the number that could be detected from an equally powerful supernova 1,000 light-years away.

    For this reason, if a supernova occurs in the middle of our galaxy, tens of thousands of light-years away, DUNE will likely detect a few thousand neutrinos. Because of Betelgeuse’s relative proximity, however, scientists expect DUNE to detect around a million neutrinos if the red supergiant explodes in the coming decades, offering a bonanza of data.

    Although the light from the Betelgeuse supernova would linger for weeks, the burst of neutrinos would last only minutes.

    “Imagine you’re in the forest, and there’s a meadow and there’s fireflies, and it’s the time of night where thousands of them come out,” said Georgia Karagiorgi, a physicist at Columbia University who leads the data selection team at DUNE. “If we could see neutrino interactions with our bare eyes, that’s kind of what it would look like in the DUNE detector.”

    The detector will not directly photograph incoming neutrinos. Rather, it will track the paths of charged particles generated when the neutrinos interact with argon atoms. In most experiments, neutrino interactions will be rare enough to avoid confusion about which neutrino caused which interaction and at what time. But during the Betelgeuse supernova, so many neutrinos arriving so quickly could present a challenge in the data analysis — similar to tracking a single firefly in a meadow teeming with the insects.

    “To remove ambiguities, we rely on light information that we get promptly as soon as the interaction takes place,” Karagiorgi said. Combining the light signature and the charge signature would allow researchers to distinguish when and where each neutrino interaction occurs.

    From there, the researchers would reconstruct how the types, or flavors, and energies of incoming neutrinos varied with time. The resulting pattern could then be compared against theoretical models of the dynamics of supernovae. And it could shed light on the still-unknown masses of neutrinos or reveal new ways that neutrinos interact with each other.

    Of course, astronomers who hope for Betelgeuse to go supernova are also interested in the light generated by the star explosion. When complete, DUNE will join the Supernova Early Warning System, or SNEWS, a network of neutrino detectors around the world designed to automatically send an alert when a supernova is in progress in our galaxy. Since neutrinos pass through a supernova unimpeded, while particles of light are continually absorbed and reemitted until reaching the surface, the burst of neutrinos arrives at Earth hours before the light does — hence the early warning.

    SNEWS has never sent out an alert. Although hundreds of supernovae are observed each year, the most recent one close enough to Earth for its neutrinos to be detected occurred in 1987, more than a decade before SNEWS came online. Based on other observations, astronomers expect a supernova to occur in our galaxy several times per century on average.

    “If we run DUNE a few decades, we have pretty good odds of seeing one, and we could extract a lot of science out of it,” said Alec Habig, a physicist at the University of Minnesota, Duluth, who coordinates SNEWS and is involved with data acquisition on DUNE. “So let’s make sure we can do it.”

    Given the enormous radius of the red supergiant, Habig said, DUNE would detect neutrinos from Betelgeuse up to 12 hours before light from the explosion reaches Earth, giving astronomers plenty of time to point their telescopes at Orion’s shoulder.

    Continuing observations of Betelgeuse suggest that its recent dimming was a sign of its natural variability, not an impending supernova. Current estimates give the star up to 100,000 years to live.

    But if scientists get lucky, “an explosion at Betelgeuse would be an amazing opportunity,” McDermott said, “and DUNE would be an incredible machine for the job.”

    See the full here.


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    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:13 pm on September 19, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "ICEBERG tests future neutrino detector systems with ‘beautiful’ results", , , FNAL- Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory: “ICEBERG tests future neutrino detector systems with ‘beautiful’ results” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    September 18, 2020
    Zack Savitsky

    The international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, or DUNE, hosted by Fermilab, will be huge.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    SURF DUNE LBNF Caverns at Sanford Lab.

    In fact, with more than 1,000 collaborators from over 30 countries and five continents, it’s the largest international science project ever hosted in the U.S.

    To prepare for this massive endeavor, the particle physics community has been taking DUNE technologies for thorough test drives. Over the last decade, the particle detectors ICARUS, MicroBooNE and LArIAT at Fermilab and the ProtoDUNE detectors at CERN have all contributed in one way or another to compiling the deep background knowledge needed to build and operate DUNE, a neutrino detector that will use liquid argon and advanced electronics to capture the passage of the famously elusive particles.

    FNAL/ICARUS.

    FNAL/MicrobooNE.

    FNAL LArIAT.

    Cern ProtoDune.

    In 2019, DUNE preparations entered a new stage as Fermilab established a new testing facility for DUNE detectors: The Integrated Cryostat and Electronics Built for Experimental Research Goals, or ICEBERG.

    Fermilab’s ICEBERG particle detector.

    “DUNE’s primary goal is to measure and understand very particular properties of the neutrino, and ICEBERG is a facility where we can confirm that the detector components we’re designing reach the specifications necessary for DUNE to be successful,” said Rory Fitzpatrick, a graduate student at the University of Michigan working on ICEBERG’s photon detectors.

    The most abundant matter particles in the universe, neutrinos provide a valuable testing ground for particle physics theories. They hardly interact with anything, and they oscillate between three different states as they travel.

    Physics experiments such as DUNE make use of the properties of neutrinos to illuminate differences between matter and antimatter, perhaps explaining why the universe seems to be dominated by matter. Neutrinos may also teach us about the proton’s lifetime and black hole formations along the way.

    Fermilab accelerators will shoot an underground beam of neutrino particles 800 miles through Earth’s crust — from Fermilab in Illinois to the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota.

    SURF-Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    At each site, a detector will measure the composition of the beam and analyze how the particles have shape-shifted along their flight. Since neutrinos are so weakly interacting, the detectors have to be massive and ultrasensitive. They’re essentially giant tubs of liquid argon that get bombarded with the tiny particles.

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF.

    Occasionally, one of the neutrinos will interact with the argon and produce charged particles and photons, both of which are detected by various sensors in DUNE. The detector in ICEBERG is in effect a miniature version of the DUNE component that tracks these particles.

    There’s no need to send highly elusive neutrinos to particle detectors while simply testing the functionality of the system. When stationed above ground, detectors can also pick up traces from cosmic rays — created when high-energy particles from outer space hit the atmosphere — much more consistently.

    ________________________________________
    In many ways, ICEBERG is a crystal ball for DUNE — lending insight on its future obstacles and requirements.
    ________________________________________

    The cosmic-ray signatures allow physicists to test the DUNE electronics above ground with charge-tracking and photon-detection systems. Plus, because the cosmic rays are abundant on Earth’s surface and easier to detect than neutrinos, the prototypes can be smaller and require much less precious argon.

    The liquid argon used for ICEBERG would fill the bed of a pickup truck. DUNE, by comparison, requires enough argon to fill 12 Olympic-sized swimming pools. DUNE researchers are currently testing the second of several combinations of new and proven electronics with ICEBERG.

    “The scientists, engineers and technical staff work together to find ways to continually improve the ICEBERG and keep all its support infrastructure running,” said Kelly Hardin, a Fermilab technician who works on all liquid-argon detectors at Fermilab.

    3
    This event display shows three views of a cosmic muon interacting with liquid argon in the ICEBERG cryostat. Image: ICEBERG collaboration.

    Once this series of tests ends, the chosen electronics and photon sensors are expected to be tested in one of the ProtoDUNE detectors before being mass-produced for use in DUNE.

    “So far, the whole ICEBERG detector and associate infrastructure are operating properly,” said Shekhar Mishra, Fermilab scientist and ICEBERG project lead. “The measurements are coming out very nice. We’ve seen beautiful tracks and detected photons.”

    The process of operating and maintaining this and other prototype detectors gets scientists ready for the big league: DUNE. An international project of its magnitude requires rigorous assurance checks and thorough preparation.

    “ICEBERG has given me a chance to get my hands dirty and turn some screws,” said Ivan Caro Terrazas, a graduate student at Colorado State University working on ICEBERG’s particle-tracking systems. “It amazes me how much coordination is required for a detector as small as ICEBERG, let alone DUNE itself.”

    In many ways, ICEBERG is a crystal ball for DUNE — lending insight on its future obstacles and requirements.

    “Even by running ICEBERG, a micro-DUNE, we’re learning a lot about what we’re going to need to build, operate and manage this massive detector,” Mishra said. “ICEBERG is a collaborative effort of laboratories and institutions around the globe. We rely on our diverse team to push through challenges and accomplish our goals.”

    4
    Collaborators work together to make the ICEBERG particle detector a successful tool for the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. Left photo, taken in 2019: Reidar Hahn, Fermilab. Right photo, taken in August 2020: Kathrine Laureto.

    See the full article here.


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    FNAL Icon

    Tevatron schematic map

    Fermilab Wilson Hall.

    Fermilab campus.

    FNAL/MINERvA Photo Reidar Hahn.

    FNAL DAMIC.

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio.

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction.

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid.

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL.

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF.

    FNAL/MicrobooNE.

    FNAL Don Lincoln.

    FNAL/MINOS.

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility.

    FNAL MINOS Far Detector in the Soudan Mine in northern Minnesota.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    CERN Proto Dune.

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map.

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector.

    FNAL/ICARUS.

    FNAL Holometer.

     
  • richardmitnick 7:17 am on August 26, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Fermilab to lead $115 million National Quantum Information Science Research Center to build revolutionary quantum computer with Rigetti Computing; Northwestern University; Ames Laboratory; NASA; INFN, FNAL- Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, SQMS will contribute to U.S. leadership in quantum science for the years to come., SQMS-Superconducting Quantum Materials and Systems Center, The goal is the building and deploying a beyond-state-of-the-art quantum computer based on superconducting technologies.   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Fermilab to lead $115 million National Quantum Information Science Research Center to build revolutionary quantum computer with Rigetti Computing, Northwestern University, Ames Laboratory, NASA, INFN and additional partners” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    August 26, 2020
    Edited by Kurt Riesselmann

    1
    One of the goals of the Superconducting Quantum Materials and Systems Center is to build a beyond-state-of-the-art quantum computer based on superconducting technologies. The center also will develop new quantum sensors, which could lead to the discovery of the nature of dark matter and other elusive subatomic particles.

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermilab has been selected to lead one of five national centers to bring about transformational advances in quantum information science as a part of the U.S. National Quantum Initiative, announced the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy today.

    The initiative provides the new Superconducting Quantum Materials and Systems Center funding with the goal of building and deploying a beyond-state-of-the-art quantum computer based on superconducting technologies. The center also will develop new quantum sensors, which could lead to the discovery of the nature of dark matter and other elusive subatomic particles. Total planned DOE funding for the center is $115 million over five years, with $15 million in fiscal year 2020 dollars and outyear funding contingent on congressional appropriations. SQMS will also receive an additional $8 million in matching contributions from center partners.

    The SQMS Center is part of a $625 million federal program to facilitate and foster quantum innovation in the United States. The 2018 National Quantum Initiative Act called for a long-term, large-scale commitment of U.S. scientific and technological resources to quantum science.

    The revolutionary leaps in quantum computing and sensing that SQMS aims for will be enabled by a unique multidisciplinary collaboration that includes 20 partners – national laboratories, academic institutions and industry. The collaboration brings together world-leading expertise in all key aspects: from identifying qubits’ quality limitations at the nanometer scale to fabrication and scale-up capabilities into multiqubit quantum computers to the exploration of new applications enabled by quantum computers and sensors.

    “The breadth of the SQMS physics, materials science, device fabrication and characterization technology combined with the expertise in large-scale integration capabilities by the SQMS Center is unprecedented for superconducting quantum science and technology,” said SQMS Deputy Director James Sauls of Northwestern University. “As part of the network of National QIS Research centers, SQMS will contribute to U.S. leadership in quantum science for the years to come.”

    2
    SQMS researchers are developing long-coherence-time qubits based on Rigetti Computing’s state-of-the-art quantum processors. Image: Rigetti Computing.

    At the heart of SQMS research will be solving one of the most pressing problems in quantum information science: the length of time that a qubit, the basic element of a quantum computer, can maintain information, also called quantum coherence. Understanding and mitigating sources of decoherence that limit performance of quantum devices is critical to engineering in next-generation quantum computers and sensors.

    “Unless we address and overcome the issue of quantum system decoherence, we will not be able to build quantum computers that solve new complex and important problems. The same applies to quantum sensors with the range of sensitivity needed to address long-standing questions in many fields of science,” said SQMS Center Director Anna Grassellino of Fermilab. “Overcoming this crucial limitation would allow us to have a great impact in the life sciences, biology, medicine, and national security, and enable measurements of incomparable precision and sensitivity in basic science.”

    The SQMS Center’s ambitious goals in computing and sensing are driven by Fermilab’s achievement of world-leading coherence times in components called superconducting cavities, which were developed for particle accelerators used in Fermilab’s particle physics experiments. Researchers have expanded the use of Fermilab cavities into the quantum regime.

    “We have the most coherent – by a factor of more than 200 – 3-D superconducting cavities in the world, which will be turned into quantum processors with unprecedented performance by combining them with Rigetti’s state-of-the-art planar structures,” said Fermilab scientist Alexander Romanenko, SQMS technology thrust leader and Fermilab SRF program manager. “This long coherence would not only enable qubits to be long-lived, but it would also allow them to be all connected to each other, opening qualitatively new opportunities for applications.”

    To advance the coherence even further, SQMS collaborators will launch a materials-science investigation of unprecedented scale to gain insights into the fundamental limiting mechanisms of cavities and qubits, working to understand the quantum properties of superconductors and other materials used at the nanoscale and in the microwave regime.

    “Now is the time to harness the strengths of the DOE laboratories and partners to identify the underlying mechanisms limiting quantum devices in order to push their performance to the next level for quantum computing and sensing applications,” said SQMS Chief Engineer Matt Kramer, Ames Laboratory.

    Northwestern University, Ames Laboratory, Fermilab, Rigetti Computing, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics and several universities are partnering to contribute world-class materials science and superconductivity expertise to target sources of decoherence.

    SQMS partner Rigetti Computing will provide crucial state-of-the-art qubit fabrication and full stack quantum computing capabilities required for building the SQMS quantum computer.

    “By partnering with world-class experts, our work will translate ground-breaking science into scalable superconducting quantum computing systems and commercialize capabilities that will further the energy, economic and national security interests of the United States,” said Rigetti Computing CEO Chad Rigetti.

    SQMS will also partner with the NASA Ames Research Center quantum group, led by SQMS Chief Scientist Eleanor Rieffel. Their strengths in quantum algorithms, programming and simulation will be crucial to use the quantum processors developed by the SQMS Center.

    “The Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics has been successfully collaborating with Fermilab for more than 40 years and is excited to be a member of the extraordinary SQMS team,” said INFN President Antonio Zoccoli. “With its strong know-how in detector development, cryogenics and environmental measurements, including the Gran Sasso national laboratories, the largest underground laboratory in the world devoted to fundamental physics, INFN looks forward to exciting joint progress in fundamental physics and in quantum science and technology.”

    “Fermilab is excited to host this National Quantum Information Science Research Center and work with this extraordinary network of collaborators,” said Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer. “This initiative aligns with Fermilab and its mission. It will help us answer important particle physics questions, and, at the same time, we will contribute to advancements in quantum information science with our strengths in particle accelerator technologies, such as superconducting radio-frequency devices and cryogenics.”

    “We are thankful and honored to have this unique opportunity to be a national center for advancing quantum science and technology,” Grassellino said. “We have a focused mission: build something revolutionary. This center brings together the right expertise and motivation to accomplish that mission.”

    The Superconducting Quantum Materials and Systems Center institutions include DOE’s Ames Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Goldman Sachs, Illinois Institute of Technology, the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Janis Research, Johns Hopkins University, Lockheed Martin, NASA Ames Research Center, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Northwestern University, Rigetti Computing, Stanford University, Temple University, Unitary Fund, University of Arizona, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign and University of Padova, Italy.

    The Superconducting Quantum Materials and Systems Center at Fermilab is supported by the DOE Office of Science.

    See the full here.


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:40 am on June 2, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "A window of opportunity: Physicists test titanium target windows for particle beam", , FNAL- Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “A window of opportunity: Physicists test titanium target windows for particle beam” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    May 27, 2020
    Jerald Pinson

    In the late 2020s, Fermilab will begin sending the world’s most intense beam of neutrinos through Earth’s crust to detectors in South Dakota for the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, or DUNE.

    SURF-Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    When the new PIP-II particle accelerator comes online, an intense beam of protons will travel near the speed of light through a series of underground accelerator components before passing through metallic windows and colliding with a stationary target to produce the neutrinos.

    Front end of the PIP-II linear accelerator at FNAL. Photo by Reidar Hahn

    Researchers intend to construct the windows out of a titanium alloy and are testing the fatigue endurance of samples exposed to proton beams to see how well they will perform in the new accelerator complex.

    Right on target

    When Fermilab scientists set out to produce neutrinos for DUNE, they have to be incredibly precise. The PIP-II accelerator will use superconducting structures and powerful magnets to accelerate rapid microsecond bursts of protons that are focused and steered in the right direction, aimed at the DUNE detectors in South Dakota, before they smash into the neutrino-producing target on the Fermilab site.

    FNAL A superconducting radiofrequency cavity responsible for accelerating particles at the new PIP-II accelerator

    The target — which consists of graphite rods roughly 1.5 meters in total length — is separated from the rest of the accelerator in a vessel filled with helium to help keep temperatures down.

    3
    To create neutrinos, a beam of particles smashes into a target, which is contained in a chamber. The beam enters and exits the chamber (seen here on a carrier frame) through highly resilient metallic windows (the dark disk at the front of the chamber), which must be able to withstand a pummeling from the high-intensity beam. Fermilab researchers are currently testing a titanium alloy for these windows in preparation for an upcoming increase in beam intensity as part of the PIP-II program. Photo: Mike Stiemann

    The protons, traveling at their maximum energy, enter the vessel through a window, then hit the bull’s eye to produce a cascade of rapidly decaying pions — short-lived subatomic particles — that exit through a second window in the back. In less than a second, the pions will not only have decayed into neutrinos, but those neutrinos — which have almost no mass and travel close to the speed of light — will have reached their destination in South Dakota, a journey of 800 miles.

    Designing the target array is no easy task, which is especially true of the windows. They need to have the stamina to withstand the high-power proton beam and temperatures in excess of 200 degrees Celsius, all while maintaining enough structural integrity to hold up against pressure differences across the window. Not only that, but they need to be made as thin as possible to minimize the interaction with the proton beam. Because of these extreme conditions, accelerator windows are made not of glass but of metal.

    While metallic windows wouldn’t let much light into your home, they don’t pose much of a barrier to particle beams. Atoms are mostly made up of empty space, and high-energy protons travel through the interstices within and between the window’s atoms with relatively little interaction.

    However, the beams passing through the windows are highly energetic, and the small fraction of protons that do rebound off nuclei in the windows deposit energy in the form of heat and vibrational waves, which pose the risk of rupturing the material and are a major source of concern for engineers and physicists.

    “These windows have to be able to sustain the heat generated by the beam interaction,” said Fermilab postdoctoral research associate Sujit Bidhar.

    All of this heating and cooling causes the beam windows to rapidly contract and expand.

    “The target material expands within 10 microseconds,” Bidhar said. “But the surrounding material isn’t expanding, because it’s not directly interacting with the beam. This causes a kind of hammering effect, which we call stress waves.”

    The waves inside the material are analogous to a person swimming in a pool; moving through the water creates similar waves that would spread out to the edge and ricochet back to their point of origin. If the swimmer were to add extra energy by doing a cannonball into the water, the wave would increase in amplitude and might spill over the side.

    Since target windows in accelerators are solid, however, strong waves passing through them weaken the material over time through a process called fatigue, and instead of being able to splash over the side of a pool, the induced stress will eventually cause the array to break. It’s not a question of if, but when.

    Predicting the next big break

    Physicists have a vested interest in knowing exactly how long each accelerator component can be expected to last. Unexpected equipment failures can lead to long delays and setbacks.

    Many particle accelerators use target windows made of beryllium, a rare type of lightweight metal that, up until now, has shown the best results thanks to its exceptional durability. But physicists and engineers are constantly looking for ways to innovate, and those developing target windows for DUNE are investigating titanium alloys, which may have properties that allow them to hold up better than their beryllium counterparts.

    “Titanium has a high specific strength as well as a high resistance to fatigue stress and corrosion,” said Kavin Ammigan, a senior engineer at Fermilab. “We’re testing to see how these critical properties change when titanium is exposed to proton beams.”

    Titanium alloys have been used at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex – known as J-PARC — for over a decade with promising results.

    J-PARC Facility Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex , located in Tokai village, Ibaraki prefecture, on the east coast of Japan.

    With Fermilab’s PIP-II upgrade, the laboratory accelerator complex will accelerate a much higher-intensity beam than it does currently. In order to predict how long titanium windows will last at Fermilab, researchers needed to test samples using similar beam energies.

    4
    Small samples of titanium alloys were subjected to an intense proton beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory, after which they were tested for stress fatigue at Fermilab. Photo: Sujit Bidhar

    Titanium fatigue samples provided by researchers at J-PARC were sent to Fermilab, where their mechanical properties were tested. The samples were then pummeled by an intense beam of protons at Brookhaven National Laboratory over the course of eight weeks, after which they were returned to Fermilab for another round of testing to determine exactly how the properties of the alloy had changed and degraded over time. By testing both before and after being bombarded by proton beams, researchers can roughly predict how long windows made out of titanium allows can be expected to last in the upgraded accelerator.

    The data generated by the project will be useful not only for Fermilab and the PIP-II upgrade, but also for other institutions and future accelerators. The J-PARC accelerator facility, for example, has plans to increase the intensity of its particle beam and will be able to use the results from the current study to predict the lifespan of the titanium target window.

    With this information in hand, Fermilab researchers will be able to proactively manage their beam devices. Titanium windows will be removed before the end of their projected life expectancies and replaced with fresh, unfatigued windows.

    Ammigan, Bidhar and Fermilab colleagues have completed their first batch of titanium alloy sample measurements and plan to have a second batch completed in a few months’ time, after which they plan on publishing their results.

    Particle accelerator research and construction at Fermilab is supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science.

    See the full here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:22 am on January 23, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , FNAL- Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, , , ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “USCMS collaboration gets green light on upgrades to CMS particle detector” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    January 22, 2020
    Leah Hesla

    In its ongoing quest to understand the nature of the universe’s fundamental constituents, the CMS collaboration has reached another milestone.

    CERN/CMS Detector

    In October 2019, the U.S. contingent of the CMS collaboration presented their plans to upgrade the CMS particle detector for the high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.

    CERN LHC Tunnel

    The upgrades would enable CMS to handle the challenging environment brought on by the upcoming increase in the LHC’s particle collision rate, fully exploiting the discovery potential of the upgraded machine.

    In response, on Dec. 19, 2019, the Department of Energy Office of Science gave the plan its stamp of CD-1 approval, signaling that it favorably evaluated the project’s conceptual design, schedule range and cost, among other factors.

    “This is a major achievement because it paves the way for the next major steps in our project, in which funds are allocated to start the production phase,” said scientist Anadi Canepa, head of the Fermilab CMS Department. “The U.S. project team was extremely satisfied. Preparing for CD-1 was a monumental effort.”

    2
    The CMS detector upgrade team met in October 2019 for a DOE review. Photo: Reidar Hahn, Fermilab

    The LHC’s increase in beam intensity is planned for 2027, when it will become the High-Luminosity LHC. Racing around its 17-mile circumference, the upgraded collider’s proton beams will smash together to reveal even more about the nature of the subatomic realm thanks to a 10-fold increase in collision rate compared to the LHC’s design value.

    The cranked up intensity means that the High-Luminosity LHC will deliver an unprecedented amount of data, and the giant detectors that sit in the path of the beam have to be able to withstand the higher data delivery rate and radiation dose. In preparation, USCMS will upgrade the CMS detector to keep up with the increase in data output, not to mention to harsher collision environment.

    The collaboration plans to upgrade the detector with state-of-the-art technology. The new detector will exhibit improved sensitivity, with over 2 billion sensor channels — up from 80 million. USCMS is also replacing the central part of the detector so that, when charged particles fly through it, the upgraded device will take readings of their momenta at an astounding 40 million times per second, a first for hadron colliders. They’re implementing an innovative design for the detector, measuring the energy of particles using very precise silicon sensors. The upgraded CMS will also have a breakthrough component to take higher-resolution, more precisely timed images of complex particle interactions. Scientists are introducing a system using machine learning on electronic circuits called FPGAs to more efficiently select which of the billions of particle events that CMS processes every 25 nanoseconds might signal new physics.

    “The successful completion of the CD-1 review is a reflection of the competence, commitment and dedication of a very large team of Fermilab scientists and university colleagues,” said Fermilab scientist Steve Nahn, U.S. project manager for the CMS detector upgrade.

    Now USCMS will refine the plan, getting it ready to serve as the project baseline.

    “With these improvements, we’ll be able to explore uncharted territories and might discover new phenomena that revolutionize our description of nature,” Canepa said.

    The USCMS collaboration comprises Fermilab and 54 institutions.

    See the full here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:15 am on October 2, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "How AI could change science", , , , , , , FNAL- Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics,   

    From University of Chicago: “How AI could change science” 

    U Chicago bloc

    From University of Chicago

    Oct 1, 2019
    Louise Lerner
    Rob Mitchum

    1
    At the University of Chicago, researchers are using artificial intelligence’s ability to analyze massive amounts of data in applications from scanning for supernovae to finding new drugs. shutterstock.com

    Researchers at the University of Chicago seek to shape an emerging field.

    AI technology is increasingly used to open up new horizons for scientists and researchers. At the University of Chicago, researchers are using it for everything from scanning the skies for supernovae to finding new drugs from millions of potential combinations and developing a deeper understanding of the complex phenomena underlying the Earth’s climate.

    Today’s AI commonly works by starting from massive data sets, from which it figures out its own strategies to solve a problem or make a prediction—rather than rely on humans explicitly programming it how to reach a conclusion. The results are an array of innovative applications.

    “Academia has a vital role to play in the development of AI and its applications. While the tech industry is often focused on short-term returns, realizing the full potential of AI to improve our world requires long-term vision,” said Rebecca Willett, professor of statistics and computer science at the University of Chicago and a leading expert on AI foundations and applications in science. “Basic research at universities and national laboratories can establish the fundamentals of artificial intelligence and machine learning approaches, explore how to apply these technologies to solve societal challenges, and use AI to boost scientific discovery across fields.”

    2
    Prof. Rebecca Willett gives an introduction to her research on AI and data science foundations. Photo by Clay Kerr

    Willett is one of the featured speakers at the InnovationXLab Artificial Intelligence Summit hosted by UChicago-affiliated Argonne National Laboratory, which will soon be home to the most powerful computer in the world—and it’s being designed with an eye toward AI-style computing. The Oct. 2-3 summit showcases the U.S. Department of Energy lab, bringing together industry, universities, and investors with lab innovators and experts.

    Depiction of ANL ALCF Cray Intel SC18 Shasta Aurora exascale supercomputer

    The workshop comes as researchers around UChicago and the labs are leading new explorations into AI.

    For example, say that Andrew Ferguson, an associate professor at the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, wants to look for a new vaccine or flexible electronic materials. New materials essentially are just different combinations of chemicals and molecules, but there are literally billions of such combinations. How do scientists pick which ones to make and test in the labs? AI could quickly narrow down the list.

    “There are many areas where the Edisonian approach—that is, having an army of assistants make and test hundreds of different options for the lightbulb—just isn’t practical,” Ferguson said.

    Then there’s the question of what happens if AI takes a turn at being the scientist. Some are wondering whether AI models could propose new experiments that might never have occurred to their human counterparts.

    “For example, when someone programmed the rules for the game of Go into an AI, it invented strategies never seen in thousands of years of humans playing the game,” said Brian Nord, an associate scientist in the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics and UChicago-affiliated Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

    “Maybe sometimes it will have more interesting ideas than we have.”

    Ferguson agreed: “If we write down the laws of physics and input those, what can AI tell us about the universe?”

    3
    Scenes from the 2016 games of Go, an ancient Chinese game far more complex than chess, between Google’s AI “AlphaGo” and world-record Go player Lee Sedol. The match ended with the AI up 4-1. Image courtesy of Bob van den Hoek.

    But ensuring those applications are accurate, equitable, and effective requires more basic computer science research into the fundamentals of AI. UChicago scientists are exploring ways to reduce bias in model predictions, use advanced tools even when data is scarce, and developing “explainable AI” systems that will produce more actionable insights and raise trust among users of those models.

    “Most AIs right now just spit out an answer without any context. But a doctor, for example, is not going to accept a cancer diagnosis unless they can see why and how the AI got there,” Ferguson said.

    With the right calibration, however, researchers see a world of uses for AI. To name just a few: Willett, in collaboration with scientists from Argonne and the Department of Geophysical Sciences, is using machine learning to study clouds and their effect on weather and climate. Chicago Booth economist Sendhil Mullainathan is studying ways in which machine learning technology could change the way we approach social problems, such as policies to alleviate poverty; while neurobiologist David Freedman, a professor in the University’s Division of Biological Sciences, is using machine learning to understand how brains interpret sights and sounds and make decisions.

    Below are looks into three projects at the University showcasing the breadth of AI applications happening now.

    The depths of the universe to the structures of atoms

    We’re getting better and better at building telescopes to scan the sky and accelerators to smash particles at ever-higher energies. What comes along with that, however, is more and more data. For example, the Large Hadron Collider in Europe generates one petabyte of data per second; for perspective, in less than five minutes, that would fill up the world’s most powerful supercomputer.

    LHC

    CERN map


    CERN LHC Maximilien Brice and Julien Marius Ordan


    CERN LHC particles

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS

    CERN ATLAS Image Claudia Marcelloni CERN/ATLAS

    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    That’s way too much data to store. “You need to quickly pick out the interesting events to keep, and dump the rest,” Nord said.

    But see “From UC Santa Barbara: “Breaking Data out of the Silos

    Similarly, each night hundreds of telescopes scan the sky. Existing computer programs are pretty good at picking interesting things out of them, but there’s room to improve. (After LIGO detected the gravity waves from two neutron stars crashing together in 2017, telescopes around the world had rooms full of people frantically looking through sky photos to find the point of light it created.)

    MIT /Caltech Advanced aLigo


    VIRGO Gravitational Wave interferometer, near Pisa, Italy

    Years ago, Nord was sitting and scanning telescope images to look for gravitational lensing, an effect in which large objects distort light as it passes.

    Gravitational Lensing NASA/ESA

    “We were spending all this time doing this by hand, and I thought, surely there has to be a better way,” he said. In fact, the capabilities of AI were just turning a corner; Nord began writing programs to search for lensing with neural networks. Others had the same idea; the technique is now emerging as a standard approach to find gravitational lensing.

    This year Nord is partnering with computer scientist Yuxin Chen to explore what they call a “self-driving telescope”: a framework that could optimize when and where to point telescopes to gather the most interesting data.

    “I view this collaboration between AI and science, in general, to be in a very early phase of development,” Chen said. “The outcome of the research project will not only have transformative effects in advancing the basic science, but it will also allow us to use the science involved in the physical processes to inform AI development.”

    Disentangling style and content for art and science

    In recent years, popular apps have sprung up that can transform photographs into different artistic forms—from generic modes such as charcoal sketches or watercolors to the specific styles of Dali, Monet and other masters. These “style transfer” apps use tools from the cutting edge of computer vision—primarily the neural networks that prove adept at image classification for applications such as image search and facial recognition.

    But beyond the novelty of turning your selfie into a Picasso, these tools kick-start a deeper conversation around the nature of human perception. From a young age, humans are capable of separating the content of an image from its style; that is, recognizing that photos of an actual bear, a stuffed teddy bear, or a bear made out of LEGOs all depict the same animal. What’s simple for humans can stump today’s computer vision systems, but Assoc. Profs. Jason Salavon and Greg Shakhnarovich think the “magic trick” of style transfer could help them catch up.

    Photo gallery 1/2

    4
    This tryptych of images demonstrates how neural networks can transform images with different artistic forms. [Sorry, I do not see the point here.]

    “The fact that we can look at pictures that artists create and still understand what’s in them, even though they sometimes look very different from reality, seems to be closely related to the holy grail of machine perception: what makes the content of the image understandable to people,” said Shakhnarovich, an associate professor at the Toyota Technological Institute of Chicago.

    Salavon and Shakhnarovich are collaborating on new style transfer approaches that separate, capture and manipulate content and style, unlocking new potential for art and science. These new models could transform a headshot into a much more distorted style, such as the distinctive caricatures of The Simpsons, or teach self-driving cars to better understand road signs in different weather conditions.

    “We’re in a global arms race for making cool things happen with these technologies. From what would be called practical space to cultural space, there’s a lot of action,” said Salavon, an associate professor in the Department of Visual Arts at the University of Chicago and an artist who makes “semi-autonomous art”. “But ultimately, the idea is to get to some computational understanding of the ‘essence’ of images. That’s the rich philosophical question.”

    5
    Researchers hope to use AI to decode nature’s rules for protein design, in order to create synthetic proteins with a range of applications. Image courtesy of Emw / CC BY-SA 3.0

    Learning nature’s rules for protein design

    Nature is an unparalleled engineer. Millions of years of evolution have created molecular machines capable of countless functions and survival in challenging environments, like deep sea vents. Scientists have long sought to harness these design skills and decode nature’s blueprints to build custom proteins of their own for applications in medicine, energy production, environmental clean-up and more. But only recently have the computational and biochemical technologies needed to create that pipeline become possible.

    Ferguson and Prof. Rama Ranganathan are bringing these pieces together in an ambitious project funded by a Center for Data and Computing seed grant. Combining recent advancements in machine learning and synthetic biology, they will build an iterative pipeline to learn nature’s rules for protein design, then remix them to create synthetic proteins with elevated or even new functions and properties.

    “It’s not just rebuilding what nature built, we can push it beyond what nature has ever shown us before,” said Ranganathan. “This proposal is basically the starting point for building a whole framework of data-driven molecular engineering.”

    “The way we think of this project is we’re trying to mimic millions of years of evolution in the lab, using computation and experiments instead of natural selection,” Ferguson said.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Chicago Campus

    An intellectual destination

    One of the world’s premier academic and research institutions, the University of Chicago has driven new ways of thinking since our 1890 founding. Today, UChicago is an intellectual destination that draws inspired scholars to our Hyde Park and international campuses, keeping UChicago at the nexus of ideas that challenge and change the world.

    The University of Chicago is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with UChicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    UChicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics, establishing revolutionary theories of economics, and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations with our national and affiliated laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:18 am on August 1, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "In photos: LBNF rebuilds portal for rock transportation system", , FNAL- Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,   

    From FNAL for SURF: “In photos: LBNF rebuilds portal for rock transportation system” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    July 29, 2019
    Kurt Riesselmann

    The pre-excavation work for the South Dakota portion of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility reached another milestone.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    In June, construction workers finished securing the portal of the old tramway tunnel. The tunnel will house the conveyor system that will move about 800,000 tons of rock — excavated a mile underground to create the caverns for the Fermilab-hosted Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment — to its final resting place in the Open Cut, a former open pit mining area. The photo gallery below highlights various stages of this work.

    The Homestake mining company had stopped using the tramway tunnel when it ceased mining operations in Lead, South Dakota, in 2002. Today the tunnel is part of the Sanford Underground Research Facility. The LBNF team is now in the process of rehabilitating the tunnel to get it ready for the installation of a conveyor system that will run from the Ross Shaft, exit through the rebuilt portal and extend to the Open Cut (see graphic). When the work is complete, the tunnel will house about 2,300 feet of the 4,250-foot-long conveyor system.

    SURF logo
    Sanford Underground levels

    Sanford Underground Research Facility

    1
    Construction workers are currently rehabilitating the tramway tunnel at Sanford Lab. The goal is to prepare it for the installation of a 2,300-foot-long section of a conveyor system that will move rock from the mile-deep Ross Shaft to the Open Cut for the LBNF construction. Credit: Fermilab

    2
    This photo shows the construction site from above the old portal. When complete in 2020, the conveyor system will extend down the hill and begin moving rock to the Open Cut. Credit: Fermilab

    3
    In June, construction workers applied shotcrete on the rock surrounding the portal. Credit: Fermilab

    4
    Done: the rebuilt portal of the tramway tunnel. A new concrete enclosure will extend the tunnel approximately 80 feet beyond this point, which will allow for the restoration of a roadway above the tunnel. When complete, the conveyor system will exit the tramway tunnel at the end of the new enclosure and move rock from the Ross Shaft to the Open Cut. Credit: Fermilab

    5
    For the LBNF project, about 800,000 tons of rock will be transported to this former open pit mining area in Lead, South Dakota, known as the Open Cut. The excavated rock will fill less than one percent of the Open Cut. Credit: Fermilab

    6
    This graphic illustrates how the conveyor system will transport rock from the Ross Shaft through the tramway tunnel to the Open Cut. Credit: Fermilab

    See the full here.


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    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 5:39 pm on February 15, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: An innovative way for different types of quantum technology to “talk” to each other using sound, , , “Spins”—a property of an electron that can be up or down or both, “The object is to couple the sound waves with the spins of electrons in the material”, FNAL- Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, , Sound waves let quantum systems ‘talk’ to one another,   

    From University of Chicago: “Sound waves let quantum systems ‘talk’ to one another” 

    U Chicago bloc

    From University of Chicago

    Feb 15, 2019
    Louise Lerner

    1
    An X-ray image of sound waves. Image courtesy of Kevin Satzinger and Samuel Whiteley

    Researchers at the University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory have invented an innovative way for different types of quantum technology to “talk” to each other using sound. The study, published Feb. 11 in Nature Physics, is an important step in bringing quantum technology closer to reality.

    Researchers are eyeing quantum systems, which tap the quirky behavior of the smallest particles as the key to a fundamentally new generation of atomic-scale electronics for computation and communication. But a persistent challenge has been transferring information between different types of technology, such as quantum memories and quantum processors.

    “We approached this question by asking: Can we manipulate and connect quantum states of matter with sound waves?” said senior study author David Awschalom, the Liew Family Professor with the Institute for Molecular Engineering and senior scientist at Argonne National Laboratory.

    One way to run a quantum computing operation is to use “spins”—a property of an electron that can be up, down or both. Scientists can use these like zeroes and ones in today’s binary computer programming language. But getting this information elsewhere requires a translator, and scientists thought sound waves could help.

    “The object is to couple the sound waves with the spins of electrons in the material,” said graduate student Samuel Whiteley, the co-first author on the paper. “But the first challenge is to get the spins to pay attention.” So they built a system with curved electrodes to concentrate the sound waves, like using a magnifying lens to focus a point of light.

    The results were promising, but they needed more data. To get a better look at what was happening, they worked with scientists at the Center for Nanoscale Materials at Argonne to observe the system in real time. Essentially, they used extremely bright, powerful X-rays from the lab’s giant synchrotron, the Advanced Photon Source, as a microscope to peer at the atoms inside the material as the sound waves moved through it at nearly 7,000 kilometers per second.

    ANL Advanced Photon Source

    “This new method allows us to observe the atomic dynamics and structure in quantum materials at extremely small length scales,” said Awschalom. “This is one of only a few locations worldwide with the instrumentation to directly watch atoms move in a lattice as sound waves passes through them.”

    2
    Argonne nanoscientist Martin Holt took X-ray images of the acoustic waves with the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe at the Center for Nanoscale Materials and Advanced Photon Source, both at Argonne. Image courtesy of Argonne National Laboratory.

    One of the many surprising results, the researchers said, was that the quantum effects of sound waves were more complicated than they’d first imagined. To build a comprehensive theory behind what they were observing at the subatomic level, they turned to Prof. Giulia Galli, the Liew Family Professor at the IME and a senior scientist at Argonne. Modeling the system involves marshalling the interactions of every single particle in the system, which grows exponentially, Awschalom said, “but Professor Galli is a world expert in taking this kind of challenging problem and interpreting the underlying physics, which allowed us to further improve the system.”

    It’s normally difficult to send quantum information for more than a few microns, said Whiteley—that’s the width of a single strand of spider silk. This technique could extend control across an entire chip or wafer.

    “The results gave us new ways to control our systems, and opens venues of research and technological applications such as quantum sensing,” said postdoctoral researcher Gary Wolfowicz, the other co-first author of the study.

    The discovery is another from the University of Chicago’s world-leading program in quantum information science and engineering; Awschalom is currently leading a project to build a quantum “teleportation” network between Argonne and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to test principles for a potentially unhackable communications system.

    The scientists pointed to the confluence of expertise, resources and facilities at the University of Chicago, Institute for Molecular Engineering and Argonne as key to fully exploring the technology.

    3
    An acoustic chip is used to generate and control sound waves. Photo courtesy of Kevin Satzinger

    “No one group has the ability to explore these complex quantum systems and solve this class of problems; it takes state-of-the-art facilities, theorists and experimentalists working in close collaboration,” Awschalom said. “The strong connection between Argonne and the University of Chicago enables our students to address some of the most challenging questions in this rapidly moving area of science and technology.”

    Other coauthors on the paper are Assoc. Prof. David Schuster, and Prof. Andrew Cleland; Argonne scientists Joseph Heremans and Martin Holt; graduate students Christopher Anderson, Alexandre Bourassa, He Ma and Kevin Satzinger; and postdoctoral researcher Meng Ye.

    The devices were fabricated in the Pritzker Nanofabrication Facility at the William Eckhardt Research Center. Materials characterization was performed at the UChicago Materials Research Science and Engineering Center.

    Funding: Air Force Office of Scientific Research, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences, National Science Foundation, Department of Defense

    See the full article here .

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    U Chicago Campus

    An intellectual destination

    One of the world’s premier academic and research institutions, the University of Chicago has driven new ways of thinking since our 1890 founding. Today, UChicago is an intellectual destination that draws inspired scholars to our Hyde Park and international campuses, keeping UChicago at the nexus of ideas that challenge and change the world.

    University of Chicago

    An intellectual destination

    One of the world’s premier academic and research institutions, the University of Chicago has driven new ways of thinking since our 1890 founding. Today, UChicago is an intellectual destination that draws inspired scholars to our Hyde Park and international campuses, keeping UChicago at the nexus of ideas that challenge and change the world.

    The University of Chicago is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with UChicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    UChicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics, establishing revolutionary theories of economics, and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations with our national and affiliated laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts.

     
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