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  • richardmitnick 11:46 am on January 29, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Fermilab scientists help push AI to unprecedented speeds, , FNAL CMS, , ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Fermilab scientists help push AI to unprecedented speeds” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    January 29, 2019

    Javier Duarte
    Sergo Jindariani
    Ben Kreis
    Nhan Tran

    1
    Researchers at Fermilab are taking cues from industry to improve their own “big data” processing challenges.

    Machine learning is revolutionizing data analysis across academia and industries and is having an impact on our daily lives. Recent leaps in driverless car navigation and the voice recognition features of personal assistants are possible because of this form of artificial intelligence. As data sets in the Information Age continue to grow, companies such as Google and Microsoft are building tools that make machine learning faster and more efficient.

    Researchers at Fermilab are taking cues from industry to improve their own “big data” processing challenges.

    Data sets in particle physics are growing at unprecedented rates as accelerators are upgraded to higher performance and detectors become more fine-grained and complex. More sophisticated methods for analyzing these large data sets that also avoid losses in computing efficiency are required. For well over two decades, machine learning has already proven to be useful in a wide range of particle physics applications.

    To fully exploit the power of modern machine learning algorithms, Fermilab CMS scientists are preparing to deploy these algorithms in the first level of data filtering in their experiment, that is, in the “trigger.”

    CERN/CMS

    In particle physics lingo, a trigger occurs when a series of electronics and algorithms are used to select which collisions are recorded and which are discarded.

    Fermilab scientists are exploring a new approach that uses high-throughput, low-latency programmable microchips called field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The trigger algorithms have to operate in a daunting environment, which requires them to process events at the collision rate of 40 MHz at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and complete it in as little as hundreds of nanoseconds.

    LHC

    CERN map


    CERN LHC Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    In a growing collaboration with CERN, MIT, University of Florida, University of Illinois at Chicago and other institutions, Fermilab researchers have recently developed a software tool, called hls4ml, that helps users implement their own custom machine learning algorithms on FPGAs. hls4ml translates industry-standard machine learning algorithms, such as Keras, TensorFlow and PyTorch, into instructions for the FPGA, called firmware. This tool leverages a new way to create firmware called high-level synthesis (HLS), which is similar to writing standard software and reduces development time. hls4ml also allows users to take advantage of the capabilities of FPGAs to speed up computations, such as the ability to do many multiplications in parallel with reduced (but sufficient) precision.

    The first proof-of-concept implementation of the tool showed that a neural network with over 100 hidden neurons could classify jets originating from different particles, such as quarks, gluons, W bosons, Z bosons or top quarks, in under 75 nanoseconds. Neural networks can also be used for iterative tasks, such as determining the momentum of a muon passing through the CMS endcap detectors. Using hls4ml, CMS collaborators have shown that the ability to reject fake muons was up to 80 percent better than previous methods.

    Ultrafast, low-latency machine learning inference in FPGA hardware has much broader implications. Beyond real-time LHC data processing, applications can be found in neutrino and dark matter experiments and particle accelerator beamline controls. Even more broadly, accelerating machine learning with specialized hardware such as FPGAs and dedicated circuits called ASICs (application-specific integrated circuits) is an area of active development for large-scale computing challenges. Industry drivers such as Amazon Web Services with Xilinx FPGAs, Microsoft Azure and Intel have invested heavily in FPGAs, while Google has developed its own ASIC (a tensor processing unit, TPU). Specialized hardware platforms coupled with CPUs, referred to as co-processors, are driving the heterogeneous computing revolution. hls4ml can be applied in such co-processor platforms. Combining heterogeneous computing and hls4ML for low-latency machine learning inference could lead to an exciting potential to solve future computing challenges in particle physics.

    The authors are members of the Fermilab CMS Department.

    See the full article here .


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    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

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  • richardmitnick 1:24 pm on April 20, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , FNAL CMS, , , ,   

    From FNAL: “CMS experiment at the LHC sees first 2018 collisions” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    April 19, 2018
    Cecilia Gerber
    Sergo Jindariani

    Cecilia Gerber and Sergo Jindariani are co-coordinators of the LHC Physics Center at Fermilab.

    After months of winter shutdown, the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is once again seeing collisions and is ready to take data.

    CERN CMS

    CERN CMS Higgs Event

    CERN CMS pre-Higgs Event

    The shutdown months have been very busy for CMS physicists, who used this downtime to improve the performance of the detector by completing upgrades and repairs of detector components. The LHC will continue running until December 2018 and is expected to deliver an additional 50 inverse femtobarns of integrated luminosity to the ATLAS and CMS experiments. This year of data-taking will conclude Run-2, after which the collider and its experiment will go into a two-year long shutdown for further upgrades.

    Run-2 of the LHC has been highly successful, with close to 100 inverse femtobarns of integrated luminosity already delivered to the experiments in 2016 and 2017. These data sets enabled CMS physicists to perform many measurements of Standard Model parameters and searches for new physics. New data will allow CMS to further advance into previously uncharted territory. Physicists from the LHC Physics Center at Fermilab have been deeply involved in the work during the winter shutdown. They are now playing key roles in processing and certification of data recorded by the CMS detector, while looking forward to analyzing the new data sets for a chance to discover new physics.


    This is an event display of one of the early 2018 collisions that took place at the CMS experiment at CERN.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 3:00 pm on October 1, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL CMS, , ,   

    From FNAL- “From the CMS Center CMS: design, construction, operations” 


    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Wednesday, Oct. 1, 2014
    sn
    Steve Nahn, U.S. CMS detector upgrade project manager, wrote this column.

    It’s a very busy and sometimes hectic place on Wilson Hall’s 10th and 11th floors these days working on CMS. Rather than progressing sequentially through design, construction and operations phases of the CMS detector upgrades, we are going through all three simultaneously. This leads to a certain amount of jumping around.

    CERN CMS New
    CMS

    The design component addresses the high-luminosity LHC era commencing in the mid-2020s, at which time the LHC’s total luminosity will increase 10-fold. To exploit the physics opportunities afforded by the more intense beam while coping with increased radiation dose, we must replace or upgrade key components of the detector. A large fraction of the collaboration spent the summer studying what sort of detector we would need in that demanding environment. The result, a 300-plus-page technical proposal, is nearly ready for release, and R&D efforts at Fermilab and collaborating institutes are already framing the technologies needed to make these Phase 2 upgrades a reality.

    The construction component, the Phase 1 Upgrade Project, is a set of strategically targeted upgrades to cope with the imminent increased instantaneous luminosity starting next year and continually growing up to the high-luminosity LHC era. The design for this phase is complete, and the job at hand is to build the new sensors, back-end electronics and online triggering system. This project just went through Critical Decision 2 and 3 reviews simultaneously. The conclusion was a resounding recommendation for approval after a few technical details are resolved. The approval, which we hope will come through in November, will allow us to transition into production mode, launching activities at SiDet, Wilson Hall and the Feynman Center at Fermilab, as well as at the 30 collaborating U.S. universities, to move the project from design to installation in the next few years.

    Lest we forget, there is the ongoing, operating experiment, perhaps the most exciting of the three phases. The LHC is poised to restart in spring 2015, after a two-year shutdown at twice the center-of-mass energy, the last significant step foreseen. The low mass of the Higgs argues for new physics that may appear in the next run, and the collaboration is gearing up to find it. This involves a program of extended running of the entire detector with cosmic rays before the beam returns to bring the detector back to peak efficiency, computing challenges to make sure the offline data production is ready, and increased effort on the analysis chain, particularly for potential early high-profile discoveries. A new discovery in 2015 would be fantastic, full stop, and we are committed to ensuring we are ready for such an opportunity.

    There is indeed a lot of exciting work going on. And amid all this, there’s still one more thing to mention: Our fearless leader Patty McBride is transitioning from U.S. CMS program manager into her role as head of the Particle Physics Division. We know she isn’t going far — only three floors down in Wilson Hall — but we’ll miss her anyway. We take this opportunity to give her a giant “thank you” for her leadership and tireless efforts up here on the 11th floor. PPD is lucky!

    See the full article here.

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    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.

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  • richardmitnick 12:50 pm on June 11, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , FNAL CMS, , ,   

    From Fermilab: “From the CMS Center – Getting ready for the second run of the LHC” 


    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Wednesday, June 11, 2014

    kb
    Kevin Burkett, acting head of the CMS Center, wrote this column.

    The end of the LHC shutdown is now in sight, and members of CMS and machine experts are both beginning preparations for the restart of LHC operations in 2015. The current long shutdown started after the completion of LHC Run 1 in February 2013. Run 1 was a tremendous success, and the experiments are still completing all their analyses using the data accumulated during the run.

    CERN LHC Map

    Last week LHC machine experts gathered near CERN in Evian, France, to discuss plans for LHC operation in 2015. While the final decision on the collision energy will come after hardware tests of the LHC magnets later this year, the goal will be to deliver collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. This is close to the design energy and a significant increase compared to the 8-TeV collisions in 2012. A second goal is to cut the time between collisions in half, from 50 to 25 nanoseconds.

    Members of CMS have been active during the shutdown, performing maintenance and improving the detector, as well as working to improve the algorithms used to reconstruct and identify the particles produced in collisions. Experts in computing have focused on improving the efficiency and reliability of the infrastructure while developing new tools for users.

    An important milestone in our preparation for the start of data taking in 2015 is the upcoming Computing, Software and Analysis challenge, or CSA14. Simulated data samples are placed at sites around the globe and analyzed by members of the experiment. As the name suggests, this challenge allows us to test the readiness of many of the key aspects of our computing, offline software and physics analysis. Special emphasis will be placed on new procedures for users to access data and on validation of the output from the improved reconstruction algorithms.

    Fermilab’s Joel Butler will lead CSA14. The exercise will require significant work from US CMS computing personnel, especially from the Scientific Computing Division. University members of the LHC Physics Center at Fermilab will also be active in CSA14 analysis. With time to address any issues uncovered in CSA14, CMS will be ready to go when the LHC starts up again in 2015.

    See the full article here.

    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.


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  • richardmitnick 11:29 am on June 6, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FNAL CMS, , ,   

    From Fermilab- “Frontier Science Result: CMS Connecting the dots” 


    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Friday, June 6, 2014

    Fermilab Don Lincoln
    Dr. Don Lincoln wrote this article

    When two protons collide in the center of the CMS detector, the collision energy can create hundreds of electrically charged particles. These particles roar through the apparatus, crossing individual detector elements. Each particle marks the location of its passage, leaving a string of dots that can be seen on a computer screen.

    CERN CMS New
    CMS at CERN

    One of the trickiest jobs in particle physics is to teach a computer how to connect the dots and reconstruct the tracks of all of the particles that exited the collision. That’s correct: The child’s simple pastime of connect-the-dots can consume the efforts of many of the finest minds in an experiment like CMS. The difficulty stems from the fact that there are hundreds of tracks and that, in a bit of an inconvenient oversight, nobody bothered to put numbers beside the dots to tell the computer which to connect.

    Reconstructing tracks is one of the first tasks that an experiment must accomplish in order to begin to analyze the data. Before the tracks are identified, the data is a mess of little dots. Once the tracks are determined, scientists can begin to sort out the physical process that occurred by figuring out that this particle went this way while another particle went that.

    In addition to reconstructing the tracks of particles, scientists also reconstruct the origin of the particles. This is the location at which the collision between two protons occurred. Until you know the origin and trajectory of the particles, you can’t even begin to understand what sort of collision was recorded.

    CMS scientists have worked long and hard to develop the algorithms to accomplish these challenging tasks. In a recent paper, they described the result of their efforts. Particles leaving the collision at angles near 90 degrees measured from the beam can be reconstructed about 94 percent of the time. For the special case of isolated muons, the reconstruction probability rises to 100 percent. The location of the origin of the collision can be localized with a precision about 0.01 millimeters, or about half the size of the finest human hair. These algorithms are fast and flexible, and scientists continue to improve on them in anticipation of the resumption of operations in early 2015.

    See the full article here.

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    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.


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  • richardmitnick 12:34 pm on May 9, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From Fermilab- “Frontier Science Result CMS: Times have really changed 


    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Friday, May 9, 2014
    Fermilab Don Lincoln
    Today’s article was written by Don Lincoln

    I remember the day in 1995 when the discovery of the top quark was announced at Fermilab. There were reporters. There was champagne. There was a raucous party. It was a big deal, the likes of which are seen once every decade or two.

    top quark
    Top Quark Antitop Quark event

    At the time, the top quark discovery was not seen as just another study of the strong force. But for all the buzz, that’s really what it was. A quark and antiquark fused to make a gluon, which then converted into a top quark-antiquark pair. At some level, the physics was pretty mundane. (Of course, this didn’t stop us celebrating the discovery!)

    The reason the top quark was so hard to find at Fermilab was that its mass is so big; it was hard to make with the Tevatron of the early 1990s. At the Large Hadron Collider, which came online in 2008, things are different. The LHC has higher energy — high enough that making top quarks is now relatively common. In CMS, top quarks are produced at a rate of about one per second.

    CERN LHC particles
    LHC

    Quantum chromodynamics, which scientists have been studying since the 1970s, is the theory of the strong force, and it governs the behavior of quarks and gluons. Scientists would like to know whether this well-studied QCD theory correctly predicts what is seen in top quark production, just as it does for other, lighter quarks.

    QCD predicts that, in addition to the “main event” in which a top quark-antiquark pair is made, other quarks and gluons are also produced. It’s kind of like when you slap your hand hard down into water. There’s all the main activity where your hand hits the surface, but there are also stray drops of water that fly around. QCD should be able to predict on average how many extra “drops” of quarks and gluons are produced.

    This measurement goes beyond simply testing QCD. Many new physics theories predict that events in which top quarks are produced might be a good place to look for, for instance, events with Higgs bosons or that reveal supersymmetry.

    Supersymmetry standard model
    Standard Model of Supersymmetry

    CMS scientists took a couple of data samples containing more than 100,000 top quarks and quantified the presence or absence of other quarks and gluons. The data was in very good agreement with the predictions of QCD, which means there was no big discovery. Nevertheless, the data verified that QCD is a good theory of top quark production, so we can be that much more confident about any future discoveries that hinge on the presence of top quarks.

    It is often said in particle physics that yesterday’s discovery is today’s calibration point and tomorrow’s annoying background. For those of us who were part of the top quark discovery, we can but shake our heads. It’s hard to imagine that the top quark has so quickly become yet another tool to explore our universe. And yet it has. That’s a good thing.

    See the full article here.

    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.


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  • richardmitnick 2:50 pm on March 21, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From Don Lincoln at Fermilab – Video about CMS at Fermilab 

    Don Lincoln has provided us with a video about the U.S involvement in CMS at CERN

    Enjoy the video and understand the U.S. contribution to basic scientific research.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:24 pm on March 12, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From Fermilab: “Meeting the demands of a more powerful LHC” 


    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Wednesday, March 12, 2014

    kb
    Kevin Burkett, acting head of the CMS Center, wrote this column.

    We are now past the halfway point of the LHC’s long shutdown, during which scientists and engineers have been upgrading the collider to smash proton beams at double the energy of its first run. While there is still plenty of work left to do, the LHC accelerator complex is on track to return in early 2015 with proton-proton collisions at close to the LHC design energy of 14 TeV, and the CMS experiment will be ready to record the events. Members of CMS recently gathered at CERN to develop detailed plans for recommissioning the experiment after the restart of the accelerator, leading to exciting possibilities for physics with the high-energy data we expect to record in 2015.

    Back here at Fermilab, lab personnel and other members of CMS have been taking advantage of the Fermilab Test Beam Facility. The facility’s unique capabilities attract both national and international collaborators to test their new detector designs in a controlled environment. The current experiments at the Test Beam Facility are an important step in the development of the upgraded detectors needed to deal with the higher luminosity expected from the LHC in the future.

    One group of CMS collaborators is focused on an upgrade of the forward pixel detector, part of the system responsible for measuring the trajectories of particles as they emerge from the proton-proton collision. The group works with CMS colleagues from other countries on a high-rate beam test to study electronics for upgrades planned for late 2016 and beyond.

    Other groups from CMS perform studies critical to the upgrade of the calorimetry system, which measures the energy of particles. These groups evaluate prototypes of detector electronics that will be used in a near-term upgrade of the calorimeter, as well as study new materials and innovative designs for a future upgrade of the forward calorimetry system.

    The studies at Fermilab’s Test Beam Facility today will ensure that the CMS detector continues to perform well in the future, producing exciting physics for many years to come, and that Fermilab personnel will have a leading role in the effort.

    See the full article here.

    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.


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  • richardmitnick 1:28 pm on November 20, 2013 Permalink | Reply
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    From Fermilab CMS: “CMS Center news” 


    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Wednesday, Nov. 20, 2013

    Patricia McBride, head of the CMS Center, wrote this column.

    pm

    The LHC is in the middle of a long shutdown period, and the CMS collaboration is busy preparing for the next run, which starts in 2015, while planning for detector upgrades during future long shutdowns. This week CMS scientists gathered at CERN to discuss plans and proposals for an upgrade to the CMS tracker for the high-luminosity LHC era. Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer plans to visit the CMS detector this Thursday and will have a chance to meet with Fermilab staff working at CERN.

    CERN CMS New
    CMS

    The Fermilab CMS Center and LHC Physics Center have been a hub of activity over the past few weeks. Last week, the LPC hosted at Fermilab a workshop on “SUSY at the Near Energy Frontier.” The workshop brought together more than 80 SUSY experts from the LHC and theory community. They reviewed the status of searches for supersymmetry and discussed ways to maximize the SUSY discovery potential of the LHC run that will start in 2015. Seema Sharma, a Fermilab CMS Center research associate and an LPC Fellow, led the organizing committee with assistance from LPC colleagues and the Fermilab conference office.

    See the full article here.

    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.


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  • richardmitnick 1:04 pm on October 2, 2013 Permalink | Reply
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    From Symmetry: “US participation in the Higgs discovery” 

    The search for the Higgs at experiments at the Large Hadron Collider was an international effort involving thousands of people, with physicists and engineers from US institutions playing a significant role throughout.

    October 01, 2013
    Don Lincoln

    Fermilab Don Lincoln
    Don Lincoln

    In 2012, the announcement of the Higgs particle rocked the world. A scientific discovery in which thousands of US scientists participated was blasted across the globe by over a thousand TV stations to more than a billion people. TIME magazine declared it to be the particle of the year and Fabiola Gianotti, leader of one of the teams who found it, a runner-up for person of the year. Science, the flagship journal of the American Association of the Advancement of Science, named it the breakthrough of the year.

    This discovery was a really big deal—so big that the media and information firm Thomson Reuters has predicted that this year’s Nobel prize in physics will go to two scientists who predicted the Higgs boson’s existence back in the 1960s.

    The data used to make this discovery was recorded at the Large Hadron Collider. Although the LHC is located at CERN in Europe, the discovery was an international one. Scientists from across the globe were involved in all stages of this discovery. More than 6000 researchers from institutions in more than 60 countries are currently participating in the LHC experiments.

    US participation

    Nearly 2000 physicists from the United States contributed to this effort; the United States provides more researchers than any other country. These scientists came from 96 US universities and research facilities in 33 states, plus Puerto Rico. Like all LHC collaborators, institutions in the United States built equipment at their home facilities and shipped them to CERN. American scientists also helped operate the experiments and played a major role in analyzing the data that led to the discovery of the Higgs boson.

    list

    There are examples where US scientists have had a key impact. For instance, Joe Incandela, a professor of physics at the University of California, Santa Barbara, was in the international spotlight on July 4, 2012, when he announced the discovery of the new particle, as leader of a team of more than 3000 scientists on the CMS experiment.

    The two detectors that independently discovered the Higgs particle, ATLAS and CMS, can be thought of as huge digital cameras, each one larger than a five-story building and weighing many thousands of tons. And they are no ordinary cameras. They have 100 million pixels each and can take 40 million pictures every second. By sifting through these pictures, scientists are able to better understand how the universe works.

    us cost

    Fully a third of the cost of building and operating these detectors is borne by the United States. Together, the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation contributed about $165 million to the construction of each device. These two agencies have a long history of funding fundamental research, resulting in technical payoffs including such innovations as medical imaging and cancer treatment, materials science and high-performance computing.

    While the United States has supplied about 30 percent of the budget and manpower necessary to operate the LHC experiments, this number probably underestimates the impact of US scientists on the LHC research program. Brookhaven National Laboratory provides the second largest group of physicists working on the ATLAS experiment, eclipsed only by CERN itself. The situation is similar in CMS, where Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is the second biggest research group.

    Hundreds of American graduate students have written their PhD theses on research tied to the LHC experiments and have moved on into the American technical workforce.

    America’s strong commitment to fundamental research ensures that US physicists will continue to play a central role in mankind’s millennia-long efforts to understand our universe.

    See the full article here.

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.



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