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  • richardmitnick 10:57 am on April 18, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Dame Susan Jocelyn Bell Burnell discovered of the first pulsar in 1967., FAST radio telescope in China, PSR J1717+408A, , Pulsars are the compact remnants of dead stars that shine powerful beams of emission into space as they spin.,   

    From AAS NOVA: “Pulsar Discovery from an Enormous Telescope” 


    From AAS NOVA

    17 April 2020
    Susanna Kohler

    FAST [Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Telescope] radio telescope, with phased arrays from CSIRO engineers Australia [located in the Dawodang depression in Pingtang County, Guizhou Province, south China

    Magnetized neutron stars in distant globular clusters are a challenge to detect — but it’s a job made easier by the world’s largest filled-aperture radio telescope. Recent high-sensitivity observations have uncovered an erratic new star system.

    Pulses from Distant Clusters

    Pulsars are the compact remnants of dead stars that shine powerful beams of emission into space as they spin.

    The brightness of these beams and the regular timing of their pulsations makes pulsars valuable targets for observatories; not only can they tell us about stellar evolution and their environments, but they also serve as probes of the interstellar medium, space-time, and more.

    Since the discovery of the first pulsar in 1967, we’ve found thousands of these stellar clocks in our galaxy.

    Dame Susan Jocelyn Bell Burnell, discovered pulsars with radio astronomy. Jocelyn Bell at the Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory, Cambridge University, taken for the Daily Herald newspaper in 1968. Denied the Nobel.

    While many are located relatively nearby in the galactic disk, we’ve also observed a population of pulsars in the distant globular clusters that orbit the Milky Way. These pulsars are a useful tool for probing a very different environment: the dense stellar cores made up of an old population of stars.

    Until recently, we’d only discovered 156 pulsars in 29 globular clusters; due to these clusters’ large distances (tens to hundreds of thousands of light-years away), it takes very powerful and sensitive radio telescopes to find them using deep surveys. Now, a new observatory has entered the game.

    A Powerful Telescope

    The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST), built into the hilly landscape in southwest China, is the world’s largest filled-aperture telescope. Its size dwarfs that of the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, and its dish has the advantage of being shapable — the panels that make up its surface can be tilted by a computer to change the telescope’s focus.

    NAIC Arecibo Observatory operated by University of Central Florida, Yang Enterprises and UMET, Altitude 497 m (1,631 ft).

    Comparison of the FAST (bottom) and Arecibo Observatory (top) radio dish profiles at the same scale. [Cmglee]

    FAST achieved first light in 2016, and it’s been going undergoing testing and commissioning for the last few years. As of January 2020, the FAST is officially open for business, and we’re now seeing some of the major results coming from this powerful radio observatory.

    Among them: the first discovery of an eclipsing binary pulsar in globular cluster M92, as reported in a recent publication led by Zichen Pan (NAO, Chinese Academy of Sciences).

    Hubble image of the globular cluster M92. [ESA/Hubble]

    Phase-folded pulse data for PSR J1717+408A, as observed by FAST (left panel) and by the Green Bank Telescope (right panel). Eclipses are visible as breaks in the data. The difference in sensitivity between the two telescopes is starkly evident. [Adapted from Pan et al. 2020]

    GBO radio telescope, Green Bank, West Virginia, USA

    An Exotic System

    Pan and collaborators announce the FAST detection of a pulsar with a pulse period of 3.16 milliseconds orbiting around a low-mass companion in a globular cluster that’s about 27,000 light-years away.

    This pulsar, PSR J1717+408A, is in a close (period of 0.20 days) eclipsing orbit with its companion, making it what’s known as a “red-back pulsar”. Radiation from the pulsar has pummeled its companion star, creating a cloud of ionized material that surrounds it and causes the pulsar’s eclipses to vary in duration and timing.

    The discovery of this object demonstrates the potential of FAST as a probe of the globular cluster pulsar population. More observations of M92 are planned in the future, as well as observations of dozens of even richer clusters. Keep an eye out for more FAST results as this telescope ramps up operations!


    “The FAST Discovery of an Eclipsing Binary Millisecond Pulsar in the Globular Cluster M92 (NGC 6341),” Zhichen Pan et al 2020 ApJL 892 L6.


    See the full article here .


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    AAS Mission and Vision Statement

    The mission of the American Astronomical Society is to enhance and share humanity’s scientific understanding of the Universe.

    The Society, through its publications, disseminates and archives the results of astronomical research. The Society also communicates and explains our understanding of the universe to the public.
    The Society facilitates and strengthens the interactions among members through professional meetings and other means. The Society supports member divisions representing specialized research and astronomical interests.
    The Society represents the goals of its community of members to the nation and the world. The Society also works with other scientific and educational societies to promote the advancement of science.
    The Society, through its members, trains, mentors and supports the next generation of astronomers. The Society supports and promotes increased participation of historically underrepresented groups in astronomy.
    The Society assists its members to develop their skills in the fields of education and public outreach at all levels. The Society promotes broad interest in astronomy, which enhances science literacy and leads many to careers in science and engineering.

    Adopted June 7, 2009

  • richardmitnick 6:57 am on September 3, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , FAST radio telescope in China, , ,   

    From The Atlantic via WIRED: “China Built the World’s Largest Telescope. Then Came the Tourists” 

    Atlantic Magazine

    The Atlantic Magazine


    Wired logo


    Sarah Scoles

    Thousands of people moved[?*] to let China build and protect the world’s largest telescope. And then the government drew in orders of magnitude more tourists, potentially undercutting its own science in an attempt to promote it.

    FAST radio telescope, with phase arrays from Australia [https://sciencesprings.wordpress.com/2017/12/18/from-csiroscope-our-top-telescope-tech-travels-fast/] located in the Dawodang depression in Pingtang County, Guizhou Province, south China

    “I hope we go inside this golf ball,” Sabrina Stierwalt joked as she and a group of other radio astronomers approached what did, in fact, appear to be a giant golf ball in the middle of China’s new Pingtang Astronomy Town.

    Stierwalt was a little drunk, a lot full, even more tired. The nighttime scene felt surreal. But then again, even a sober, well-rested person might struggle to make sense of this cosmos-themed, touristy confection of a metropolis.

    On the group’s walk around town that night, they seemed to traverse the ever-expanding universe. Light from a Saturn-shaped lamp crested and receded, its rings locked into support pillars that appeared to make it levitate. Stierwalt stepped onto a sidewalk, and its panels lit up beneath her feet, leaving a trail of lights behind her like the tail of a meteor. Someone had even brought constellations down to Earth, linking together lights in the ground to match the patterns in the sky.

    The tourist town, about 10 miles from the telescope, lights up at night. Credit Intentionally Withheld

    The day before, Stierwalt had traveled from Southern California to Pingtang Astronomy Town for a conference hosted by scientists from the world’s largest telescope. It was a new designation: China’s Five-Hundred-Meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope, or FAST, had been completed just a year before, in September 2016. Wandering, tipsy, around this shrine to the stars, the 40 or so other foreign astronomers had come to China to collaborate on the superlative-snatching instrument.

    For now, though, they wouldn’t get to see the telescope itself, nestled in a natural enclosure called a karst depression about 10 miles away. First things first: the golf ball.

    As the group got closer, they saw a red carpet unrolled into the entrance of the giant white orb, guarded by iridescent dragons on an inflatable arch. Inside, they buckled up in rows of molded yellow plastic chairs. The lights dimmed. It was an IMAX movie—a cartoon, with an animated narrator. Not the likeness of a person but … what was it? A soup bowl?

    No, Stierwalt realized. It was a clip-art version of the gargantuan telescope itself. Small cartoon FAST flew around big cartoon FAST, describing the monumental feat of engineering just over yonder: a giant geodesic dome shaped out of 4,450 triangular panels, above which receivers collect radio waves from astronomical objects.

    FAST’s dish, nestled into a depression, is made of thousands of triangular panels. located in the Dawodang depression in Pingtang County, Guizhou Province, south China located in the Dawodang depression in Pingtang County, Guizhou Province, south China VCGGetty Images

    China spent $180 million to create the telescope, which officials have repeatedly said will make the country the global leader in radio astronomy. But the local government also spent several times that on this nearby Astronomy Town—hotels, housing, a vineyard, a museum, a playground, classy restaurants, all those themed light fixtures. The government hopes that promoting their scope in this way will encourage tourists and new residents to gravitate to the historically poor Guizhou province.

    It is, in some sense, an experiment into whether this type of science and economic development can coexist. Which is strange, because normally, they purposefully don’t.

    The point of radio telescopes is to sense radio waves from space—gas clouds, galaxies, quasars. By the time those celestial objects’ emissions reach Earth, they’ve dimmed to near-nothingness, so astronomers build these gigantic dishes to pick up the faint signals. But their size makes them particularly sensitive to all radio waves, including those from cell phones, satellites, radar systems, spark plugs, microwaves, Wi-Fi, short circuits, and basically anything else that uses electricity or communicates. Protection against radio-frequency interference, or RFI, is why scientists put their radio telescopes in remote locations: the mountains of West Virginia, the deserts of Chile, the way-outback of Australia.

    FAST’s site used to be remote like that. The country even forcibly relocated thousands of villagers who lived nearby, so their modern trappings wouldn’t interfere with the new prized instrument.

    But then, paradoxically, the government built—just a few miles from the displaced villagers’ demolished houses—this astronomy town. It also plans to increase the permanent population by hundreds of thousands. That’s a lot of cell phones, each of which persistently emits radio waves with around 1 watt of power.

    By the time certain deep-space emissions reach Earth, their power often comes with 24+ zeroes in front: 0.0000000000000000000000001 watts.

    FAST has been in the making for a long time. In the early 2000s, China angled to host the Square Kilometre Array, a collection of coordinated radio antennas whose dishes would be scattered over thousands of miles. But in 2006, the international SKA committee dismissed China, and then chose to set up its distributed mondo-telescope in South Africa and Australia instead.

    Undeterred, Chinese astronomers set out to build their own powerful instrument.

    In 2007, China’s National Development and Reform Commission allocated $90 million for the project, with $90 million more streaming in from other agencies. Four years later, construction began in one of China’s poorest regions, in the karst hills of the southwestern part of the country. They do things fast in China: The team finished the telescope in just five years. In September 2016, FAST received its “first light,” from a pulsar 1,351 light-years away, during its official opening.

    A year later, Stierwalt and the other visiting scientists arrived in Pingtang, and after an evening of touring Astronomy Town, they got down to business.

    See, FAST’s opening had been more ceremony than science (the commissioning phase is officially scheduled to end by September 2019). It was still far from fully operational—engineers are still trying to perfect, for instance, the motors that push and pull its surface into shape, allowing it to point and focus correctly. And the relatively new crop of radio astronomers running the telescope were hungry for advice about how to run such a massive research instrument.

    The visiting astronomers had worked with telescopes that have contributed to understanding of hydrogen emissions, pulsars, powerful bursts, and distant galaxies. But they weren’t just subject experts: Many were logistical wizards, having worked on multiple instruments and large surveys, and with substantial and dispersed teams. Stierwalt studies interacting dwarf galaxies, and while she’s a staff scientist at Caltech/IPAC, she uses telescopes all over. “Each gives a different piece of the puzzle,” she says. Optical telescopes show the stars. Infrared instruments reveal dust and older stars. X-ray observatories pick out black holes. And single-dish radio telescopes like FAST see the bigger picture: They can map out the gas inside of and surrounding galaxies.

    So at the Radio Astronomy Conference, Stierwalt and the other visitors shared how FAST could benefit from their instruments, and vice versa, and talked about how to run big projects. That work had begun even before the participants arrived. “Prior to the meeting, I traveled extensively all over the world to personally meet with the leaders of previous large surveys,” says Marko Krčo, a research fellow who’s been working for the Chinese Academy of Sciences since the summer of 2016.

    He asked the meeting’s speakers, some of those same leaders, to talk about what had gone wrong in their own surveys, and how the interpersonal end had functioned. “How did you organize yourselves?” he says. “How did you work together? How did you communicate?”

    That kind of feedback would be especially important for FAST to accomplish one of its first, appropriately lofty goals: helping astronomers collect signals from many sides of the universe, all at once. They’d call it the Commensal Radio Astronomy FAST Survey, or CRAFTS.

    Above the dish, engineers have suspended instruments that collect cosmic radio waves. Feature China/Barcroft Media/Getty Images

    Most radio astronomical surveys have a single job: Map gas. Find pulsars. Discover galaxies. They do that by collecting signals in a receiver suspended over the dish of a radio telescope, engineered to capture a certain range of frequencies from the cosmos. Normally, the different astronomer factions don’t use that receiver at the same time, because they each take their data differently. But CRAFTS aims to be the first survey that simultaneously collects data for such a broad spectrum of scientists—without having to pause to reconfigure its single receiver.

    CRAFTS has a receiver that looks for signals from 1.04 gigahertz to 1.45 gigahertz, about 10 times higher than your FM radio. Within that range, as part of CRAFTS, scientists could simultaneously look for gas inside and beyond the galaxy, scan for pulsars, watch for mysterious “fast radio bursts,” make detailed maps, and maybe even search for ET. “That sounds straightforward,” says Stierwalt. “Point the telescope. Collect the data. Mine the data.”

    Engineers from FAST and the Australian science agency install the telescope’s CRAFTS receiver. Marko Krčo

    But it’s not easy. Pulsar astronomers want quicktime samples at a wide range of frequencies; hydrogen studiers, meanwhile, don’t need data chunks as often, but they care deeply about the granular frequency details. On top of that, each group adjusts the observations, calibrating them, kind of like you’d make sure your speedometer reads 45 mph when you’re going 45. And they use different kinds of adjustments.

    When we spoke, Krčo had just returned from a trip to Green Bank, where he was testing whether they could set everyone’s speedometer correctly. “I think it will be one of the big sort of legacies of FAST,” says Krčo. And it’s especially important since the National Science Foundation has recently cratered funding to both Arecibo and Green Bank observatories, the United States’ most significant single-dish radio telescopes.

    NAIC Arecibo Observatory, previously the largest radio telescope in the world operated by University of Central Florida, Yang Enterprises and UMET, Altitude 497 m (1,631 ft)

    Green Bank does have financial support, $2 million per year for five years from Yuri Milner’s Breaktrhough Listen Project.

    Breakthrough Listen Project


    Lick Automated Planet Finder telescope, Mount Hamilton, CA, USA

    GBO radio telescope, Green Bank, West Virginia, USA

    CSIRO/Parkes Observatory, located 20 kilometres north of the town of Parkes, New South Wales, Australia

    While they remain open, they have to seek private project money, meaning chunks of time are no longer available for astronomers’ proposals. Adding hours, on a different continent, helps everybody.

    At the end of the conference in Pingtang County, Krčo and his colleagues presented a concrete plan for CRAFTS, giving all the visitors a chance to approve the proposed design. “Each group could raise any red flags, if necessary, regarding their individual science goals or suggest modifications,” says Krčo.

    In addition to the CRAFTS receiver, Krčo says they’ll add six more, sensitive to different frequencies. Together, they will detect radio waves from 70 megahertz to 3 gigahertz. He says they’ll find thousands of new pulsars (as of July 2018, they had already found more than 40), and do detailed studies of hydrogen inside the galaxy and in the wider universe, among numerous other worthy scientific goals.

    “There’s just a hell of a lot of work to do to get there,” says Krčo. “But we’re doing it.”

    For FAST to fulfill its potential, though, Krčo and his colleagues won’t just have to solve engineering problems: They’ll also have to deal with the problems that engineering created.

    During the four-day Radio Astronomy Forum, Stierwalt and the other astronomers did, finally, get to see the actual telescope, taking a bus up a tight, tortuous road through the karst between town and telescope.

    As soon as they arrived on site, they were instructed to shut down their phones to protect the instrument from the radio frequency interference. But not even these astronomers, who want pristine FAST data for themselves, could resist pressing that capture button. “Our sweet, sweet tour guide continually reminded us to please turn off our phones,” says Stierwalt, “but we all kept taking pictures and sneaking them out because no one really seemed to care.” Come on: It’s the world’s largest telescope.

    Maybe their minder stayed lax because a burst here or there wouldn’t make much of a difference in those early days. The number of regular tourists allowed at the site all day is capped at 3,000, to limit RFI, and they have to put their phones in lockers before they go see the dish. Krčo says the site bumps up against the visitor limit most days.

    But tourism and development are complicated for a sensitive scientific instrument. Within three miles of the telescope, the government passed legislation establishing a “radio-quiet zone,” where RFI-emitting devices are severely restricted. No one (not cellular providers or radio broadcasters) can get a transmitting license, and people entering the facility itself will have their electronics confiscated. “No one lives inside the zone, and the area is not open to the general public,” says Krčo, although some with commercial interests, like local farmers, can enter the zone with special permission. The government relocated villagers who lived within that protected area with promises of repayment in cash, housing, and jobs in tourism and FAST support services. (Though a 2016 report in Agence France-Presse revealed that up to 500 relocated families were suing the Pingtang government, alleging “land grabs without compensation, forced demolitions and unlawful detentions.”)

    The country’s Civil Aviation Administration has also adjusted air travel, setting up two restricted flight zones near the scope, canceling two routes, and adding or adjusting three others. “We can still see some RFI from aircraft navigational beacons,” says Krčo. “It’s much less, though, compared to what it’d look like without the adjusted air routes. It’d be impossible to fully clear a large enough air space to create a completely quiet sky.”

    None of the invisible boundaries, after all, function like force fields. RFI that originates from beyond can pass right on through. At least at the five-star tourist hotel, around 10 miles away, there’s Wi-Fi. The tour center, says an American pulsar astronomer, has a direct line of sight to the telescope.

    When Krčo first arrived on the job, he stayed in the astronomy town. “Every morning, we were counting all the new buildings springing up overnight,” Krčo says. “It would be half a dozen.”

    One day, he woke up to a new five-story structure out his window. Couldn’t be, he thought. But he checked a picture he’d taken the day before, and, sure enough, there had been no building in that spot.

    The corn close to town was covered in construction dust. “I’ve never seen anything like that in my whole life,” says Krčo. Today, though, the corn is gone, covered instead in hotels, museums, and shopping centers.

    Before FAST, few large structures existed in this part of China. Feature China/Barcroft Media/Getty Images

    Now, they abound. Liu Xu/Xinhua/Getty Images

    At a press conference in March 2017, Guizhou’s governor declared that the province would build 10,000 kilometers of new highway by 2020, in addition to completing 17 airports and 4,000 kilometers of high-speed train lines. That’s partly to accommodate the hundreds of thousands of people the province expects to relocate here permanently, as well as the tourists. While just those 3,000 people per day will get to visit the telescope itself, there’s no cap on how many can sojourn in Astronomy Town; the deputy director of Guizhou’s reform and development commission, according to China Daily, said it would be “a main astronomical tourism zone worldwide.” “The town has grown incredibly over the last couple of years due to tourism development,” says Krčo. “This has impacted our RFI environment, but not yet to a point where it is unmanageable.”

    Krčo says that geography protects FAST against much of that human interference. “There are a great many mountains between the telescope and the town,” says Krčo. The land blocks the waves, which you’ve seen yourself if you’ve ever tried to pick up NPR in a canyon. But even though the waves can’t go directly into the telescope, Krčo says the team still sees their echoes, reflections beamed down from the atmosphere.

    “People at the visitors’ center have been using cameras and whatnot, and we can see the RFI from that,” he said last November (enforcement seems to have ramped up since then). “During the daytime,” he adds, “our RFI is much worse than nighttime,” largely due to engineers working onsite (that should improve once commissioning is over). But the tourist traps aren’t run and weren’t developed by FAST staff but by various governmental arms—so FAST, really, has no control over what they do.

    The global radio astronomy community has concerns. “I’m absolutely sure that if people are going to bring their toys, then there’s going to be RFI,” says Carla Beaudet, an RFI engineer at Green Bank Observatory, who spends her career trying to help humans see the radio sky despite themselves. Green Bank itself sits in the middle of a strict radio protection zone with a radius of 10 miles, in which there’s no Wi-Fi or even microwaves.

    There are other ways of dealing with RFI—and Krčo says FAST has a permanent team of engineers dedicated to dealing with interference. One solution, which can pick up the strongest contamination, is a small antenna mounted to one of FAST’s support towers. “The idea is that it will observe the same RFI as the big dish,” says Krčo. “Then, in principle, we can remove the RFI from the data in real time.”

    At other telescopes, astronomers are developing machine-learning algorithms that could identify, extract, and compensate for dirty data. All telescopes, after all, have human contamination, even the ones without malls next door. You can’t stop a communications satellite from passing overhead, or a radar beam from bouncing the wrong way across the mountains. And while you can decide not to build a tourist town in the first place, you probably can’t stop a tidal wave of construction once it’s crested.

    In their free evenings at the Radio Astronomy Forum, Stierwalt and the other astronomers wandered through the development. Across from their luxury hotel, workers were constructing a huge mall. It was just scaffolding then, but sparks flew from tools every night. “So the joke was, ‘I wonder if we’ll be able to go shopping at the mall by the end of our trip,’” says Stierwalt.

    At the end of the conference, Stierwalt rode a bus back to the airport, awed by what she’d seen. The karst hills, dipping and rising out the window, looked like those in Puerto Rico, where she had used the 300-meter Arecibo telescope for weeks at a time during her graduate research.

    When she tried to check in for her flight, she didn’t know where to go, what to do. An agent wrote her passport number down wrong.

    A young Chinese man, an astronomer, saw her struggle and approached her. “I’m on your flight,” he said, “and I’ll make sure you get on it.”

    In line after line, they started talking about other things—life, science. “I was describing the astronomy landscape for me,” she says. Never enough jobs, never enough research money, necessary competition with your friends. “For him, it’s very different.”

    He lives in a country that wants to accrete a community of radio astronomers, not winnow one down. A country that wants to support (and promote) ambitious telescopes, rather than defund the ones it has. China isn’t just trying to build a tourist economy around its telescope—it’s also trying to build a scientific culture around radio astronomy.

    That latter part seems like a safe bet. But the first is still uncertain. So is how the tourist economy will affect—for better or worse—FAST’s scientific payoff. “Much like their CRAFTS survey is trying to make everyone happy—all the different kinds of radio astronomers—this will be a true test of ‘Can you make everyone happy?’” says Stierwalt. “Can you make a prosperous astronomy town right next to a telescope that doesn’t want you to be using your phone or your microwave?”

    Right now, nobody knows. But if the speed of everything else in Guizhou is any indication, we’ll all find out fast.

    [* I had previously read, which I cannot any longer back up, that FAST was built in a fortunately found an empty natural bowl in the land. If anyone can correct me, please do]

    See the full article here .


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  • richardmitnick 12:45 am on December 18, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , FAST radio telescope in China, , The 19-beam receiver for FAST was completed and tested in our Sydney laboratory earlier this year and delivered to the telescope site this month   

    From CSIROscope: “Our top telescope tech travels FAST” 

    CSIRO bloc


    18 December 2017
    Gabby Russell

    The 19-beam receiver for FAST being tested at our lab in Sydney before being shipped to its new home in China.

    While the rest of us were enjoying the start to summer last week, a team of our astronomers and engineers were visiting the world’s largest single dish radio telescope – FAST – in southern China.

    Even on a clear day it’s difficult to take in the enormity of FAST, the antenna ‘dish’ is 500-metres wide, but last week it was shrouded in wintry fog.

    Fortunately the team wasn’t there to take in the view. They were there to check on a precious delivery, a specialised ‘camera’ for the telescope that had been designed and built by our team in Sydney.

    Most astronomy is about observing waves of light. Stars, galaxies and gas clouds in space emit light we can see (visible light) as well as light from other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum in the form of radio waves, gamma rays, X-rays, and infrared radiation.

    FAST radio telescope, now operating, located in the Dawodang depression in Pingtang county Guizhou Province, South China, Astronomy Now

    Optical telescopes such as the Hubble Space Telescope capture visible light from space. Radio telescopes, on the other hand, detect and amplify radio waves from space, turning them into signals that radio astronomers use to enhance our understanding of the Universe.

    To be scientifically competitive, radio telescopes must have the latest technology to detect, process and analyse the incoming radio waves. But instruments for radio telescopes aren’t ‘off the shelf’ items. Every telescope is different, and instruments are custom made.

    We’ve been developing specialised instrumentation for radio telescopes since the 1940s, when the field of radio astronomy first emerged, for our own and international telescopes. Which brings us back to the new FAST telescope.

    The National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) were aware of other receivers we had built and contacted us to ask if we could design and build one of the most sensitive receivers in the world for their FAST project.

    Our astronomer George Hobbs with Peter Roush in the lab at FAST. Peter is one of our talented engineers who worked on the control and monitoring of digital elements for the FAST 19-beam receiver, which allows the receiver to be operated remotely.

    “Our engineering team designed and built a powerful 19-beam receiver for FAST. What makes this receiver special is that most telescopes can only see one piece of the sky at a time: the 19-beam receiver will ‘see’ more, speeding up how quickly FAST can survey the sky,” says George.

    The capabilities of our own Parkes radio telescope, for instance, have been dramatically enhanced by the development of a 13-beam receiver, which lets astronomers scan the sky in less than a tenth of the usual time.

    CSIRO/Parkes Observatory, located 20 kilometres north of the town of Parkes, New South Wales, Australia

    Parkes Phased Array Feed

    The 19-beam receiver for FAST was completed and tested in our Sydney laboratory earlier this year, and delivered to the telescope site this month. Our team has been on the ground checking that the receiver’s journey to its new home hasn’t upset any of its sensitive equipment. We expect that it will be installed on the telescope in early 2018.

    Lei Zhang, a jointly supervised NAOC-CSIRO graduate student, with the our designed and built 19-beam receiver at the FAST site in China.

    FAST was officially opened in 2016 and has been using another receiver to do early science observations. In October this year the first results with FAST – the discovery of two new pulsars, rapidly spinning neutron stars – were announced. These pulsars were confirmed and, along with more new discoveries, are now being studied in detail by our Parkes radio telescope.

    “FAST provides astronomers with the technology to search for a range of signals including detecting new pulsars –– in our galaxy and possibly the first radio pulsars in other distant galaxies,” says George.

    “Once the new 19-beam receiver is installed on FAST we expect that the collaboration between Australian and Chinese astronomers on pulsar research will grow.”

    See the full article here .

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    SKA/ASKAP radio telescope at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Mid West region of Western Australia

    So what can we expect these new radio projects to discover? We have no idea, but history tells us that they are almost certain to deliver some major surprises.

    Making these new discoveries may not be so simple. Gone are the days when astronomers could just notice something odd as they browse their tables and graphs.

    Nowadays, astronomers are more likely to be distilling their answers from carefully-posed queries to databases containing petabytes of data. Human brains are just not up to the job of making unexpected discoveries in these circumstances, and instead we will need to develop “learning machines” to help us discover the unexpected.

    With the right tools and careful insight, who knows what we might find.

    CSIRO campus

    CSIRO, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, is Australia’s national science agency and one of the largest and most diverse research agencies in the world.

  • richardmitnick 7:05 pm on October 6, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: FAST radio telescope in China, , ,   

    From Seth Shostak at SETI: “World’s Biggest Radio Ear” 

    SETI Logo new
    SETI Institute


    SETI Seth Shostak
    Seth Shostak

    It’s now the biggest single-dish radio telescope on Earth. Settled down in the bumpy karst of China’s Guizhou province, about 1200 miles southwest of Beijing, this newest instrument for studying the heavens is very similar in design to the famed Arecibo dish, renown both for its science accomplishments and its performance in two popular films, “Contact” and “Goldeneye.”

    FAST radio telescope located in the Dawodang depression in Pingtang county Guizhou Province, South China
    FAST radio telescope located in the Dawodang depression in Pingtang county Guizhou Province, South China

    But FAST, the Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope, is Arecibo on steroids. The latter has a dish diameter of 300 meters, so FAST is, in principle, almost three times more sensitive. Put another way, it can reach 70 percent farther into space with the same sensitivity, which could increase the number of “targets” within its purview by roughly 4.6 times.

    These are merely brute-force consequences of FAST’s size, however. This new telescope, which is younger than its Puerto Rican cousin by more than a half-century, is also able to see more of the sky – up to 40 degrees from its “straight overhead”, or zenith, pointing. While Arecibo can track objects for as much as 40 minutes, FAST can do this for as long as 6 hours. That would gain it another factor of three advantage in sensitivity.

    In order to keep the telescope free of man-made interference, the government plans to relocate more than 9 thousand people living nearby.

    For the first several years, FAST will be in shakedown mode. After that, research on galaxies, pulsars, and other astronomical objects will begin, and foreign researchers will also have access. The Chinese have said that their new telescope will also be used for SETI, making it the most sensitive such device in the world in the frequency range of 70 MHz to 3 GHz. (Note that the Allen Telescope Array, used by the SETI Institute, has extended frequency coverage to 14 GHz.)

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 6:12 pm on February 17, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , FAST radio telescope in China,   

    From GIZMODO: “China’s Giant ‘Alien-Hunting’ Telescope Comes With a Human Cost” 

    GIZMODO bloc


    Bryan Lufkin

    FAST Chinese Radio telescope under construction

    China is building the biggest radio telescope on Earth. And the country is displacing over 9,000 people to do it.

    As headlines like “China uproots 9,000 people for huge telescope in search for aliens” suggest, people are justifiably upset about. It’s especially egregious, considering that these folks are being paid a laughable pittance to move: 12,000 yuan. That’s barely $1,800, and less than half the average annual salary in China.

    Upsetting to be sure—but would people react differently if it were a highway or a dam? This telescope is a different breed of public works progress, on a different scale. It won’t necessarily fix China’s notorious traffic problems or keep the lights on in Shanghai. This telescope could help all of mankind to see the universe in a whole new way.

    The 1,640-foot-wide telescope is called FAST (Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope), and it’s almost double the size as the next biggest radio telescope, a similarly shaped contraption in Puerto Rico.

    Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico

    Its 460,000 reflective mirrors will reflect radio signals emitted by the universe onto a 30-ton antenna, which could help us unlock all kinds of galactic secrets, including whether or not we’re truly alone in the universe. The $184 million project is supposed to wrap up in September after five years of construction.

    But to make that happen, over 9,000 people will trade their homes for a small amount of money. China is actually nefarious for development-induced displacement. Back in 2010, a staggering 300,000 residents were moved to clear the way for the Three Gorges Dam. That seems like a paltry number of people compared the million-plus Chinese that were moved against their will for construction for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. In fact, since the ‘70s, over 40 million Chinese have been displaced due to various public works projects or infrastructure initiatives.

    But this just isn’t any public works project. It’s one of the most ambitious space research telescope projects in history. The telescope is a lot more than just some hunt for aliens. Last year, a Chinese astronomer told the South China Morning Post that the telescope is built to capture barely audible radio transmissions that are more than 1,000 lightyears away. If there’s intelligent life out there, astronomer Shi Zhicheng said in July, then we could hear messages they left behind using FAST.

    So FAST can help us study space at new, mind-blowing distances, and that has many benefits beyond the off chance that we discover life on other planets. As researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences reported when the telescope was still in the planning stages:

    As the most sensitive single dish radio telescope, FAST would be able to discover more mega-masers and measure the radial velocities of masers with higher precision. This may yield more delicate dynamics of their maser spots. FAST will increase the precision of time of arrival (ToA) measurements for pulsars. This will help in detecting the stochastic gravitational wave background and in establishing an independent timing standard based on the long-term stability of the rotations of a group of millisecond pulsars. FAST might also work as a very powerful ground station for the future space missions

    And don’t forget that NASA recently discovered the most Earth-like planet ever found and detected gravitational waves [error, gravitational waves were found nor by NASA, but rather by MIT/Caltech Adavnced aLIGO] for the first time. More powerful and accurate telescopes will undoubtedly open the door to new discoveries.

    Does the Chinese government need to treat the people displaced by this massive project better? Absolutely. But let’s also bear in mind the fact that China’s efforts in developing its space technology won’t just help China learn more about the universe. It’ll help everyone.

    See the full article here .

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