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  • richardmitnick 10:24 am on July 17, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , DSSC detector, European XFEL, MiniSDD sensors, , SCS-Spectroscopy and Coherent Scattering,   

    From European XFEL: “Fastest soft X-ray camera in the world installed at European XFEL” 

    XFEL bloc

    European XFEL

    From European XFEL

    DSSC detector will expand scientific capabilities of the instrument for Spectroscopy and Coherent Scattering (SCS)

    1
    DSSC detector

    At European XFEL near Hamburg the world’s fastest soft X-ray camera has successfully been put through its paces. The installation, commissioning and operation of the unique detector marks the culmination of over a decade of international collaborative research and development. The so-called DSSC detector, designed specifically for the low energy regimes and long X-ray wavelengths used at the European XFEL soft X-ray instruments, will significantly expand the scientific capabilities of the instrument for Spectroscopy and Coherent Scattering (SCS) where it is installed. It will enable ultrafast studies of electronic, spin and atomic structures at the nanoscale making use of each X-ray flash provided by European XFEL. At the end of May, the first scientific experiments using the DSSC were successfully conducted at SCS.

    The DSSC was developed by an international consortium coordinated by European XFEL. Other partners include DESY, University of Heidelberg, Politecnico di Milano, the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, and University of Bergamo. It is the fourth fast X-ray detector to be installed at European XFEL, and the second detector available for experiments at the SCS instrument.

    Matteo Porro, DSSC project and consortium leader said: “This is a fantastic achievement in terms of detector development and it opens up unique possibilities for the photon science community. With the DSSC we have shown that it is possible to count single photons in the soft X-ray regime at the very high pulse repetition rate provided by the European XFEL. I would like to thank the DSSC consortium, who with their commitment and creativity, have made this possible. It was a privilege to work with people who provided such an extraordinary level of know-how in detector and electronics design.”

    During an experiment, X-ray flashes are fired at the sample being studied. The X-rays diffract off the atoms in the sample, resulting in a distinctive pattern that is recorded and stored by the detector located behind the sample. The European XFEL delivers X-rays flashes grouped together in packets known as trains. Each train contains a maximum of 2700 flashes. Within these trains the X-ray flashes are fired in quick succession with a time difference of 220 nanoseconds. At full capacity, the DSSC detector can acquire images at a rate of 4.5 million images per second, matching the speed of the X-ray flashes provided by the European XFEL. For every train the DSSC detector can store 800 one megapixel images. This makes the DSSC the fastest soft X-ray detector in the world. It was designed and built to accommodate the low energy regimes and long wavelengths unique to the soft X-ray instruments at European XFEL. The DSSC detector is based on silicon sensors and is made up of 1024 x 1024 hexagonal pixels for a total active area of 210 x 210 mm2.

    The DSSC detector is currently equipped with a type of sensors called MiniSDD sensors which were produced by the Semiconductor Laboratory of the Max Planck Society in Munich. PNSensor GmbH based in Munich, recently joined the DSSC consortium to further develop another type of sensor, DePFET, for a second improved DSSC camera. This will enable an even greater level of detail to be recorded than currently possible.

    “After years of design and development, it was great to see the individual detector components being assembled together at European XFEL during this past year. This was as an extremely exciting and intense time.” European XFEL Detector Group leader Markus Kuster says. “Having seen the results of the first scientific experiment with the DSSC, I am proud of the whole project team and pleased that our efforts are now bearing fruits. This is a fantastic start for the future development of the DSSC detector technology.”

    See the full article here .

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    The Hamburg area will soon boast a research facility of superlatives: The European XFEL will generate ultrashort X-ray flashes—27 000 times per second and with a brilliance that is a billion times higher than that of the best conventional X-ray radiation sources.

    The outstanding characteristics of the facility are unique worldwide. Started in 2017, it will open up completely new research opportunities for scientists and industrial users.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:42 am on June 15, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A tale of two liquids, , , European XFEL, , , , When stable becomes unstable,   

    From SLAC National Accelerator Lab: “A quick liquid flip helps explain how morphing materials store information” 

    From SLAC National Accelerator Lab

    June 14, 2019

    Experiments at SLAC’s X-ray laser reveal in atomic detail how two distinct liquid phases in these materials enable fast switching between glassy and crystalline states that represent 0s and 1s in memory devices.

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    In phase-change memory devices, a material switches between glassy and crystalline phases that represent the 0s and 1s used to store information. One pulse of electricity or light heats the material to high temperature, causing it to crystallize, and another pulse melts it into a disordered, glassy state. Experiments at SLAC’s X-ray laser revealed a key part of this switch – a quick transition from one liquid-like state to another – that enables fast and reliable data storage. (Peter Zalden/European XFEL)

    Instead of flash drives, the latest generation of smart phones uses materials that change physical states, or phases, to store and retrieve data faster, in less space and with more energy efficiency. When hit with a pulse of electricity or optical light, these materials switch between glassy and crystalline states that represent the 0s and 1s of the binary code used to store information.

    Now scientists have discovered how those phase changes occur on an atomic level.

    Researchers from European XFEL and the University of Duisburg-Essen in Germany, working in collaboration with researchers at the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, led X-ray laser experiments at SLAC that collected more than 10,000 snapshots of phase-change materials transforming from a glassy to a crystalline state in real time.

    They discovered that just before the material crystallizes, it changes from one liquid-like state to another, a process that could not be clearly seen in prior studies because it was blurred by the rapid motions of the atoms. And they showed that this transition is responsible for the material’s unique ability to store information for long periods of time while also quickly switching between states.

    The results, published in Science today, offer a new strategy for designing improved phase-change materials for specialized memory storage.

    “Current data storage technology has reached a scaling limit, so that new concepts are required to store the amounts of data that we will produce in the future,” said Peter Zalden, a scientist at European XFEL and lead author of the study. “Our study explains how the switching process in a promising new technology can be fast and reliable at the same time.”

    When stable becomes unstable

    The experiments took place at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) which produces X-ray laser pulses that are short enough and intense enough to capture snapshots of atomic changes occurring in femtoseconds – millionths of a billionths of a second.

    To store information with phase-change materials, they must be cooled quickly to enter a glassy state without crystallizing, and remain in this glassy state as long as the information needs to stay there. This means the crystallization process must be very slow to the point of being almost absent, such as is the case in ordinary glass. But when it comes time to erase the information, which is done by applying high temperatures, the same material has to crystallize very quickly. The fact that a material can form a stable glass but then become very unstable at elevated temperatures has puzzled researchers for decades.

    At LCLS, the scientists used an optical laser to rapidly heat amorphous films of phase-change materials, just 50 nanometers thick, atop an equally thin support. The films cooled into a crystalline state as the heat from the laser blast dissipated into the surrounding support structure over billionths of a second.

    They used X-ray laser pulses to make images of the material’s structural evolution, collecting each snapshot in the instant before a sample deteriorated.

    A tale of two liquids

    The researchers found that when the liquid cools far enough below the material’s melting temperature, it undergoes a structural change to form another, lower-temperature liquid that exists for just billionths of a second.

    The two liquids not only have very different atomic structures, but they also behave differently: The one at higher temperature has highly mobile atoms that can quickly arrange themselves into the well-ordered structure of a crystal. But in the lower-temperature liquid, some chemical bonds become stronger and more rigid and can hold the disordered atomic structure of the glass in place. It is only the rigid nature of these chemical bonds that keeps the glass from crystallizing and – in the case of phase-change memory devices – secures information in place. The results also help scientists understand how other classes of materials form a glass.

    2
    The research team after performing experiments at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser. (Klaus Sokolowski-Tinten/University of Duisburg-Essen)

    See the full article here.
    See the XFEL press release here .


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    SLAC/LCLS


    SLAC/LCLS II projected view


    SLAC is a multi-program laboratory exploring frontier questions in photon science, astrophysics, particle physics and accelerator research. Located in Menlo Park, California, SLAC is operated by Stanford University for the DOE’s Office of Science.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:21 pm on January 21, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , DESY’s next major project PETRA IV “Next Generation” will be a high-resolution X-ray microscope, European XFEL, Leading X-ray and nano researchers meet in Hamburg, PETRA III   

    From DESY: “Leading X-ray and nano researchers meet in Hamburg” 

    DESY
    From DESY

    2019/01/21

    Industry fair accompanies user meetings of Hamburg research light sources

    From Wednesday on, around 1100 leading X-ray researchers and nanoscientists from 30 nations will meet in Hamburg. The participants belong to the large circle of users of the DESY X-ray light sources PETRA III and FLASH as well as the European XFEL X-ray laser opened in 2017, and they will discuss new results, investigation possibilities, and the further development of the research light sources. In recent years, the Hamburg metropolitan region has developed into a worldwide unique centre for research into the nanocosmos: With a unique combination of large-scale research facilities, new materials can be explored at the atomic level, the structure and dynamics of medically relevant biomolecules can be understood, chemical reactions can be filmed, and the interior of stars and planets can be simulated in the laboratory.

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    The user meetings are very popular forums for exchange and discussion on nanocosmos research. Credit: European XFEL, Axel Heimke

    “It is the largest gathering of its kind in the world. The high and still increasing number of participants from Germany and from abroad shows the extraordinary importance of photon sources in Hamburg for a broad interdisciplinary use. I am particularly pleased that many high-tech companies are taking part in these meetings,” says Prof. Helmut Dosch, Chairman of the DESY Board of Directors. “The users’ meetings are unique opportunities to celebrate the achievements, challenges, and highlights that have taken place at European XFEL over the last year, and to start new collaborations with our users and industrial partners,” adds European XFEL Managing Director Prof. Robert Feidenhans’l.

    The scientific light sources at DESY and European XFEL are used every year by more than 2500 guest researchers from all over the world, and once every year, the users gather in Hamburg.


    European XFEL campus

    In the past few years, these users’ meetings have been registering record numbers of participants. “The nanocosmos holds the keys to solving numerous current challenges, such as climate-friendly energy supply, tailor-made medicines, or new types of data storage,” emphasizes DESY Research Director for Photon Science, Prof. Edgar Weckert. “Our user community is continually growing and diversifying, and we are pleased so many will join us to discuss the world-class research going on here,” says Prof. Serguei Molodtsov, Scientific Director of European XFEL.

    The focus this year will include the first year of operation of the European XFEL and the plans to upgrade DESY’s X-ray ring PETRA III to the ultimate 3D X-ray microscope, PETRA IV.

    DESY Petra III

    Since the start of the European XFEL’s user operation in September 2017, more than 500 researchers have performed experiments at the facility’s first two experiment stations. Two more experiment stations became available for researchers at the end of 2018, and the final two stations of the facility’s initial configuration, comprising six stations, are scheduled to start operation in the first half of 2019. With them, operational capacity at the new facility will have tripled in less than two years’ time, with the range of possible experiments likewise growing. The first published results show the potential of the unique, ultrafast pulse rate of the European XFEL for investigations of atomic structure and biomolecular dynamics.

    DESY’s next major project, PETRA IV “Next Generation”, will be a high-resolution X-ray microscope, with which the inner structure of samples in their natural environment can be observed on all size scales, from millimeters to tenths of a nanometer. It will provide images of processes in the nanocosmos with several hundredfold finer details than is possible today, thus reaching the limits of what is physically possible. “The instruments at European XFEL and DESY complement each other optimally, so that together we can already offer our users a vast range of possibilities for exploring the atomic structure and dynamics of different materials at a range of time scales. PETRA IV will complete the portfolio and add even more opportunities – all together, the research done at our facilities can change the way we see the world around us,” says Feidenhans’l.

    In more than 30 plenary lectures and 18 satellite workshops, as well as on more than 350 scientific posters, the participants of this year’s meetings will exchange information on new developments for three days from Wednesday to Friday. At an accompanying industrial fair, around 80 companies will be presenting their highly specialised products for cutting-edge research.

    See the full article here .


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    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

    DESY Petra III interior


    DESY Petra III

    DESY/FLASH

    H1 detector at DESY HERA ring

    DESY DORIS III

     
  • richardmitnick 1:18 pm on December 8, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Both new instruments use so-called soft X-rays which have a longer wavelength than hard X-rays, European XFEL, SCS instrument-new, SQS instrument-new, Two more experiment stations start user operation,   

    From European XFEL: “Two more experiment stations start user operation” 

    XFEL bloc

    European XFEL

    From European XFEL

    2018/12/07

    Facility doubles experiment capacity.

    Two additional experiment stations—or instruments—have now started operation at European XFEL. The instruments for Small Quantum Systems (SQS) and Spectroscopy and Coherent Scattering (SCS) welcomed their first user groups for experiments last week and this week respectively. With the successful start of operation of the new instruments, European XFEL has now doubled its capacity to conduct research. With the first three groups coming to the new instruments in 2018, the total number of users who will have visited the facility in 2018 will reach over 500.

    1
    Scientists at the SQS instrument. Copyright European XFEL / Jan Hosan

    2
    The SCS instrument at European XFEL. Copyright European XFEL / Jan Hosan

    The two already operational instruments, SPB/SFX and FXE, have been used to examine biomolecules or biological processes and ultrafast reactions respectively since September 2017. In the future, two of the four now operational instruments will be run in parallel in twelve hour shifts. Two more instruments are scheduled to start user operation in the first half of 2019.

    3
    DESY’s Anton Barty (left) and Henry Chapman (right), seen at the SPB/SFX instrument.The SPB/SFX instrument will enable novel studies of structural biology. It is one of two instruments that has been available for users in fall 2017.

    4
    The FXE instrument will enable studies of ultrafast processes, such as the intermediate steps of chemical reactions. The instrument uses the ultrashort pulses of the European XFEL to create sequential images of reacting molecules, producing a slow-motion molecular movie of a previously invisible process. The FXE instrument is one of two instruments that has been available to users in fall 2017.

    “This important milestone gives even more researchers a chance to use the unique properties of our X-ray laser” says Prof. Serguei Molodtsov, Scientific Director at European XFEL. “We made a commitment to the scientific community that the two instruments SCS and SQS would be ready for operation by the end of the year. I am very pleased that we achieved this ambitious goal within time and budget. This has been made possible by the tremendous dedication of our staff and our colleagues from DESY, who operate the European XFEL’s accelerator. We now look forward to seeing the results that scientists from all over the world will achieve with the new instruments!”

    Both new instruments use so-called soft X-rays, which have a longer wavelength than hard X-rays.

    The SQS instrument is designed to study fundamental processes such as what happens when atoms or small molecules absorb many photons simultaneously as well as examining how and when molecular bonds break. SQS can also be used to investigate nanoparticles and biomolecules. The first experiment at SQS involved scientists from several institutes, who were interested in multi-photon processes triggered by the intense X-ray flashes of the European XFEL.

    The SCS instrument is designed to help scientists unravel the electronic and structural properties of a range of materials, including understanding what kind of nanoscale changes happen in magnetic and superconducting materials, and observing what happens during chemical reactions in real-time. The first experiment at the instrument also included scientists from many different institutes and was designed to explore how solid state samples respond to intense X-ray pulses and react under the high pulse rate of the X-ray beam.

    See the full article here .

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    XFEL Campus

    XFEL Tunnel

    XFEL Gun

    The Hamburg area will soon boast a research facility of superlatives: The European XFEL will generate ultrashort X-ray flashes—27 000 times per second and with a brilliance that is a billion times higher than that of the best conventional X-ray radiation sources.

    The outstanding characteristics of the facility are unique worldwide. Started in 2017, it will open up completely new research opportunities for scientists and industrial users.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:13 pm on November 28, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , European XFEL, First image,   

    From European XFEL: “Capturing the strongest X-ray beam on Earth” 

    XFEL bloc

    European XFEL

    From European XFEL

    European XFEL


    The European XFEL beam. Copyright European XFEL

    At European XFEL scientists use intense X-rays to take pictures of the smallest particles imaginable. The European XFEL X-ray beam is a billion times brighter than other traditional X-ray sources, but since X-rays are invisible to the naked eye, it is not usually possible to see the X-ray beam. Working together with a professional photographer, scientists at the largest X-ray laser in the world located in Schenefeld near Hamburg, have now managed to capture an image of the intense European XFEL X-ray beam. The pictures were taken as the X-ray beam entered the experiment area in the FXE instrument hutch at the end of a journey that started in a 3.4km long underground tunnel.

    On the images published today, the X-ray beam appears as a thin blue stripe. What we are actually seeing, however, is glowing nitrogen molecules which the X-ray beam has caused to light up as it travels through the air thereby interacting with the molecules.

    “It works much like a fluorescent or neon lamp, where the gas in the centre of the tube lights up when the electric current is turned on”, explains Prof. Christian Bressler, team leader at the FXE (Femtosecond X-ray Experiments) instrument where the new images were made. Even though the European XFEL X-ray beam is extremely intense, the induced glow of the nitrogen molecules is, however, still relatively weak and not so easy to see with the naked eye. Today’s images were only possible when taken in complete darkness and using an exposure time of 90 seconds. The beam as seen in the images comprised 800 pulses per second, and has a thickness of 1mm. While the camera equipment was set-up inside the experiment hutch, the photos were taken remotely from outside the hutch, in the neighbouring control room.

    The method used to make the photos does not only lead to pretty results, but also has a scientific use. “With our sensitive detectors, we can use the glowing of the molecules induced by the X-ray beam for monitoring purposes” said Harald Sinn, responsible for X-ray optics at European XFEL.

    See the full article here .

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    XFEL Campus

    XFEL Tunnel

    XFEL Gun

    The Hamburg area will soon boast a research facility of superlatives: The European XFEL will generate ultrashort X-ray flashes—27 000 times per second and with a brilliance that is a billion times higher than that of the best conventional X-ray radiation sources.

    The outstanding characteristics of the facility are unique worldwide. Started in 2017, it will open up completely new research opportunities for scientists and industrial users.

     
  • richardmitnick 5:52 pm on August 28, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Currently only five X-ray lasers world-wide produce X-rays with a short wavelength, Determine the 3D structure of several proteins, Diffraction patterns were captured by the detector situated behind the interaction chamber, European XFEL, European XFEL can be successfully used to determine the structure of biomolecules, , Now for the first time ever – such a rate of over one million pulses per second or one megahertz has been reached, SPB/SFX instrument, The scientists studied a mixture of three plant proteins – an enzyme known as urease concanavalin A and concanavalin B, The X-ray laser can generate up to 27 000 pulses per second,   

    From European XFEL: “First European XFEL research results published” 

    XFEL bloc

    European XFEL

    From European XFEL

    2018/08/28

    High number of X-ray pulses per second reduces time needed for the study of biological structures.

    1
    The SPB/SFX instrument at European XFEL. Copyright: European XFEL

    Just days before the first anniversary of the start of European XFEL user operation, the first results based on research performed at the facility have been published. In the journal Nature Communications, the scientists, headed by Prof. Ilme Schlichting from Max-Planck-Institute for Medical Research in Heidelberg, Germany, together with colleagues from Rutgers State University of New Jersey, USA, France, DESY and European XFEL, describe their work using the intense X-ray laser beam to determine the 3D structure of several proteins. They demonstrate, for the first time that, under the conditions used at the time of the experiment an increased number of X-ray pulses per second as produced by the European XFEL can be successfully used to determine the structure of biomolecules. As much faster data collection is therefore possible, the time needed for an experiment could be significantly shortened. The detailed determination of the 3D structure of biomolecules is crucial for providing insights into informing the development of novel drugs to treat diseases.

    1

    Prof. Ilme Schlichting said: “Our work shows that under the conditions used data can be collected at European XFEL at a rate much faster than has ever been previously possible. As the time and cost of experiments decrease, very soon many more researchers will be able to perform experiments at high repetition rate X-ray lasers. Our results are therefore of interest not only tor the fields of biology and medicine, but also physics, chemistry and other disciplines.”

    Prof. Robert Feidenhans’l, managing director of European XFEL: “This fantastic result, published just weeks after the experiment itself, is a reflection of the hard work of many dedicated people. Our users as well as our staff at European XFEL, DESY and our collaborators have all ensured that everything from designing and setting up the experiment, through to data collection and publication works effectively.”

    The scientists studied a mixture of three plant proteins – an enzyme known as urease, concanavalin A, and concanavalin B. At the SPB/SFX instrument (single particles, clusters and biomolecules /serial femtosecond crystallography), a jet of liquid containing a stream of tiny protein crystals was injected into the interaction chamber. The X-ray beam, consisting of series of ultra-short X-ray pulses, was fired at the jet, hitting the crystals. Where X-ray pulses interacted with the crystals, so-called diffraction patterns were captured by the detector situated behind the interaction chamber. With the help of computer algorithms, these images can be used to construct 3D models of the proteins being studied. The scientists were able to collect many thousands of images which were good enough to be able to distinguish between the three proteins, and construct 3D models of the concanavalin A and B proteins. (see also info box ‘experimental challenges’)

    ___________________________________________
    Experimental challenges

    When hit by the first pulse of the pulse train, the liquid jet delivering the sample is momentarily blown apart. It was, therefore, feared that the time between the pulses (less than a millionth of a second) would be too short for the jet to recover in time for the next pulse. Another worry was that the first pulse would produce a shockwave, that would travel along the liquid jet with such a force as to affect the crystals before they even entered the X-ray beam. This would therefore prevent subsequent pulses from measuring anything useful. Both of these fears have however been proven to be unfounded for the experimental conditions of this study, demonstrating that the European XFEL can be used at this very high pulse rate.
    ___________________________________________

    3
    Guest scientist Tokushi Sato working at the sample chamber of the SPB/SFX instrument. Copyright: European XFEL

    The X-ray laser can generate up to 27 000 pulses per second. However, the X-ray pulses of the European XFEL X-ray beam are organized into short bursts which are separated by longer pauses with no pulses at all. If a burst lasted an entire second, it would deliver more than a million pulses – or 1.1 megahertz. Now, for the first time ever – such a rate of over one million pulses per second, or one megahertz has been reached. No other X-ray facility worldwide currently can provide such a high rate. (see also info box ‘pulse rates explained’)

    ___________________________________________
    Pulse rates explained

    At the time this experiment was carried out, European XFEL was generating 500 pulses per second. But the pulses generated by the X-ray laser are not evenly distributed and spaced throughout time. Instead they are concentrated in ten short bursts per second, known as pulse trains. The ten pulse trains with 50 pulses each are separated by a break where no pulses are delivered. Hence the 50 pulses are actually delivered within a much shorter time frame than one second. Within each pulse train, the individual pulses are extremely close together. If the pulse train lasted an entire second, it would therefore deliver more than a million pulses – or 1.1 megahertz. This is the pulse rate. Eventually European XFEL will provide 27 000 pulses a second, at a rate of more than 4 Megahertz.
    ___________________________________________

    Dr. Adrian Mancuso, leading scientist at the SPB/ SFX instrument: “This milestone is the fruit of a lot of hard work by the SPB/SFX team and all European XFEL staff, as well as all of our early users–from more than 35 universities and labs around the world–who assisted with commissioning the SPB/SFX instrument. With these results we could now, for example, use these pulses to produce movies of molecules in motion. If we can kick start a reaction during the first few pulses of a train, we can then use the rest of the pulses to take snapshots of that reaction as it unfolds.”

    Currently only five X-ray lasers world-wide produce X-rays with a short wavelength, so-called hard X-rays. Access for experiments is therefore in high demand, and the facilities are generally highly oversubscribed. Shortened experiment time thanks to an increased number of X-ray pulses as described today will enable more and more complex research projects and allow a larger number of scientists access to the brightest X-ray sources in the world.

    Acknowledgement: The SFX User Consortium has provided instrumentation and personnel that has enabled this experiment. The SFX User consortium is composed of scientific partners from Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Slovakia, Switzerland, Australia and the United States.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    XFEL Campus

    XFEL Tunnel

    XFEL Gun

    The Hamburg area will soon boast a research facility of superlatives: The European XFEL will generate ultrashort X-ray flashes—27 000 times per second and with a brilliance that is a billion times higher than that of the best conventional X-ray radiation sources.

    The outstanding characteristics of the facility are unique worldwide. Started in 2017, it will open up completely new research opportunities for scientists and industrial users.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:23 am on August 2, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , European XFEL, ,   

    From European XFEL: “Third light source generates first X-ray light” 

    XFEL bloc

    European XFEL

    From European XFEL

    1
    All three light sources, SASE 1,2 and 3, are now operational and have been successfully run in parallel for the first time. Copyright: DESY/European XFEL.

    European XFEL starts operation of its third light source, exactly a year after the first X-ray light was generated in the European XFEL tunnels.

    DESY European XFEL

    The third light source will provide light for the MID (Materials Imaging and Dynamics) and HED (High Energy Density Science) instruments scheduled to start user operation in 2019.

    The MID instrument at European XFEL, currently under construction

    All three light sources, successfully run in parallel for the first time on the anniversary of European XFEL’s first light, will eventually provide X-rays for at least six instruments. At any one time, three of these six instruments can simultaneously receive X-ray beam for experiments. “The operation of the third light source, and the generation of light from all sources in parallel, are important steps towards our goal of achieving user operation on all six instruments” said European XFEL Managing Director Robert Feidenhans’l. “I congratulate and thank all those involved in this significant accomplishment. It was a tremendous achievement to get all three light sources to generate light within the space of one year.”

    XFEL Undulator

    To generate flashes of X-ray light, electrons are first accelerated to near the speed of light before they are moved through long rows of magnets called undulators. The alternating magnetic fields of these magnets force the electrons on a slalom course, causing the electrons to emit light at each turn. Over the length of the undulator, the produced light interacts back on the electron bunch, thereby producing a particularly intense light. This light accumulates into intensive X-ray flashes. This process is known as ‘self-amplified spontaneous emission’, or SASE. European XFEL has three SASE light sources. The first one, SASE 1, taken into operation at the beginning of May 2017, provides intense X-ray light to the instruments SPB/SFX (Single Particles, Clusters and Biomolecules and Serial Femtosecond Crystallography) and FXE (Femtosecond X-ray Experiments), the first instruments available for experiments and operational since September 2017. The second light source, SASE 3, was successfully taken into operation in February 2018 and will provide light for the instruments SQS (Small Quantum Systems) and SCS (Spectroscopy and Coherent Scattering), scheduled to start user operation in November 2018. SASE 1 and SASE 3 can be run simultaneously – high speed electrons first generate X-ray light in SASE 1, before being used a second time to produce X-ray light of a longer wavelength in SASE 3. Now, exactly a year after the first laser light was generated in the European XFEL tunnels, the third light source, SASE 2, is operational. SASE 2 will generate X-ray light for the MID (Materials Imaging and Dynamics) and HED (High Energy Density Science) instruments scheduled to start user operation in 2019. The MID instrument will be used to, for example, understand how glass forms on an atomic level, and for the study of cells and viruses with a range of imaging techniques. The HED instrument will enable the investigation of matter under extreme conditions such as that inside exoplanets, and to investigate how solids react in high magnetic fields.

    DESY and European XFEL staff and scientists have worked hard over the last year to ensure the timely start of operation of all three light sources, and have also continually improved the parameters of the X-ray beam and instruments. Since the first users arrived in September 2017, the number of X-ray pulses available for experiments has been increased from 300 to 3000 per second for the next experiments, scheduled from August to October 2018. At full capacity, the European XFEL is expected to produce 27,000 pulses per second and DESY and European XFEL teams are working towards achieving this rate in test conditions during the next few months. In addition, the construction and commissioning of the remaining four instruments continues this year. Once MID and HED start operation in 2019, European XFEL will have a total of six experiment stations available for users, running from the three light sources.

    4
    Graphic showing the layout of the European XFEL tunnels, three SASE undulators and the instruments. Copyright: European XFEL

    Since the start of user operation in September 2017, European XFEL has hosted over 500 researchers in international and interdisciplinary teams for experiments on the first two instruments. SPB/SFX and FXE share the X-ray beam generated in SASE1, each using the beam for alternate 12 hours per day during an experiment. Each user group generally has five days of beamtime. For the next round of experiments due to start in August, 61 proposals were received from which twelve experiments, six per instrument (SPB/SFX and FXE), will be granted.

    A next call for user proposals for experiment time, now at all six instruments, will open shortly.

    See the full article here .

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    XFEL Campus

    XFEL Tunnel

    XFEL Gun

    The Hamburg area will soon boast a research facility of superlatives: The European XFEL will generate ultrashort X-ray flashes—27 000 times per second and with a brilliance that is a billion times higher than that of the best conventional X-ray radiation sources.

    The outstanding characteristics of the facility are unique worldwide. Started in 2017, it will open up completely new research opportunities for scientists and industrial users.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:42 pm on May 5, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , European XFEL, Freeze-framing nanosecond movements of nanoparticles, , ,   

    From DESY: “Freeze-framing nanosecond movements of nanoparticles” 

    DESY
    From DESY

    2018/05/03
    No writer credit

    New method allows to monitor fast movements at hard X-ray lasers.

    A team of scientists from DESY, the Advanced Photon Source APS and National Accelerator Laboratory SLAC, both in the USA, have developed and integrated a new method for monitoring ultrafast movements of nanoscopic systems.

    Argonne APS

    SLAC LCLS

    With the light of the X-ray laser LCLS at the research center SLAC in California, they took images of the movements of nanoparticles taking only the billionth of a second (0,000 000 001 s).

    SLAC LCLS

    In their experiments now published in the journal Nature Communications they overcame the slowness of present-day two-dimensional X-ray detectors by splitting individual laser flashes of LCLS, delaying one half of it by a nanosecond and recording a single picture of the nanoparticle with these pairs of X-ray pulses. The tunable light splitter for hard X-rays which the scientists developed for these experiments enables this new technique to monitor movements of nanometer size fluctuations down to femtoseconds and at atomic resolution. For comparison: modern synchrotron radiation light sources like PETRA III at DESY can typically measure movements on millisecond timescales.

    DESY Petra III interior

    1
    Scheme of the experiment: An autocorrelator developed at DESY splits the ultrashort X-ray laser pulses into two equal intensity pulses which arrive with a tunable delay at the sample. The speckle pattern of the sample is collected in a single exposure of the 2-D detector (picture: W. Roseker/DESY).

    he intense light flashes of X-ray lasers are coherent which means that the waves of the monochromatic laser light propagate in phase to each other. Diffracting coherent light by a sample usually results in a so-called speckle diffraction pattern showing apparently randomly ordered light spots. However, this speckle is also a map of the sample arrangement, and movements of the sample constituents result in a different speckle pattern.

    For their experiments the researchers developed a special optical setup – a so-called optical autocorrelator – capable of splitting 100 femtosecond long XFEL pulses into two sub-pulses, deviate them into separated detours and recombining their paths with a tunable time delay between zero and a few nanoseconds. These pairs of XFEL pulses hit the sample with the tuned delay, spotting the sample´s structure at the two exposure times. The sum of both speckle pictures was recorded by a two-dimensional photon detector within one exposure time. The trick: If the constituents of the sample move during the two illuminations, the speckle pattern changes, resulting in an integrated picture of less contrast at the detector. The contrast is a measure on how strong the photon intensity varies on the detector. However, the intensity and especially the intensity difference measured at the detector are very weak. In their experiments the researchers had to work with only some 1000 detected photons on the one-million-pixels size detector.

    “Such type of experiments has been done for much slower movements of nanoparticles at storage ring light sources,” explains first author Wojciech Roseker from DESY. “But now, the high coherence and intensity of the X-ray laser light at XFELs open up the opportunity to get pictures bright enough to provide reasonable information about quick movements in the nanosecond to femtosecond regime.”

    In their work the researchers around Roseker used a suspension of two nanometers size gold particles undergoing Brownian motion. The experiment was in perfect agreement with the theoretical predictions thus proving not only the performance of the autocorrelator setup but also the validity of the data analysis procedure, demonstrating the first successful experiment of this kind. One of the challenges in this experiment, carried out at the XCS experimental station at LCLS, was to autocorrelate thousands of extremely weak double shot 2D images which was achieved with the help of a newly developed maximum likelihood analysis technique.

    “This experiment paves the way to dynamics experiments of materials on atomic length and femtosecond-nanosecond timescales,” explains Gerhard Grübel, head of the DESY FS-CXS group. “Split-pulse X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) can potentially track atomic scale fluctuations in liquid metals, multi-scale dynamics in water, heterogeneous dynamics about the glass transition, and atomic scale surface fluctuations.” Additionally, time-domain XPCS at FEL sources, especially at the European XFEL, is well suited for studying fluctuations in non-equilibrium processes that go beyond time-averaged structural descriptions.


    DESY European XFEL


    European XFEL

    This will allow the elucidation of dynamics of ultrafast magnetization processes and can address open questions concerning photo-induced phonon dynamics and phase transitions.

    See the full article here .

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    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:56 am on April 16, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Attosecond X-ray science, , European XFEL, , , , XLEAP X-ray Laser-Enhanced Attosecond Pulse generation   

    From European XFEL: “Entering the realm of attosecond X-ray science” 

    XFEL bloc

    European XFEL

    European XFEL

    2018/04/13

    New methods for producing and characterizing attosecond X-ray pulses.

    1
    Ultrashort X-ray pulses (pink) at the Linac Coherent Light Source ionize neon gas at the center of a ring of detectors. An infrared laser (orange) sweeps the outgoing electrons (blue) across the detectors with circularly polarized light. Scientists read data from the detectors to learn about the time and energy structure of the pulses, information they will need for future experiments. Copyright: Terry Anderson / SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

    SLAC/LCLS

    European XFEL produces unfathomably fast X-ray pulses that are already being used by scientists to explore the unchartered territory of the atomic and molecular cosmos. Intense X-ray pulses lasting only a few femtoseconds – or a few millionths of a billionth of a second – are being used to reveal insights into the dynamics of chemical reactions and the atomic structures of biological molecules such as proteins and viruses. And while there is much more to discover in this femtosecond time range, scientists are already looking to take European XFEL to the next time dimension, exploring reactions and dynamics that occur on an even briefer time scale – the attosecond time regime.

    If you leave the shutter of your camera open for too long while photographing a race, the resulting pictures will only be a smear of colour. To capture clear and sharp images of the athletes’ movements you need to make sure the shutter is only open for the shortest time; in fact the best shutter speed to capture a clear snapshot of the runners’ legs frozen in action would be faster than the time the runner needed to move their legs. Good light conditions help too to make sure your photos are sharp and in focus. And so it is as scientists attempt to take snapshots of some of nature’s fastest processes such as the movements of electrons within atoms and molecules. To capture snapshots of these movements in action we need pulses of intense X-rays that reflect the timescale on which these reactions occur – and these reactions can occur even down to the attosecond timescale.

    XLEAP

    Attosecond X-ray science is expected to allow scientists to delve even deeper into ultrafast chemical and molecular processes and the tiniest details of our world than already possible. But how to produce X-ray flashes that are even shorter than the already ultrafast femtosecond flashes? One of the methods currently being explored by scientists is ‘X-ray Laser-Enhanced Attosecond Pulse generation’ (XLEAP). The method, being developed at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in the USA, is expected to be possible with only moderate modifications to the layout of existing FEL facilities. If successful, the usually chaotic time and energy structure of XFEL (X-ray Free-Electron Laser) pulses, consisting of a sequence of many intensity spikes based on the so-called SASE (Self-Amplification by Spontaneous Emission) principle, can be reliably narrowed down to one single, coherent intensity spike of only few hundreds of attoseconds. In a recent review article in the Journal of Optics, European XFEL scientists propose how the XLEAP method might be implemented at the SASE 3 branch of the facility, eventually providing attosecond pulses for experiments.

    2
    European XFEL scientist Markus Ilchen working on the original angle resolving time-of-flight spectrometer at PETRA III, DESY. Copyright: European XFEL

    DESY Petra III


    DESY Petra III interior

    Angular Streaking diagnostics

    While the free-electron laser technology is almost ready to provide attosecond pulses, another hurdle is to actually prove and characterize their existence. Experiments to date at XFEL facilities have often relied on indirect measurements and simulations of X-ray pulses to calibrate results. However, only with detailed information from direct measurements of the exact time and energy structure of each X-ray pulse, can X-ray science enter a new era of time resolved and coherence dependent experiments.

    With this in mind, a novel experimental approach was conceived as part of an international collaboration including scientists from SLAC, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), European XFEL, the Technical University of Munich, University of Kassel, University of Gothenburg, University of Bern, University of Colorado, University of the Basque Country in Spain, and Lomonosov Moscow State University in Russia. In a study published in the journal Nature Photonics, the international groupdemonstrated the capability of a so-called ‘angular streaking’ method to characterize the time and energy structure of X-ray spikes. The scientists used the shortest pulses available at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC in the USA for their experiment. Using the new angular streaking diagnostic method, millions of pulses, each of a few femtoseconds in length, were successfully captured and analyzed. “Being able to get the precise information about the energy spectrum, as well as the time and intensity structure of every single X-ray pulse is unprecedented” explains Markus Ilchen from the Small Quantum Systems group at European XFEL, one of the principal investigators of this work. “This is really one of the holy grails of FEL diagnostics” he adds enthusiastically.

    The new angular streaking technique works by using the rotating electrical field of intense circularly polarized optical laser pulses to extract the time and energy structure of the XFEL pulses. Interaction with the XFEL pulse causes atoms to eject electrons which are then strongly kicked around by the surrounding laser field. Information about the electron’s exact time of birth is not only imprinted in the energy of the electron but also in the ejecting angle. This all provides a ‘clock’ by which to sort the resulting experimental data. Pulses generated by the SASE process, as implemented at European XFEL and SLAC, are intrinsically variable and chaotic. Some of the recorded pulses during the experiment at SLAC were, therefore, already single spikes in the attosecond regime which then were fully characterized for their time-energy structure.

    Angle resolving time-of-flight spectrometer

    1
    An illustration of the ring-shaped array of 16 individual detectors arranged in a circle like numbers on the face of a clock. An X-ray laser pulse hits a target at the center and sets free electrons that are swept around the detectors. The location, where the electrons reach the “clock,” reveals details such as the variation of the X-ray energy and intensity as a function of time within the ultrashort pulse itself. Copyright: Frank Scholz & Jens Buck, DESY.

    he underlying spectroscopic method is based on an angle resolving time-of-flight spectrometer setup consisting of 16 individual spectrometers aligned in a plane perpendicular to the XFEL beam. These are used to characterize the X-ray beam by correlating the electrons’ energies and their angle dependent intensities. An adapted version of the spectrometer setup originally developed at the PETRA III storage ring at DESY, was built in the diagnostics group of European XFEL and provided for the beamtime at SLAC.

    At European XFEL the diagnostic goal is that scientists will eventually be able to use the method to extract all information online during their experiments and correlate and adjust their data analysis accordingly. Furthermore, although the method has so far only been designed and tested for soft X-rays, Ilchen and his colleagues are optimistic that it could also be used for experiments using hard X-rays. “By reducing the wavelength of the optical laser, we could even resolve the few hundreds of attosecond broad spikes of the hard X-ray pulses here at the SASE 1 branch of European XFEL” Ilchen says.

    Time-resolved experiments

    During the experiment at SLAC the scientists also showed that it was even possible to use the acquired data to select pulses with exactly two intensity spikes with a variable time delay between them. This demonstrates the capability of FELs to enable time-resolved X-ray measurements attosecond to few femtosecond delay. “By determining the time duration and distance of those two spikes, we can sort our data for matching pulse properties and use them to understand how certain reactions and processes have progressed on an attosecond timescale” explains Ilchen. “Since our method gives us precise information about the pulse structure, we will be able to reliably reconstruct what is happening in our samples by producing a sequence of snapshots, so that much like a series of photographs pasted together makes a moving film sequence, we can make ‘movies’ of the reactions” he adds.

    From principle to proof

    Due to the limited pulse repetition rate currently available at most XFELs, however, moving from a proof-of-principle experiment to actually using specifically structured pulses for so-called pump-probe experiments requires a large leap of the imagination. European XFEL, however, already provides more pulses per second than other similar facilities, and will eventually provide 27,000 pulses per second, making the dream of attosecond time-resolved experiment a real possibility. “Although, currently, no machine in the world can provide attosecond X-ray pulses with variable time delay below the femtosecond regime in a controlled fashion,” says Ilchen, “the technologies available at European XFEL in combination with our method, could enable us to produce so much data that we can pick the pulse structures of interest and sort the rest out while still getting enough statistics for new scientific perspectives.”

    Further reading:

    News from SLAC – “Tick, Tock on the ‘Attoclock’: Tracking X-Ray Laser Pulses at Record Speeds

    Overview of options for generating high-brightness attosecond x-ray pulses at free-electron lasers and applications at the European XFEL
    S. Serkez et al., Journal of Optics, 9 Jan 2018 doi:10.1088/2040-8986/aa9f4f

    See the full article here .

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    XFEL Campus

    XFEL Tunnel

    XFEL Gun

    The Hamburg area will soon boast a research facility of superlatives: The European XFEL will generate ultrashort X-ray flashes—27 000 times per second and with a brilliance that is a billion times higher than that of the best conventional X-ray radiation sources.

    The outstanding characteristics of the facility are unique worldwide. Started in 2017, it will open up completely new research opportunities for scientists and industrial users.

     
  • richardmitnick 5:44 pm on March 19, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , European XFEL, , ,   

    From STFC: “UK joins World Leading X-Ray Laser Facility” 


    STFC

    3.19.18
    Jake Gilmore
    STFC Media Manager
    07970994586

    The UK has today become the latest member state of the European XFEL, the international research facility that is home to the world’s largest X-ray laser.

    DESY European XFEL


    European XFEL


    European XFEL


    European XFEL Campus

    Sited in Germany the European XFEL is capable of generating extremely intense X-ray laser flashes that offer new research opportunities for scientists across the world. Its range of capabilities include enabling researchers to take three-dimensional “photos” of the nanoworld, “film” chemical reactions as they happen and study processes such as those that occur deep inside planets.

    In a ceremony at the British Embassy in Berlin, representatives of the UK government and the other contract parties, including the German federal government, signed the documents to join the European XFEL Convention. The UK is European XFEL’s twelfth member state. The UK’s contribution will amount to 26million Euro, or about 2% of the total construction budget of 1.22 billion Euro (both in 2005 prices) and an annual contribution of about 2% to the operation budget. The UK will be represented in European XFEL by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) as shareholder.

    UK Science Minister Sam Gyimah said:

    “The incredible XFEL laser will help us better understand life threatening diseases by using one of the world’s most powerful X-ray machines. Working with our international partners, the super-strength laser will help develop new medical treatments and therapies, potentially saving thousands of lives across the world.

    “Through our modern Industrial Strategy we are investing an extra £4.7 billion into research and development. I am determined that we continue to secure our position as being a world-leader in science, research and innovation and I can’t wait to see the results that come from our participation in this extraordinary project.”

    Although not an official shareholder until today the UK has been involved with XFEL since 2008 through both collaboration on technology and the two XFEL User Consortia. The first advanced detector to be installed at the European XFEL, the Large Pixel Detector (LPD), a cutting-edge X-ray “camera” capable of capturing images in billionths of a second, was developed and built by STFC. The LPD was installed mid-2017 and is now operational at the instrument for Femtosecond X-ray Experiments (FXE) at European XFEL.

    In addition the STFC Central Laser Facility, based at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory near Oxford in the UK is currently building a nanosecond high energy laser for the High Energy Density (HED) instrument at European XFEL. This new “Dipole” laser will be used to recreate the conditions found within stars.

    Dr Brian Bowsher, Chief Executive of STFC, said:

    “As the UK becomes a full member of XFEL it opens up areas of research for British scientists at the atomic, molecular and nanoscale level that are currently inaccessible. This signing today reinforces our continued strategy to ensure UK science remains at the very forefront of global research by collaborating with the best scientists in the world and using the best facilities.

    The capabilities offered by XFEL are already opening up entirely new scientific opportunities and this is a very important day for both UK science and STFC. Building on the contributions already made to XFEL by both STFC research and engineering staff and other UK researchers, I look forward with immense interest to see what my fellow UK research colleagues and the XFEL team will discover in the coming years”.

    The UK has also developed a training facility at the Diamond Light Source on the Harwell campus in Oxfordshire for British scientists. The UK XFEL life sciences hub will enable users to fully prepare for their experiments with XFELs.

    Chair of the European XFEL Council Professor Martin Meedom Nielsen who was present at the signing said:

    “All member states are very happy that the United Kingdom now officially joins the European XFEL. The UK science community has been very active in the project since the very beginning, and their contribution of ideas and know-how has always been highly appreciated. Together, we will maintain and develop the European XFEL as a world leading facility for X-ray science.”

    See the full article here .

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    STFC Hartree Centre

    Helping build a globally competitive, knowledge-based UK economy

    We are a world-leading multi-disciplinary science organisation, and our goal is to deliver economic, societal, scientific and international benefits to the UK and its people – and more broadly to the world. Our strength comes from our distinct but interrelated functions:

    Universities: we support university-based research, innovation and skills development in astronomy, particle physics, nuclear physics, and space science
    Scientific Facilities: we provide access to world-leading, large-scale facilities across a range of physical and life sciences, enabling research, innovation and skills training in these areas
    National Campuses: we work with partners to build National Science and Innovation Campuses based around our National Laboratories to promote academic and industrial collaboration and translation of our research to market through direct interaction with industry
    Inspiring and Involving: we help ensure a future pipeline of skilled and enthusiastic young people by using the excitement of our sciences to encourage wider take-up of STEM subjects in school and future life (science, technology, engineering and mathematics)

    We support an academic community of around 1,700 in particle physics, nuclear physics, and astronomy including space science, who work at more than 50 universities and research institutes in the UK, Europe, Japan and the United States, including a rolling cohort of more than 900 PhD students.

    STFC-funded universities produce physics postgraduates with outstanding high-end scientific, analytic and technical skills who on graduation enjoy almost full employment. Roughly half of our PhD students continue in research, sustaining national capability and creating the bedrock of the UK’s scientific excellence. The remainder – much valued for their numerical, problem solving and project management skills – choose equally important industrial, commercial or government careers.

    Our large-scale scientific facilities in the UK and Europe are used by more than 3,500 users each year, carrying out more than 2,000 experiments and generating around 900 publications. The facilities provide a range of research techniques using neutrons, muons, lasers and x-rays, and high performance computing and complex analysis of large data sets.

    They are used by scientists across a huge variety of science disciplines ranging from the physical and heritage sciences to medicine, biosciences, the environment, energy, and more. These facilities provide a massive productivity boost for UK science, as well as unique capabilities for UK industry.

    Our two Campuses are based around our Rutherford Appleton Laboratory at Harwell in Oxfordshire, and our Daresbury Laboratory in Cheshire – each of which offers a different cluster of technological expertise that underpins and ties together diverse research fields.

    The combination of access to world-class research facilities and scientists, office and laboratory space, business support, and an environment which encourages innovation has proven a compelling combination, attracting start-ups, SMEs and large blue chips such as IBM and Unilever.

    We think our science is awesome – and we know students, teachers and parents think so too. That’s why we run an extensive Public Engagement and science communication programme, ranging from loans to schools of Moon Rocks, funding support for academics to inspire more young people, embedding public engagement in our funded grant programme, and running a series of lectures, travelling exhibitions and visits to our sites across the year.

    Ninety per cent of physics undergraduates say that they were attracted to the course by our sciences, and applications for physics courses are up – despite an overall decline in university enrolment.

     
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