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  • richardmitnick 8:37 am on May 14, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Quantum world-first: researchers can now tell how accurate two-qubit calculations in silicon really are", ...you can only tap into the tremendous power of quantum computing if the qubit operations are near perfect with only tiny errors allowed” Dr Yang says., , “Fidelity is a critical parameter which determines how viable a qubit technology is..., Electrical Engineering, , The researchers say the study is further proof that silicon as a technology platform is ideal for scaling up to the large numbers of qubits needed for universal quantum computing., Two-qubit gate,   

    From University of New South Wales: “Quantum world-first: researchers can now tell how accurate two-qubit calculations in silicon really are” 

    U NSW bloc

    From University of New South Wales – Sidney

    14 May 2019

    Isabelle Dubach
    Media and Content Manager
    +61 2 9385 7307, 0432 307 244

    Scientia Professor Andrew Dzurak
    Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications
    +61 432 405 434

    After being the first team to create a two-qubit gate in silicon in 2015, UNSW Sydney engineers are breaking new ground again: they have measured the accuracy of silicon two-qubit operations for the first time – and their results confirm the promise of silicon for quantum computing.

    Wister Huang, a final-year PhD student in Electrical Engineering; Professor Andrew Dzurak; and Dr Henry Yang, a senior research fellow.

    For the first time ever, researchers have measured the fidelity – that is, the accuracy – of two-qubit logic operations in silicon, with highly promising results that will enable scaling up to a full-scale quantum processor.

    The research, carried out by Professor Andrew Dzurak’s team in UNSW Engineering, was published today in the world-renowned journal Nature.

    The experiments were performed by Wister Huang, a final-year PhD student in Electrical Engineering, and Dr Henry Yang, a senior research fellow at UNSW.

    “All quantum computations can be made up of one-qubit operations and two-qubit operations – they’re the central building blocks of quantum computing,” says Professor Dzurak.

    “Once you’ve got those, you can perform any computation you want – but the accuracy of both operations needs to be very high.”

    In 2015 Dzurak’s team was the first to build a quantum logic gate in silicon, making calculations between two qubits of information possible – and thereby clearing a crucial hurdle to making silicon quantum computers a reality.

    A number of groups around the world have since demonstrated two-qubit gates in silicon – but until this landmark paper today, the true accuracy of such a two-qubit gate was unknown.

    Accuracy crucial for quantum success

    “Fidelity is a critical parameter which determines how viable a qubit technology is – you can only tap into the tremendous power of quantum computing if the qubit operations are near perfect, with only tiny errors allowed,” Dr Yang says.

    In this study, the team implemented and performed Clifford-based fidelity benchmarking – a technique that can assess qubit accuracy across all technology platforms – demonstrating an average two-qubit gate fidelity of 98%.

    “We achieved such a high fidelity by characterising and mitigating primary error sources, thus improving gate fidelities to the point where randomised benchmarking sequences of significant length – more than 50 gate operations – could be performed on our two-qubit device,” says Mr Huang, the lead author on the paper.

    Quantum computers will have a wide range of important applications in the future thanks to their ability to perform far more complex calculations at much greater speeds, including solving problems that are simply beyond the ability of today’s computers.

    “But for most of those important applications, millions of qubits will be needed, and you’re going to have to correct quantum errors, even when they’re small,” Professor Dzurak says.

    “For error correction to be possible, the qubits themselves have to be very accurate in the first place – so it’s crucial to assess their fidelity.”

    “The more accurate your qubits, the fewer you need – and therefore, the sooner we can ramp up the engineering and manufacturing to realise a full-scale quantum computer.”

    Silicon confirmed as the way to go.

    The researchers say the study is further proof that silicon as a technology platform is ideal for scaling up to the large numbers of qubits needed for universal quantum computing. Given that silicon has been at the heart of the global computer industry for almost 60 years, its properties are already well understood and existing silicon chip production facilities can readily adapt to the technology.

    “If our fidelity value had been too low, it would have meant serious problems for the future of silicon quantum computing. The fact that it is near 99% puts it in the ballpark we need, and there are excellent prospects for further improvement. Our results immediately show, as we predicted, that silicon is a viable platform for full-scale quantum computing,” Professor Dzurak says.

    “We think that we’ll achieve significantly higher fidelities in the near future, opening the path to full-scale, fault-tolerant quantum computation. We’re now on the verge of a two-qubit accuracy that’s high enough for quantum error correction.”

    In another paper – recently published in Nature Electronics and featured on its cover – on which Dr Yang is lead author, the same team also achieved the record for the world’s most accurate 1-qubit gate in a silicon quantum dot, with a remarkable fidelity of 99.96%.


    “Besides the natural advantages of silicon qubits, one key reason we’ve been able to achieve such impressive results is because of the fantastic team we have here at UNSW. My student Wister and Dr Yang are both incredibly talented. They personally conceived the complex protocols required for this benchmarking experiment,” says Professor Dzurak.

    Other authors on today’s Nature paper are UNSW researchers Tuomo Tanttu, Ross Leon, Fay Hudson, Andrea Morello and Arne Laucht, as well as former Dzurak team members Kok Wai Chan, Bas Hensen, Michael Fogarty and Jason Hwang, while Professor Kohei Itoh from Japan’s Keio University provided isotopically enriched silicon wafers for the project.

    UNSW Dean of Engineering, Professor Mark Hoffman, says the breakthrough is yet another piece of proof that this world-leading team are in the process of taking quantum computing across the threshold from the theoretical to the real.

    “Quantum computing is this century’s space race – and Sydney is leading the charge,” Professor Hoffman says.

    “This milestone is another step towards realising a large-scale quantum computer – and it reinforces the fact that silicon is an extremely attractive approach that we believe will get UNSW there first.”

    Spin qubits based on silicon CMOS technology – the specific method developed by Professor Dzurak’s group – hold great promise for quantum computing because of their long coherence times and the potential to leverage existing integrated circuit technology to manufacture the large numbers of qubits needed for practical applications.

    Professor Dzurak leads a project to advance silicon CMOS qubit technology with Silicon Quantum Computing, Australia’s first quantum computing company.

    “Our latest result brings us closer to commercialising this technology – my group is all about building a quantum chip that can be used for real-world applications,” Professor Dzurak says.

    The silicon qubit device that was used in this study was fabricated entirely at UNSW using a novel silicon-CMOS process line, high-resolution patterning systems, and supporting nanofabrication equipment that are made available by ANFF-NSW.

    A full-scale quantum processor would have major applications in the finance, security and healthcare sectors – it would help identify and develop new medicines by greatly accelerating the computer-aided design of pharmaceutical compounds, it could contribute to developing new, lighter and stronger materials spanning consumer electronics to aircraft, and faster information searching through large databases.

    See the full article here .


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    Welcome to UNSW Australia (The University of New South Wales), one of Australia’s leading research and teaching universities. At UNSW, we take pride in the broad range and high quality of our teaching programs. Our teaching gains strength and currency from our research activities, strong industry links and our international nature; UNSW has a strong regional and global engagement.

    In developing new ideas and promoting lasting knowledge we are creating an academic environment where outstanding students and scholars from around the world can be inspired to excel in their programs of study and research. Partnerships with both local and global communities allow UNSW to share knowledge, debate and research outcomes. UNSW’s public events include concert performances, open days and public forums on issues such as the environment, healthcare and global politics. We encourage you to explore the UNSW website so you can find out more about what we do.

  • richardmitnick 7:00 pm on March 21, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "A Swiss cheese-like material’ that can solve equations", , , Electrical Engineering, ,   

    From University of Pennsylvania: “A Swiss cheese-like material’ that can solve equations” 

    U Penn bloc

    From University of Pennsylvania

    March 21, 2019


    Evan Lerner, Gwyneth K. Shaw Media Contacts
    Eric Sucar Photographer

    Engineering professor Nader Engheta and his team have demonstrated a metamaterial device that can function as an analog computer, validating an earlier theory about ‘photonic calculus.’

    Nader Engheta (center), the H. Nedwill Ramsey Professor in the Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, and lab members Brian Edwards and Nasim Mohammadi Estakhri conducted the pathbreaking work in Engheta’s lab.

    The field of metamaterials involves designing complicated, composite structures, some of which can manipulate electromagnetic waves in ways that are impossible in naturally occurring materials.

    For Nader Engheta of the School of Engineering and Applied Science, one of the loftier goals in this field has been to design metamaterials that can solve equations. This “photonic calculus” would work by encoding parameters into the properties of an incoming electromagnetic wave and sending it through a metamaterial device; once inside, the device’s unique structure would manipulate the wave in such a way that it would exit encoded with the solution to a pre-set integral equation for that arbitrary input.

    In a paper published in Science, Engheta and his team demonstrated such a device for the first time.

    Their proof-of-concept experiment was conducted with microwaves, as the long wavelengths allowed for an easier-to-construct macro-scale device. The principles behind their findings, however, can be scaled down to light waves, eventually fitting onto a microchip.

    Such metamaterial devices would function as analog computers that operate with light, rather than electricity. They could solve integral equations—ubiquitous problems in every branch of science and engineering—orders of magnitude faster than their digital counterparts, while using less power.

    The demonstration device is 2-foot-square, made of a milled type of polystyrene plastic.

    Engheta, the H. Nedwill Ramsey Professor in the Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, conducted the study along with lab members Nasim Mohammadi Estakhri and Brian Edwards.

    This approach has its roots in analog computing. The first analog computers solved mathematical problems using physical elements, such as slide-rules and sets of gears, that were manipulated in precise ways to arrive at a solution. In the mid-20th century, electronic analog computers replaced the mechanical ones, with series of resistors, capacitors, inductors, and amplifiers replacing their predecessors’ clockworks.

    Such computers were state-of-the-art, as they could solve large tables of information all at once, but were limited to the class of problems they were pre-designed to handle. The advent of reconfigurable, programmable digital computers, starting with ENIAC, constructed at Penn in 1945, made them obsolete.

    As the field of metamaterials developed, Engheta and his team devised a way of bringing the concepts behind analog computing into the 21st century. Publishing a theoretical outline for “photonic calculus” in Science in 2014, they showed how a carefully designed metamaterial could perform mathematical operations on the profile of a wave passing thought it, such as finding its first or second derivative.

    Now, Engheta and his team have performed physical experiments validating this theory and expanding it to solve equations.

    “Our device contains a block of dielectric material that has a very specific distribution of air holes,” Engheta says. “Our team likes to call it ‘Swiss cheese.’”

    The Swiss cheese material is a kind of polystyrene plastic; its intricate shape is carved by a CNC milling machine.

    “Controlling the interactions of electromagnetic waves with this Swiss cheese metastructure is the key to solving the equation,” Estakhri says. “Once the system is properly assembled, what you get out of the system is the solution to an integral equation.”

    “This structure,” Edwards adds, “was calculated through a computational process known as ‘inverse design,’ which can be used to find shapes that no human would think of trying.”


    The pattern of hollow regions in the Swiss cheese is predetermined to solve an integral equation with a given “kernel,” the part of the equation that describes the relationship between two variables. This general class of such integral equations, known as “Fredholm integral equations of the second kind,” is a common way of describing different physical phenomena in a variety of scientific fields. The pre-set equation can be solved for any arbitrary inputs, which are represented by the phases and magnitudes of the waves that are introduced into the device.

    “For example,” Engheta says, “if you were trying to plan the acoustics of a concert hall, you could write an integral equation where the inputs represent the sources of the sound, such as the position of speakers or instruments, as well as how loudly they play. Other parts of the equation would represent the geometry of the room and the material its walls are made of. Solving that equation would give you the volume at different points in the concert hall.”

    In the integral equation that describes the relationship between sound sources, room shape and the volume at specific locations, the features of the room — the shape and material properties of its walls — can be represented by the equation’s kernel. This is the part the Penn Engineering researchers are able to represent in a physical way, through the precise arrangement of air holes in their metamaterial Swiss cheese.

    “Our system allows you to change the inputs that represent the locations of the sound sources by changing the properties of the wave you send into the system,” Engheta says, “but if you want to change the shape of the room, for example, you will have to make a new kernel.”

    The researchers conducted their experiment with microwaves; as such, their device was roughly two square feet, or about eight wavelengths wide and four wavelengths long.

    “Even at this proof-of-concept stage, our device is extremely fast compared to electronics,” Engheta says. “With microwaves, our analysis has shown that a solution can be obtained in hundreds of nanoseconds, and once we take it to optics the speed would be in picoseconds.”

    Scaling down the concept to the scale where it could operate on light waves and be placed on a microchip would not only make them more practical for computing, it would open the doors to other technologies that would enable them to be more like the multipurpose digital computers that first made analog computing obsolete decades ago.

    “We could use the technology behind rewritable CDs to make new Swiss cheese patterns as they’re needed,” Engheta says. “Some day you may be able to print your own reconfigurable analog computer at home!”

    Nader Engheta is the H. Nedwill Ramsey Professor in the Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Engineering and Applied Science.

    The research was supported by the Basic Research Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering through its Vannevar Bush Faculty Fellowship program and by the Office of Naval Research through Grant N00014-16-1-2029.

    See the full article here .


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    Academic life at Penn is unparalleled, with 100 countries and every U.S. state represented in one of the Ivy League’s most diverse student bodies. Consistently ranked among the top 10 universities in the country, Penn enrolls 10,000 undergraduate students and welcomes an additional 10,000 students to our world-renowned graduate and professional schools.

    Penn’s award-winning educators and scholars encourage students to pursue inquiry and discovery, follow their passions, and address the world’s most challenging problems through an interdisciplinary approach.

  • richardmitnick 2:10 pm on December 24, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Dongkeun Park: Winding his way to medical insights, Electrical Engineering, FBML-Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, High-field superconducting magnets are vital for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, , MIT’s Plasma Science and Fusion Center, , Nuclear magnetic resolution spectroscopy, , Research Engineer Dongkeun Park, The stronger the NMR magnet the greater the detail and resolution in imaging the molecular structure of proteins providing researchers with the information they may need to develop medications for com   

    From MIT: “Dongkeun Park: Winding his way to medical insights” 

    MIT News
    MIT Widget

    MIT News

    December 22, 2017
    Paul Rivenberg | Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    Francis Bitter Magnet Lab researcher continues a decades-long pursuit to create a revolutionary magnet for nuclear magnetic resolution spectroscopy.

    Research Engineer Dongkeun Park (right) and his colleague Juan Bascuñán wind a double-pancake coil with high-temperature superconductor. Photo: Paul Rivenberg/PSFC

    Assisted by postdoc Jiho Lee, Dongkeun Park inspects the wiring of a completed HTS coil in preparation for testing it in liquid helium. Photo: Paul Rivenberg/PSFC

    In the completed 1.3 GHz magnet, the three HTS coils (pink) that make up the H800 magnet are nested within the LTS coils composing the L500 (blue). Image courtesy of PSFC

    Research Engineer Phil Michael transfers liquid helium to the cryostat in preparation for testing the middle of the three HTS coils as Dongkeun Park looks on. Park and his colleagues expect to test the three-coil assembled H800 magnet in early in 2018. Photo: Paul Rivenberg/PSFC

    Research engineer Dongkeun Park watches a thin, coppery tape of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) wind its way from one spool on his plywood worktable to another, cautiously overseeing the speed and tension of the tape’s journey.

    When completed, in about half a day, this HTS double-pancake (DP) winding will look like two flat coils, one atop the other, but they will be one, connected internally, leaving both terminal ends on the outside. Park has been managing this process on and off for eight years, knowing that every turn of the coil creates a stronger magnet. This is just one of 96 double pancake coils that have been wound over the past five years for an 800 MHz HTS insert coil, the H800, being built in the Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory (FBML) at MIT’s Plasma Science and Fusion Center.

    High-field superconducting magnets are vital for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, a technology that provides a unique insight into biological processes. The stronger the NMR magnet, the greater the detail and resolution in imaging the molecular structure of proteins, providing researchers with the information they may need to develop medications for combating disease.

    Park joined the laboratory as a postdoc in 2009. He traces his interest in superconductivity, and MIT, to a lecture given by visiting FBML magnetic technology division head Yuki Iwasa at Yongsei University in Seoul, South Korea. Park says that as a graduate student in electrical engineering, “I wanted to make something by hand, not only by calculation.”

    When Park first arrived at FBML, the lab had been working on high-resolution HTS-based NMR magnets since 1999 as part of a program sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to complete a 1-GHz NMR magnet with a combination of low temperature superconductor (LTS) and HTS double-pancake insert coils. The lab’s work on LTS-based NMR began several decades earlier.

    At the time of his arrival, NIH and MIT had recently agreed to increase the target strength of the magnet being developed from 1 GHz to 1.3 GHz. To reach this strength, FBML planned to create an H600 magnet and nest it inside a 700 MHz LTS (L700) magnet, which could be purchased elsewhere. Park notes that this combination translates to a magnetic field strength of 30.5 Tesla, “which would make it the world’s strongest magnet for NMR applications.”

    One responsibility given to Park, along with his colleague research engineer Juan Bascuñán, was to wind each DP, then test it in liquid nitrogen. The DPs would then be stacked, compressed, joined together and retested as a finished coil. Finally, this stacked coil would be over-banded with layers of stainless steel tape to support the much larger electromagnetic forces generated during high-current operation in liquid helium. Park and his colleagues needed to create two of these coils, one slightly larger than the other, and nest them inside a series of LTS coils to create the final magnet. The combined coils would create a magnet that could provide the sharpest imaging yet for investigating protein structure, possibly three times the image resolution from FBML’s current 900-MHz NMR.

    In December 2011, Park and his colleagues had virtually finished the preliminary DP windings, and were looking forward to stacking them for further testing. But returning from MIT’s winter recess, they discovered that the coils were missing. The 112 double pancake coils they had carefully crafted and wound for the H600 had been stolen.

    Park’s current PSFC colleague, research scientist Phil Michael, suggests that the theft, though traumatic to the project, “ultimately made the magnet better.” To save money, MIT and NIH decided that instead of purchasing an L700 magnet to surround the H600 coils as originally planned, they could use an L500 coil already on hand at FBML, and create for it a higher strength HTS magnet: the H800.

    With new security measures in place, Iwasa’s group set out to accomplish this goal by adopting a new HTS magnet technology known as no-insulation winding, developed by Park along with former FBML research engineer Seungyong Hahn. All previous coils had been created from HTS tape insulated with plastic film or high resistive metal. The new coils would be made without the insulation, allowing them to become more compact and mechanically robust, with increased current density.

    Park did not take part in the early production of the H800. In February of 2012, he decided to pursue an opportunity to make a new commercial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnet for Samsung Electronics in South Korea and the UK. In 2016 he happily returned to MIT as a research engineer, his hiatus having provided him an appreciation for the benefits of an academic environment.

    “A company’s objective is to make a profit. So you must always be concerned with reducing costs,” he says. “This is very different from exploring basic science and engineering on innovative ideas at MIT.”

    Although many coils for the H800 had been wound in his absence, he returned in time to complete and test more than half the required DP coils, along with team members Bascuñán, Phil Michael, Jiho Lee, Yoonhyuck Choi, and Yi Li. As 2018 approaches the three HTS coils necessary to create the H800 are nearly completed. Only Coil 3 remains to be finally tested in liquid helium. As the new year begins, the coils will be combined and tested as the H800.

    But even after the H800 is nested in the L500 coils and the target 1.3 GHz magnet is created, there will still be three to four years of work to ready it for the high-resolution NMR spectroscopy that will provide new insights into biological structures. Until then, Park will remain patient as he looks to other projects he is overseeing, including one developing an MRI magnet for screening osteoporosis.

    And yes, his new project requires superconducting coils. Park is always ready to start winding.

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 3:28 pm on August 23, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Electrical Engineering, ,   

    From Princeton: “Laser device may end pin pricks, improve quality of life for diabetics” 

    Princeton University
    Princeton University

    August 20, 2014
    John Sullivan, Office of Engineering Communications

    Princeton University researchers have developed a way to use a laser to measure people’s blood sugar, and, with more work to shrink the laser system to a portable size, the technique could allow diabetics to check their condition without pricking themselves to draw blood.

    “We are working hard to turn engineering solutions into useful tools for people to use in their daily lives,” said Claire Gmachl, the Eugene Higgins Professor of Electrical Engineering and the project’s senior researcher. “With this work we hope to improve the lives of many diabetes sufferers who depend on frequent blood glucose monitoring.”

    In an article published June 23 in the journal Biomedical Optics Express, the researchers describe how they measured blood sugar by directing their specialized laser at a person’s palm. The laser passes through the skin cells, without causing damage, and is partially absorbed by the sugar molecules in the patient’s body. The researchers use the amount of absorption to measure the level of blood sugar.

    Sabbir Liakat, the paper’s lead author, said the team was pleasantly surprised at the accuracy of the method. Glucose monitors are required to produce a blood-sugar reading within 20 percent of the patient’s actual level; even an early version of the system met that standard. The current version is 84 percent accurate, Liakat said.

    “It works now but we are still trying to improve it,” said Liakat, a graduate student in electrical engineering.

    A new system developed by Princeton researchers uses a laser to allow diabetics to check their blood sugar without pricking their skin. Members of the research team included, from left, Sabbir Liakat, a graduate student in electrical engineering; Claire Gmachl, the Eugene Higgins Professor of Electrical Engineering; and Kevin Bors, who graduated in 2013 with a degree in electrical engineering. (Photos by Frank Wojciechowski for the Office of Engineering Communications)

    When the team first started, the laser was an experimental setup that filled up a moderate-sized workbench. It also needed an elaborate cooling system to work. Gmachl said the researchers have solved the cooling problem, so the laser works at room temperature. The next step is to shrink it.

    “This summer, we are working to get the system on a mobile platform to take it places such as clinics to get more measurements,” Liakat said. “We are looking for a larger dataset of measurements to work with.”

    The key to the system is the infrared laser’s frequency. What our eyes perceive as color is created by light’s frequency (the number of light waves that pass a point in a certain time). Red is the lowest frequency of light that humans normally can see, and infrared’s frequency is below that level. Current medical devices often use the “near-infrared,” which is just beyond what the eye can see. This frequency is not blocked by water, so it can be used in the body, which is largely made up of water. But it does interact with many acids and chemicals in the skin, so it makes it impractical to use for detecting blood sugar.

    Mid-infrared light, however, is not as much affected by these other chemicals, so it works well for blood sugar. But mid-infrared light is difficult to harness with standard lasers. It also requires relatively high power and stability to penetrate the skin and scatter off bodily fluid. (The target is not the blood but fluid called dermal interstitial fluid, which has a strong correlation with blood sugar.)

    The breakthrough came from the use of a new type of device that is particularly adept at producing mid-infrared frequencies — a quantum cascade laser.

    The new monitor uses a laser, instead of blood sample, to read blood sugar levels. The laser is directed at the person’s palm, passes through skin cells and is partially absorbed by sugar molecules, allowing researchers to calculate the level of blood sugar.

    In many lasers, the frequency of the beam depends on the material that makes up the laser — a helium-neon laser, for example, produces a certain frequency band of light. But in a quantum cascade laser, in which electrons pass through a “cascade” of semiconductor layers, the beam can be set to one of a number of different frequencies. The ability to specify the frequency allowed the researchers to produce a laser in the mid-infrared region. Recent improvements in quantum cascade lasers also provided for increased power and stability needed to penetrate the skin.

    To conduct their experiment, the researchers used the laser to measure the blood sugar of three healthy people before and after they each ate 20 jellybeans, which raise blood sugar levels. The researchers also checked the measurements with a finger-prick test. They conducted the measurements repeatedly over several weeks.

    The researchers said their results indicated that the laser measurements readings produced average errors somewhat larger than the standard blood sugar monitors, but remained within the clinical requirement for accuracy.

    “Because the quantum cascade laser can be designed to emit light across a very wide wavelength range, its usability is not just for glucose detection, but could conceivably be used for other medical sensing and monitoring applications,” Gmachl said.

    Besides Liakat and Gmachl, researchers included Kevin Bors, Class of 2013, Laura Xu, Class of 2015, and Callie Woods, Class of 2014, who worked on the project as undergraduate students majoring in electrical engineering; and Jessica Doyle, a teacher at Hunterdon Regional Central High School.

    Support for the research was provided in part by the Wendy and Eric Schmidt Foundation, the National Science Foundation, Daylight Solutions Inc., and Opto-Knowledge Systems. The research involving human subjects was conducted according to regulations set by the Princeton University Institutional Review Board.

    See the full article here.

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