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  • richardmitnick 10:57 am on January 19, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "More than one way to make a qubit", A qubit is essentially a quantum state of matter that allows you to store more information and process more information than a traditional bit., Another approach employs flaws in diamonds., Another drawback is that superconducting circuits must stay frigid., Another upside of trapped ions is that they are stalwart defenders against a qubit’s greatest nemesis: loss of information., Because ions are electrically charged they are easily held in place by electromagnetic fields., Because of their robustness trapped ions exhibit some of the lowest error rates of any qubit technology., , Electrical Engineering, Enter the superconducting qubit, Ions are natural quantum objects: Two of the discrete energy levels of their remaining electrons can represent a 0 or 1., Ions-atoms that have lost one or more of their electrons-emerged as a promising qubit platform at the dawn of experimental quantum computing in the mid-1990s., , , Quantum entanglement (in which multiple qubits share a common quantum state), Quantum superposition (the ability to be in a mixed state-a weighted combination of 1 and 0), Researchers produced the first qubit implemented in a superconducting circuit in which an electric current oscillates back and forth around a microscopic circuit etched onto a chip., Superconducting circuits struggle against decoherence as well., , Taking advantage of techniques used to make computer chips a manufacturer can fabricate superconducting circuits on large wafers., The biggest quantum computer unveiled in November 2021 by IBM contains 127 qubits., The goal of building a quantum computer is to harness the quirks of quantum physics to solve certain problems far faster than a traditional computer can., The list of possible qubits goes on. Photons; semiconductors; molecules—these and other platforms have potential., The quantum bit-or qubit—the quantum equivalent of the 1s and 0s that underlie our digital lives., Two promising approaches currently in focus to implement qubits: superconducting circuits and trapped ions   

    From Symmetry: “More than one way to make a qubit” 

    Symmetry Mag

    From Symmetry

    01/19/22
    Christopher Crockett

    1
    Illustration by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova.

    Scientists are exploring a variety of ways to make quantum bits. We may not need to settle on a single one.

    The goal of building a quantum computer is to harness the quirks of quantum physics to solve certain problems far faster than a traditional computer can. And at the heart of a quantum computer is the quantum bit, or qubit—the quantum equivalent of the 1s and 0s that underlie our digital lives.

    “A qubit is the fundamental building block of quantum information science technology,” says Joseph Heremans, an electrical engineer at DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US).

    Traditional bits can be any sort of switch, anything that can flip from 0 to 1. But building a qubit takes something more.

    “A qubit is essentially a quantum state of matter,” Heremans says. “And it has weird properties that allow you to store more information and process more information” than a traditional bit.

    Those weird properties include superposition (the ability to be in a mixed state, a weighted combination of 1 and 0) and entanglement (in which multiple qubits share a common quantum state). Both might seem like they would be hard to come by. Fortunately, nature has provided lots of options, and engineers have cooked up a couple more.

    Researchers are exploring more than half a dozen ways to implement qubits, with two promising approaches currently in focus: superconducting circuits and trapped ions.

    Out in front

    Ions—atoms that have lost one or more of their electrons—emerged as a promising qubit platform at the dawn of experimental quantum computing in the mid-1990s. In fact, the first qubit ever built was fashioned out of a single beryllium ion.

    Ions are natural quantum objects: Two of the discrete energy levels of their remaining electrons can represent a 0 or 1; those energy levels are readily manipulated by lasers; and because ions are electrically charged they are easily held in place by electromagnetic fields. Not much new needed to be invented to produce trapped-ion qubits. Existing technology could handle it.

    Another upside of trapped ions is that they are stalwart defenders against a qubit’s greatest nemesis: loss of information. Quantum states are fragile, and superpositions stick around only if the qubits don’t interact with anything. A stray atom or an unexpected photon can collapse the quantum state. In physics speak, the qubit “decoheres.” And decoherence is the death knell to any quantum information technology.

    “We want a system where we can manipulate it, because we want to do calculations, but the environment doesn’t talk to it too much,” says Kenneth Brown, an electrical engineer at Duke University.

    Trapped ions check both boxes. Held safely in a darkened vacuum, they have a low interaction with the environment, he says.

    Because of their robustness trapped ions exhibit some of the lowest error rates of any qubit technology. But they struggle to grow beyond small-scale demos. Adding more ions to the mix makes it harder for the lasers that control them to single out which one of them to talk to. And scaling up to more qubits means getting lots of auxiliary tech, such as vacuum systems, lasers and electromagnetic traps, to play along.

    The largest trapped-ion quantum computer on the market is a 32-qubit machine built by IonQ, headquartered in College Park, Maryland.

    2
    IonQ Releases A New 32-Qubit Trapped-Ion Quantum Computer With Massive Quantum Volume Claims. Credit: Forbes Magazine.

    But quantum engineers want machines with hundreds, if not thousands, of qubits.

    Enter the superconducting qubit

    Just a few years after the first trapped-ion qubit, researchers produced the first qubit implemented in a superconducting circuit, in which an electric current oscillates back and forth around a microscopic circuit etched onto a chip.

    When cooled to temperatures just a few hundredths of a degree above absolute zero, the oscillator circuit can behave as a quantum object: A flash of radio waves tuned to just the right frequency can put the circuit into one of two distinct energy levels, corresponding to a quantum 1 or 0. Follow-up zaps can steer it into a superposition of those two states.

    “They’re a really promising route to make quantum computers” because they can be made on microchips, says Paul Welander, a physicist at DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (US). “And microfabrication is something that we’ve been doing in the semiconductor industry for a long time.”

    Taking advantage of techniques used to make computer chips a manufacturer can fabricate superconducting circuits on large wafers.

    Another advantage of the superconducting circuit is “the ability to make a device that’s hundreds of micrometers across and yet, it behaves like an atom,” Welander says.

    Engineers get all the quantumness of an atom but with the ability to design and customize its properties by tuning circuit parameters.

    These circuits are also extremely fast, cranking through each step in a computation in mere nanoseconds. And because they are circuits, they can be designed to suit the needs of engineers.

    Superconducting qubits have found a home in the largest general-purpose quantum computers in operation. The biggest, unveiled in November 2021 by IBM, contains 127 qubits.

    3
    IBM Unveils Breakthrough 127-Qubit Quantum Processor. Credit: IBM Corp.

    That chip is a step toward the company’s goal of creating a 433-qubit processor in 2022, followed by a 1,121-qubit machine by 2023.

    But superconducting circuits struggle against decoherence as well.

    “They are made of many, many atoms,” Welander says.

    That provides ample opportunity for something to go wrong—materials and fabrication processes present a particularly thorny challenge when attempting to mass-produce millions of qubits at a time.

    Material interfaces are especially problematic. Metal electrodes, for example, readily oxidize. “Now we have an uncontrolled state at the surface,” Welander says, which can lead to decoherence of the quantum state and loss of information.

    Another drawback is that superconducting circuits must stay frigid, hovering at temperatures just above absolute zero. That requires extreme refrigeration, which presents challenges for scaling superconducting quantum computers to thousands or millions of qubits.

    A menu of options

    While these two qubit technologies are perhaps the best known, they are not the only game in town.

    Another approach employs flaws in diamonds. These gemstones are made up of carbon atoms arranged in a rigid, repeating latticework. But sometimes, another type of atom gets in. For example, a nitrogen atom or a vacancy—the absence of an atom—can take the place of a carbon atom. Such nitrogen and vacancy impurities are “a bit a like a trapped molecule in the diamond crystal,” Heremans says.

    Here, electrons trapped in the crystaline flaw store information in a quantum property called spin, a type of intrinsic rotational momentum. When measured, the spin takes on only one of two options—perfect for encoding a 1 or 0. Those options can be toggled with laser light, radio waves or even mechanical strain.

    Researchers are also exploring making qubits out of electrically neutral atoms, trapped using lasers instead of electromagnetic fields. “Neutral atoms are the most natural qubit candidate,” says Mikhail Lukin, a physicist at Harvard University (US).

    Like ions, neutral atoms can be isolated from the environment and stay coherent for long stretches of time. But modern laser technology gives scientists more flexibility with neutral atoms than electromagnetic traps do with trapped ions. Neutral atoms can be organized into many different 2D patterns, providing more ways to connect the atoms and entangle them, leading to more efficient algorithms.

    Using neutral atoms, Lukin and colleagues recently unveiled a 256-qubit special-purpose quantum computer known as a quantum simulator, the largest of its kind, with plans to build a 1,000-qubit simulator in the next two years.

    The list of possible qubits goes on. Photons; semiconductors; molecules—these and other platforms have potential.

    But despite all these options, there’s no clear winner. It’s not yet obvious what can be scaled up to 1,000 qubits or beyond. It’s not even certain that there is just one best approach.

    “We’re still in hunting-and-finding mode,” Welander says. For quantum computing, “it may actually end up being something hybrid,” using multiple quantum materials and systems.

    Perhaps a single processor will employ superconducting qubits working alongside diamond-defect qubits, which might talk to other quantum processors using photon-based qubits.

    In the end, what makes the “best” qubit depends on how the qubit is being used: A good qubit for quantum computing might be different from a good qubit for quantum sensing or a good qubit for quantum communication, Heremans says.

    Beyond physics

    What is clear is that qubit progress isn’t just a physics problem. “It really requires expertise in a wide range of fields,” from materials science to chemical and electrical engineering, Welander says.

    And it’s not just the qubits themselves that need attention. Qubits require a lot of support technology—vacuum systems, cryogenics, lasers, microwave components, nests of cables—all working in sync to get the most out of any quantum processor.

    In many ways, quantum computers are where digital computers were in the 1950s and ’60s. Then too, researchers were searching for the right technology to represent 1s and 0s and perform the logic operations necessary for any calculation. Bulky vacuum tubes gave way to more compact transistors; germanium transistors yielded to better-performing ones made of silicon; integrated circuits let engineers cram many transistors and support electronics onto single wafers of silicon.

    For quantum computing to reach its full potential, qubits still need the right technology. “There’s a lot of areas where people who are interested and people who are intrigued can plug in and make an impact,” Welander says.

    See the full article here .


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    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 10:55 pm on January 4, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New epoch of miniaturized Čerenkov detectors", , , , Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, , , , The Nanyang Technological University [நன்யாங் தொழில்நுட்ப](SG),   

    From The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN) via phys.org : “New epoch of miniaturized Čerenkov detectors” 

    From The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN)

    via

    phys.org

    January 4, 2022

    1
    Schematics of surface Dyakonov-Čerenkov radiation. b, Field pattern of Čerenkov radiation with Dyakonov surface waves. c-d, Field patterns of Čerenkov radiation without Dyakonov surface waves. Credit: Hao, Hu, Lin, Yu Luo.

    Recently, the research team led by Prof. Yu Luo from the school of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The Nanyang Technological University [நன்யாங் தொழில்நுட்ப](SG), discovered surface Dyakonov-Čerenkov radiation. This new type of Čerenkov radiation not only presages the next generation of miniaturized Čerenkov detectors, but also provides an indispensable route to detect particle trajectory. Moreover, this work offers a feasible route to excite Dyakonov surface waves, opening a new area of research in Dyakonov surface optics.

    Čerenkov radiation refers to the photon emission from the swift charged particle moves with the velocity greater than the phase velocity of light in the surrounding materials. Ever since its experimental observation by a Soviet physicist P.A. Čerenkov in 1934, Čerenkov radiation has been widely explored and applied in many research fields ranging from cosmology and information, to medical and life sciences. Among all these applications, the detection of high-energy particles (i.e., identifying the type of detected particles from the direction of the photon emission) is the most important one. With the help of Čerenkov radiation, scientists discovered many elementary particles including anti-proton and J-particle. Owing to its impacts on both the fundamental research and practical applications, Čerenkov radiation and its related applications were awarded at least six Nobel Prizes in Physics (in 1958, 1959, 1988, 1995, 2002 and 2015, respectively).

    Although Čerenkov detectors are widely used in the high-energy and particle physics, their bulky sizes hinder their applications to emerging research fields such as particle detection on chip. Thus, achieving miniaturized particle detectors could potentially broadens the applications of Čerenkov detection. Surface waves propagating at the interface of two different materials provide a possible solution towards this goal.

    Generally speaking, there are two major branches of surface waves in nature: surface plasmons propagating along the metallodielectric interface; and Dyakonov surface waves propagating along the surface of a birefringent material.

    Since the 1950s, surface plasmons have been widely applied to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced sensing, and surface-enhanced fluorescence, etc. Recently, surface plasmons were deployed to enhance Čerenkov radiation and achieve integrated Čerenkov light sources (Nature Photonics). Nevertheless, the implementation of a miniaturized Čerenkov detector with surface plasmons is still challenging, mainly for two reasons: (1) The significant metallic dissipation hinders the detection of Čerenkov signals in the far field; (2) The strong chromatic dispersion of plasmons presents an inherent limit on the working bandwidth of the detector. On the contrary, Dyakonov surface waves can be excited in an all-dielectric platform with negligible dissipation loss and weak chromatic dispersion. Despite these advantages, applications of Dyakonov surface waves have been thus far quite limited due to the lack of an efficient excitation mechanism.

    This research team led by Prof. Yu Luo from Nanyang Technological University has uncovered a new type of free-electron radiations, namely surface Dyakonov-Čerenkov radiation. It is achieved by exploring the interaction between the free charged particle and Dyakonov surface waves. Such a discovery not only facilitates the development of miniaturized Čerenkov detectors, but may also inspires future explorations of Dyakonov surface waves.

    The research team investigated the emission behaviors of a swift charged particle moving atop the surface of a birefringent crystal. They found that when the particle velocity and trajectory fulfill a specific condition, the swift charged particle allows for efficient photon emission in terms of Dyakonov surface waves.

    Surface Dyakonov-Čerenkov radiation is one of the best candidates for achieving miniaturized particle detectors on a chip. First, Dyakonov surface waves can significantly enhance the photon emission, offering a feasible route to reduce the interaction length of the swift charged particle and matter. Second, due to the negligible dissipation loss and weak chromatic dispersion of Dyakonov surface waves, the emitted photons can be readily collected in the far field.

    Remarkably, the research team also found that the excitation of surface Dyakonov-Čerenkov radiation is highly sensitive to both the particle trajectory and velocity value. Only when the particle trajectory falls within the vicinity of a particular direction, the surface Dyakonov-Čerenkov radiation is allowed. Such a unique property results from the directional nature of Dyakonov surface waves. It allows the surface Dyakonov-Čerenkov radiation to detect the particle trajectory, with the accuracy up to 10 mrad.

    The surface Dyakonov-Čerenkov radiation studied in this work also bridges the research gap between Čerenkov radiation and Dyakonov surface waves, and may produce far-reaching impacts on both areas. In the realm of Čerenkov radiation, this work not only facilitates the development of next-generation miniaturized Čerenkov detectors, but also offers a unique technique to track and collimate the particle beams, which is highly desired in nonlinear, ultrafast and quantum optics. In the realm of Dyakonov surface waves, the efficient excitation mechanism revealed in this work may open a new research area of Dyakonov surface optics.

    Science paper:
    Light: Science & Applications

    See the full article here .

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    Stem Education Coalition

    The Chinese Academy of Sciences [中国科学院](CN) is the national academy for the natural sciences of the People’s Republic of China [中华人民共和国Zhōnghuá rénmín gònghéguó]. It has historical origins in the Academia Sinica during the Republican era and was formerly also known by that name. Collectively known as the “Two Academies (两院)” along with the Chinese Academy of Engineering, it functions as the national scientific think tank and academic governing body, providing advisory and appraisal services on issues stemming from the national economy, social development, and science and technology progress. It is headquartered in Xicheng District, Beijing with branch institutes all over mainland China. It has also created hundreds of commercial enterprises, Lenovo being one of the most famous.

    It is the world’s largest research organisation, comprising around 60,000 researchers working in 114 institutes, and has been consistently ranked among the top research organisations around the world.

    The Chinese Academy of Sciences has been consistently ranked the No. 1 research institute in the world by Nature Index since the list’s inception in 2016 by Nature Research.

    Since its founding, CAS has fulfilled multiple roles — as a national team and a locomotive driving national technological innovation, a pioneer in supporting nationwide S&T development, a think tank delivering S&T advice and a community for training young S&T talent.

    Now, as it responds to a nationwide call to put innovation at the heart of China’s development, CAS has further defined its development strategy by emphasizing greater reliance on democratic management, openness and talent in the promotion of innovative research. With the adoption of its “Innovation 2020” programme in 2011, the academy has committed to delivering breakthrough science and technology, higher caliber talent and superior scientific advice. As part of the programme, CAS has also requested that each of its institutes define its “strategic niche” — based on an overall analysis of the scientific progress and trends in their own fields both in China and abroad — in order to deploy resources more efficiently and innovate more collectively.

    As it builds on its proud record, CAS aims for a bright future as one of the world’s top S&T research and development organizations.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:46 pm on December 19, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Stanford engineers and physicists study quantum characteristics of ‘combs’ of light", , Electrical Engineering, , , , ,   

    From Stanford University (US) : “Stanford engineers and physicists study quantum characteristics of ‘combs’ of light” 

    Stanford University Name

    From Stanford University (US)

    December 16, 2021
    Taylor Kubota

    1
    The silicon carbide microrings developed by the Vučković Lab, as seen through a scanning electron microscope at the Stanford Nano Shared Facilities. Image credit: Vučković Lab.

    Unlike the jumble of frequencies produced by the light that surrounds us in daily life, each frequency of light in a specialized light source known as a “soliton” frequency comb oscillates in unison, generating solitary pulses with consistent timing.

    Each “tooth” of the comb is a different color of light, spaced so precisely that this system is used to measure all manner of phenomena and characteristics. Miniaturized versions of these combs – called microcombs – that are currently in development have the potential to enhance countless technologies, including GPS systems, telecommunications, autonomous vehicles, greenhouse gas tracking, spacecraft autonomy and ultra-precise timekeeping.

    The lab of Stanford University electrical engineer Jelena Vučković only recently joined the microcomb community. “Many groups have demonstrated on-chip frequency combs in a variety of materials, including recently in silicon carbide by our team. However, until now, the quantum optical properties of frequency combs have been elusive,” said Vučković, the Jensen Huang Professor of Global Leadership in the School of Engineering and professor of electrical engineering at Stanford.

    “We wanted to leverage the quantum optics background of our group to study the quantum properties of the soliton microcomb.”

    While soliton microcombs have been made in other labs, the Stanford researchers are among the first to investigate the system’s quantum optical properties, using a process that they outline in a paper published Dec. 16 in Nature Photonics. When created in pairs, microcomb solitons are thought to exhibit entanglement – a relationship between particles that allows them to influence each other even at incredible distances, which underpins our understanding of quantum physics and is the basis of all proposed quantum technologies. Most of the “classical” light we encounter on a daily basis does not exhibit entanglement.

    “This is one of the first demonstrations that this miniaturized frequency comb can generate interesting quantum light – non-classical light – on a chip,” said Kiyoul Yang, a research scientist in Vučković’s Nanoscale and Quantum Photonics Lab and co-author of the paper. “That can open a new pathway toward broader explorations of quantum light using the frequency comb and photonic integrated circuits for large-scale experiments.”

    Proving the utility of their tool, the researchers also provided convincing evidence of quantum entanglement within the soliton microcomb, which has been theorized and assumed but has yet to be proven by any existing studies.

    “I would really like to see solitons become useful for quantum computing because it’s a highly studied system,” said Melissa Guidry, a graduate student in the Nanoscale and Quantum Photonics Lab and co-author of the paper. “We have a lot of technology at this point for generating solitons on chips at low power, so it would be exciting to be able to take that and show that you have entanglement.”

    Between the teeth

    Former Stanford physics professor Theodor W. Hänsch won the Nobel Prize in 2005 for his work on developing the first frequency comb. To create what Hänsch studied requires complicated, tabletop-sized equipment. Instead, these researchers chose to focus on the newer, “micro” version, where all of the parts of the system are integrated into a single device and designed to fit on a microchip. This design saves on cost, size and energy.

    2
    Conceptual diagram of the frequency comb and the microring, with solitons, that produces it. The frequency comb diagram shows both the coherent light teeth and the quantum light between those teeth. Image credit: Vučković Lab.

    To create their miniature comb, the researchers pump laser light through a microscopic ring of silicon carbide (which was painstakingly designed and fabricated using the resources of the Stanford Nano Shared Facilities and Stanford Nanofabrication Facilities). Traveling around the ring, the laser builds up intensity and, if all goes well, a soliton is born.

    “It’s fascinating that, instead of having this fancy, complicated machine, you can just take a laser pump and a really tiny circle and produce the same sort of specialized light,” said Daniil Lukin, a graduate student in the Nanoscale and Quantum Photonics Lab and co-author of the paper. He added that generating the microcomb on a chip enabled a wide spacing between the teeth, which was one step toward being able to look at the comb’s finer details.

    The next steps involved equipment capable of detecting single particles of the light and packing the micro-ring with several solitons, creating a soliton crystal. “With the soliton crystal, you can see there are actually smaller pulses of light in between the teeth, which is what we measure to infer the entanglement structure,” explained Guidry. “If you park your detectors there, you can get a good look at the interesting quantum behavior without drowning it out with the coherent light that makes up the teeth.”

    Seeing as they were performing some of the first experimental studies of the quantum aspects of this system, the researchers decided to try to confirm a theoretical model, called the linearized model, which is commonly used as a shortcut to describe complex quantum systems. When they ran the comparison, they were astonished to find that the experiment matched the theory very well. So, while they have not yet directly measured that their microcomb has quantum entanglement, they have shown that its performance matches a theory that implies entanglement.

    “The take-home message is that this opens the door for theorists to do more theory because now, with this system, it’s possible to experimentally verify that work,” said Lukin.

    3
    The researchers (from left to right) Kiyoul Yang, Melissa Guidry, Jelena Vučković and Daniil Lukin, with Guidry holding the microrings. Image credit: Vučković Lab.

    4
    A close-up view of the microrings. Image credit: Vučković Lab.

    Proving and using quantum entanglement

    Microcombs in data centers could boost the speed of data transfer; in satellites, they could provide more precise GPS or analyze the chemical composition of far-away objects. The Vučković team is particularly interested in the potential for solitons in certain types of quantum computing because solitons are predicted to be highly entangled as soon as they are generated.

    With their platform, and the ability to study it from a quantum perspective, the Nanoscale and Quantum Photonics Lab researchers are keeping an open mind about what they could do next. Near the top of their list of ideas is the possibility of performing measurements on their system that definitively prove quantum entanglement.

    The research was funded by The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (US) under the PIPES and LUMOS programs, an Albion Hewlett Stanford Graduate Fellowship (SGF), an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, the Fong SGF and the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship.

    Rahul Trivedi, formerly of Stanford University and now at The MPG Institute for Quantum Optics [MPG Institut für Quantenoptik](DE), is also a co-author. Vučković is also a member of the Ginzton Lab, Stanford Bio-X, the Wu Tsai Neurosciences Institute, and the PULSE and SIMES institutes.

    See the full article here .


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    Stanford University campus

    Leland and Jane Stanford founded Stanford University (US) to “promote the public welfare by exercising an influence on behalf of humanity and civilization.” Stanford opened its doors in 1891, and more than a century later, it remains dedicated to finding solutions to the great challenges of the day and to preparing our students for leadership in today’s complex world. Stanford, is an American private research university located in Stanford, California on an 8,180-acre (3,310 ha) campus near Palo Alto. Since 1952, more than 54 Stanford faculty, staff, and alumni have won the Nobel Prize, including 19 current faculty members.

    Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private research university located in Stanford, California. Stanford was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr., who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford is consistently ranked as among the most prestigious and top universities in the world by major education publications. It is also one of the top fundraising institutions in the country, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.

    Leland Stanford was a U.S. senator and former governor of California who made his fortune as a railroad tycoon. The school admitted its first students on October 1, 1891, as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Stanford University struggled financially after the death of Leland Stanford in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates’ entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would later be known as Silicon Valley.

    The university is organized around seven schools: three schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate level as well as four professional schools that focus on graduate programs in law, medicine, education, and business. All schools are on the same campus. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference. It has gained 126 NCAA team championships, and Stanford has won the NACDA Directors’ Cup for 24 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995. In addition, Stanford students and alumni have won 270 Olympic medals including 139 gold medals.

    As of October 2020, 84 Nobel laureates, 28 Turing Award laureates, and eight Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, alumni, faculty, or staff. In addition, Stanford is particularly noted for its entrepreneurship and is one of the most successful universities in attracting funding for start-ups. Stanford alumni have founded numerous companies, which combined produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue, roughly equivalent to the 7th largest economy in the world (as of 2020). Stanford is the alma mater of one president of the United States (Herbert Hoover), 74 living billionaires, and 17 astronauts. It is also one of the leading producers of Fulbright Scholars, Marshall Scholars, Rhodes Scholars, and members of the United States Congress.

    Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child. The institution opened in 1891 on Stanford’s previous Palo Alto farm.

    Jane and Leland Stanford modeled their university after the great eastern universities, most specifically Cornell University. Stanford opened being called the “Cornell of the West” in 1891 due to faculty being former Cornell affiliates (either professors, alumni, or both) including its first president, David Starr Jordan, and second president, John Casper Branner. Both Cornell and Stanford were among the first to have higher education be accessible, nonsectarian, and open to women as well as to men. Cornell is credited as one of the first American universities to adopt this radical departure from traditional education, and Stanford became an early adopter as well.

    Despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I. The Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds. The DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory(US)(originally named the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), established in 1962, performs research in particle physics.

    Land

    Most of Stanford is on an 8,180-acre (12.8 sq mi; 33.1 km^2) campus, one of the largest in the United States. It is located on the San Francisco Peninsula, in the northwest part of the Santa Clara Valley (Silicon Valley) approximately 37 miles (60 km) southeast of San Francisco and approximately 20 miles (30 km) northwest of San Jose. In 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped.

    Stanford’s main campus includes a census-designated place within unincorporated Santa Clara County, although some of the university land (such as the Stanford Shopping Center and the Stanford Research Park) is within the city limits of Palo Alto. The campus also includes much land in unincorporated San Mateo County (including the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve), as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park (Stanford Hills neighborhood), Woodside, and Portola Valley.

    Non-central campus

    Stanford currently operates in various locations outside of its central campus.

    On the founding grant:

    Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is a 1,200-acre (490 ha) natural reserve south of the central campus owned by the university and used by wildlife biologists for research.
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a facility west of the central campus operated by the university for the Department of Energy. It contains the longest linear particle accelerator in the world, 2 miles (3.2 km) on 426 acres (172 ha) of land.
    Golf course and a seasonal lake: The university also has its own golf course and a seasonal lake (Lake Lagunita, actually an irrigation reservoir), both home to the vulnerable California tiger salamander. As of 2012 Lake Lagunita was often dry and the university had no plans to artificially fill it.

    Off the founding grant:

    Hopkins Marine Station, in Pacific Grove, California, is a marine biology research center owned by the university since 1892.
    Study abroad locations: unlike typical study abroad programs, Stanford itself operates in several locations around the world; thus, each location has Stanford faculty-in-residence and staff in addition to students, creating a “mini-Stanford”.

    Redwood City campus for many of the university’s administrative offices located in Redwood City, California, a few miles north of the main campus. In 2005, the university purchased a small, 35-acre (14 ha) campus in Midpoint Technology Park intended for staff offices; development was delayed by The Great Recession. In 2015 the university announced a development plan and the Redwood City campus opened in March 2019.

    The Bass Center in Washington, DC provides a base, including housing, for the Stanford in Washington program for undergraduates. It includes a small art gallery open to the public.

    China: Stanford Center at Peking University, housed in the Lee Jung Sen Building, is a small center for researchers and students in collaboration with Beijing University [北京大学](CN) (Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics at Peking University(CN) (KIAA-PKU).

    Administration and organization

    Stanford is a private, non-profit university that is administered as a corporate trust governed by a privately appointed board of trustees with a maximum membership of 38. Trustees serve five-year terms (not more than two consecutive terms) and meet five times annually.[83] A new trustee is chosen by the current trustees by ballot. The Stanford trustees also oversee the Stanford Research Park, the Stanford Shopping Center, the Cantor Center for Visual Arts, Stanford University Medical Center, and many associated medical facilities (including the Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital).

    The board appoints a president to serve as the chief executive officer of the university, to prescribe the duties of professors and course of study, to manage financial and business affairs, and to appoint nine vice presidents. The provost is the chief academic and budget officer, to whom the deans of each of the seven schools report. Persis Drell became the 13th provost in February 2017.

    As of 2018, the university was organized into seven academic schools. The schools of Humanities and Sciences (27 departments), Engineering (nine departments), and Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences (four departments) have both graduate and undergraduate programs while the Schools of Law, Medicine, Education and Business have graduate programs only. The powers and authority of the faculty are vested in the Academic Council, which is made up of tenure and non-tenure line faculty, research faculty, senior fellows in some policy centers and institutes, the president of the university, and some other academic administrators, but most matters are handled by the Faculty Senate, made up of 55 elected representatives of the faculty.

    The Associated Students of Stanford University (ASSU) is the student government for Stanford and all registered students are members. Its elected leadership consists of the Undergraduate Senate elected by the undergraduate students, the Graduate Student Council elected by the graduate students, and the President and Vice President elected as a ticket by the entire student body.

    Stanford is the beneficiary of a special clause in the California Constitution, which explicitly exempts Stanford property from taxation so long as the property is used for educational purposes.

    Endowment and donations

    The university’s endowment, managed by the Stanford Management Company, was valued at $27.7 billion as of August 31, 2019. Payouts from the Stanford endowment covered approximately 21.8% of university expenses in the 2019 fiscal year. In the 2018 NACUBO-TIAA survey of colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, only Harvard University(US), the University of Texas System(US), and Yale University(US) had larger endowments than Stanford.

    In 2006, President John L. Hennessy launched a five-year campaign called the Stanford Challenge, which reached its $4.3 billion fundraising goal in 2009, two years ahead of time, but continued fundraising for the duration of the campaign. It concluded on December 31, 2011, having raised a total of $6.23 billion and breaking the previous campaign fundraising record of $3.88 billion held by Yale. Specifically, the campaign raised $253.7 million for undergraduate financial aid, as well as $2.33 billion for its initiative in “Seeking Solutions” to global problems, $1.61 billion for “Educating Leaders” by improving K-12 education, and $2.11 billion for “Foundation of Excellence” aimed at providing academic support for Stanford students and faculty. Funds supported 366 new fellowships for graduate students, 139 new endowed chairs for faculty, and 38 new or renovated buildings. The new funding also enabled the construction of a facility for stem cell research; a new campus for the business school; an expansion of the law school; a new Engineering Quad; a new art and art history building; an on-campus concert hall; a new art museum; and a planned expansion of the medical school, among other things. In 2012, the university raised $1.035 billion, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.

    Research centers and institutes

    DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory(US)
    Stanford Research Institute, a center of innovation to support economic development in the region.
    Hoover Institution, a conservative American public policy institution and research institution that promotes personal and economic liberty, free enterprise, and limited government.
    Hasso Plattner Institute of Design, a multidisciplinary design school in cooperation with the Hasso Plattner Institute of University of Potsdam [Universität Potsdam](DE) that integrates product design, engineering, and business management education).
    Martin Luther King Jr. Research and Education Institute, which grew out of and still contains the Martin Luther King Jr. Papers Project.
    John S. Knight Fellowship for Professional Journalists
    Center for Ocean Solutions
    Together with UC Berkeley(US) and UC San Francisco(US), Stanford is part of the Biohub, a new medical science research center founded in 2016 by a $600 million commitment from Facebook CEO and founder Mark Zuckerberg and pediatrician Priscilla Chan.

    Discoveries and innovation

    Natural sciences

    Biological synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) – Arthur Kornberg synthesized DNA material and won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959 for his work at Stanford.
    First Transgenic organism – Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer were the first scientists to transplant genes from one living organism to another, a fundamental discovery for genetic engineering. Thousands of products have been developed on the basis of their work, including human growth hormone and hepatitis B vaccine.
    Laser – Arthur Leonard Schawlow shared the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physics with Nicolaas Bloembergen and Kai Siegbahn for his work on lasers.
    Nuclear magnetic resonance – Felix Bloch developed new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements, which are the underlying principles of the MRI.

    Computer and applied sciences

    ARPANETStanford Research Institute, formerly part of Stanford but on a separate campus, was the site of one of the four original ARPANET nodes.

    Internet—Stanford was the site where the original design of the Internet was undertaken. Vint Cerf led a research group to elaborate the design of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP/IP) that he originally co-created with Robert E. Kahn (Bob Kahn) in 1973 and which formed the basis for the architecture of the Internet.

    Frequency modulation synthesis – John Chowning of the Music department invented the FM music synthesis algorithm in 1967, and Stanford later licensed it to Yamaha Corporation.

    Google – Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford. They were working on the Stanford Digital Library Project (SDLP). The SDLP’s goal was “to develop the enabling technologies for a single, integrated and universal digital library” and it was funded through the National Science Foundation, among other federal agencies.

    Klystron tube – invented by the brothers Russell and Sigurd Varian at Stanford. Their prototype was completed and demonstrated successfully on August 30, 1937. Upon publication in 1939, news of the klystron immediately influenced the work of U.S. and UK researchers working on radar equipment.

    RISCARPA funded VLSI project of microprocessor design. Stanford and UC Berkeley are most associated with the popularization of this concept. The Stanford MIPS would go on to be commercialized as the successful MIPS architecture, while Berkeley RISC gave its name to the entire concept, commercialized as the SPARC. Another success from this era were IBM’s efforts that eventually led to the IBM POWER instruction set architecture, PowerPC, and Power ISA. As these projects matured, a wide variety of similar designs flourished in the late 1980s and especially the early 1990s, representing a major force in the Unix workstation market as well as embedded processors in laser printers, routers and similar products.
    SUN workstation – Andy Bechtolsheim designed the SUN workstation for the Stanford University Network communications project as a personal CAD workstation, which led to Sun Microsystems.

    Businesses and entrepreneurship

    Stanford is one of the most successful universities in creating companies and licensing its inventions to existing companies; it is often held up as a model for technology transfer. Stanford’s Office of Technology Licensing is responsible for commercializing university research, intellectual property, and university-developed projects.

    The university is described as having a strong venture culture in which students are encouraged, and often funded, to launch their own companies.

    Companies founded by Stanford alumni generate more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue, equivalent to the 10th-largest economy in the world.

    Some companies closely associated with Stanford and their connections include:

    Hewlett-Packard, 1939, co-founders William R. Hewlett (B.S, PhD) and David Packard (M.S).
    Silicon Graphics, 1981, co-founders James H. Clark (Associate Professor) and several of his grad students.
    Sun Microsystems, 1982, co-founders Vinod Khosla (M.B.A), Andy Bechtolsheim (PhD) and Scott McNealy (M.B.A).
    Cisco, 1984, founders Leonard Bosack (M.S) and Sandy Lerner (M.S) who were in charge of Stanford Computer Science and Graduate School of Business computer operations groups respectively when the hardware was developed.[163]
    Yahoo!, 1994, co-founders Jerry Yang (B.S, M.S) and David Filo (M.S).
    Google, 1998, co-founders Larry Page (M.S) and Sergey Brin (M.S).
    LinkedIn, 2002, co-founders Reid Hoffman (B.S), Konstantin Guericke (B.S, M.S), Eric Lee (B.S), and Alan Liu (B.S).
    Instagram, 2010, co-founders Kevin Systrom (B.S) and Mike Krieger (B.S).
    Snapchat, 2011, co-founders Evan Spiegel and Bobby Murphy (B.S).
    Coursera, 2012, co-founders Andrew Ng (Associate Professor) and Daphne Koller (Professor, PhD).

    Student body

    Stanford enrolled 6,996 undergraduate and 10,253 graduate students as of the 2019–2020 school year. Women comprised 50.4% of undergraduates and 41.5% of graduate students. In the same academic year, the freshman retention rate was 99%.

    Stanford awarded 1,819 undergraduate degrees, 2,393 master’s degrees, 770 doctoral degrees, and 3270 professional degrees in the 2018–2019 school year. The four-year graduation rate for the class of 2017 cohort was 72.9%, and the six-year rate was 94.4%. The relatively low four-year graduation rate is a function of the university’s coterminal degree (or “coterm”) program, which allows students to earn a master’s degree as a 1-to-2-year extension of their undergraduate program.

    As of 2010, fifteen percent of undergraduates were first-generation students.

    Athletics

    As of 2016 Stanford had 16 male varsity sports and 20 female varsity sports, 19 club sports and about 27 intramural sports. In 1930, following a unanimous vote by the Executive Committee for the Associated Students, the athletic department adopted the mascot “Indian.” The Indian symbol and name were dropped by President Richard Lyman in 1972, after objections from Native American students and a vote by the student senate. The sports teams are now officially referred to as the “Stanford Cardinal,” referring to the deep red color, not the cardinal bird. Stanford is a member of the Pac-12 Conference in most sports, the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation in several other sports, and the America East Conference in field hockey with the participation in the inter-collegiate NCAA’s Division I FBS.

    Its traditional sports rival is the University of California, Berkeley, the neighbor to the north in the East Bay. The winner of the annual “Big Game” between the Cal and Cardinal football teams gains custody of the Stanford Axe.

    Stanford has had at least one NCAA team champion every year since the 1976–77 school year and has earned 126 NCAA national team titles since its establishment, the most among universities, and Stanford has won 522 individual national championships, the most by any university. Stanford has won the award for the top-ranked Division 1 athletic program—the NACDA Directors’ Cup, formerly known as the Sears Cup—annually for the past twenty-four straight years. Stanford athletes have won medals in every Olympic Games since 1912, winning 270 Olympic medals total, 139 of them gold. In the 2008 Summer Olympics, and 2016 Summer Olympics, Stanford won more Olympic medals than any other university in the United States. Stanford athletes won 16 medals at the 2012 Summer Olympics (12 gold, two silver and two bronze), and 27 medals at the 2016 Summer Olympics.

    Traditions

    The unofficial motto of Stanford, selected by President Jordan, is Die Luft der Freiheit weht. Translated from the German language, this quotation from Ulrich von Hutten means, “The wind of freedom blows.” The motto was controversial during World War I, when anything in German was suspect; at that time the university disavowed that this motto was official.
    Hail, Stanford, Hail! is the Stanford Hymn sometimes sung at ceremonies or adapted by the various University singing groups. It was written in 1892 by mechanical engineering professor Albert W. Smith and his wife, Mary Roberts Smith (in 1896 she earned the first Stanford doctorate in Economics and later became associate professor of Sociology), but was not officially adopted until after a performance on campus in March 1902 by the Mormon Tabernacle Choir.
    “Uncommon Man/Uncommon Woman”: Stanford does not award honorary degrees, but in 1953 the degree of “Uncommon Man/Uncommon Woman” was created to recognize individuals who give rare and extraordinary service to the University. Technically, this degree is awarded by the Stanford Associates, a voluntary group that is part of the university’s alumni association. As Stanford’s highest honor, it is not conferred at prescribed intervals, but only when appropriate to recognize extraordinary service. Recipients include Herbert Hoover, Bill Hewlett, Dave Packard, Lucile Packard, and John Gardner.
    Big Game events: The events in the week leading up to the Big Game vs. UC Berkeley, including Gaieties (a musical written, composed, produced, and performed by the students of Ram’s Head Theatrical Society).
    “Viennese Ball”: a formal ball with waltzes that was initially started in the 1970s by students returning from the now-closed Stanford in Vienna overseas program. It is now open to all students.
    “Full Moon on the Quad”: An annual event at Main Quad, where students gather to kiss one another starting at midnight. Typically organized by the Junior class cabinet, the festivities include live entertainment, such as music and dance performances.
    “Band Run”: An annual festivity at the beginning of the school year, where the band picks up freshmen from dorms across campus while stopping to perform at each location, culminating in a finale performance at Main Quad.
    “Mausoleum Party”: An annual Halloween Party at the Stanford Mausoleum, the final resting place of Leland Stanford Jr. and his parents. A 20-year tradition, the “Mausoleum Party” was on hiatus from 2002 to 2005 due to a lack of funding, but was revived in 2006. In 2008, it was hosted in Old Union rather than at the actual Mausoleum, because rain prohibited generators from being rented. In 2009, after fundraising efforts by the Junior Class Presidents and the ASSU Executive, the event was able to return to the Mausoleum despite facing budget cuts earlier in the year.
    Former campus traditions include the “Big Game bonfire” on Lake Lagunita (a seasonal lake usually dry in the fall), which was formally ended in 1997 because of the presence of endangered salamanders in the lake bed.

    Award laureates and scholars

    Stanford’s current community of scholars includes:

    19 Nobel Prize laureates (as of October 2020, 85 affiliates in total)
    171 members of the National Academy of Sciences
    109 members of National Academy of Engineering
    76 members of National Academy of Medicine
    288 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
    19 recipients of the National Medal of Science
    1 recipient of the National Medal of Technology
    4 recipients of the National Humanities Medal
    49 members of American Philosophical Society
    56 fellows of the American Physics Society (since 1995)
    4 Pulitzer Prize winners
    31 MacArthur Fellows
    4 Wolf Foundation Prize winners
    2 ACL Lifetime Achievement Award winners
    14 AAAI fellows
    2 Presidential Medal of Freedom winners

    Stanford University Seal

     
  • richardmitnick 1:28 pm on November 30, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Shifting colors for on-chip photonics", , Electrical Engineering, , Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have developed highly efficient on-chip frequency shifters that can convert light in the gigahertz frequency range, The ability to precisely control and change properties of a photon including polarization; position in space; and arrival time gave rise to a wide range of communication technologies we use today., The frequency shifters could become a fundamental building block for high-speed large-scale classical communication systems as well as emerging photonic quantum computers., The paper outlines two types of on-chip frequency shifter-one that can covert one color to another; and another that can cascade multiple shifts-a shift of more than 100 gigahertz.   

    From Harvard University John A Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (US) : “Shifting colors for on-chip photonics” 

    at

    Harvard University (US)

    November 24, 2021
    Leah Burrows

    1
    In the top device, two coupled resonators form a figure eight-like structure. Input light travels from the waveguide through the resonators, entering as one color and emerging as another. The bottom device uses three coupled resonators: a small ring resonator, a long oval resonator called a racetrack resonator, and a rectangular-shaped resonator. As light speeds around the racetrack resonator, it cascades into higher and higher frequencies, resulting in a shift as high as 120 gigahertz. Credit: Second Bay Studios/Harvard SEAS.

    The ability to precisely control and change properties of a photon including polarization; position in space; and arrival time gave rise to a wide range of communication technologies we use today, including the Internet. The next generation of photonic technologies, such as photonic quantum networks and computers, will require even more control over the properties of a photon.

    One of the hardest properties to change is a photon’s color, otherwise known as its frequency, because changing the frequency of a photon means changing its energy.

    Today, most frequency shifters are either too inefficient, losing a lot of light in the conversion process, or they can’t convert light in the gigahertz range, which is where the most important frequencies for communications, computing, and other applications are found.

    Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed highly efficient, on-chip frequency shifters that can convert light in the gigahertz frequency range. The frequency shifters are easily controlled, using continuous and single-tone microwaves.

    The research is published in Nature.

    “Our frequency shifters could become a fundamental building block for high-speed large-scale classical communication systems as well as emerging photonic quantum computers,” said Marko Lončar, the Tiantsai Lin Professor of Electrical Engineering and senior author of the paper.

    The paper outlines two types of on-chip frequency shifter — one that can covert one color to another using a shift of a few dozen gigahertz; and another that can cascade multiple shifts-a shift of more than 100 gigahertz.

    Each device is built on the lithium niobate platform pioneered by Lončar and his lab.

    Lithium niobate can efficiently convert electronic signals into optical signal but was long considered by many in the field to be difficult to work with on small scales. In previous research, Lončar and his team demonstrated a technique to fabricate high-performance lithium niobate microstructures using standard plasma etching to physically sculpt microresonators in thin lithium niobate films.

    Here, using the same technique, Lončar and his team etched coupled ring-resonators and waveguides on thin-film lithium niobate. In the first device, two coupled resonators form a figure eight-like structure. Input light travels from the waveguide through the resonators in a figure eight pattern, entering as one color and emerging as another. This device provides frequency shifts as high as 28 gigahertz with about 90% efficiency. It can also be reconfigured as tunable frequency-domain beam splitters, where a beam of one frequency gets split into two beams of another frequency.

    The second device uses three coupled resonators: a small ring resonator, a long oval resonator called a racetrack resonator, and a rectangular-shaped resonator. As light speeds around the racetrack resonator, it cascades into higher and higher frequencies, resulting in a shift as high as 120 gigahertz.

    “We are able to achieve this magnitude of frequency shift using only a single, 30-gigahertz microwave signal,” said Yaowen Hu, a research assistant at SEAS and first author of the paper. “This is a completely new type of photonic device. Previous attempts to shift frequencies by amounts larger than 100 gigahertz have been very hard and expensive, requiring an equally large microwave signal.”

    “This work is made possible by all of our previous developments in integrated lithium niobate photonics,” said Lončar. “The ability to process information in the frequency domain in an efficient, compact, and scalable fashion has the potential to significantly reduce the expense and resource requirements for large-scale photonic circuits, including quantum computing, telecommunications, radar, optical signal processing and spectroscopy.”

    Harvard’s Office of Technology Development has protected the intellectual property associated with this project and is pursuing commercialization opportunities.

    The research is co-authored by Mengjie Yu, Di Zhu, Neil Sinclair, Amirhassan Shams-Ansari, Linbo Shao, Jeffrey Holzgrafe, Eric Puma and Mian Zhang. It was supported in part by the US Office of Naval Research under grant QOMAND N00014-15-1-2761, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under grants FA9550‐19‐1‐0310 and FA9550-20-1-0105, the National Science Foundation, under grants ECCS-1839197, ECCS-1541959, PFI-TT IIP-1827720, Army Research Office under grants W911NF2010248, and Department of Energy under grants HEADS-QON DE-SC0020376.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Through research and scholarship, the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (US) will create collaborative bridges across Harvard and educate the next generation of global leaders. By harnessing the power of engineering and applied sciences we will address the greatest challenges facing our society.

    Specifically, that means that SEAS will provide to all Harvard College students an introduction to and familiarity with engineering and technology as this is essential knowledge in the 21st century.

    Moreover, our concentrators will be immersed in the liberal arts environment and be able to understand the societal context for their problem solving, capable of working seamlessly with others, including those in the arts, the sciences, and the professional schools. They will focus on the fundamental engineering and applied science disciplines for the 21st century; as we will not teach legacy 20th century engineering disciplines.

    Instead, our curriculum will be rigorous but inviting to students, and be infused with active learning, interdisciplinary research, entrepreneurship and engineering design experiences. For our concentrators and graduate students, we will educate “T-shaped” individuals – with depth in one discipline but capable of working seamlessly with others, including arts, humanities, natural science and social science.

    To address current and future societal challenges, knowledge from fundamental science, art, and the humanities must all be linked through the application of engineering principles with the professions of law, medicine, public policy, design and business practice.

    In other words, solving important issues requires a multidisciplinary approach.

    With the combined strengths of SEAS, the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, and the professional schools, Harvard is ideally positioned to both broadly educate the next generation of leaders who understand the complexities of technology and society and to use its intellectual resources and innovative thinking to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

    Ultimately, we will provide to our graduates a rigorous quantitative liberal arts education that is an excellent launching point for any career and profession.

    Harvard University campus

    Harvard University (US) is the oldest institution of higher education in the United States, established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. It was named after the College’s first benefactor, the young minister John Harvard of Charlestown, who upon his death in 1638 left his library and half his estate to the institution. A statue of John Harvard stands today in front of University Hall in Harvard Yard, and is perhaps the University’s bestknown landmark.

    Harvard University (US) has 12 degree-granting Schools in addition to the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. The University has grown from nine students with a single master to an enrollment of more than 20,000 degree candidates including undergraduate, graduate, and professional students. There are more than 360,000 living alumni in the U.S. and over 190 other countries.

    The Massachusetts colonial legislature, the General Court, authorized Harvard University (US)’s founding. In its early years, Harvard College primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, although it has never been formally affiliated with any denomination. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century, Harvard University (US) had emerged as the central cultural establishment among the Boston elite. Following the American Civil War, President Charles William Eliot’s long tenure (1869–1909) transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university; Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900. James B. Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II; he liberalized admissions after the war.

    The university is composed of ten academic faculties plus the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. Arts and Sciences offers study in a wide range of academic disciplines for undergraduates and for graduates, while the other faculties offer only graduate degrees, mostly professional. Harvard has three main campuses: the 209-acre (85 ha) Cambridge campus centered on Harvard Yard; an adjoining campus immediately across the Charles River in the Allston neighborhood of Boston; and the medical campus in Boston’s Longwood Medical Area. Harvard University (US)’s endowment is valued at $41.9 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Endowment income helps enable the undergraduate college to admit students regardless of financial need and provide generous financial aid with no loans The Harvard Library is the world’s largest academic library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items.

    Harvard University (US) has more alumni, faculty, and researchers who have won Nobel Prizes (161) and Fields Medals (18) than any other university in the world and more alumni who have been members of the U.S. Congress, MacArthur Fellows, Rhodes Scholars (375), and Marshall Scholars (255) than any other university in the United States. Its alumni also include eight U.S. presidents and 188 living billionaires, the most of any university. Fourteen Turing Award laureates have been Harvard affiliates. Students and alumni have also won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes, and 108 Olympic medals (46 gold), and they have founded many notable companies.

    Colonial

    Harvard University (US) was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America’s first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge(UK) who had left the school £779 and his library of some 400 volumes. The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650.

    A 1643 publication gave the school’s purpose as “to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust.” It trained many Puritan ministers in its early years and offered a classic curriculum based on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. Harvard University (US) has never affiliated with any particular denomination, though many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches.

    Increase Mather served as president from 1681 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not also a clergyman, marking a turning of the college away from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence.

    19th century

    In the 19th century, Enlightenment ideas of reason and free will were widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties. When Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and President Joseph Willard died a year later, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the Hollis chair in 1805, and the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency two years later, signaling the shift from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.

    Charles William Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the favored position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. Though Eliot was the crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education but by Transcendentalist Unitarian convictions influenced by William Ellery Channing and Ralph Waldo Emerson.

    20th century

    In the 20th century, Harvard University (US)’s reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the university’s scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new graduate schools were begun and the undergraduate college expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as the female counterpart of Harvard College, became one of the most prominent schools for women in the United States. Harvard University (US) became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.

    The student body in the early decades of the century was predominantly “old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians.” A 1923 proposal by President A. Lawrence Lowell that Jews be limited to 15% of undergraduates was rejected, but Lowell did ban blacks from freshman dormitories.

    President James B. Conant reinvigorated creative scholarship to guarantee Harvard University (US)’s preeminence among research institutions. He saw higher education as a vehicle of opportunity for the talented rather than an entitlement for the wealthy, so Conant devised programs to identify, recruit, and support talented youth. In 1943, he asked the faculty to make a definitive statement about what general education ought to be, at the secondary as well as at the college level. The resulting Report, published in 1945, was one of the most influential manifestos in 20th century American education.

    Between 1945 and 1960, admissions were opened up to bring in a more diverse group of students. No longer drawing mostly from select New England prep schools, the undergraduate college became accessible to striving middle class students from public schools; many more Jews and Catholics were admitted, but few blacks, Hispanics, or Asians. Throughout the rest of the 20th century, Harvard became more diverse.

    Harvard University (US)’s graduate schools began admitting women in small numbers in the late 19th century. During World War II, students at Radcliffe College (which since 1879 had been paying Harvard University (US) professors to repeat their lectures for women) began attending Harvard University (US) classes alongside men. Women were first admitted to the medical school in 1945. Since 1971, Harvard University (US) has controlled essentially all aspects of undergraduate admission, instruction, and housing for Radcliffe women. In 1999, Radcliffe was formally merged into Harvard University (US).

    21st century

    Drew Gilpin Faust, previously the dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, became Harvard University (US)’s first woman president on July 1, 2007. She was succeeded by Lawrence Bacow on July 1, 2018.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:49 am on November 21, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Macrogrid study- Big value in connecting America’s eastern and western power grids", , , Electrical Engineering, The Iowa State University (US), They are big grids-the eastern grid has a generating capacity of 700000 megawatts and the western 250000 megawatts., Two of the biggest power grids on the planet are connected by seven small threads.   

    From The Iowa State University (US) : “Macrogrid study- Big value in connecting America’s eastern and western power grids” 

    From The Iowa State University (US)

    Nov 18, 2021

    James McCalley,
    Electrical and Computer Engineering,
    515-294-4844
    jdm@iastate.edu

    Mike Krapfl
    News Service
    515-294-4917
    mkrapfl@iastate.edu

    1
    This map shows how a macrogrid (the red lines) could cross the seam separating the Eastern and Western interconnections, allowing most of the country to share electricity, including Midwest wind energy and Southwest solar energy. Map courtesy of the Interconnections Seam Study, The Department of Energy’s (US)The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US).

    Two of the biggest power grids on the planet are connected by seven small threads.

    Those seven threads (technically, they’re back-to-back, high-voltage, direct-current connections) join America’s Eastern and Western interconnections and have 1,320 megawatts of electric-power handling capacity. (The seam separating the grids runs, roughly, from eastern Montana, down the western borders of South Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas and along the western edges of the Oklahoma and Texas panhandles. Texas, with its own grid, is mostly outside the two big grids.)

    And they are big grids-the eastern grid has a generating capacity of 700,000 megawatts and the western 250,000 megawatts. So, up to 1,320 megawatts isn’t much electricity moving between the two.

    But what if there were bigger connections between the two grids? What if more power moved back and forth? Could that move Iowa wind power, Southwest solar power and Eastern off-shore wind power from coast to coast? Could the West help the East meet its peak demand, and vice versa? Would bigger connections boost grid reliability, resilience and adaptability? Would the benefits exceed the costs?

    The short answer: Yes.

    That’s according to the Interconnections Seam Study, a two-year, $1.5 million study launched as part of a $220 million Grid Modernization Initiative announced in January 2016 by the U.S. Department of Energy.

    Researchers, including engineers from Iowa State University, shared early findings during a 2018 symposium at Iowa State and the latest findings in two papers published this summer [IEEE Xplore] and fall [IEEE Xplore] by IEEE, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

    Modeling grid improvements

    Iowa State engineers contributed computer modeling expertise to the project, building a capacity expansion model that simulates 15 years of improvements to power generation and transmission. The model includes four designs for cross-seam transmission and eight generation scenarios with differences in transmission costs, renewable-electricity generation, gas prices and retirements of existing power plants.

    The Iowa State models took the grid-improvement process up to 2038. Researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Colorado used the 2038 data to complete an hour-by-hour model of one year of power-sharing across the seam.

    “The results show benefit-to-cost ratios that reach as high as 2.5, indicating significant value to increasing the transmission capacity between the interconnections under the cases considered, realized through sharing generation resources and flexibility across regions,” says a summary of the latest paper.

    “So, for every dollar invested, you get up to $2.50 back,” said James McCalley, an Iowa State Anson Marston Distinguished Professor in Engineering, the Jack London Chair in Power Systems Engineering and a co-author of the papers.

    How much would you have to invest?

    McCalley said it would take an estimated $50 billion to build what researchers are calling a “macrogrid” of major transmission lines that loop around the Midwest and West, with branches filling in the middle and connecting to Texas and the Southeast.

    Identifying the value

    The more transmission across the seam, the better, according to the researchers’ paper published this summer.

    “B/C (benefit-to-cost) ratio tracks cross-seam transmission capacity: The conditions resulting in the highest cross-seam transmission capacity are the conditions having the highest B/C ratio,” the researchers wrote.

    One key finding in the study: “Cross-seam transmission pays for itself: This shows that under conditions associated with a high-renewable future greater than 40%, cross-seam transmission benefits exceeds costs, based only on a 35-year period to assess savings generated by generation investments and operational efficiencies.”

    McCalley said the macrogrid pays for itself in three primary ways:

    Over a day, different parts of the country have peak demands at different times. With a macrogrid, different regions can help each other meet their daily peaks.
    As coal- and gas-fired power plants are retired, a macrogrid allows wind- and solar-power resources to be shared across the country. “The Midwest makes wind energy,” McCalley said. “But not as many people live in the Midwest. So we need to move that energy.”
    Utilities now have to build extra capacity to meet their highest demand of the year. A macrogrid can help different parts of the country meet each other’s peak demand, therefore decreasing the amount of peak capacity that has to be built in any once place.

    And what about storms – such as the derecho that blew across Iowa in August 2020 or the ice storm that cut off power to Texas in February 2021? Could a macrogrid help with those kinds of disasters?

    “Another benefit of the macrogrid is being able to deal with these kind of resilience problems,” McCalley said. “You could get electricity assistance from other regions very simply. Iowa and other states would be interconnected with other areas.”

    While studies are beginning to quantify the value of an American macrogrid, McCalley said there are many challenges to actually seeing one built. There’s cost, certainly. There are policy and political decisions that have to be made. And there are people who don’t want transmission lines, wind turbines or solar panels anywhere nearby.

    What does he say to those people?

    “My response has been that every form of energy has negatives,” McCalley said. “Tell me a better alternative.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Iowa State University (US) is a public, land-grant university, where students get a great academic start in learning communities and stay active in 800-plus student organizations, undergrad research, internships and study abroad. They learn from world-class scholars who are tackling some of the world’s biggest challenges — feeding the hungry, finding alternative fuels and advancing manufacturing.

    Iowa Agricultural College and Model Farm (now Iowa State University) was officially established on March 22, 1858, by the legislature of the State of Iowa. Story County was selected as a site on June 21, 1859, and the original farm of 648 acres was purchased for a cost of $5,379. The Farm House, the first building on the Iowa State campus, was completed in 1861, and in 1862, the Iowa legislature voted to accept the provision of the Morrill Act, which was awarded to the agricultural college in 1864.

    Iowa State University Knapp-Wilson Farm House. Photo between 1911-1926

     
  • richardmitnick 9:48 am on November 18, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Pushing the limits of electronic circuits", , , Driving up the speeds of microelectronic circuits to enable new applications in communications; sensing; and security., Electrical Engineering, , Terahertz has been unexplored territory for researchers simply because frequency-wise it is too high for electronics and too low for photonics ., The “terahertz gap”, , The terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum lies between microwaves and infrared light.   

    From The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) : “Pushing the limits of electronic circuits” 

    MIT News

    From The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US)

    November 18, 2021
    Adam Zewe

    1
    Ruonan Han, associate professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, seeks to push the limits of electronic devices so they can operate efficiently at terahertz frequencies. Credit: M. Scott Brauer.

    Ruonan Han’s research is driving up the speeds of microelectronic circuits to enable new applications in communications, sensing, and security.

    Han, an associate professor who recently earned tenured in MIT’s Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, focuses on producing semiconductors that operate efficiently at very high frequencies in an effort to bridge what is known as the “terahertz gap.”

    The terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum, which lies between microwaves and infrared light, has largely eluded researchers because conventional electronic devices are too slow to manipulate terahertz waves.

    “Traditionally, terahertz has been unexplored territory for researchers simply because, frequency-wise, it is too high for the electronics people and too low for the photonics people,” he says. “We have a lot of limitations in the materials and speeds of devices that can reach those frequencies, but once you get there, a lot of amazing things happen.”

    For instance, terahertz frequency waves can move through solid surfaces and generate very precise, high-resolution images of what is inside, Han says.

    Radio frequency (RF) waves can travel through surfaces, too — that’s the reason your Wi-Fi router can be in a different room than your computer. But terahertz waves are much smaller than radio waves, so the devices that transmit and receive them can be smaller, too.

    Han’s team, along with his collaborator Anantha Chandrakasan, dean of the School of Engineering and the Vannevar Bush Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, recently demonstrated a terahertz frequency identification (TFID) tag that was barely 1 square millimeter in size.

    3
    MIT researchers’ millimeter-sized ID chip integrates a cryptographic processor, an antenna array that transmits data in the high terahertz range, and photovoltaic diodes for power.Even though it’s the size of a sesame seed, the ID tag (zoomed in, right) can send wireless communications at reader distances competitive with the much larger RFID tags (left) and can run cryptographic algorithms to help secure nearly any product in the supply chain. Image: courtesy of the researchers, edited by MIT News.

    “It doesn’t need to have any external antennas, so it is essentially just a piece of silicon that is super-cheap, super-small, and can still deliver the functions that a normal RFID tag can do. Because it is so small, you could now tag pretty much any product you want and track logistics information such as the history of manufacturing, etc. We couldn’t do this before, but now it becomes a possibility,” he says.

    Tuning in

    A simple radio inspired Han to pursue engineering.

    As a child in Inner Mongolia, a province that stretches along China’s northern border, he pored over books filled with circuit schematics and do-it-yourself tips for making printed circuit boards. The primary school student then taught himself to build a radio.

    “I couldn’t invest a lot into those electronic components or spend too much time tinkering with them, but that was where the seed was planted,” he says. “I didn’t know all the details of how it worked, but when I turned it on and saw all the components working together it was really amazing.”

    Han studied microelectronics at Fudan University [復旦大學](CN) in Shanghai, focusing on semiconductor physics, circuit design, and microfabrication.

    Rapid advances from Silicon Valley tech companies inspired Han to enroll in a U.S. graduate school. While earning his master’s degree at The University of Florida (US), he worked in the lab of Kenneth O, a pioneer of the terahertz integrated circuits that now drive Han’s research.

    “Back then, terahertz was considered to be ‘too high’ for silicon chips, so a lot of people thought it was a crazy idea. But not me. I felt really fortunate to be able to work with him,” Han says.

    He continued this research as a PhD student at Cornell University (US), where he honed innovative techniques to supercharge the power that silicon chips can generate in the terahertz domain.

    “With my Cornell advisor, Ehsan Afshari, we experimented with different types of silicon chips and innovated many mathematics and physics ‘hacks’ to make them run at very high frequencies,” he says.

    As the chips became smaller and faster, Han pushed them to their limits.

    Making terahertz accessible

    Han brought that innovative spirit to MIT when he joined the EECS faculty as an assistant professor in 2014. He was still pushing the performance limits of silicon chips, now with an eye on practical applications.

    “Our goal is not only to work on the electronics, but to explore the applications that these electronics can enable, and demonstrate the feasibility of those applications. One especially important aspect of my research is that we don’t just want to deal with the terahertz spectrum, we want to make it accessible. We don’t want this to just happen inside labs, but to be used by everybody. So, you need to have very low-cost, very reliable components to be able to deliver those kinds of capabilities,” he says.

    Han is studying the use of the terahertz band for rapid, high-volume data transfer that could push wireless devices beyond 5G. The terahertz band could be useful for wired communications, too. Han recently demonstrated the use of ultrathin cables to transmit data between two points at a speed of 100 gigabits per second.

    Terahertz waves also have unique properties beyond their applications in communications devices. The waves cause different molecules to rotate at unique speeds, so researchers can use terahertz devices to reveal the composition of a substance.

    “We can actually make low-cost silicon chips that can ‘smell’ a gas. We’ve created a spectrometer that can simultaneously identify a large range of gas molecules with very low false alarms and high sensitivity. This is something that the other spectrum is not good at,” he says.

    Han’s team drew on this work to invent a molecular clock that turns the molecular rotation rate into a highly stable electrical timing signal for navigation, communication, and sensing systems. Although it functions much like an atomic clock, this silicon chip has a simpler structure and greatly reduced cost and size.

    Operating in largely unexplored areas makes this work especially challenging, Han says. Despite decades of advances, semiconductor electronics still aren’t fast enough, so Han and his students must constantly innovate to reach the level of efficiency required for terahertz devices.

    The work also requires an interdisciplinary mindset. Collaborating with colleagues in other domains, such as chemistry and physics, enables Han to explore how the technology can lead to useful new applications.

    Han is glad he’s at MIT, where the students aren’t afraid to take on seemingly intractable problems and he can collaborate with colleagues who are doing incredible research in their domains.

    “Every day we are facing new problems and thinking about ideas that other people, even people who work in this field, may consider super-crazy. And this field is in its infancy right now. There are a lot of new emerging materials and components, and new needs and potential applications keep popping up. This is just the beginning. There are going to be very big opportunities lying ahead of us,” he says.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    MIT Seal

    USPS “Forever” postage stamps celebrating Innovation at MIT.

    MIT Campus

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) is a private land-grant research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The institute has an urban campus that extends more than a mile (1.6 km) alongside the Charles River. The institute also encompasses a number of major off-campus facilities such as the MIT Lincoln Laboratory (US), the MIT Bates Research and Engineering Center (US), and the Haystack Observatory (US), as well as affiliated laboratories such as the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard(US) and Whitehead Institute (US).

    Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. It has since played a key role in the development of many aspects of modern science, engineering, mathematics, and technology, and is widely known for its innovation and academic strength. It is frequently regarded as one of the most prestigious universities in the world.

    As of December 2020, 97 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, and 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 80 Marshall Scholars, 3 Mitchell Scholars, 22 Schwarzman Scholars, 41 astronauts, and 16 Chief Scientists of the U.S. Air Force have been affiliated with The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) . The university also has a strong entrepreneurial culture and MIT alumni have founded or co-founded many notable companies. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) is a member of the Association of American Universities (AAU).

    Foundation and vision

    In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a “Conservatory of Art and Science”, but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by John Albion Andrew, the governor of Massachusetts, on April 10, 1861.

    Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia (US), wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances. He did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that:

    “The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, and along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.”

    The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories.

    Early developments

    Two days after Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT’s first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865. The new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions “to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes” and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst (US)). In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay.

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) was informally called “Boston Tech”. The institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker. Programs in electrical, chemical, marine, and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, and the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand.

    The curriculum drifted to a vocational emphasis, with less focus on theoretical science. The fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these “Boston Tech” years, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University (US) president (and former MIT faculty) Charles W. Eliot’s repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College’s Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding. Eventually, the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty, students, and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court effectively put an end to the merger scheme.

    In 1916, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT’s move to a spacious new campus largely consisting of filled land on a one-mile-long (1.6 km) tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River. The neoclassical “New Technology” campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded largely by anonymous donations from a mysterious “Mr. Smith”, starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, and founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million ($236.6 million in 2015 dollars) in cash and Kodak stock to MIT.

    Curricular reforms

    In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President (effectively Provost) Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios. The Compton reforms “renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering”. Unlike Ivy League schools, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) catered more to middle-class families, and depended more on tuition than on endowments or grants for its funding. The school was elected to the Association of American Universities (US)in 1934.

    Still, as late as 1949, the Lewis Committee lamented in its report on the state of education at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) that “the Institute is widely conceived as basically a vocational school”, a “partly unjustified” perception the committee sought to change. The report comprehensively reviewed the undergraduate curriculum, recommended offering a broader education, and warned against letting engineering and government-sponsored research detract from the sciences and humanities. The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences and the MIT Sloan School of Management were formed in 1950 to compete with the powerful Schools of Science and Engineering. Previously marginalized faculties in the areas of economics, management, political science, and linguistics emerged into cohesive and assertive departments by attracting respected professors and launching competitive graduate programs. The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences continued to develop under the successive terms of the more humanistically oriented presidents Howard W. Johnson and Jerome Wiesner between 1966 and 1980.

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US)‘s involvement in military science surged during World War II. In 1941, Vannevar Bush was appointed head of the federal Office of Scientific Research and Development and directed funding to only a select group of universities, including MIT. Engineers and scientists from across the country gathered at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US)’s Radiation Laboratory, established in 1940 to assist the British military in developing microwave radar. The work done there significantly affected both the war and subsequent research in the area. Other defense projects included gyroscope-based and other complex control systems for gunsight, bombsight, and inertial navigation under Charles Stark Draper’s Instrumentation Laboratory; the development of a digital computer for flight simulations under Project Whirlwind; and high-speed and high-altitude photography under Harold Edgerton. By the end of the war, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) became the nation’s largest wartime R&D contractor (attracting some criticism of Bush), employing nearly 4000 in the Radiation Laboratory alone and receiving in excess of $100 million ($1.2 billion in 2015 dollars) before 1946. Work on defense projects continued even after then. Post-war government-sponsored research at MIT included SAGE and guidance systems for ballistic missiles and Project Apollo.

    These activities affected Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) profoundly. A 1949 report noted the lack of “any great slackening in the pace of life at the Institute” to match the return to peacetime, remembering the “academic tranquility of the prewar years”, though acknowledging the significant contributions of military research to the increased emphasis on graduate education and rapid growth of personnel and facilities. The faculty doubled and the graduate student body quintupled during the terms of Karl Taylor Compton, president of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) between 1930 and 1948; James Rhyne Killian, president from 1948 to 1957; and Julius Adams Stratton, chancellor from 1952 to 1957, whose institution-building strategies shaped the expanding university. By the 1950s, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) no longer simply benefited the industries with which it had worked for three decades, and it had developed closer working relationships with new patrons, philanthropic foundations and the federal government.

    In late 1960s and early 1970s, student and faculty activists protested against the Vietnam War and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US)’s defense research. In this period Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US)’s various departments were researching helicopters, smart bombs and counterinsurgency techniques for the war in Vietnam as well as guidance systems for nuclear missiles. The Union of Concerned Scientists was founded on March 4, 1969 during a meeting of faculty members and students seeking to shift the emphasis on military research toward environmental and social problems. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) ultimately divested itself from the Instrumentation Laboratory and moved all classified research off-campus to the MIT (US) Lincoln Laboratory facility in 1973 in response to the protests. The student body, faculty, and administration remained comparatively unpolarized during what was a tumultuous time for many other universities. Johnson was seen to be highly successful in leading his institution to “greater strength and unity” after these times of turmoil. However six Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) students were sentenced to prison terms at this time and some former student leaders, such as Michael Albert and George Katsiaficas, are still indignant about MIT’s role in military research and its suppression of these protests. (Richard Leacock’s film, November Actions, records some of these tumultuous events.)

    In the 1980s, there was more controversy at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) over its involvement in SDI (space weaponry) and CBW (chemical and biological warfare) research. More recently, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US)’s research for the military has included work on robots, drones and ‘battle suits’.

    Recent history

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) has kept pace with and helped to advance the digital age. In addition to developing the predecessors to modern computing and networking technologies, students, staff, and faculty members at Project MAC, the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and the Tech Model Railroad Club wrote some of the earliest interactive computer video games like Spacewar! and created much of modern hacker slang and culture. Several major computer-related organizations have originated at MIT since the 1980s: Richard Stallman’s GNU Project and the subsequent Free Software Foundation were founded in the mid-1980s at the AI Lab; the MIT Media Lab was founded in 1985 by Nicholas Negroponte and Jerome Wiesner to promote research into novel uses of computer technology; the World Wide Web Consortium standards organization was founded at the Laboratory for Computer Science in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee; the MIT OpenCourseWare project has made course materials for over 2,000 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) classes available online free of charge since 2002; and the One Laptop per Child initiative to expand computer education and connectivity to children worldwide was launched in 2005.

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) was named a sea-grant college in 1976 to support its programs in oceanography and marine sciences and was named a space-grant college in 1989 to support its aeronautics and astronautics programs. Despite diminishing government financial support over the past quarter century, MIT launched several successful development campaigns to significantly expand the campus: new dormitories and athletics buildings on west campus; the Tang Center for Management Education; several buildings in the northeast corner of campus supporting research into biology, brain and cognitive sciences, genomics, biotechnology, and cancer research; and a number of new “backlot” buildings on Vassar Street including the Stata Center. Construction on campus in the 2000s included expansions of the Media Lab, the Sloan School’s eastern campus, and graduate residences in the northwest. In 2006, President Hockfield launched the MIT Energy Research Council to investigate the interdisciplinary challenges posed by increasing global energy consumption.

    In 2001, inspired by the open source and open access movements, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) launched OpenCourseWare to make the lecture notes, problem sets, syllabi, exams, and lectures from the great majority of its courses available online for no charge, though without any formal accreditation for coursework completed. While the cost of supporting and hosting the project is high, OCW expanded in 2005 to include other universities as a part of the OpenCourseWare Consortium, which currently includes more than 250 academic institutions with content available in at least six languages. In 2011, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) announced it would offer formal certification (but not credits or degrees) to online participants completing coursework in its “MITx” program, for a modest fee. The “edX” online platform supporting MITx was initially developed in partnership with Harvard and its analogous “Harvardx” initiative. The courseware platform is open source, and other universities have already joined and added their own course content. In March 2009 the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) faculty adopted an open-access policy to make its scholarship publicly accessible online.

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) has its own police force. Three days after the Boston Marathon bombing of April 2013, MIT Police patrol officer Sean Collier was fatally shot by the suspects Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev, setting off a violent manhunt that shut down the campus and much of the Boston metropolitan area for a day. One week later, Collier’s memorial service was attended by more than 10,000 people, in a ceremony hosted by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) community with thousands of police officers from the New England region and Canada. On November 25, 2013, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) announced the creation of the Collier Medal, to be awarded annually to “an individual or group that embodies the character and qualities that Officer Collier exhibited as a member of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) community and in all aspects of his life”. The announcement further stated that “Future recipients of the award will include those whose contributions exceed the boundaries of their profession, those who have contributed to building bridges across the community, and those who consistently and selflessly perform acts of kindness”.

    In September 2017, the school announced the creation of an artificial intelligence research lab called the MIT-IBM Watson AI Lab. IBM will spend $240 million over the next decade, and the lab will be staffed by MIT and IBM scientists. In October 2018 MIT announced that it would open a new Schwarzman College of Computing dedicated to the study of artificial intelligence, named after lead donor and The Blackstone Group CEO Stephen Schwarzman. The focus of the new college is to study not just AI, but interdisciplinary AI education, and how AI can be used in fields as diverse as history and biology. The cost of buildings and new faculty for the new college is expected to be $1 billion upon completion.

    The Caltech/MIT Advanced aLIGO (US) was designed and constructed by a team of scientists from California Institute of Technology (US), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US), and industrial contractors, and funded by the National Science Foundation (US).

    Caltech /MIT Advanced aLigo

    It was designed to open the field of gravitational-wave astronomy through the detection of gravitational waves predicted by general relativity. Gravitational waves were detected for the first time by the LIGO detector in 2015. For contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves, two Caltech physicists, Kip Thorne and Barry Barish, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) physicist Rainer Weiss won the Nobel Prize in physics in 2017. Weiss, who is also an Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) graduate, designed the laser interferometric technique, which served as the essential blueprint for the LIGO.

    The mission of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) is to advance knowledge and educate students in science, technology, and other areas of scholarship that will best serve the nation and the world in the twenty-first century. We seek to develop in each member of The Massachusetts Institute of Technology community the ability and passion to work wisely, creatively, and effectively for the betterment of humankind.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:34 am on November 10, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Remote high-voltage sensor unveiled at Sandia gamma ray lab", A Sandia National Laboratories team has safely measured 20 million volts without physically contacting the electrical flow., , , Electrical Engineering, , The HERMES accelerator generates a high-energy electron beam that is stopped in very dense material and converted into a stream of gamma rays., Tiny crystal at a distance safely measures powerful electric fields.   

    From DOE’s Sandia National Laboratories (US) : “Remote high-voltage sensor unveiled at Sandia gamma ray lab” 

    From DOE’s Sandia National Laboratories (US)

    November 10, 2021

    Neal Singer
    nsinger@sandia.gov
    505-977-7255

    Tiny crystal at a distance safely measures powerful electric fields.

    Ever since the first human placed a bare hand on an uninsulated electric line, people have refrained from personally testing energetic materials. Even meters made of metal can melt at high voltages.

    Now, using a crystal smaller than a dime and a laser smaller than a shoebox, a Sandia National Laboratories team has safely measured 20 million volts without physically contacting the electrical flow. (Residential voltage is generally 120 volts.)

    “No one had directly measured voltages this large anywhere in the world before our experiment,” said Sandia scientist Israel Owens of his team’s unique electrical and optical work, recently published in Nature’s Scientific Reports. “For measuring high voltages, the technique is safe, efficient and inexpensive.”

    1
    Sandia National Laboratories researcher Israel Owens holds the optical sensor used to house the crystal that proved central to his team’s successful attempts to measure very high voltages. The two red spots on each side of the crystal are due to laser light reflecting off the side mirrors used to direct light through the middle of the crystal. The actual experiments used green laser light. Photo by David Bret Latter.

    “When you have a high voltage over short distances, sensors break down,” said Sandia manager Bryan Oliver. “Israel’s diagnostic can survive these high electric fields and thus enable us to determine the voltage in an environment where that was previously not possible.”

    The achievement, which multiplies every electrical field reading by the same constant to determine the voltage, opens a door to several possible applications.

    The work took place at Sandia’s High-Energy Radiation Megavolt Electron Source, or HERMES III, where the building-sized accelerator converts powerful pulses of electricity into energetic photons called gamma rays.

    3
    Gamma ray generator HERMES III, High-Energy Radiation Megavolt Electron Source, is adjusted for its next shot at Sandia National Laboratories by Chris Kirtley, top, and former Sandia employee JJ Montoya. Photo by Randy Montoya

    “Being able to measure the output voltage of Hermes III instead of only calculating it allows us to accurately define the energies of the gamma rays,” said Owens. “And our crystal-laser system does it without disturbing the experiment environment.”

    Benefits of precisely measuring the energy of gamma rays

    The HERMES accelerator generates a high-energy electron beam that is stopped in very dense material and converted into a stream of gamma rays — the most energetic part of the electromagnetic spectrum. These rays have a wide variety of uses, including sterilization of hospital equipment, food pasteurization, medical imaging, smoke detectors, measuring the thickness of very thin materials and more.

    Because nuclear weapons also generate gamma rays, creating them in a lab can determine if military and civilian equipment could continue to function when exposed to those energy streams.

    Accurately achieving the desired output of gamma rays requires calibration with the voltages that produced them; thus, the need for a sensor that can measure the high voltages without being destroyed.

    The idea of using lasers as remote measurement tools is not new, said Owens. Laser infrared sensors are used at a distance to safely measure forehead temperatures. Laser range finders can determine the size of a room without the owner pacing the distance.

    “Our procedure is a little different: We’re not pointing the laser directly at an object to measure its voltage,” he said. “We determine that information by using our laser simply to interrogate a secondary object — a lithium niobate crystal.”

    Tiny crystals altered by huge energy fields

    4
    This laser-illuminated crystal, less than a half-inch long, is supported by a free-standing retaining structure with no physical connection to Sandia National Laboratories’ HERMES accelerator cathode. In the actual experiment, the light is initially extinguished by crossed polarizers. When the accelerator fires, the polarized light is rotated so that it leaks through the second polarizer. The leaked amount is directly proportional to the electric field. Photo by Israel Owens.

    The crystal, less than a half-inch long, is placed so that the electrical field passes through it broadside, at right angles to the polarized laser beam travelling along the crystal’s axis.

    The electric field modifies the crystal’s capability to transmit light by causing its photons to travel at different speeds in the polarized beam’s vertical and horizontal directions. This causes the polarized light to rotate, changing the amount entering the photodetector. This instrument converts the laser beam’s intensity into a simple voltage which can be read on an oscilloscope.

    “The voltage measured on the oscilloscope is directly related to the electrical field strength from which the voltage can be calculated,” said Owens. “In our experiments, tens of megavolts translated into hundreds of millivolts on the oscilloscope. (A megavolt is a million volts; a millivolt is a thousandth of a volt.)

    “The signal is already in the correct form, and we just need to multiply by a fixed constant. There is also no need to perform any tedious calibrations or complicated post processing to determine the electric fields and voltages.”

    The high voltages measured with the new sensor closely matched what was expected through calculations and other indirect measurements, said Owens.

    Accurate measurement of the gamma ray energy might be only one of the benefits of the new measuring technique, Owens said.

    “At the moment, this is a laboratory device for research, but as its development progresses it could find its way into various accelerator facilities where a series of crystals could provide voltage readings at multiple remote locations,” he said.

    The technique also would work, he said, for the power transmission industry, auto manufacturers, lightning research centers “or anywhere one wants to remotely measure or monitor a very high energy source,” Owens said. The device also could “see” an electrical short in a wall from a distance due to the disruption in the electromagnetic field surrounding the current-carrying wire, which would allow non-invasive detection of a fault in the circuitry.

    This research was funded by The DOE’s National Nuclear Security Administration (US).

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Sandia Campus.

    DOE’s Sandia National Laboratories (US) managed and operated by the National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International), is one of three National Nuclear Security Administration(US) research and development laboratories in the United States. Their primary mission is to develop, engineer, and test the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons and high technology. Headquartered in Central New Mexico near the Sandia Mountains, on Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, Sandia also has a campus in Livermore, California, next to DOE’sLawrence Livermore National Laboratory(US), and a test facility in Waimea, Kauai, Hawaii.

    It is Sandia’s mission to maintain the reliability and surety of nuclear weapon systems, conduct research and development in arms control and nonproliferation technologies, and investigate methods for the disposal of the United States’ nuclear weapons program’s hazardous waste.

    Other missions include research and development in energy and environmental programs, as well as the surety of critical national infrastructures. In addition, Sandia is home to a wide variety of research including computational biology; mathematics (through its Computer Science Research Institute); materials science; alternative energy; psychology; MEMS; and cognitive science initiatives.

    Sandia formerly hosted ASCI Red, one of the world’s fastest supercomputers until its recent decommission, and now hosts ASCI Red Storm supercomputer, originally known as Thor’s Hammer.


    Sandia is also home to the Z Machine.

    The Z Machine is the largest X-ray generator in the world and is designed to test materials in conditions of extreme temperature and pressure. It is operated by Sandia National Laboratories to gather data to aid in computer modeling of nuclear guns. In December 2016, it was announced that National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, under the direction of Honeywell International, would take over the management of Sandia National Laboratories starting on May 1, 2017.


     
  • richardmitnick 9:26 am on October 30, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Taming The Data Deluge", , , , , , Brain imaging neuroscience, , Electrical Engineering, , , , , , , , ,   

    From Kavli MIT Institute For Astrophysics and Space Research : “Taming The Data Deluge” 

    KavliFoundation

    http://www.kavlifoundation.org/institutes

    MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research.

    From Kavli MIT Institute For Astrophysics and Space Research

    October 29, 2021

    Sandi Miller | Department of Physics

    An oncoming tsunami of data threatens to overwhelm huge data-rich research projects on such areas that range from the tiny neutrino to an exploding supernova, as well as the mysteries deep within the brain.

    2
    Left to right: Erik Katsavounidis of MIT’s Kavli Institute, Philip Harris of the Department of Physics, and Song Han of the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science are part of a team from nine institutions that secured $15 million in National Science Foundation funding to set up the Accelerated AI Algorithms for Data-Driven Discovery (A3D3) Institute. Photo: Sandi Miller.

    When LIGO picks up a gravitational-wave signal from a distant collision of black holes and neutron stars, a clock starts ticking for capturing the earliest possible light that may accompany them: time is of the essence in this race.

    Caltech /MIT Advanced aLigo

    Data collected from electrical sensors monitoring brain activity are outpacing computing capacity. Information from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)’s smashed particle beams will soon exceed 1 petabit per second.

    To tackle this approaching data bottleneck in real-time, a team of researchers from nine institutions led by The University of Washington (US), including The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US), has received $15 million in funding to establish the Accelerated AI Algorithms for Data-Driven Discovery (A3D3) Institute. From MIT, the research team includes Philip Harris, assistant professor of physics, who will serve as the deputy director of the A3D3 Institute; Song Han, assistant professor of electrical engineering and computer science, who will serve as the A3D3’s co-PI; and Erik Katsavounidis, senior research scientist with the MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research.

    Infused with this five-year Harnessing the Data Revolution Big Idea grant, and jointly funded by the Office of Advanced Cyberinfrastructure, A3D3 will focus on three data-rich fields: multi-messenger astrophysics, high-energy particle physics, and brain imaging neuroscience. By enriching AI algorithms with new processors, A3D3 seeks to speed up AI algorithms for solving fundamental problems in collider physics, neutrino physics, astronomy, gravitational-wave physics, computer science, and neuroscience.

    “I am very excited about the new Institute’s opportunities for research in nuclear and particle physics,” says Laboratory for Nuclear Science Director Boleslaw Wyslouch. “Modern particle detectors produce an enormous amount of data, and we are looking for extraordinarily rare signatures. The application of extremely fast processors to sift through these mountains of data will make a huge difference in what we will measure and discover.”

    The seeds of A3D3 were planted in 2017, when Harris and his colleagues at DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US) and The European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN] decided to integrate real-time AI algorithms to process the incredible rates of data at the LHC. Through email correspondence with Han, Harris’ team built a compiler, HLS4ML, that could run an AI algorithm in nanoseconds.

    “Before the development of HLS4ML, the fastest processing that we knew of was roughly a millisecond per AI inference, maybe a little faster,” says Harris. “We realized all the AI algorithms were designed to solve much slower problems, such as image and voice recognition. To get to nanosecond inference timescales, we recognized we could make smaller algorithms and rely on custom implementations with Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) processors in an approach that was largely different from what others were doing.”

    A few months later, Harris presented their research at a physics faculty meeting, where Katsavounidis became intrigued. Over coffee in Building 7, they discussed combining Harris’ FPGA with Katsavounidis’s use of machine learning for finding gravitational waves. FPGAs and other new processor types, such as graphics processing units (GPUs), accelerate AI algorithms to more quickly analyze huge amounts of data.

    “I had worked with the first FPGAs that were out in the market in the early ’90s and have witnessed first-hand how they revolutionized front-end electronics and data acquisition in big high-energy physics experiments I was working on back then,” recalls Katsavounidis. “The ability to have them crunch gravitational-wave data has been in the back of my mind since joining LIGO over 20 years ago.”

    Two years ago they received their first grant, and the University of Washington’s Shih-Chieh Hsu joined in. The team initiated the Fast Machine Lab, published about 40 papers on the subject, built the group to about 50 researchers, and “launched a whole industry of how to explore a region of AI that has not been explored in the past,” says Harris. “We basically started this without any funding. We’ve been getting small grants for various projects over the years. A3D3 represents our first large grant to support this effort.”

    “What makes A3D3 so special and suited to MIT is its exploration of a technical frontier, where AI is implemented not in high-level software, but rather in lower-level firmware, reconfiguring individual gates to address the scientific question at hand,” says Rob Simcoe, director of MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research and the Francis Friedman Professor of Physics. “We are in an era where experiments generate torrents of data. The acceleration gained from tailoring reprogrammable, bespoke computers at the processor level can advance real-time analysis of these data to new levels of speed and sophistication.”

    The Huge Data from the Large Hadron Collider

    With data rates already exceeding 500 terabits per second, the LHC processes more data than any other scientific instrument on earth. Its future aggregate data rates will soon exceed 1 petabit per second, the biggest data rate in the world.

    “Through the use of AI, A3D3 aims to perform advanced analyses, such as anomaly detection, and particle reconstruction on all collisions happening 40 million times per second,” says Harris.

    The goal is to find within all of this data a way to identify the few collisions out of the 3.2 billion collisions per second that could reveal new forces, explain how Dark Matter is formed, and complete the picture of how fundamental forces interact with matter. Processing all of this information requires a customized computing system capable of interpreting the collider information within ultra-low latencies.

    “The challenge of running this on all of the 100s of terabits per second in real-time is daunting and requires a complete overhaul of how we design and implement AI algorithms,” says Harris. “With large increases in the detector resolution leading to data rates that are even larger the challenge of finding the one collision, among many, will become even more daunting.”

    The Brain and the Universe

    Thanks to advances in techniques such as medical imaging and electrical recordings from implanted electrodes, neuroscience is also gathering larger amounts of data on how the brain’s neural networks process responses to stimuli and perform motor information. A3D3 plans to develop and implement high-throughput and low-latency AI algorithms to process, organize, and analyze massive neural datasets in real time, to probe brain function in order to enable new experiments and therapies.

    With Multi-Messenger Astrophysics (MMA), A3D3 aims to quickly identify astronomical events by efficiently processing data from gravitational waves, gamma-ray bursts, and neutrinos picked up by telescopes and detectors.

    The A3D3 researchers also include a multi-disciplinary group of 15 other researchers, including project lead the University of Washington, along with The California Institute of Technology (US), Duke University (US), Purdue University (US), The University of California-San Diego (US), The University of Illinois-Urbana-Champaign (US), The University of Minnesota (US), and The University of Wisconsin-Madison (US). It will include neutrinos research at The University of Wisconsin IceCube Neutrino Observatory(US) and The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory DUNE/LBNF experiment (US), and visible astronomy at The Zwicky Transient Facility (US), and will organize deep-learning workshops and boot camps to train students and researchers on how to contribute to the framework and widen the use of fast AI strategies.

    “We have reached a point where detector network growth will be transformative, both in terms of event rates and in terms of astrophysical reach and ultimately, discoveries,” says Katsavounidis. “‘Fast’ and ‘efficient’ is the only way to fight the ‘faint’ and ‘fuzzy’ that is out there in the universe, and the path for getting the most out of our detectors. A3D3 on one hand is going to bring production-scale AI to gravitational-wave physics and multi-messenger astronomy; but on the other hand, we aspire to go beyond our immediate domains and become the go-to place across the country for applications of accelerated AI to data-driven disciplines.”

    Science paper:
    Hardware-accelerated Inference for Real-Time Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Mission Statement

    The mission of the MIT Kavli Institute (MKI) for Astrophysics and Space Research is to facilitate and carry out the research programs of faculty and research staff whose interests lie in the broadly defined area of astrophysics and space research. Specifically, the MKI will

    Provide an intellectual home for faculty, research staff, and students engaged in space- and ground-based astrophysics
    Develop and operate space- and ground-based instrumentation for astrophysics
    Engage in technology development
    Maintain an engineering and technical core capability for enabling and supporting innovative research
    Communicate to students, educators, and the public an understanding of and an appreciation for the goals, techniques and results of MKI’s research.

    The Kavli Foundation, based in Oxnard, California, is dedicated to the goals of advancing science for the benefit of humanity and promoting increased public understanding and support for scientists and their work.

    The Foundation’s mission is implemented through an international program of research institutes, professorships, and symposia in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, neuroscience, and theoretical physics as well as prizes in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience.

    To date, The Kavli Foundation has made grants to establish Kavli Institutes on the campuses of 20 major universities. In addition to the Kavli Institutes, nine Kavli professorships have been established: three at Harvard University, two at University of California, Santa Barbara, one each at University of California, Los Angeles, University of California, Irvine, Columbia University, Cornell University, and California Institute of Technology.

    The Kavli Institutes:

    The Kavli Foundation’s 20 institutes focus on astrophysics, nanoscience, neuroscience and theoretical physics.

    Astrophysics

    The Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University
    The Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago
    The Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    The Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics at Peking University
    The Kavli Institute for Cosmology at the University of Cambridge
    The Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe at the University of Tokyo

    Nanoscience

    The Kavli Institute for Nanoscale Science at Cornell University
    The Kavli Institute of Nanoscience at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands
    The Kavli Nanoscience Institute at the California Institute of Technology
    The Kavli Energy NanoSciences Institute at University of California, Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
    The Kavli Institute for NanoScience Discovery at the University of Oxford

    Neuroscience

    The Kavli Institute for Brain Science at Columbia University
    The Kavli Institute for Brain & Mind at the University of California, San Diego
    The Kavli Institute for Neuroscience at Yale University
    The Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology
    The Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute at Johns Hopkins University
    The Kavli Neural Systems Institute at The Rockefeller University
    The Kavli Institute for Fundamental Neuroscience at the University of California, San Francisco

    Theoretical physics

    Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics at the University of California, Santa Barbara
    The Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China at the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences

     
  • richardmitnick 2:54 pm on October 28, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Rochester researchers set ‘ultrabroadband’ record with entangled photons", , , Electrical Engineering, In order to be used commercially a more efficient and cost-effective fabrication process is needed., , , The device is ready to be deployed in experiments but only in a lab setting., The thin-film lithium niobate nanophotonic device created by Lin’s lab uses a single waveguide with electrodes on both sides., , Ultrabroadband quantum entanglement on a nanophotonic chip.   

    From The University of Rochester (US): “Rochester researchers set ‘ultrabroadband’ record with entangled photons” 

    From The University of Rochester (US)

    October 28, 2021
    Bob Marcotte
    bmarcotte@ur.rochester.edu

    1
    Researchers in the lab of Qiang Lin at the University of Rochester have generated record ‘ultrabroadband’ bandwidth of entangled photons using the thin-film nanophotonic device illustrated here. At top left, a laser beam enters a periodically poled thin-film lithium niobate waveguide (banded green and gray). Entangled photons (purple and red dots) are generated with a bandwidth exceeding 800 nanometers. Illustration by Usman Javi and Michael Osadciw.

    The engineers have achieved unprecedented bandwidth and brightness on chip-sized nanophotonic devices.

    Quantum entanglement—or what Albert Einstein once referred to as “spooky action at a distance”— occurs when two quantum particles are connected to each other, even when millions of miles apart. Any observation of one particle affects the other as if they were communicating with each other. When this entanglement involves photons, interesting possibilities emerge, including entangling the photons’ frequencies, the bandwidth of which can be controlled.

    Researchers at the University of Rochester have taken advantage of this phenomenon to generate an incredibly large bandwidth by using a thin-film nanophotonic device they describe in Physical Review Letters.

    The breakthrough could lead to:

    -Enhanced sensitivity and resolution for experiments in metrology and sensing, including spectroscopy, nonlinear microscopy, and quantum optical coherence tomography.
    -Higher dimensional encoding of information in quantum networks for information processing and communications.

    “This work represents a major leap forward in producing ultrabroadband quantum entanglement on a nanophotonic chip,” says Qiang Lin, professor of electrical and computer engineering. “And it demonstrates the power of nanotechnology for developing future quantum devices for communication, computing, and sensing.”

    No more tradeoff between bandwidth and brightness

    To date, most devices used to generate broadband entanglement of light have resorted to dividing up a bulk crystal into small sections, each with slightly varying optical properties and each generating different frequencies of the photon pairs. The frequencies are then added together to give a larger bandwidth.

    “This is quite inefficient and comes at a cost of reduced brightness and purity of the photons,” says lead author Usman Javid, a PhD student in Lin’s lab. In those devices, “there will always be a tradeoff between the bandwidth and the brightness of the generated photon pairs, and one has to make a choice between the two. We have completely circumvented this tradeoff with our dispersion engineering technique to get both: a record-high bandwidth at a record-high brightness.”

    The thin-film lithium niobate nanophotonic device created by Lin’s lab uses a single waveguide with electrodes on both sides. Whereas a bulk device can be millimeters across, the thin-film device has a thickness of 600 nanometers—more than a million times smaller in its cross-sectional area than a bulk crystal, according to Javid. This makes the propagation of light extremely sensitive to the dimensions of the waveguide.

    Indeed, even a variation of a few nanometers can cause significant changes to the phase and group velocity of the light propagating through it. As a result, the researchers’ thin-film device allows precise control over the bandwidth in which the pair-generation process is momentum-matched. “We can then solve a parameter optimization problem to find the geometry that maximizes this bandwidth,” Javid says.

    The device is ready to be deployed in experiments but only in a lab setting, Javid says. In order to be used commercially a more efficient and cost-effective fabrication process is needed. And although lithium niobate is an important material for light-based technologies, lithium niobate fabrication is “still in its infancy, and it will take some time to mature enough to make financial sense,” he says.

    Other collaborators include coauthors Jingwei Ling, Mingxiao Li, and Yang He of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Jeremy Staffa of the Institute of Optics, all of whom are graduate students. Yang He is a postdoctoral researcher.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Rochester (US) is a private research university in Rochester, New York. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees.

    The University of Rochester (US) enrolls approximately 6,800 undergraduates and 5,000 graduate students. Its 158 buildings house over 200 academic majors. According to the National Science Foundation (US), Rochester spent $370 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 68th in the nation. The university is the 7th largest employer in the Finger lakes region of New York.

    The College of Arts, Sciences, and Engineering is home to departments and divisions of note. The Institute of Optics was founded in 1929 through a grant from Eastman Kodak and Bausch and Lomb as the first educational program in the US devoted exclusively to optics and awards approximately half of all optics degrees nationwide and is widely regarded as the premier optics program in the nation and among the best in the world.

    The Departments of Political Science and Economics have made a significant and consistent impact on positivist social science since the 1960s and historically rank in the top 5 in their fields. The Department of Chemistry is noted for its contributions to synthetic organic chemistry, including the first lab based synthesis of morphine. The Rossell Hope Robbins Library serves as the university’s resource for Old and Middle English texts and expertise. The university is also home to Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics, a Department of Energy (US) supported national laboratory.

    The University of Rochester’s Eastman School of Music (US) ranks first among undergraduate music schools in the U.S. The Sibley Music Library at Eastman is the largest academic music library in North America and holds the third largest collection in the United States.

    In its history university alumni and faculty have earned 13 Nobel Prizes; 13 Pulitzer Prizes; 45 Grammy Awards; 20 Guggenheim Awards; 5 National Academy of Sciences; 4 National Academy of Engineering; 3 Rhodes Scholarships; 3 National Academy of Inventors; and 1 National Academy of Inventors Hall of Fame.

    History

    Early history

    The University of Rochester traces its origins to The First Baptist Church of Hamilton (New York) which was founded in 1796. The church established the Baptist Education Society of the State of New York later renamed the Hamilton Literary and Theological Institution in 1817. This institution gave birth to both Colgate University(US) and the University of Rochester. Its function was to train clergy in the Baptist tradition. When it aspired to grant higher degrees it created a collegiate division separate from the theological division.

    The collegiate division was granted a charter by the State of New York in 1846 after which its name was changed to Madison University. John Wilder and the Baptist Education Society urged that the new university be moved to Rochester, New York. However, legal action prevented the move. In response, dissenting faculty, students, and trustees defected and departed for Rochester, where they sought a new charter for a new university.

    Madison University was eventually renamed as Colgate University (US).

    Founding

    Asahel C. Kendrick- professor of Greek- was among the faculty that departed Madison University for Rochester. Kendrick served as acting president while a national search was conducted. He reprised this role until 1853 when Martin Brewer Anderson of the Newton Theological Seminary in Massachusetts was selected to fill the inaugural posting.

    The University of Rochester’s new charter was awarded by the Regents of the State of New York on January 31, 1850. The charter stipulated that the university have $100,000 in endowment within five years upon which the charter would be reaffirmed. An initial gift of $10,000 was pledged by John Wilder which helped catalyze significant gifts from individuals and institutions.

    Classes began that November with approximately 60 students enrolled including 28 transfers from Madison. From 1850 to 1862 the university was housed in the old United States Hotel in downtown Rochester on Buffalo Street near Elizabeth Street- today West Main Street near the I-490 overpass. On a February 1851 visit Ralph Waldo Emerson said of the university:

    “They had bought a hotel, once a railroad terminus depot, for $8,500, turned the dining room into a chapel by putting up a pulpit on one side, made the barroom into a Pythologian Society’s Hall, & the chambers into Recitation rooms, Libraries, & professors’ apartments, all for $700 a year. They had brought an omnibus load of professors down from Madison bag and baggage… called in a painter and sent him up the ladder to paint the title “University of Rochester” on the wall, and they had runners on the road to catch students. And they are confident of graduating a class of ten by the time green peas are ripe.”

    For the next 10 years the college expanded its scope and secured its future through an expanding endowment; student body; and faculty. In parallel a gift of 8 acres of farmland from local businessman and Congressman Azariah Boody secured the first campus of the university upon which Anderson Hall was constructed and dedicated in 1862. Over the next sixty years this Prince Street Campus grew by a further 17 acres and was developed to include fraternities houses; dormitories; and academic buildings including Anderson Hall; Sibley Library; Eastman and Carnegie Laboratories the Memorial Art Gallery and Cutler Union.

    Twentieth century

    Coeducation

    The first female students were admitted in 1900- the result of an effort led by Susan B. Anthony and Helen Barrett Montgomery. During the 1890s a number of women took classes and labs at the university as “visitors” but were not officially enrolled nor were their records included in the college register. President David Jayne Hill allowed the first woman- Helen E. Wilkinson- to enroll as a normal student although she was not allowed to matriculate or to pursue a degree. Thirty-three women enrolled among the first class in 1900 and Ella S. Wilcoxen was the first to receive a degree in 1901. The first female member of the faculty was Elizabeth Denio who retired as Professor Emeritus in 1917. Male students moved to River Campus upon its completion in 1930 while the female students remained on the Prince Street campus until 1955.

    Expansion

    Major growth occurred under the leadership of Benjamin Rush Rhees over his 1900-1935 tenure. During this period George Eastman became a major donor giving more than $50 million to the university during his life. Under the patronage of Eastman the Eastman School of Music (US) was created in 1921. In 1925 at the behest of the General Education Board and with significant support for John D. Rockefeller George Eastman and Henry A. Strong’s family medical and dental schools were created. The university award its first Ph.D that same year.

    During World War II University of Rochester was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. In 1942, the university was invited to join the Association of American Universities(US) as an affiliate member and it was made a full member by 1944. Between 1946 and 1947 in infamous uranium experiments researchers at the university injected uranium-234 and uranium-235 into six people to study how much uranium their kidneys could tolerate before becoming damaged.

    In 1955 the separate colleges for men and women were merged into The College on the River Campus. In 1958 three new schools were created in engineering; business administration and education. The Graduate School of Management was named after William E. Simon- former Secretary of the Treasury in 1986. He committed significant funds to the school because of his belief in the school’s free market philosophy and grounding in economic analysis.

    Financial decline and name change controversy

    Following the princely gifts given throughout his life George Eastman left the entirety of his estate to the university after his death by suicide. The total of these gifts surpassed $100 million before inflation and as such Rochester enjoyed a privileged position amongst the most well endowed universities. During the expansion years between 1936 and 1976 the University of Rochester’s financial position ranked third, near Harvard University’s(US) endowment and the University of Texas (US) System’s Permanent University Fund. Due to a decline in the value of large investments and a lack of portfolio diversity the university’s place dropped to the top 25 by the end of the 1980s. At the same time the preeminence of the city of Rochester’s major employers began to decline.

    In response the University commissioned a study to determine if the name of the institution should be changed to “Eastman University” or “Eastman Rochester University”. The study concluded a name change could be beneficial because the use of a place name in the title led respondents to incorrectly believe it was a public university, and because the name “Rochester” connoted a “cold and distant outpost.” Reports of the latter conclusion led to controversy and criticism in the Rochester community. Ultimately, the name “University of Rochester” was retained.

    Renaissance Plan

    In 1995 University of Rochester president Thomas H. Jackson announced the launch of a “Renaissance Plan” for The College that reduced enrollment from 4,500 to 3,600 creating a more selective admissions process. The plan also revised the undergraduate curriculum significantly creating the current system with only one required course and only a few distribution requirements known as clusters. Part of this plan called for the end of graduate doctoral studies in chemical engineering; comparative literature; linguistics; and mathematics the last of which was met by national outcry. The plan was largely scrapped and mathematics exists as a graduate course of study to this day.

    Twenty-first century

    Meliora Challenge

    Shortly after taking office university president Joel Seligman commenced the private phase of the “Meliora Challenge”- a $1.2 billion capital campaign- in 2005. The campaign reached its goal in 2015- a year before the campaign was slated to conclude. In 2016, the university announced the Meliora Challenge had exceeded its goal and surpassed $1.36 billion. These funds were allocated to support over 100 new endowed faculty positions and nearly 400 new scholarships.

    The Mangelsdorf Years

    On December 17, 2018 the University of Rochester announced that Sarah C. Mangelsdorf would succeed Richard Feldman as President of the University. Her term started in July 2019 with a formal inauguration following in October during Meliora Weekend. Mangelsdorf is the first woman to serve as President of the University and the first person with a degree in psychology to be appointed to Rochester’s highest office.

    In 2019 students from China mobilized by the Chinese Students and Scholars Association (CSSA) defaced murals in the University’s access tunnels which had expressed support for the 2019 Hong Kong Protests, condemned the oppression of the Uighurs, and advocated for Taiwanese independence. The act was widely seen as a continuation of overseas censorship of Chinese issues. In response a large group of students recreated the original murals. There have also been calls for Chinese government run CSSA to be banned from campus.

    Research

    Rochester is a member of the Association of American Universities (US) and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”.

    Rochester had a research expenditure of $370 million in 2018.

    In 2008 Rochester ranked 44th nationally in research spending but this ranking has declined gradually to 68 in 2018.

    Some of the major research centers include the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, a laser-based nuclear fusion facility, and the extensive research facilities at the University of Rochester Medical Center.

    Recently the university has also engaged in a series of new initiatives to expand its programs in biomedical engineering and optics including the construction of the new $37 million Robert B. Goergen Hall for Biomedical Engineering and Optics on the River Campus.

    Other new research initiatives include a cancer stem cell program and a Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute. UR also has the ninth highest technology revenue among U.S. higher education institutions with $46 million being paid for commercial rights to university technology and research in 2009. Notable patents include Zoloft and Gardasil. WeBWorK, a web-based system for checking homework and providing immediate feedback for students was developed by University of Rochester professors Gage and Pizer. The system is now in use at over 800 universities and colleges as well as several secondary and primary schools. Rochester scientists work in diverse areas. For example, physicists developed a technique for etching metal surfaces such as platinum; titanium; and brass with powerful lasers enabling self-cleaning surfaces that repel water droplets and will not rust if tilted at a 4 degree angle; and medical researchers are exploring how brains rid themselves of toxic waste during sleep.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:30 pm on September 15, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Stanford discovery could pave the way to ultrafast energy-efficient computing", , Electrical Engineering, Phase-change memory   

    From Stanford University (US) : “Stanford discovery could pave the way to ultrafast energy-efficient computing” 

    Stanford University Name

    From Stanford University (US)

    Sep 9, 2021
    Mark Shwartz

    Scientists have spent decades searching for faster, more energy-efficient memory technologies for everything from large data centers to mobile sensors and other flexible electronics. Among the most promising data storage technologies is phase-change memory, which is thousands of times faster than conventional hard drives but is not the most energy-efficient among emerging memory types.

    Now, Stanford University engineers have overcome a key obstacle that has limited widespread adoption of phase-change memory. The results are published in a Sept. 10 study in Science.

    “People have long expected phase-change memory to replace much of the memory in our phones and laptops,” said Eric Pop, a professor of electrical engineering and senior author of the study. “One reason it hasn’t been adopted is that it requires more power to operate than competing memory technologies. In our study, we’ve shown that phase-change memory can be both fast and energy efficient.”

    2
    A flexible phase-change memory substrate held by tweezers (left) with a diagonal
    sequence showing substrates in the process of being bent. (Credit: Crystal Nattoo.)

    Electrical resistance

    Unlike conventional memory chips built with transistors and other hardware, a typical phase-change memory device consists of a compound of three chemical elements – germanium, antimony and tellurium (GST) – sandwiched between two metal electrodes.

    Conventional devices, like flash drives, store data by switching the flow of electrons on and off, a process symbolized by 1’s and 0’s. In phase-change memory, the 1’s and 0’s represent measurements of electrical resistance in the GST material – how much it resists the flow of electricity.

    “A typical phase-change memory device can store two states of resistance: a high-resistance state 0, and a low-resistance state 1,” said doctoral candidate Asir Intisar Khan, co-lead author of the study. “We can switch from 1 to 0 and back again in nanoseconds using heat from electrical pulses generated by the electrodes.”

    Heating to about 300 degrees Fahrenheit (150 degrees Celsius) turns the GST compound into a crystalline state with low electrical resistance. At about 1,100 F (600 C), the crystalline atoms become disordered, turning a portion of the compound to an amorphous state with much higher resistance. The large difference in resistance between the amorphous and crystalline states is used to program memory and store data.

    “This large resistance change is reversible and can be induced by switching the electrical pulses on and off,” said Khan.

    “You can come back years later and read the memory just by reading the resistance of each bit,” Pop said. “Also, once the memory is set it doesn’t use any power, similar to a flash drive.”

    “Secret sauce”

    But switching between states typically requires a lot of power, which could reduce battery life in mobile electronics.

    To address this challenge, the Stanford team set out to design a phase-change memory cell that operates with low power and can be embedded on flexible plastic substrates commonly used in bendable smartphones, wearable body sensors and other battery-operated mobile electronics.

    “These devices require low cost and low energy consumption for the system to work efficiently,” said co-lead author Alwin Daus, a postdoctoral scholar. “But many flexible substrates lose their shape or even melt at around 390 F (200 C) and above.”

    In the study, Daus and his colleagues discovered that a plastic substrate with low thermal conductivity can help reduce current flow in the memory cell, allowing it to operate efficiently.

    “Our new device lowered the programming current density by a factor of 10 on a flexible substrate and by a factor of 100 on rigid silicon,” Pop said. “Three ingredients went into our secret sauce: a superlattice consisting of nanosized layers of the memory material, a pore cell – a nanosized hole into which we stuffed the superlattice layers – and a thermally insulating flexible substrate. Together, they significantly improved energy efficiency.”

    Ultrafast flexible computing

    The ability to install fast, energy-efficient memory on mobile and flexible devices could enable a wide range of new technologies, such as real-time sensors for smart homes and biomedical monitors.

    “Sensors have high constraints on battery lifetime, and collecting raw data to send to the cloud is very inefficient,” Daus said. “If you can process the data locally, which requires memory, it would be very helpful for implementing the Internet of Things.”

    Phase-change memory could also usher in a new generation of ultrafast computing.

    “Today’s computers have separate chips for computing and memory,” Khan said. “They compute data in one place and store it in another. The data have to travel back and forth, which is highly energy inefficient.”

    Phase-change memory could enable in-memory computing, which bridges the gap between computing and memory. In-memory computing would require a phase-change device with multiple resistance states, each capable of storing memory.

    “Typical phase-change memory has two resistant states, high and low,” Khan said. “We programmed four stable resistance states, not just two, an important first step towards flexible in-memory computing.”

    Phase-change memory could also be used in large data centers, where data storage accounts for about 15 percent of electricity consumption.

    “The big appeal of phase-change memory is speed, but energy-efficiency in electronics also matters,” Pop said. “It’s not just an afterthought. Anything we can do to make lower-power electronics and extend battery life will have a tremendous impact.”

    Other Stanford co-authors are former postdoctoral scholar Raisul Islam, doctoral candidate Kathryn Neilson, research scientist Hye Ryoung Lee, and H.-S. Philip Wong, the Willard R. & Inez Kerr Bell Professor in the School of Engineering. Wong and Eric Pop are also affiliated faculty members at the Stanford Precourt Institute for Energy.

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Stanford University campus
    Stanford University (US)

    Leland and Jane Stanford founded the University to “promote the public welfare by exercising an influence on behalf of humanity and civilization.” Stanford opened its doors in 1891, and more than a century later, it remains dedicated to finding solutions to the great challenges of the day and to preparing our students for leadership in today’s complex world. Stanford, is an American private research university located in Stanford, California on an 8,180-acre (3,310 ha) campus near Palo Alto. Since 1952, more than 54 Stanford faculty, staff, and alumni have won the Nobel Prize, including 19 current faculty members.

    Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private research university located in Stanford, California. Stanford was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr., who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford is consistently ranked as among the most prestigious and top universities in the world by major education publications. It is also one of the top fundraising institutions in the country, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.

    Leland Stanford was a U.S. senator and former governor of California who made his fortune as a railroad tycoon. The school admitted its first students on October 1, 1891, as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Stanford University struggled financially after the death of Leland Stanford in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates’ entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would later be known as Silicon Valley.

    The university is organized around seven schools: three schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate level as well as four professional schools that focus on graduate programs in law, medicine, education, and business. All schools are on the same campus. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference. It has gained 126 NCAA team championships, and Stanford has won the NACDA Directors’ Cup for 24 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995. In addition, Stanford students and alumni have won 270 Olympic medals including 139 gold medals.

    As of October 2020, 84 Nobel laureates, 28 Turing Award laureates, and eight Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, alumni, faculty, or staff. In addition, Stanford is particularly noted for its entrepreneurship and is one of the most successful universities in attracting funding for start-ups. Stanford alumni have founded numerous companies, which combined produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue, roughly equivalent to the 7th largest economy in the world (as of 2020). Stanford is the alma mater of one president of the United States (Herbert Hoover), 74 living billionaires, and 17 astronauts. It is also one of the leading producers of Fulbright Scholars, Marshall Scholars, Rhodes Scholars, and members of the United States Congress.

    Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child. The institution opened in 1891 on Stanford’s previous Palo Alto farm.

    Jane and Leland Stanford modeled their university after the great eastern universities, most specifically Cornell University. Stanford opened being called the “Cornell of the West” in 1891 due to faculty being former Cornell affiliates (either professors, alumni, or both) including its first president, David Starr Jordan, and second president, John Casper Branner. Both Cornell and Stanford were among the first to have higher education be accessible, nonsectarian, and open to women as well as to men. Cornell is credited as one of the first American universities to adopt this radical departure from traditional education, and Stanford became an early adopter as well.

    Despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I. The Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds. The DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory(US)(originally named the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), established in 1962, performs research in particle physics.

    Land

    Most of Stanford is on an 8,180-acre (12.8 sq mi; 33.1 km^2) campus, one of the largest in the United States. It is located on the San Francisco Peninsula, in the northwest part of the Santa Clara Valley (Silicon Valley) approximately 37 miles (60 km) southeast of San Francisco and approximately 20 miles (30 km) northwest of San Jose. In 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped.

    Stanford’s main campus includes a census-designated place within unincorporated Santa Clara County, although some of the university land (such as the Stanford Shopping Center and the Stanford Research Park) is within the city limits of Palo Alto. The campus also includes much land in unincorporated San Mateo County (including the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve), as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park (Stanford Hills neighborhood), Woodside, and Portola Valley.

    Non-central campus

    Stanford currently operates in various locations outside of its central campus.

    On the founding grant:

    Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is a 1,200-acre (490 ha) natural reserve south of the central campus owned by the university and used by wildlife biologists for research.
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a facility west of the central campus operated by the university for the Department of Energy. It contains the longest linear particle accelerator in the world, 2 miles (3.2 km) on 426 acres (172 ha) of land.
    Golf course and a seasonal lake: The university also has its own golf course and a seasonal lake (Lake Lagunita, actually an irrigation reservoir), both home to the vulnerable California tiger salamander. As of 2012 Lake Lagunita was often dry and the university had no plans to artificially fill it.

    Off the founding grant:

    Hopkins Marine Station, in Pacific Grove, California, is a marine biology research center owned by the university since 1892.
    Study abroad locations: unlike typical study abroad programs, Stanford itself operates in several locations around the world; thus, each location has Stanford faculty-in-residence and staff in addition to students, creating a “mini-Stanford”.

    Redwood City campus for many of the university’s administrative offices located in Redwood City, California, a few miles north of the main campus. In 2005, the university purchased a small, 35-acre (14 ha) campus in Midpoint Technology Park intended for staff offices; development was delayed by The Great Recession. In 2015 the university announced a development plan and the Redwood City campus opened in March 2019.

    The Bass Center in Washington, DC provides a base, including housing, for the Stanford in Washington program for undergraduates. It includes a small art gallery open to the public.

    China: Stanford Center at Peking University, housed in the Lee Jung Sen Building, is a small center for researchers and students in collaboration with Beijing University [北京大学](CN) (Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics at Peking University(CN) (KIAA-PKU).

    Administration and organization

    Stanford is a private, non-profit university that is administered as a corporate trust governed by a privately appointed board of trustees with a maximum membership of 38. Trustees serve five-year terms (not more than two consecutive terms) and meet five times annually.[83] A new trustee is chosen by the current trustees by ballot. The Stanford trustees also oversee the Stanford Research Park, the Stanford Shopping Center, the Cantor Center for Visual Arts, Stanford University Medical Center, and many associated medical facilities (including the Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital).

    The board appoints a president to serve as the chief executive officer of the university, to prescribe the duties of professors and course of study, to manage financial and business affairs, and to appoint nine vice presidents. The provost is the chief academic and budget officer, to whom the deans of each of the seven schools report. Persis Drell became the 13th provost in February 2017.

    As of 2018, the university was organized into seven academic schools. The schools of Humanities and Sciences (27 departments), Engineering (nine departments), and Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences (four departments) have both graduate and undergraduate programs while the Schools of Law, Medicine, Education and Business have graduate programs only. The powers and authority of the faculty are vested in the Academic Council, which is made up of tenure and non-tenure line faculty, research faculty, senior fellows in some policy centers and institutes, the president of the university, and some other academic administrators, but most matters are handled by the Faculty Senate, made up of 55 elected representatives of the faculty.

    The Associated Students of Stanford University (ASSU) is the student government for Stanford and all registered students are members. Its elected leadership consists of the Undergraduate Senate elected by the undergraduate students, the Graduate Student Council elected by the graduate students, and the President and Vice President elected as a ticket by the entire student body.

    Stanford is the beneficiary of a special clause in the California Constitution, which explicitly exempts Stanford property from taxation so long as the property is used for educational purposes.

    Endowment and donations

    The university’s endowment, managed by the Stanford Management Company, was valued at $27.7 billion as of August 31, 2019. Payouts from the Stanford endowment covered approximately 21.8% of university expenses in the 2019 fiscal year. In the 2018 NACUBO-TIAA survey of colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, only Harvard University(US), the University of Texas System(US), and Yale University(US) had larger endowments than Stanford.

    In 2006, President John L. Hennessy launched a five-year campaign called the Stanford Challenge, which reached its $4.3 billion fundraising goal in 2009, two years ahead of time, but continued fundraising for the duration of the campaign. It concluded on December 31, 2011, having raised a total of $6.23 billion and breaking the previous campaign fundraising record of $3.88 billion held by Yale. Specifically, the campaign raised $253.7 million for undergraduate financial aid, as well as $2.33 billion for its initiative in “Seeking Solutions” to global problems, $1.61 billion for “Educating Leaders” by improving K-12 education, and $2.11 billion for “Foundation of Excellence” aimed at providing academic support for Stanford students and faculty. Funds supported 366 new fellowships for graduate students, 139 new endowed chairs for faculty, and 38 new or renovated buildings. The new funding also enabled the construction of a facility for stem cell research; a new campus for the business school; an expansion of the law school; a new Engineering Quad; a new art and art history building; an on-campus concert hall; a new art museum; and a planned expansion of the medical school, among other things. In 2012, the university raised $1.035 billion, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.

    Research centers and institutes

    DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory(US)
    Stanford Research Institute, a center of innovation to support economic development in the region.
    Hoover Institution, a conservative American public policy institution and research institution that promotes personal and economic liberty, free enterprise, and limited government.
    Hasso Plattner Institute of Design, a multidisciplinary design school in cooperation with the Hasso Plattner Institute of University of Potsdam [Universität Potsdam](DE) that integrates product design, engineering, and business management education).
    Martin Luther King Jr. Research and Education Institute, which grew out of and still contains the Martin Luther King Jr. Papers Project.
    John S. Knight Fellowship for Professional Journalists
    Center for Ocean Solutions
    Together with UC Berkeley(US) and UC San Francisco(US), Stanford is part of the Biohub, a new medical science research center founded in 2016 by a $600 million commitment from Facebook CEO and founder Mark Zuckerberg and pediatrician Priscilla Chan.

    Discoveries and innovation

    Natural sciences

    Biological synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) – Arthur Kornberg synthesized DNA material and won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959 for his work at Stanford.
    First Transgenic organism – Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer were the first scientists to transplant genes from one living organism to another, a fundamental discovery for genetic engineering. Thousands of products have been developed on the basis of their work, including human growth hormone and hepatitis B vaccine.
    Laser – Arthur Leonard Schawlow shared the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physics with Nicolaas Bloembergen and Kai Siegbahn for his work on lasers.
    Nuclear magnetic resonance – Felix Bloch developed new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements, which are the underlying principles of the MRI.

    Computer and applied sciences

    ARPANETStanford Research Institute, formerly part of Stanford but on a separate campus, was the site of one of the four original ARPANET nodes.

    Internet—Stanford was the site where the original design of the Internet was undertaken. Vint Cerf led a research group to elaborate the design of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP/IP) that he originally co-created with Robert E. Kahn (Bob Kahn) in 1973 and which formed the basis for the architecture of the Internet.

    Frequency modulation synthesis – John Chowning of the Music department invented the FM music synthesis algorithm in 1967, and Stanford later licensed it to Yamaha Corporation.

    Google – Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford. They were working on the Stanford Digital Library Project (SDLP). The SDLP’s goal was “to develop the enabling technologies for a single, integrated and universal digital library” and it was funded through the National Science Foundation, among other federal agencies.

    Klystron tube – invented by the brothers Russell and Sigurd Varian at Stanford. Their prototype was completed and demonstrated successfully on August 30, 1937. Upon publication in 1939, news of the klystron immediately influenced the work of U.S. and UK researchers working on radar equipment.

    RISCARPA funded VLSI project of microprocessor design. Stanford and UC Berkeley are most associated with the popularization of this concept. The Stanford MIPS would go on to be commercialized as the successful MIPS architecture, while Berkeley RISC gave its name to the entire concept, commercialized as the SPARC. Another success from this era were IBM’s efforts that eventually led to the IBM POWER instruction set architecture, PowerPC, and Power ISA. As these projects matured, a wide variety of similar designs flourished in the late 1980s and especially the early 1990s, representing a major force in the Unix workstation market as well as embedded processors in laser printers, routers and similar products.
    SUN workstation – Andy Bechtolsheim designed the SUN workstation for the Stanford University Network communications project as a personal CAD workstation, which led to Sun Microsystems.

    Businesses and entrepreneurship

    Stanford is one of the most successful universities in creating companies and licensing its inventions to existing companies; it is often held up as a model for technology transfer. Stanford’s Office of Technology Licensing is responsible for commercializing university research, intellectual property, and university-developed projects.

    The university is described as having a strong venture culture in which students are encouraged, and often funded, to launch their own companies.

    Companies founded by Stanford alumni generate more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue, equivalent to the 10th-largest economy in the world.

    Some companies closely associated with Stanford and their connections include:

    Hewlett-Packard, 1939, co-founders William R. Hewlett (B.S, PhD) and David Packard (M.S).
    Silicon Graphics, 1981, co-founders James H. Clark (Associate Professor) and several of his grad students.
    Sun Microsystems, 1982, co-founders Vinod Khosla (M.B.A), Andy Bechtolsheim (PhD) and Scott McNealy (M.B.A).
    Cisco, 1984, founders Leonard Bosack (M.S) and Sandy Lerner (M.S) who were in charge of Stanford Computer Science and Graduate School of Business computer operations groups respectively when the hardware was developed.[163]
    Yahoo!, 1994, co-founders Jerry Yang (B.S, M.S) and David Filo (M.S).
    Google, 1998, co-founders Larry Page (M.S) and Sergey Brin (M.S).
    LinkedIn, 2002, co-founders Reid Hoffman (B.S), Konstantin Guericke (B.S, M.S), Eric Lee (B.S), and Alan Liu (B.S).
    Instagram, 2010, co-founders Kevin Systrom (B.S) and Mike Krieger (B.S).
    Snapchat, 2011, co-founders Evan Spiegel and Bobby Murphy (B.S).
    Coursera, 2012, co-founders Andrew Ng (Associate Professor) and Daphne Koller (Professor, PhD).

    Student body

    Stanford enrolled 6,996 undergraduate and 10,253 graduate students as of the 2019–2020 school year. Women comprised 50.4% of undergraduates and 41.5% of graduate students. In the same academic year, the freshman retention rate was 99%.

    Stanford awarded 1,819 undergraduate degrees, 2,393 master’s degrees, 770 doctoral degrees, and 3270 professional degrees in the 2018–2019 school year. The four-year graduation rate for the class of 2017 cohort was 72.9%, and the six-year rate was 94.4%. The relatively low four-year graduation rate is a function of the university’s coterminal degree (or “coterm”) program, which allows students to earn a master’s degree as a 1-to-2-year extension of their undergraduate program.

    As of 2010, fifteen percent of undergraduates were first-generation students.

    Athletics

    As of 2016 Stanford had 16 male varsity sports and 20 female varsity sports, 19 club sports and about 27 intramural sports. In 1930, following a unanimous vote by the Executive Committee for the Associated Students, the athletic department adopted the mascot “Indian.” The Indian symbol and name were dropped by President Richard Lyman in 1972, after objections from Native American students and a vote by the student senate. The sports teams are now officially referred to as the “Stanford Cardinal,” referring to the deep red color, not the cardinal bird. Stanford is a member of the Pac-12 Conference in most sports, the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation in several other sports, and the America East Conference in field hockey with the participation in the inter-collegiate NCAA’s Division I FBS.

    Its traditional sports rival is the University of California, Berkeley, the neighbor to the north in the East Bay. The winner of the annual “Big Game” between the Cal and Cardinal football teams gains custody of the Stanford Axe.

    Stanford has had at least one NCAA team champion every year since the 1976–77 school year and has earned 126 NCAA national team titles since its establishment, the most among universities, and Stanford has won 522 individual national championships, the most by any university. Stanford has won the award for the top-ranked Division 1 athletic program—the NACDA Directors’ Cup, formerly known as the Sears Cup—annually for the past twenty-four straight years. Stanford athletes have won medals in every Olympic Games since 1912, winning 270 Olympic medals total, 139 of them gold. In the 2008 Summer Olympics, and 2016 Summer Olympics, Stanford won more Olympic medals than any other university in the United States. Stanford athletes won 16 medals at the 2012 Summer Olympics (12 gold, two silver and two bronze), and 27 medals at the 2016 Summer Olympics.

    Traditions

    The unofficial motto of Stanford, selected by President Jordan, is Die Luft der Freiheit weht. Translated from the German language, this quotation from Ulrich von Hutten means, “The wind of freedom blows.” The motto was controversial during World War I, when anything in German was suspect; at that time the university disavowed that this motto was official.
    Hail, Stanford, Hail! is the Stanford Hymn sometimes sung at ceremonies or adapted by the various University singing groups. It was written in 1892 by mechanical engineering professor Albert W. Smith and his wife, Mary Roberts Smith (in 1896 she earned the first Stanford doctorate in Economics and later became associate professor of Sociology), but was not officially adopted until after a performance on campus in March 1902 by the Mormon Tabernacle Choir.
    “Uncommon Man/Uncommon Woman”: Stanford does not award honorary degrees, but in 1953 the degree of “Uncommon Man/Uncommon Woman” was created to recognize individuals who give rare and extraordinary service to the University. Technically, this degree is awarded by the Stanford Associates, a voluntary group that is part of the university’s alumni association. As Stanford’s highest honor, it is not conferred at prescribed intervals, but only when appropriate to recognize extraordinary service. Recipients include Herbert Hoover, Bill Hewlett, Dave Packard, Lucile Packard, and John Gardner.
    Big Game events: The events in the week leading up to the Big Game vs. UC Berkeley, including Gaieties (a musical written, composed, produced, and performed by the students of Ram’s Head Theatrical Society).
    “Viennese Ball”: a formal ball with waltzes that was initially started in the 1970s by students returning from the now-closed Stanford in Vienna overseas program. It is now open to all students.
    “Full Moon on the Quad”: An annual event at Main Quad, where students gather to kiss one another starting at midnight. Typically organized by the Junior class cabinet, the festivities include live entertainment, such as music and dance performances.
    “Band Run”: An annual festivity at the beginning of the school year, where the band picks up freshmen from dorms across campus while stopping to perform at each location, culminating in a finale performance at Main Quad.
    “Mausoleum Party”: An annual Halloween Party at the Stanford Mausoleum, the final resting place of Leland Stanford Jr. and his parents. A 20-year tradition, the “Mausoleum Party” was on hiatus from 2002 to 2005 due to a lack of funding, but was revived in 2006. In 2008, it was hosted in Old Union rather than at the actual Mausoleum, because rain prohibited generators from being rented. In 2009, after fundraising efforts by the Junior Class Presidents and the ASSU Executive, the event was able to return to the Mausoleum despite facing budget cuts earlier in the year.
    Former campus traditions include the “Big Game bonfire” on Lake Lagunita (a seasonal lake usually dry in the fall), which was formally ended in 1997 because of the presence of endangered salamanders in the lake bed.

    Award laureates and scholars

    Stanford’s current community of scholars includes:

    19 Nobel Prize laureates (as of October 2020, 85 affiliates in total)
    171 members of the National Academy of Sciences
    109 members of National Academy of Engineering
    76 members of National Academy of Medicine
    288 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
    19 recipients of the National Medal of Science
    1 recipient of the National Medal of Technology
    4 recipients of the National Humanities Medal
    49 members of American Philosophical Society
    56 fellows of the American Physics Society (since 1995)
    4 Pulitzer Prize winners
    31 MacArthur Fellows
    4 Wolf Foundation Prize winners
    2 ACL Lifetime Achievement Award winners
    14 AAAI fellows
    2 Presidential Medal of Freedom winners

    Stanford University Seal

     
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