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  • richardmitnick 7:32 pm on April 25, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Durham U,   

    From Durham via phys.org: “New survey hints at exotic origin for the Cold Spot” 

    Durham U bloc

    Durham University

    phys.org

    April 25, 2017

    1
    Figure 1. The map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky produced by the Planck satellite. Red represents slightly warmer regions, and blue slightly cooler regions. The Cold Spot is shown in the inset, with coordinates on the x- and y-axes, and the temperature difference in millionths of a degree in the scale at the bottom. Credit: ESA and Durham University

    ESA/Planck

    A supervoid is unlikely to explain a ‘Cold Spot’ in the cosmic microwave background, according to the results of a new survey, leaving room for exotic explanations like a collision between universes. The researchers, led by postgraduate student Ruari Mackenzie and Professor Tom Shanks in Durham University’s Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, publish their results in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB), a relic of the Big Bang, covers the whole sky. At a temperature of 2.73 degrees above absolute zero (or -270.43 degrees Celsius), the CMB has some anomalies, including the Cold Spot. This feature, about 0.00015 degrees colder than its surroundings, was previously claimed to be caused by a huge void, billions of light years across, containing relatively few galaxies.

    The accelerating expansion of the universe causes voids to leave subtle redshifts on light as it passes through via the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. In the case of the CMB this is observed as cold imprints. It was proposed that a very large foreground void could, in part, imprint the CMB Cold Spot which has been a source of tension in models of standard cosmology.

    Previously, most searches for a supervoid connected with the Cold Spot have estimated distances to galaxies using their colours. With the expansion of the universe more distant galaxies have their light shifted to longer wavelengths, an effect known as a cosmological redshift.

    The more distant the galaxy is, the higher its observed redshift. By measuring the colours of galaxies, their redshifts, and thus their distances, can be estimated. These measurements though have a high degree of uncertainty.

    In their new work, the Durham team presented the results of a comprehensive survey of the redshifts of 7,000 galaxies, harvested 300 at a time using a spectrograph deployed on the Anglo-Australian Telescope.


    AAO Anglo Australian Telescope near Siding Spring, New South Wales, Australia

    From this higher fidelity dataset, Mackenzie and Shanks see no evidence of a supervoid capable of explaining the Cold Spot within the standard theory.

    2
    Figure 2. The 3-D galaxy distribution in the foreground of the CMB Cold Spot, where each point is a cluster of galaxies. The galaxy distribution in the Cold Spot (black points, at right) is compared to the same in an area with no background Cold Spot (red points, at left). The number and size of low galaxy density regions in both areas are similar, making it hard to explain the existence of the CMB Cold Spot by the presence of ‘voids’. Credit: Durham University

    The researchers instead found that the Cold Spot region, before now thought to be underpopulated with galaxies, is split into smaller voids, surrounded by clusters of galaxies. This ‘soap bubble’ structure is much like the rest of the universe, illustrated in Figure 2 by the visual similarity between the galaxy distributions in the Cold Spot area and a control field elsewhere.

    Mackenzie commented: “The voids we have detected cannot explain the Cold Spot under standard cosmology. There is the possibility that some non-standard model could be proposed to link the two in the future but our data place powerful constraints on any attempt to do that.”

    If there really is no supervoid that can explain the Cold Spot, simulations of the standard model of the universe give odds of 1 in 50 that the Cold Spot arose by chance.

    Shanks added: “This means we can’t entirely rule out that the Spot is caused by an unlikely fluctuation explained by the standard model. But if that isn’t the answer, then there are more exotic explanations.

    ‘Perhaps the most exciting of these is that the Cold Spot was caused by a collision between our universe and another bubble universe. If further, more detailed, analysis of CMB data proves this to be the case then the Cold Spot might be taken as the first evidence for the multiverse – and billions of other universes may exist like our own.”

    For the moment, all that can be said is that the lack of a supervoid to explain the Cold Spot has tilted the balance towards these more unusual explanations, ideas that will need to be further tested by more detailed observations of the CMB.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Durham U campus

    Durham University is distinctive – a residential collegiate university with long traditions and modern values. We seek the highest distinction in research and scholarship and are committed to excellence in all aspects of education and transmission of knowledge. Our research and scholarship affect every continent. We are proud to be an international scholarly community which reflects the ambitions of cultures from around the world. We promote individual participation, providing a rounded education in which students, staff and alumni gain both the academic and the personal skills required to flourish.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:54 am on April 23, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Computer modelling, , , Durham U, , Modified Newtonian Dynamics, or MOND, , Simulating galaxies,   

    From Durham: “Simulated galaxies provide fresh evidence of dark matter” 

    Durham U bloc

    Durham University

    21 April 2017
    No writer credit

    1
    A simulated galaxy is pictured, showing the main ingredients that make up a galaxy: the stars (blue), the gas from which the stars are born (red), and the dark matter halo that surrounds the galaxy (light grey). No image credit.

    Further evidence of the existence of dark matter – the mysterious substance that is believed to hold the Universe together – has been produced by Cosmologists at Durham University.

    Using sophisticated computer modelling techniques, the research team simulated the formation of galaxies in the presence of dark matter and were able to demonstrate that their size and rotation speed were linked to their brightness in a similar way to observations made by astronomers.

    One of the simulations is pictured, showing the main ingredients that make up a galaxy: the stars (blue), the gas from which the stars are born (red), and the dark matter halo that surrounds the galaxy (light grey).

    Alternative theories

    Until now, theories of dark matter have predicted a much more complex relationship between the size, mass and brightness (or luminosity) of galaxies than is actually observed, which has led to dark matter sceptics proposing alternative theories that are seemingly a better fit with what we see.

    The research led by Dr Aaron Ludlow of the Institute for Computational Cosmology, is published in the academic journal, Physical Review Letters.

    Most cosmologists believe that more than 80 per cent of the total mass of the Universe is made up of dark matter – a mysterious particle that has so far not been detected but explains many of the properties of the Universe such as the microwave background measured by the Planck satellite.

    CMB per ESA/Planck

    ESA/Planck

    Convincing explanations

    Alternative theories include Modified Newtonian Dynamics, or MOND. While this does not explain some observations of the Universe as convincingly as dark matter theory it has, until now, provided a simpler description of the coupling of the brightness and rotation velocity, observed in galaxies of all shapes and sizes.

    The Durham team used powerful supercomputers to model the formation of galaxies of various sizes, compressing billions of years of evolution into a few weeks, in order to demonstrate that the existence of dark matter is consistent with the observed relationship between mass, size and luminosity of galaxies.

    Long-standing problem resolved

    Dr Ludlow said: “This solves a long-standing problem that has troubled the dark matter model for over a decade. The dark matter hypothesis remains the main explanation for the source of the gravity that binds galaxies. Although the particles are difficult to detect, physicists must persevere.”

    Durham University collaborated on the project with Leiden University, Netherlands; Liverpool John Moores University, England and the University of Victoria, Canada. The research was funded by the European Research Council, the Science and Technology Facilities Council, Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, COFUND and The Royal Society.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Durham U campus

    Durham University is distinctive – a residential collegiate university with long traditions and modern values. We seek the highest distinction in research and scholarship and are committed to excellence in all aspects of education and transmission of knowledge. Our research and scholarship affect every continent. We are proud to be an international scholarly community which reflects the ambitions of cultures from around the world. We promote individual participation, providing a rounded education in which students, staff and alumni gain both the academic and the personal skills required to flourish.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:21 pm on March 22, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Durham U, Universe’s ultraviolet background could provide clues about missing galaxies   

    From Durham: “Universe’s ultraviolet background could provide clues about missing galaxies” 

    Durham U bloc

    Durham University

    22 March 2017

    Astronomers have developed a way to detect the ultraviolet (UV) background of the Universe, which could help explain why there are so few small galaxies in the cosmos.

    UV radiation is invisible but shows up as visible red light when it interacts with gas.

    An international team of researchers led by Durham University, UK, has now found a way to measure it using instruments on Earth.

    The researchers said their method can be used to measure the evolution of the UV background through cosmic time, mapping how and when it suppresses the formation of small galaxies.

    The study could also help produce more accurate computer simulations of the evolution of the Universe.

    The findings are published today in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

    Companion galaxies

    UV radiation – a type of radiation also given out by the Sun – is found throughout the Universe and strips smaller galaxies of the gas that forms stars, effectively stunting their growth.

    It is believed to be the reason why some larger galaxies like our Milky Way don’t have many smaller companion galaxies.

    Simulations show that there should be more small galaxies in the Universe, but UV radiation essentially stopped them from developing by depriving them of the gas they need to form stars.

    Ultraviolet radiation

    Larger galaxies like the Milky Way were able to withstand this cosmic blast because of the thick gas clouds surrounding them.

    Lead author Dr Michele Fumagalli, in the Institute for Computational Cosmology and Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, at Durham University, said: “Massive stars and supermassive black holes produce huge amounts of ultraviolet radiation, and their combined radiation builds-up this ultraviolet background.

    “This UV radiation excites the gas in the Universe, causing it to emit red light in a similar way that the gas inside a fluorescent bulb is excited to produce visible light.

    “Our research means we now have the ability to measure and map this UV radiation which will help us to further refine models of galaxy formation.”

    Co-author Professor Simon Morris, in the Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Durham University, added: “Ultimately this could help us learn more about the evolution of the Universe and why there are so few small galaxies.”

    Very-Large Telescope


    ESO/VLT at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level


    ESO/MUSE

    Researchers pointed the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE), an instrument of the European Southern Observatory’s Very-Large Telescope, in Chile, at the galaxy UGC 7321, which lies at a distance of 30 million light years from Earth.

    1
    Galaxy UGC 7321 is surrounded by hydrogen gas, and as this gas is irradiated with UV radiation, it emits a diffuse red glow through a process known as fluorescence. This image shows the light emitted by stars inside the galaxy, surrounded by a red ring that represents the fluorescent emission induced by the UV radiation. Credit: M. Fumagalli/T. Theuns/S. Berry

    MUSE provides a spectrum, or band of colours, for each pixel in the image allowing the researchers to map the red light produced by the UV radiation illuminating the gas in that galaxy.

    The research, funded in the UK by the Science and Technology Facilities Council, could also help scientists predict the temperature of the cosmic gas with more accuracy.

    Co-author Professor Tom Theuns, in Durham University’s Institute for Computational Cosmology, said: “Ultraviolet radiation heats the cosmic gas to temperatures higher than that of the surface of the Sun.

    “Such hot gas will not cool to make stars in small galaxies. This explains why there are so few small galaxies in the Universe, and also why our Milky Way has so few small satellite galaxies.”


    This movie follows the formation of galaxies with cosmic time, illustrating how ultraviolet (UV) radiation from other galaxies and from quasars suppresses the formation of stars inside small galaxies near to large galaxies similar to the Milky Way and Andromeda.

    The left panel shows a simulation that includes such diffuse UV radiation as in the real Universe, where fewer smaller galaxies form.

    For comparison, the right panel shows what would happen in the absence of such radiation, with more small galaxies forming.

    Credit: S. McAlpine/S. Berry

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Durham U campus

    Durham University is distinctive – a residential collegiate university with long traditions and modern values. We seek the highest distinction in research and scholarship and are committed to excellence in all aspects of education and transmission of knowledge. Our research and scholarship affect every continent. We are proud to be an international scholarly community which reflects the ambitions of cultures from around the world. We promote individual participation, providing a rounded education in which students, staff and alumni gain both the academic and the personal skills required to flourish.

     
  • richardmitnick 6:48 am on July 2, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Durham U,   

    From Durham: “It’s not easy being green…” 

    Durham U bloc

    Durham University

    30 June 2016
    No writer credit found

    what colours tell us about galaxy evolution.

    1
    No image caption. No image credit.

    Scientists may have answered why green galaxies are rare in our Universe and why their colour could reveal a troubled past.

    An international team of scientists, led from Durham’s Institute for Computational Cosmology (ICC), used new computer modelling of the Universe to investigate the colours that galaxies have and what those colours might tell us about how galaxies evolve.

    Using the state-of-the-art EAGLE simulations, the researchers modelled how both the ages of stars in galaxies and what those stars are made from translate into the colour of light that they produce.

    The research team said its simulations showed that colours of galaxies can also help diagnose how they evolve.

    Important stage in galaxy evolution

    While red and blue galaxies are relatively common, rare green galaxies are likely to be at an important stage in their evolution, when they are rapidly turning from blue – when new stars and planets are being born – to red as stars begin to burn themselves out.

    The research funded by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) and the European Research Council (ERC) is being presented at the Royal Astronomical Society’s National Astronomy Meeting in Nottingham, UK.

    Lead researcher James Trayford, PhD student in the ICC at Durham University, said: “Galaxies emit a healthy blue glow while new stars and planets are being born. However, if the formation of stars is halted galaxies turn red as stars begin to age and die.

    “In the real Universe we see many blue and red galaxies, but these intermediate ‘green’ galaxies are more rare.

    “This suggests that the few green galaxies we catch are likely to be at a critical stage in their evolution; rapidly turning from blue to red.”

    Dramatic changes in colour

    Because stars form from dense gas, a powerful process is needed to rapidly destroy their gas supply and cause such dramatic changes in colour, the research found.

    James added: “In a recent study we followed simulated galaxies as they changed colour, and investigated what processes caused them to change.

    “We typically find that smaller green galaxies are being violently tossed around by the gravitational pull of a massive neighbour, causing their gas supply to be stripped away.

    “Meanwhile, bigger green galaxies may self-destruct as immense explosions triggered by super-massive black holes at their centres can blow dense gas away.”

    Hope for green galaxies

    However, the research found that there was some hope for green galaxies as a lucky few might absorb a fresh supply of gas from their surroundings.

    This can revive the formation of stars and planets, and restore galaxies to a healthy blue state.

    James said: “By using simulations to study how galaxy colours change, we can speed up the process of galaxy evolution from the billions of years it takes in the real Universe to just a matter of days in a computer.

    “This means we don’t just see galaxy colours frozen in time, we can watch them evolve. Another advantage is that we can remove unwanted factors that may change the colours we see, such as pesky dust clouds that can prevent light escaping from galaxies.

    “As the EAGLE simulations we use represent a new level of realism, we can have greater confidence in applying these results to the real Universe.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Durham U campus

    Durham University is distinctive – a residential collegiate university with long traditions and modern values. We seek the highest distinction in research and scholarship and are committed to excellence in all aspects of education and transmission of knowledge. Our research and scholarship affect every continent. We are proud to be an international scholarly community which reflects the ambitions of cultures from around the world. We promote individual participation, providing a rounded education in which students, staff and alumni gain both the academic and the personal skills required to flourish.

     
  • richardmitnick 6:32 am on July 2, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Durham U, ,   

    From Durham U: “Seeds of supermassive black holes could be revealed by gravitational waves” 

    Durham U bloc

    Durham University

    27 June 2016
    No writer credit found

    Gravitational waves captured by space-based detectors could help identify the origins of supermassive black holes, according to new computer simulations of the Universe.

    Scientists led by Durham University’s Institute for Computational Cosmology ran the huge cosmological simulations that can be used to predict the rate at which gravitational waves caused by collisions between the monster black holes might be detected.

    The amplitude and frequency of these waves could reveal the initial mass of the seeds from which the first black holes grew since they were formed 13 billion years ago and provide further clues about what caused them and where they formed, the researchers said.

    RAS National Astronomy Meeting

    The research is being presented at the Royal Astronomical Society’s National Astronomy Meeting in Nottingham, UK. It was funded by the Science and Technology Facilities Council, the European Research Council and the Belgian Interuniversity Attraction Poles Programme.

    The study combined simulations from the EAGLE project – which aims to create a realistic simulation of the known Universe inside a computer – with a model to calculate gravitational wave signals.

    2
    The EAGLE simulation is one of the largest cosmological hydrodynamical simulations ever, using nearly 7 billion particles to model the physics. It took more than one and a half months of computer time on 4000 compute cores of the DiRAC-2 supercomputer in Durham. It was performed with a heavily modified version of the public GADGET-2 simulation code.

    EAGLE is a project of the Virgo Consortium for cosmological supercomputer simulations.

    VIRGO Collaboration bloc

    Two detections of gravitational waves caused by collisions between supermassive black holes should be possible each year using space-based instruments such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA) detector that is due to launch in 2034, the researchers said.

    ESA/eLISA
    ESA/eLISA

    In February the international LIGO and Virgo collaborations announced that they had detected gravitational waves for the first time using ground-based instruments and in June reported a second detection.

    Supermassive black holes

    As eLISA will be in space – and will be at least 250,000 times larger than detectors on Earth – it should be able to detect the much lower frequency gravitational waves caused by collisions between supermassive black holes that are up to a million times the mass of our sun.

    Current theories suggest that the seeds of these black holes were the result of either the growth and collapse of the first generation of stars in the Universe; collisions between stars in dense stellar clusters; or the direct collapse of extremely massive stars in the early Universe.

    As each of these theories predicts different initial masses for the seeds of supermassive black hole seeds, the collisions would produce different gravitational wave signals.

    This means that the potential detections by eLISA could help pinpoint the mechanism that helped create supermassive black holes and when in the history of the Universe they formed.

    Gravitational waves

    Lead author Jaime Salcido, PhD student in Durham University’s Institute for Computational Cosmology, said: “Understanding more about gravitational waves means that we can study the Universe in an entirely different way.

    “These waves are caused by massive collisions between objects with a mass far greater than our sun.

    “By combining the detection of gravitational waves with simulations we could ultimately work out when and how the first seeds of supermassive black holes formed.”

    Co- author Professor Richard Bower, of Durham University’s Institute for Computational Cosmology, added: “Black holes are fundamental to galaxy formation and are thought to sit at the centre of most galaxies, including our very own Milky Way.

    “Discovering how they came to be where they are is one of the unsolved problems of cosmology and astronomy.

    “Our research has shown how space based detectors will provide new insights into the nature of supermassive black holes.”

    Detecting gravitational waves in space

    Gravitational waves were first predicted 100 years ago by Albert Einstein as part of his Theory of General Relativity.

    The waves are concentric ripples caused by violent events in the Universe that squeeze and stretch the fabric of space time but most are so weak they cannot be detected.

    LIGO detected gravitational waves using ground-based instruments, called interferometers, that use laser beams to pick up subtle disturbances caused by the waves.

    LSC LIGO Scientific Collaboration
    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo Hanford, WA, USA installation
    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo Hanford, WA, USA
    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo detector installation Livingston, LA, USA
    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo detector installation Livingston, LA, USA

    eLISA will work in a similar way, detecting the small changes in distances between three satellites that will orbit the sun in a triangular pattern connected by beams from lasers in each satellite.

    In June it was reported that the LISA Pathfinder, the forerunner to eLISA, had successfully demonstrated the technology that opens the door to the development of a large space observatory capable of detecting gravitational waves in space.

    ESA/LISA Pathfinder
    ESA/LISA Pathfinder

    • Durham’s researchers will show how they use supercomputer simulations to test how galactic ingredients and violent events combine to shape the life history of galaxies when they exhibit at the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition in London from 4 to 10 July, 2016.

    1
    Seeds of black holes could be revealed by gravitational waves detected in space. No image credit.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Durham U campus

    Durham University is distinctive – a residential collegiate university with long traditions and modern values. We seek the highest distinction in research and scholarship and are committed to excellence in all aspects of education and transmission of knowledge. Our research and scholarship affect every continent. We are proud to be an international scholarly community which reflects the ambitions of cultures from around the world. We promote individual participation, providing a rounded education in which students, staff and alumni gain both the academic and the personal skills required to flourish.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:19 pm on June 28, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Durham U, ,   

    From Durham U: “Seeds of supermassive black holes could be revealed by gravitational waves 

    Durham U bloc

    Durham University

    27 June 2016
    No writer credit found


    Access mp4 video here .

    Gravitational waves captured by space-based detectors could help identify the origins of supermassive black holes, according to new computer simulations of the Universe.

    Scientists led by Durham University’s Institute for Computational Cosmology ran the huge cosmological simulations that can be used to predict the rate at which gravitational waves caused by collisions between the monster black holes might be detected.

    The amplitude and frequency of these waves could reveal the initial mass of the seeds from which the first black holes grew since they were formed 13 billion years ago and provide further clues about what caused them and where they formed, the researchers said.

    RAS National Astronomy Meeting

    The research is being presented today (Monday, June 27, 2016) at the Royal Astronomical Society’s National Astronomy Meeting in Nottingham, UK. It was funded by the Science and Technology Facilities Council, the European Research Council and the Belgian Interuniversity Attraction Poles Programme.

    The study combined simulations from the EAGLE project – which aims to create a realistic simulation of the known Universe inside a computer – with a model to calculate gravitational wave signals.

    Two detections of gravitational waves caused by collisions between supermassive black holes should be possible each year using space-based instruments such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA) detector that is due to launch in 2034, the researchers said.

    ESA/eLISA
    ESA/eLISA

    In February the international LIGO and Virgo collaborations announced that they had detected gravitational waves for the first time using ground-based instruments and in June reported a second detection.

    LSC LIGO Scientific Collaboration
    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo Hanford, WA, USA installation
    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo Hanford, WA, USA installation

    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo detector installation Livingston, LA, USA
    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo detector installation Livingston, LA, USA

    Supermassive black holes

    As eLISA will be in space – and will be at least 250,000 times larger than detectors on Earth – it should be able to detect the much lower frequency gravitational waves caused by collisions between supermassive black holes that are up to a million times the mass of our sun.

    Current theories suggest that the seeds of these black holes were the result of either the growth and collapse of the first generation of stars in the Universe; collisions between stars in dense stellar clusters; or the direct collapse of extremely massive stars in the early Universe.

    As each of these theories predicts different initial masses for the seeds of supermassive black hole seeds, the collisions would produce different gravitational wave signals.

    This means that the potential detections by eLISA could help pinpoint the mechanism that helped create supermassive black holes and when in the history of the Universe they formed.

    Gravitational waves

    Lead author Jaime Salcido, PhD student in Durham University’s Institute for Computational Cosmology, said: “Understanding more about gravitational waves means that we can study the Universe in an entirely different way.

    “These waves are caused by massive collisions between objects with a mass far greater than our sun.

    “By combining the detection of gravitational waves with simulations we could ultimately work out when and how the first seeds of supermassive black holes formed.”

    Co- author Professor Richard Bower, of Durham University’s Institute for Computational Cosmology, added: “Black holes are fundamental to galaxy formation and are thought to sit at the centre of most galaxies, including our very own Milky Way.

    “Discovering how they came to be where they are is one of the unsolved problems of cosmology and astronomy.

    “Our research has shown how space based detectors will provide new insights into the nature of supermassive black holes.”

    Detecting gravitational waves in space

    Gravitational waves were first predicted 100 years ago by Albert Einstein as part of his Theory of General Relativity.

    The waves are concentric ripples caused by violent events in the Universe that squeeze and stretch the fabric of space time but most are so weak they cannot be detected.

    LIGO detected gravitational waves using ground-based instruments, called interferometers, that use laser beams to pick up subtle disturbances caused by the waves.

    eLISA will work in a similar way, detecting the small changes in distances between three satellites that will orbit the sun in a triangular pattern connected by beams from lasers in each satellite.

    In June it was reported that the LISA Pathfinder, the forerunner to eLISA, had successfully demonstrated the technology that opens the door to the development of a large space observatory capable of detecting gravitational waves in space.

    ESA/LISA Pathfinder
    ESA/LISA Pathfinder

    • Durham’s researchers will show how they use supercomputer simulations to test how galactic ingredients and violent events combine to shape the life history of galaxies when they exhibit at the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition in London from 4 to 10 July, 2016.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Durham U campus

    Durham University is distinctive – a residential collegiate university with long traditions and modern values. We seek the highest distinction in research and scholarship and are committed to excellence in all aspects of education and transmission of knowledge. Our research and scholarship affect every continent. We are proud to be an international scholarly community which reflects the ambitions of cultures from around the world. We promote individual participation, providing a rounded education in which students, staff and alumni gain both the academic and the personal skills required to flourish.

     
    • Jona 1:41 am on July 10, 2016 Permalink | Reply

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