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  • richardmitnick 1:27 pm on September 22, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Tracking the big melt", Arctic permafrost – frozen ground – is rapidly thawing due to a warming climate., , DOE's Oak Ridge National laboratory (US), , , E3SM: Energy Exascale Earth System Model, Earth’s rapidly changing Arctic coastal regions have an outsized climatic effect that echoes around the globe., , Researchers have shown that September Arctic sea ice extent is declining by about 13 percent each decade.   

    From DOE’s ASCR Discovery (US) : “Tracking the big melt” 

    From DOE’s ASCR Discovery (US)

    September 2021

    DOE’s Los Alamos National Laboratory (US) and DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US) scientists lead a DOE supercomputing effort to model the complex interactions affecting climate change in Arctic coastal regions.

    1
    Beaufort Sea ice, April 2007. Photo courtesy of Andrew Roberts, Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    Earth’s rapidly changing Arctic coastal regions have an outsized climatic effect that echoes around the globe. Tracking processes behind this evolution is a daunting task even for the best scientists.

    Coastlines are some of the planet’s most dynamic areas – places where marine, terrestrial, atmospheric and human actions meet. But the Arctic coastal regions face the most troubling issues from human-caused climate change from increasing greenhouse gas emissions, says Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) scientist Andrew Roberts.

    “Arctic coastal systems are very fragile,” says Roberts, who leads the high-performance computing systems element of a broader Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science effort, led by its Biological and Environmental Research (BER) office, to simulate changing Arctic coastal conditions. “Until the last several decades, thick, perennial Arctic sea ice appears to have been generally stable. Now, warming temperatures are causing it to melt.”

    In the 1980s, multiyear ice at least four years old accounted for more than 30 percent of Arctic coverage; that has shrunk to not much more than 1 percent today. Whereas that perennial pack ice circulates around the Arctic, another type known as land-fast ice – anchored to a shoreline or the ocean bottom, acting as a floating land extension – is receding toward the coast due to rising temperatures.

    This exposes coastal regions to damaging waves that can disperse ice and erode coastal permafrost, Roberts says.

    Researchers have shown that September Arctic sea ice extent is declining by about 13 percent each decade, as the Arctic warms more than twice as fast as the rest of the planet – what scientists call “Arctic amplification.”

    Changes in Arctic sea-ice and land-ice melting can disrupt the so-called global ocean conveyor belt that circulates water around the planet and helps stabilize the climate, Roberts reports. The stream moves cold, dense, salty water from the poles to the tropical oceans, which send warm water in return.

    The Arctic is now stuck in a crippling feedback loop: Sea ice can reflect 80 percent or more of sunlight into space, but its relentless decline causes larger and larger areas of dark, open ocean to take its place in summer and absorb more than 90 percent of noon sunlight, leading to more warming.

    Roberts and his colleagues tease out how reductions in Arctic ice and increases in Arctic temperatures affect flooding, marine biogeochemistry, shipping, natural resource extraction and wildlife habitat loss. The team also assesses the effects of climate change on traditional communities, where anthropogenic warming affects weather patterns and damages hunting grounds and infrastructure such as buildings and roads.

    Arctic permafrost – frozen ground – is rapidly thawing due to a warming climate. Some scientists predict that roughly 2.5 million square miles of this soil – about 40 percent of the world’s total – could disappear by the century’s end and release mammoth amounts of potent greenhouse gases, including methane, carbon dioxide and water vapor.

    The overall research project, the BER-sponsored Interdisciplinary Research for Arctic Coastal Environments (InteRFACE), led by Joel Rowland, also from LANL, and is a multi-institutional collaboration that includes other national laboratories and universities. Roberts has overseen the computational aspects of the DOE project that have benefitted from 650,000 node-hours of supercomputing time in 2020 at the DOE’s National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (US) at DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (US).

    The Arctic coastal calculations used NERSC’s Cori, a Cray XC40 system with 700,000 processing cores that can perform 30 thousand trillion floating-point operations per second.

    The LANL researchers, with colleagues from many other national laboratories, have relied on and contributed to development of a sophisticated DOE-supported research tool called the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM), letting them use supercomputer simulation and data-management to better understand changes in Arctic coastal systems. InteRFACE activities contribute to the development of E3SM and benefit from its broader development.

    E3SM portrays the atmosphere, ocean, land and sea ice – including the mass and energy changes between them – in high-resolution, three-dimensional models, focusing Cori’s computing power on small regions of big interest. The scientists have created grid-like meshes of triangular cells in E3SM’s sea-ice and ocean components to reproduce the region’s coastlines with high fidelity.

    “One of the big questions is when melting sea ice will make the Arctic Ocean navigable year-round,” Roberts says. Although government and commercial ships – even cruise ships – have been able to maneuver through the Northwest Passage in the Canadian Archipelago in recent summers, by 2030 the region could be routinely navigable for many months of the year if sea-ice melting continues apace, he says.

    E3SM development will help researchers better understand how much the Northwest Passage is navigable compared with traditional rectangular meshes used in many lower-resolution climate models, Roberts notes.

    E3SM features weather-scale resolution – that is, detailed enough to capture fronts, storms, and hurricanes – and uses advanced computers to simulate aspects of the Earth’s variability. The code helps researchers anticipate decadal-scale changes that could influence the U.S. energy sector in years to come.

    “If we had the computing power, we would like to have high-resolution simulations everywhere in the world,” he says. “But that is incredibly expensive to undertake.”

    Ethan Coon, an Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientist and a co-investigator of a related project, supported by the DOE Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program’s Leadership Computing Challenge (ALCC), says far-northern land warming “is transforming the Arctic hydrological cycle, and we are seeing significant changes in river and stream discharge.” The ALCC program allocates supercomputer time for DOE projects that emphasize high-risk, high-payoff simulations and that broadened the research community.

    Coon, an alumnus of the DOE Computational Science Graduate Fellowship, says warming is altering the pathways of rivers and streams. As thawing permafrost sinks lower below the surface, groundwater courses deeper underground and stays colder as it flows into streams – potentially affecting fish and other wildlife.

    What happens on land has a big ocean impact, Roberts agrees. At long last, he says, “we finally have the ability to really refine coastal regions and simulate their physical processes.”

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    ASCRDiscovery is a publication of The U.S. Department of Energy

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE)(US) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States’ policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material. Its responsibilities include the nation’s nuclear weapons program; nuclear reactor production for the United States Navy; energy conservation; energy-related research; radioactive waste disposal; and domestic energy production. It also directs research in genomics. the Human Genome Project originated in a DOE initiative. DOE sponsors more research in the physical sciences than any other U.S. federal agency, the majority of which is conducted through its system of National Laboratories. The agency is led by the United States Secretary of Energy, and its headquarters are located in Southwest Washington, D.C., on Independence Avenue in the James V. Forrestal Building, named for James Forrestal, as well as in Germantown, Maryland.

    Formation and consolidation

    In 1942, during World War II, the United States started the Manhattan Project, a project to develop the atomic bomb, under the eye of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. After the war in 1946, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was created to control the future of the project. The Atomic Energy Act of 1946 also created the framework for the first National Laboratories. Among other nuclear projects, the AEC produced fabricated uranium fuel cores at locations such as Fernald Feed Materials Production Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1974, the AEC gave way to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which was tasked with regulating the nuclear power industry and the Energy Research and Development Administration, which was tasked to manage the nuclear weapon; naval reactor; and energy development programs.

    The 1973 oil crisis called attention to the need to consolidate energy policy. On August 4, 1977, President Jimmy Carter signed into law The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Pub.L. 95–91, 91 Stat. 565, enacted August 4, 1977), which created the Department of Energy(US). The new agency, which began operations on October 1, 1977, consolidated the Federal Energy Administration; the Energy Research and Development Administration; the Federal Power Commission; and programs of various other agencies. Former Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger, who served under Presidents Nixon and Ford during the Vietnam War, was appointed as the first secretary.

    President Carter created the Department of Energy with the goal of promoting energy conservation and developing alternative sources of energy. He wanted to not be dependent on foreign oil and reduce the use of fossil fuels. With international energy’s future uncertain for America, Carter acted quickly to have the department come into action the first year of his presidency. This was an extremely important issue of the time as the oil crisis was causing shortages and inflation. With the Three-Mile Island disaster, Carter was able to intervene with the help of the department. Carter made switches within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in this case to fix the management and procedures. This was possible as nuclear energy and weapons are responsibility of the Department of Energy.

    Recent

    On March 28, 2017, a supervisor in the Office of International Climate and Clean Energy asked staff to avoid the phrases “climate change,” “emissions reduction,” or “Paris Agreement” in written memos, briefings or other written communication. A DOE spokesperson denied that phrases had been banned.

    In a May 2019 press release concerning natural gas exports from a Texas facility, the DOE used the term ‘freedom gas’ to refer to natural gas. The phrase originated from a speech made by Secretary Rick Perry in Brussels earlier that month. Washington Governor Jay Inslee decried the term “a joke”.

    Facilities

    The Department of Energy operates a system of national laboratories and technical facilities for research and development, as follows:

    Ames Laboratory
    Argonne National Laboratory
    Brookhaven National Laboratory
    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
    Idaho National Laboratory
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
    Los Alamos National Laboratory
    National Energy Technology Laboratory
    National Renewable Energy Laboratory
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
    Sandia National Laboratories
    Savannah River National Laboratory
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    Other major DOE facilities include:
    Albany Research Center
    Bannister Federal Complex
    Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory – focuses on the design and development of nuclear power for the U.S. Navy
    Kansas City Plant
    Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory – operates for Naval Reactors Program Research under the DOE (not a National Laboratory)
    National Petroleum Technology Office
    Nevada Test Site
    New Brunswick Laboratory
    Office of Fossil Energy[32]
    Office of River Protection[33]
    Pantex
    Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory
    Y-12 National Security Complex
    Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository
    Other:

    Pahute Mesa Airstrip – Nye County, Nevada, in supporting Nevada National Security Site

     
  • richardmitnick 3:32 pm on September 15, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Living laboratory biodiversity hub-The Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park", , DOE's Oak Ridge National laboratory (US),   

    From DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US) : “Living laboratory biodiversity hub-The Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park” 

    From DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US)

    September 15, 2021

    1
    In stream ecosystems, nutrient cycles become elongated spirals as water carries elements downstream. The first study that developed and tested the methods for measuring the spiraling of nutrients in stream ecosystems took place in this watershed.

    “These techniques are now used by scientists across the world,” said ORNL aquatic ecologist Natalie Griffiths. “In the past decade, we have applied these methods to examine not only how nitrogen and phosphorus individually spiral in stream ecosystems, but also how these nutrients interact to affect their spiraling dynamics.”

    2
    ORNL’s Elizabeth Herndon, an environmental geochemist, focuses on terrestrial cycles within the Walker Branch Watershed. “One of the research questions I’m working on is trying to understand how organic matter is stored in soil,” Herndon said. Organic matter contains carbon, so understanding the chemical and microbial processes by which organic matter is preserved or breaks down in soil and releases carbon into the atmosphere is vital information for climate change research, she added.

    Herndon and a team of postdocs and students are investigating what happens to leaf litter decomposition under the warming conditions associated with climate change. For almost a year, they’ve warmed leaf litter in mesh bags using small heaters and tracked the leaves’ decomposition. They’ve also tested adding manganese, a micronutrient thought to contribute to the breakdown process.

    Herndon said she benefits from her study plot’s short distance from ORNL and from the nearby Oak Ridge National Ecological Observatory Network field site, which provides her with supplemental data.

    Anyone familiar with the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory knows it’s a hub for world-class science. The nearly 33,000-acre space surrounding the lab is less known, but also unique. The Oak Ridge Reservation, or ORR, is a key hotspot for biodiversity in the Southeast and is home to more than 1,500 species of plants and animals.

    3
    At the intersection of eastern Tennessee’s Anderson and Roane counties is an important subset of the reservation — the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park, or NERP – a 20,000-acre ORNL research facility that has been internationally recognized by UNESCO as an official biosphere reserve unit.

    “The National Environmental Research Park is a living laboratory and a major resource for conducting ecological studies,” said Evin Carter, an ORNL wildlife ecologist and director of the Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Program, or SAMAB. The NERP has been a core part of SAMAB, which focuses on sustainable economic development and conserving biodiversity in Southern Appalachia, since 1989.

    With ORNL researchers and scientists from government agencies and academia using the NERP for diverse experiments each year, the park lives up to its status as a living laboratory.

    It also lives up to its reputation as a biodiversity hotspot. As one of seven DOE-established environmental research parks reflecting North America’s major ecoregions, it represents the Eastern Deciduous Forest. The NERP comprises parts of this ecoregion that have been identified repeatedly as priorities for global biodiversity conservation, Carter said.

    Today, this designation means more than ever as climate change alters ecosystems and biodiversity declines worldwide. According to a landmark international report, around one million plant and animal species are currently threatened with extinction.

    On the ORR and the NERP, a number of research projects and conservation initiatives are focused on addressing these challenging environmental problems to preserve species for generations to come.

    Providing a haven for wildlife

    A key way the ORR and NERP foster biodiversity is by maintaining connectivity between habitats. Established by the federal government during the Manhattan Project, the ORR has escaped some of the intense development that has impacted nearby areas.

    Between intertwining highways and stretches of suburbia, the space contains large tracts of forests, native grasslands, wetlands, caves, cliffs and cedar barrens all within one contiguous area. As human activity fragments ecosystems, this is increasingly rare — and extremely important.

    “That habitat diversity creates a situation where you’ve got animal species here that are not found in surrounding areas,” said ORNL Natural Resources Manager Neil Giffen. “It’s like an oasis for them.”

    Among those species are uncommon birds, such as the purple gallinule, and rare amphibians, including the hellbender and four-toed salamander. Also present are charismatic mammals such as river otter, fox, coyote and even bobcat. ORNL’s Natural Resources Management Team monitors and manages this wildlife as part of their mission as primary stewards for DOE reservation management under the DOE ORNL Site Office.

    Carter, for example, is leading a large-scale project tracking how different forms of wildlife move within and across the reservation. The project’s findings could better inform how to plan development for the federal facilities within the ORR, including ORNL and the Y-12 National Security Complex, while minimizing impacts on wildlife.

    ORNL’s Kitty McCracken, ecosystem management coordinator for the ORR, spends much of her time managing invasive plants. But she also leads a program monitoring bats.

    The ORR is home to two endangered bat species — the gray bat and Indiana bat — and one threatened species, the Northern long-eared bat. McCracken uses acoustic monitoring technology to listen for each species’ distinct vocal signatures and may capture them for species verification using ultra-fine nets.

    Since the program started in 2012, McCracken and colleagues have gained information about each species’ complex needs. In the summer, some species live only in certain types of trees, for instance, and some use different caves seasonally for various life stages, such as rearing pups or hibernating.

    “Preserving a whole forest ecosystem is vital for taking care of the needs of these bats and other plants and animals,” McCracken said. Carter and McCracken work together to understand which of the ORR’s more than 40 caves are important to bats. Recent surveys of these caves have also revealed invertebrates and vertebrates not previously known to occur on the ORR, including two invertebrates that may be previously undiscovered species.

    “There is undoubtedly more to be found,” Carter said.

    Preserving plants for people

    In addition to offering a sanctuary for animals, the ORR and NERP boast more than 1,100 plant species. The collection rivals that of the nearby Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Some of these plants hold rich cultural importance. This fact prompted representatives of the NERP to participate in the Culturally Significant Plant Species Initiative, or CSPSI. This initiative is a collaboration between the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and SAMAB focused on the sustainability, conservation and management of plants with cultural significance to the Cherokee through education and increased access.

    “As Cherokee, we’re not third-, fourth-, fifth-generation farmers,” said Tommy Cabe, the forester for Eastern Band’s natural resources program and CSPSI organizer. “We’ve been a part of this landscape for millennia, and we have the longest-running relationship with the diversity of this ecosystem.”

    That relationship involves using native trees, shrubs, grasses and mosses in food, medicine, art and in artisan goods, Cabe said. White oaks, ramps and river cane, for example, play important roles in Cherokee basket making, cooking and as material resources, respectively. But as factors such as habitat loss and overharvesting by outside groups put these plants at risk, organizations involved in the NERP saw a need to collaborate to protect them.

    Jamie Herold, a plant ecologist at ORNL, has been involved with CSPSI since it launched in 2017. The program started as an effort to create a seed bank for plants of interest to the Cherokee.

    “From that it grew at least tenfold,” Herold said. “We started having more meetings and ideas about how we can incorporate the science and the conservation efforts and education.”

    After a strong start that included the publication of a charter and the formation of subcommittees, the COVID-19 pandemic slowed CSPSI’s progress. As uncertainty surrounding the pandemic lingers, the initiative’s constituents are making decisions about CSPSI’s next steps.

    Outside of CSPSI, native plants are still top priority for the NERP, where Herold leads research and management of the park’s vegetation. Landscaping projects at ORNL harness native plants and in 2019, an area in the western part of ORNL’s campus featuring 52 native tree species became a certified arboretum. The ORR Plant and Animal Reference Collection additionally contains more than 3,000 plant specimens collected over 70 years – plus insect, mammal and bird specimens.

    Studying invisible ecosystem forces

    Over the years, many scientists in ORNL’s Environmental Sciences Division have used the NERP for large-scale environmental research on topics including clean air and water, impacts of energy sources and even tree growth under increased carbon dioxide conditions.

    Much of this research was conducted in Walker Branch Watershed, a seminal research catchment that advanced understanding of the cycling of elements on land and in water beginning in the 1960s.

    In stream ecosystems, nutrient cycles become elongated spirals as water carries elements downstream. The first study that developed and tested the methods for measuring the spiraling of nutrients in stream ecosystems took place in this watershed.

    “These techniques are now used by scientists across the world,” said ORNL aquatic ecologist Natalie Griffiths. “In the past decade, we have applied these methods to examine not only how nitrogen and phosphorus individually spiral in stream ecosystems, but also how these nutrients interact to affect their spiraling dynamics.”

    ORNL’s Scott Brooks uses the NERP to study a different global issue: mercury pollution. Brooks studies how microbial activity and hydrology influence the chemistry and cycling of mercury in the environment. A neurotoxin, mercury has negative health effects in people and can cause reproductive issues in animals.

    For more than 10 years, Brooks has run experiments on decades-old mercury contamination in East Fork Poplar Creek and Bear Creek, which both wind through the ORR. The proximity of the creeks to the lab allows him to collect “samples of opportunity.”

    “If we know something is going to change, we can get out and get samples quickly in advance of that event, such as rainfall that might stir up sediment and change the amount of mercury in the water,” Brooks said.

    Whether studying microbes, bats or biodiversity, the researchers who use the ORR and the NERP agree: Like the species who call them home, these spaces are worth protecting.

    Research within the Oak Ridge Reservation and ORNL National Environmental Research Park is supported by the Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management and the Biological and Environmental Research Program within the DOE Office of Science.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition


    Established in 1942, DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US) is the largest science and energy national laboratory in the Department of Energy system (by size) and third largest by annual budget. It is located in the Roane County section of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Its scientific programs focus on materials, neutron science, energy, high-performance computing, systems biology and national security, sometimes in partnership with the state of Tennessee, universities and other industries.

    ORNL has several of the world’s top supercomputers, including Summit, ranked by the TOP500 as Earth’s second-most powerful.

    IBM AC922 SUMMIT supercomputer, was No.1 on the TOP500.

    The lab is a leading neutron and nuclear power research facility that includes the Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor.

    ORNL Spallation Neutron Source annotated.

    It hosts the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, the BioEnergy Science Center, and the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Nuclear Reactors.

    ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy’s Office of Science. DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time.

    Areas of research

    ORNL conducts research and development activities that span a wide range of scientific disciplines. Many research areas have a significant overlap with each other; researchers often work in two or more of the fields listed here. The laboratory’s major research areas are described briefly below.

    Chemical sciences – ORNL conducts both fundamental and applied research in a number of areas, including catalysis, surface science and interfacial chemistry; molecular transformations and fuel chemistry; heavy element chemistry and radioactive materials characterization; aqueous solution chemistry and geochemistry; mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy; separations chemistry; materials chemistry including synthesis and characterization of polymers and other soft materials; chemical biosciences; and neutron science.
    Electron microscopy – ORNL’s electron microscopy program investigates key issues in condensed matter, materials, chemical and nanosciences.
    Nuclear medicine – The laboratory’s nuclear medicine research is focused on the development of improved reactor production and processing methods to provide medical radioisotopes, the development of new radionuclide generator systems, the design and evaluation of new radiopharmaceuticals for applications in nuclear medicine and oncology.
    Physics – Physics research at ORNL is focused primarily on studies of the fundamental properties of matter at the atomic, nuclear, and subnuclear levels and the development of experimental devices in support of these studies.
    Population – ORNL provides federal, state and international organizations with a gridded population database, called Landscan, for estimating ambient population. LandScan is a raster image, or grid, of population counts, which provides human population estimates every 30 x 30 arc seconds, which translates roughly to population estimates for 1 kilometer square windows or grid cells at the equator, with cell width decreasing at higher latitudes. Though many population datasets exist, LandScan is the best spatial population dataset, which also covers the globe. Updated annually (although data releases are generally one year behind the current year) offers continuous, updated values of population, based on the most recent information. Landscan data are accessible through GIS applications and a USAID public domain application called Population Explorer.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:11 pm on July 20, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "ORNL and AMS Complete Sensor Testing for Small Modular Reactors", Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS), , DOE's Oak Ridge National laboratory (US), Looping Performance Tests, Nuclear-grade resistance temperature detectors, Testing of sensors for small light-water reactor systems.   

    From Department of Energy (US) : “ORNL and AMS Complete Sensor Testing for Small Modular Reactors” 

    From Department of Energy (US)

    1
    DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (US)

    July 20, 2021

    2
    Small steam loop that ORNL built and attached to the steam plant for testing under the steam conditions.
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Department of Energy.

    DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US) and Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) recently completed testing of sensors for small light-water reactor systems. The performance data will be shared with U.S. nuclear companies to improve sensor instrumentation for advanced light-water small modular reactors (SMRs).

    The data could also be leveraged to support other advanced reactor types cooled by gas, liquid metal or molten salt.

    Looping Performance Tests

    ORNL successfully tested nuclear-grade resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) using a thermosyphon test loop and a specialized steam loop constructed specifically for the project. The rugged temperature sensors were examined at the expected operating conditions of an advanced SMR that uses natural water circulation to cool the reactor.

    3
    Water loop with the RTD sensor installed.
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Department of Energy.

    Researchers also assessed the sensor response time needed to detect changes in the coolant conditions that would require the reactor to safely shut down.

    “Because the signals involved are used to initiate a safe shutdown of the reactor during an incident, validation of the instruments’ ability to perform is subject to strict regulatory scrutiny,” said Nuclear Engineer Nesrin Ozgan Cetiner, lead researcher for the project at ORNL who is currently a Irradiation Scientist at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US). “Our research results will help guide industry partners in the selection of nuclear-grade RTDs suitable for safety-related temperature measurements of the reactor coolant and main steam of small modular reactors.”

    Industry Benefits

    The project was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN), which makes government research facilities more accessible to the nuclear community in support of the commercialization of innovative nuclear technologies.

    “GAIN has helped AMS greatly benefit from the resources and expertise at ORNL to test the performance of sensors and cables for the next generation of nuclear reactors, said Alexander H. Hashemian, a senior research engineer for AMS.

    One of the motivations for the awarded GAIN Voucher was to characterize sensor performance in conditions relevant to NuScale Power and other natural circulation SMRs, such as Holtec’s SMR-160.

    “Ultimately our goal is to help DOE’s Office of Nuclear Energy in its mission of helping the nation create a new generation of reactor technology,” Cetiner said. “The commercial companies who will build the reactors and manufacture the equipment need our research insights to ensure that these instruments perform as intended.”

    ORNL and AMS are finalizing their findings and are preparing guidance to share with industry partners.

    Learn more about our GAIN initiative.

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Department of Energy (US) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States’ policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material. Its responsibilities include the nation’s nuclear weapons program; nuclear reactor production for the United States Navy; energy conservation; energy-related research; radioactive waste disposal; and domestic energy production. It also directs research in genomics. the Human Genome Project originated in a DOE initiative. DOE sponsors more research in the physical sciences than any other U.S. federal agency, the majority of which is conducted through its system of National Laboratories. The agency is led by the United States Secretary of Energy, and its headquarters are located in Southwest Washington, D.C., on Independence Avenue in the James V. Forrestal Building, named for James Forrestal, as well as in Germantown, Maryland.

    Formation and consolidation

    In 1942, during World War II, the United States started the Manhattan Project, a project to develop the atomic bomb, under the eye of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. After the war in 1946, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was created to control the future of the project. The Atomic Energy Act of 1946 also created the framework for the first National Laboratories. Among other nuclear projects, the AEC produced fabricated uranium fuel cores at locations such as Fernald Feed Materials Production Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1974, the AEC gave way to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which was tasked with regulating the nuclear power industry and the Energy Research and Development Administration, which was tasked to manage the nuclear weapon; naval reactor; and energy development programs.

    The 1973 oil crisis called attention to the need to consolidate energy policy. On August 4, 1977, President Jimmy Carter signed into law The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Pub.L. 95–91, 91 Stat. 565, enacted August 4, 1977), which created the Department of Energy(US). The new agency, which began operations on October 1, 1977, consolidated the Federal Energy Administration; the Energy Research and Development Administration; the Federal Power Commission; and programs of various other agencies. Former Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger, who served under Presidents Nixon and Ford during the Vietnam War, was appointed as the first secretary.

    President Carter created the Department of Energy with the goal of promoting energy conservation and developing alternative sources of energy. He wanted to not be dependent on foreign oil and reduce the use of fossil fuels. With international energy’s future uncertain for America, Carter acted quickly to have the department come into action the first year of his presidency. This was an extremely important issue of the time as the oil crisis was causing shortages and inflation. With the Three-Mile Island disaster, Carter was able to intervene with the help of the department. Carter made switches within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in this case to fix the management and procedures. This was possible as nuclear energy and weapons are responsibility of the Department of Energy.

    Recent

    On March 28, 2017, a supervisor in the Office of International Climate and Clean Energy asked staff to avoid the phrases “climate change,” “emissions reduction,” or “Paris Agreement” in written memos, briefings or other written communication. A DOE spokesperson denied that phrases had been banned.

    In a May 2019 press release concerning natural gas exports from a Texas facility, the DOE used the term ‘freedom gas’ to refer to natural gas. The phrase originated from a speech made by Secretary Rick Perry in Brussels earlier that month. Washington Governor Jay Inslee decried the term “a joke”.

    Facilities

    The Department of Energy operates a system of national laboratories and technical facilities for research and development, as follows:

    Ames Laboratory
    Argonne National Laboratory
    Brookhaven National Laboratory
    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
    Idaho National Laboratory
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
    Los Alamos National Laboratory
    National Energy Technology Laboratory
    National Renewable Energy Laboratory
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
    Sandia National Laboratories
    Savannah River National Laboratory
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    Other major DOE facilities include:
    Albany Research Center
    Bannister Federal Complex
    Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory – focuses on the design and development of nuclear power for the U.S. Navy
    Kansas City Plant
    Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory – operates for Naval Reactors Program Research under the DOE (not a National Laboratory)
    National Petroleum Technology Office
    Nevada Test Site
    New Brunswick Laboratory
    Office of Fossil Energy
    Office of River Protection
    Pantex
    Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory
    Y-12 National Security Complex
    Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository
    Other:

    Pahute Mesa Airstrip – Nye County, Nevada, in supporting Nevada National Security Site

     
  • richardmitnick 1:10 pm on May 24, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Scientists Tap Supercomputing to Study Exotic Matter in Stars", DOE's Oak Ridge National laboratory (US),   

    From Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (US) at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US) : “Scientists Tap Supercomputing to Study Exotic Matter in Stars” 

    From Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (US)

    at

    DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US)

    5.6.21
    Rachel McDowell

    A team at Stony Brook University (US) used ORNL’s Summit supercomputer to model x-ray burst flames spreading across the surface of dense neutron stars.

    At the heart of some of the smallest and densest stars in the universe lies nuclear matter that might exist in never-before-observed exotic phases. Neutron stars, which form when the cores of massive stars collapse in a luminous supernova explosion, are thought to contain matter at energies greater than what can be achieved in particle accelerator experiments, such as the ones at the CERN Large Hadron Collider(CH) and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (US).

    Although scientists cannot recreate these extreme conditions on Earth, they can use neutron stars as ready-made laboratories to better understand exotic matter. Simulating neutron stars, many of which are only 12.5 miles in diameter but boast around 1.4 to 2 times the mass of our sun, can provide insight into the matter that might exist in their interiors and give clues as to how it behaves at such densities.

    A team of nuclear astrophysicists led by Michael Zingale at Stony Brook University is using the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility’s (OLCF’s) IBM AC922 Summit, the nation’s fastest supercomputer, to model a neutron star phenomenon called an x-ray burst—a thermonuclear explosion that occurs on the surface of a neutron star when its gravitational field pulls a sufficiently large amount of matter off a nearby star. Now, the team has modeled a 2D x-ray burst flame moving across the surface of a neutron star to determine how the flame acts under different conditions. Simulating this astrophysical phenomenon provides scientists with data that can help them better measure the radii of neutron stars, a value that is crucial to studying the physics in the interior of neutron stars. The results were published in The Astrophysical Journal.

    “Astronomers can use x-ray bursts to measure the radius of a neutron star, which is a challenge because it’s so small,” Zingale said. “If we know the radius, we can determine a neutron star’s properties and understand the matter that lives at its center. Our simulations will help connect the physics of the x-ray burst flame burning to observations.”

    The group found that different initial models and physics led to different results. In the next phase of the project, the team plans to run one large 3D simulation based on the results from the study to obtain a more accurate picture of the x-ray burst phenomenon.

    Switching physics

    Neutron star simulations require a massive amount of physics input and therefore a massive amount of computing power. Even on Summit, researchers can only afford to model a small portion of the neutron star surface.

    3
    A dense neutron star (right) pulling matter off a nearby star (left). Image credit: Colby Earles, ORNL.

    To accurately understand the flame’s behavior, Zingale’s team used Summit to model the flame for various features of the underlying neutron star. The team’s simulations were completed under an allocation of computing time under the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) program. The team varied surface temperatures and rotation rates, using these as proxies for different accretion rates—or how quickly the star increases in mass as it accumulates additional matter from a nearby star.

    Alice Harpole, a postdoctoral researcher at Stony Brook University and lead author on the paper, suggested that the team model a hotter crust, leading to unexpected results.

    “One of the most exciting results from this project was what we saw when we varied the temperature of the crust in our simulations,” Harpole said. “In our previous work, we used a cooler crust. I thought it might make a difference to use a hotter crust, but actually seeing the difference that the increased temperature produced was very interesting.”

    Massive computing, more complexity

    The team modeled the x-ray burst flame phenomenon on the OLCF’s Summit at the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Nicole Ford, an intern in the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship Program at DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) (US), ran complementary simulations on the Cori supercomputer at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).

    The OLCF and NERSC are a DOE Office of Science user facilities located at ORNL and LBNL, respectively.

    With simulations of 9,216 grid cells in the horizontal direction and 1,536 cells in the vertical direction, the effort required a massive amount of computing power. After the team completed the simulations, team members tapped the OLCF’s Rhea system to analyze and plot their results.

    On Summit, the team used the Castro code—which is capable of modeling explosive astrophysical phenomena—in the adaptive mesh refinement for the exascale (AMReX) library, which allowed team members to achieve varying resolutions at different parts of the grid. AMReX is one of the libraries being developed by the Exascale Computing Project (US), an effort to adapt scientific applications to run on DOE’s upcoming exascale systems, including the OLCF’s Frontier.

    Exascale systems will be capable of computing in the exaflops range, or 1018 calculations per second.

    AMReX provides a framework for parallelization on supercomputers, but Castro wasn’t always capable of taking advantage of the GPUs that make Summit so attractive for scientific research. The team attended OLCF-hosted hackathons at DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (US) and ORNL to get help with porting the code to Summit’s GPUs.

    “The hackathons were incredibly useful to us in understanding how we could leverage Summit’s GPUs for this effort,” Zingale said. “When we transitioned from CPUs to GPUs, our code ran 10 times faster. This allowed us to make less approximations and perform more physically realistic and longer simulations.

    The team said that the upcoming 3D simulation they plan to run will not only require GPUs—it will eat up nearly all of the team’s INCITE time for the entire year.

    “We need to get every ounce of performance we can,” Zingale said. “Luckily, we have learned from these 2D simulations what we need to do for our 3D simulation, so we are prepared for our next big endeavor.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Established in 1942, DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US) is the largest science and energy national laboratory in the Department of Energy system (by size) and third largest by annual budget. It is located in the Roane County section of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Its scientific programs focus on materials, neutron science, energy, high-performance computing, systems biology and national security, sometimes in partnership with the state of Tennessee, universities and other industries.

    ORNL has several of the world’s top supercomputers, including Summit, ranked by the TOP500 as Earth’s second-most powerful.

    IBM AC922 SUMMIT supercomputer, was No.1 on the TOP500. Credit: Carlos Jones, DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (US).

    The lab is a leading neutron and nuclear power research facility that includes the Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor.

    It hosts the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, the BioEnergy Science Center, and the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Nuclear Reactors.

    ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy’s Office of Science. DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time.

    Areas of research

    ORNL conducts research and development activities that span a wide range of scientific disciplines. Many research areas have a significant overlap with each other; researchers often work in two or more of the fields listed here. The laboratory’s major research areas are described briefly below.

    Chemical sciences – ORNL conducts both fundamental and applied research in a number of areas, including catalysis, surface science and interfacial chemistry; molecular transformations and fuel chemistry; heavy element chemistry and radioactive materials characterization; aqueous solution chemistry and geochemistry; mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy; separations chemistry; materials chemistry including synthesis and characterization of polymers and other soft materials; chemical biosciences; and neutron science.
    Electron microscopy – ORNL’s electron microscopy program investigates key issues in condensed matter, materials, chemical and nanosciences.
    Nuclear medicine – The laboratory’s nuclear medicine research is focused on the development of improved reactor production and processing methods to provide medical radioisotopes, the development of new radionuclide generator systems, the design and evaluation of new radiopharmaceuticals for applications in nuclear medicine and oncology.
    Physics – Physics research at ORNL is focused primarily on studies of the fundamental properties of matter at the atomic, nuclear, and subnuclear levels and the development of experimental devices in support of these studies.
    Population – ORNL provides federal, state and international organizations with a gridded population database, called Landscan, for estimating ambient population. LandScan is a raster image, or grid, of population counts, which provides human population estimates every 30 x 30 arc seconds, which translates roughly to population estimates for 1 kilometer square windows or grid cells at the equator, with cell width decreasing at higher latitudes. Though many population datasets exist, LandScan is the best spatial population dataset, which also covers the globe. Updated annually (although data releases are generally one year behind the current year) offers continuous, updated values of population, based on the most recent information. Landscan data are accessible through GIS applications and a USAID public domain application called Population Explorer.

    The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2004 with the mission of accelerating scientific discovery and engineering progress by providing outstanding computing and data management resources to high-priority research and development projects.

    ORNL’s supercomputing program has grown from humble beginnings to deliver some of the most powerful systems in the world. On the way, it has helped researchers deliver practical breakthroughs and new scientific knowledge in climate, materials, nuclear science, and a wide range of other disciplines.

    The OLCF delivered on that original promise in 2008, when its Cray XT “Jaguar” system ran the first scientific applications to exceed 1,000 trillion calculations a second (1 petaflop). Since then, the OLCF has continued to expand the limits of computing power, unveiling Titan in 2013, which is capable of 27 petaflops.


    ORNL Cray XK7 Titan Supercomputer

    Titan is one of the first hybrid architecture systems—a combination of graphics processing units (GPUs), and the more conventional central processing units (CPUs) that have served as number crunchers in computers for decades. The parallel structure of GPUs makes them uniquely suited to process an enormous number of simple computations quickly, while CPUs are capable of tackling more sophisticated computational algorithms. The complimentary combination of CPUs and GPUs allow Titan to reach its peak performance.

    ORNL IBM AC922 SUMMIT supercomputer. Credit: Carlos Jones, Oak Ridge National Laboratory/U.S. Dept. of Energy

    With a peak performance of 200,000 trillion calculations per second—or 200 petaflops, Summit will be eight times more powerful than ORNL’s previous top-ranked system, Titan. For certain scientific applications, Summit will also be capable of more than three billion billion mixed precision calculations per second, or 3.3 exaops. Summit will provide unprecedented computing power for research in energy, advanced materials and artificial intelligence (AI), among other domains, enabling scientific discoveries that were previously impractical or impossible.

    The OLCF gives the world’s most advanced computational researchers an opportunity to tackle problems that would be unthinkable on other systems. The facility welcomes investigators from universities, government agencies, and industry who are prepared to perform breakthrough research in climate, materials, alternative energy sources and energy storage, chemistry, nuclear physics, astrophysics, quantum mechanics, and the gamut of scientific inquiry. Because it is a unique resource, the OLCF focuses on the most ambitious research projects—projects that provide important new knowledge or enable important new technologies.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:49 pm on April 2, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "ATOM Consortium Welcomes Three DOE National Laboratories to Accelerate Drug Discovery", , ATOM-Accelerating Therapeutics for Opportunities in Medicine (US), DOE's Oak Ridge National laboratory (US), ,   

    From DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (US): “ATOM Consortium Welcomes Three DOE National Laboratories to Accelerate Drug Discovery” 

    From DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (US)

    March 29, 2021
    Peter Genzer,
    genzer@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-3174

    Total of five national laboratories now collaborating to compress drug discovery timeline.

    1
    About ATOM

    The Accelerating Therapeutics for Opportunities in Medicine (US) (ATOM) consortium is a public-private partnership with the mission of transforming drug discovery by accelerating the development of more effective therapies for patients. ATOM’s goal is to transform drug discovery from a slow, sequential, and high-failure process into a rapid, integrated, and patient-centric model. The consortium is integrating high performance computing, diverse biological data, and emerging biotechnologies to create a new pre-competitive platform for drug discovery. Visit http://www.atomscience.org.

    The Accelerating Therapeutics for Opportunities in Medicine (ATOM) consortium today announced the U.S. Department of Energy’s DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory(US) and DOE’s Oak Ridge National laboratory (US) are joining the consortium to further develop ATOM’s artificial intelligence (AI)-driven drug discovery platform.

    The public-private ATOM consortium aims to transform drug discovery from a slow, sequential and high-risk process into a rapid, integrated and patient-centric model. Founded in 2017, ATOM is developing a pre-competitive, pre-clinical drug design platform that integrates diverse data types such as physicochemical properties, in vitro assay results and anonymized human clinical data, with AI, high-performance computing (HPC) and advanced experimental technologies. The goal is to shorten the drug discovery timeline from five years to less than one year.

    “Bringing the experience and expertise from three additional DOE national laboratories to ATOM’s current partners, including the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNL), sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, reinforces ATOM as a valuable national resource to create powerful new capabilities for the cancer research community, building collaborations and driving advances in translational research to develop treatments more quickly,” said Eric Stahlberg, director of the Biomedical Informatics and Data Science group at FNL and co-lead of the ATOM consortium. “As the nation’s only national laboratory focused exclusively on biomedical research, including cancer, AIDS and emerging health threats, FNL has significant resources to apply to the challenges in finding new and effective treatments, and we are thrilled to add these new members to help ATOM achieve its lofty and potentially transformational goals.”

    “It’s exciting to welcome three new national laboratories into the expanded ATOM consortium,” added Jim Brase, deputy associate director for computing at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and ATOM co-lead. “Their combined world-class expertise and experience in computing, simulation and machine learning will accelerate our progress toward molecular design of new therapeutics for the public good.”

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is a leader in high-performance computing and computer sciences, including data science, applied mathematics and computational science. As a member of the consortium, the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility will be leveraged to perform advanced simulations in life sciences, including molecular biology, microbiology, protein chemistry, bioinformatics, computational biology, environmental sciences and other scientific fields. Through this collaboration, Argonne will extend its deep expertise in creating groundbreaking machine learning analytics in biological and life sciences, and gain access to unique and complementary data in predictive biology and medicinal chemistry. Additionally, with its Aurora exascale computing system planned for 2022, Argonne will contribute unmatched computation resources to this collaboration.

    “We are excited to officially join the ATOM consortium, having collaborated closely with members on scientific research efforts since its formation,” said Rick Stevens, Argonne associate laboratory director for Computing, Environment and Life Sciences. “At Argonne we are actively developing and applying computational and machine learning approaches to a broad range of challenges in life sciences, including drug screening for COVID-19 and cancer. We look forward continuing these efforts as part of the ATOM consortium.”

    Within ATOM, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) will share its experience in creating scalable HPC frameworks that support optimal experimental design (OED) active-learning workflows for advanced simulations. These frameworks are designed to engage machine learning that can work with the complex, nonlinear and uncertain aspects that tend to characterize cancer drug therapy research. BNL’s contributions will include model-data integration, developing a reinforcement learning/active learning-guided OED workflow that works on the existing drug candidate dataset and designing a software framework to support scalable, adaptive algorithms used in the drug design and simulation pipeline.

    “At Brookhaven, we are excited to apply our team’s work developing and using optimization algorithms directly to ATOM’s diverse computational data-driven modeling efforts,” said Francis J. “Frank” Alexander, deputy director of the Computational Science Initiative. “Often, mathematical models and systems of interest to ATOM cancer therapy problems are uncertain and under-characterized due to their extremely complex nature. At Brookhaven, our artificial intelligence, machine learning and applied mathematics work aims to unravel complexities to design computational and laboratory experiments that achieve discovery goals in the most efficient manner. We believe these efforts will have significant applications in ATOM that can greatly benefit and enhance the program’s impact. We look forward to contributing as part of the collaboration.”

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is the largest Department of Energy science and energy laboratory with expertise in accelerating scientific discovery through modeling and simulation on powerful supercomputers, data-intensive science and biological systems research. ORNL will apply its unique capabilities to examine the complex and dynamic interactions between candidate molecules and the human body. This approach, focused on quantitative systems pharmacology, predicts the window between an effective low dose of a drug and a higher dose that would be likely to elicit adverse effects. To better predict these therapeutic parameters, scientists are combining AI with systems models that represent proteins, organs and cellular processes. These data about relevant biological processes will integrate into the ATOM workflow to increase the chances of success when molecules go to clinical trials. ORNL is also building the nation’s first exascale-class supercomputer, Frontier, which will allow researchers to solve increasingly complex biological problems when it comes online in late 2021.

    “Tightly coupling these quantitative systems pharmacology models with the larger AI workflow is what sets ATOM apart from other AI-driven drug discovery methods,” said Marti Head, who played a pivotal role in the formation of ATOM during her time at GlaxoSmithKline and now serves as director of the ORNL-University of Tennessee Joint Institute for Biological Sciences. “By integrating high-performance computing, simulation, and big data with chemistry and biology at scale, we can think about drug discovery in one coherent, networked piece and get drugs to patients faster with a greater probability of success. Thinking about the challenges we’ve all been struggling with since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in March of 2020 is a perfect example of why having these drug discovery tools that can operate holistically and help us move faster is so important for the world.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the DOE(US) Office of Science, DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (US) conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University (US) the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle (US), a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

    Research at BNL specializes in nuclear and high energy physics, energy science and technology, environmental and bioscience, nanoscience and national security. The 5,300 acre campus contains several large research facilities, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider [below] and National Synchrotron Light Source II [below]. Seven Nobel prizes have been awarded for work conducted at Brookhaven lab.

    BNL is staffed by approximately 2,750 scientists, engineers, technicians, and support personnel, and hosts 4,000 guest investigators every year. The laboratory has its own police station, fire department, and ZIP code (11973). In total, the lab spans a 5,265-acre (21 km^2) area that is mostly coterminous with the hamlet of Upton, New York. BNL is served by a rail spur operated as-needed by the New York and Atlantic Railway. Co-located with the laboratory is the Upton, New York, forecast office of the National Weather Service.

    Major programs

    Although originally conceived as a nuclear research facility, Brookhaven Lab’s mission has greatly expanded. Its foci are now:

    Nuclear and high-energy physics
    Physics and chemistry of materials
    Environmental and climate research
    Nanomaterials
    Energy research
    Nonproliferation
    Structural biology
    Accelerator physics

    Operation

    Brookhaven National Lab was originally owned by the Atomic Energy Commission(US) and is now owned by that agency’s successor, the United States Department of Energy (DOE). DOE subcontracts the research and operation to universities and research organizations. It is currently operated by Brookhaven Science Associates LLC, which is an equal partnership of Stony Brook University(US) and Battelle Memorial Institute(US). From 1947 to 1998, it was operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), but AUI lost its contract in the wake of two incidents: a 1994 fire at the facility’s high-beam flux reactor that exposed several workers to radiation and reports in 1997 of a tritium leak into the groundwater of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens on which the facility sits.

    Foundations

    Following World War II, the US Atomic Energy Commission was created to support government-sponsored peacetime research on atomic energy. The effort to build a nuclear reactor in the American northeast was fostered largely by physicists Isidor Isaac Rabi and Norman Foster Ramsey Jr., who during the war witnessed many of their colleagues at Columbia University (US) leave for new remote research sites following the departure of the Manhattan Project from its campus. Their effort to house this reactor near New York City was rivalled by a similar effort at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) to have a facility near Boston, Massachusetts (US). Involvement was quickly solicited from representatives of northeastern universities to the south and west of New York City such that this city would be at their geographic center. In March 1946 a nonprofit corporation was established that consisted of representatives from nine major research universities — Columbia University(US), Cornell University(US), Harvard University(US), Johns Hopkins(US), Massachusetts Institute of Technology(US), Princeton University(US), University of Pennsylvania(US), University of Rochester(US), and Yale University(US).
    Out of 17 considered sites in the Boston-Washington corridor, Camp Upton on Long Island was eventually chosen as the most suitable in consideration of space, transportation, and availability. The camp had been a training center from the US Army during both World War I and World War II. After the latter war, Camp Upton was deemed no longer necessary and became available for reuse. A plan was conceived to convert the military camp into a research facility.

    On March 21, 1947, the Camp Upton site was officially transferred from the U.S. War Department to the new U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

    Research and facilities

    Reactor history

    In 1947 construction began on the first nuclear reactor at Brookhaven, the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor. This reactor, which opened in 1950, was the first reactor to be constructed in the United States after World War II. The High Flux Beam Reactor operated from 1965 to 1999. In 1959 Brookhaven built the first US reactor specifically tailored to medical research, the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, which operated until 2000.

    Other discoveries

    In 1958, Brookhaven scientists created one of the world’s first video games, Tennis for Two. In 1968 Brookhaven scientists patented Maglev, a transportation technology that utilizes magnetic levitation.

    Major facilities

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which was designed to research quark–gluon plasma[16] and the sources of proton spin. Until 2009 it was the world’s most powerful heavy ion collider. It is the only collider of spin-polarized protons.
    Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), used for the study of nanoscale materials.
    National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), Brookhaven’s newest user facility, opened in 2015 to replace the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which had operated for 30 years.[19] NSLS was involved in the work that won the 2003 and 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
    Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, a particle accelerator that was used in three of the lab’s Nobel prizes.
    Accelerator Test Facility, generates, accelerates and monitors particle beams.
    Tandem Van de Graaff, once the world’s largest electrostatic accelerator.
    Computational Science resources, including access to a massively parallel Blue Gene series supercomputer that is among the fastest in the world for scientific research, run jointly by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University.
    Interdisciplinary Science Building, with unique laboratories for studying high-temperature superconductors and other materials important for addressing energy challenges.
    NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, where scientists use beams of ions to simulate cosmic rays and assess the risks of space radiation to human space travelers and equipment.

    Off-site contributions

    It is a contributing partner to CERN (CH) ATLAS, one of the four detectors located at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

    European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire(CH) map.


    It is currently operating at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland.

    Brookhaven was also responsible for the design of the SNS accumulator ring in partnership with Spallation Neutron Source at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee.

    Brookhaven plays a role in a range of neutrino research projects around the world, including the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment in China and the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment at DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US).

    Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment (CN), approximately 52 kilometers northeast of Hong Kong and 45 kilometers east of Shenzhen, China

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    Brookhaven Campus.

    BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials.

    BNL NSLS-II.

    BNL NSLS II.

    BNL RHIC Campus.

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector.

    BNL/RHIC Phenix.

     
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