Tagged: DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • richardmitnick 8:42 pm on January 15, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Scientists move a step closer to understanding the “cold spot” in the cosmic microwave background", , , , , DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), , The CMB Cold Spot, The Eridanus supervoid   

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) : “Scientists move a step closer to understanding the “cold spot” in the cosmic microwave background” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    January 11, 2022
    Maxwell Bernstein

    After the Big Bang, the universe, glowing brightly, was opaque and so hot that atoms could not form. Eventually cooling down to about minus 454 degrees Fahrenheit (-270 degrees Celsius), much of the energy from the Big Bang took the form of light. This afterglow, known as the cosmic microwave background [CMB], can now be seen with telescopes at microwave frequencies invisible to human eyes. It has tiny fluctuations in temperature that provide information about the early universe.

    CMB per European Space Agency(EU) Planck.

    Now scientists might have an explanation for the existence of an especially cold region in the afterglow, known as the CMB Cold Spot. Its origin has been a mystery so far but might be attributed to the largest absence of galaxies ever discovered.

    Scientists used data collected by the Dark Energy Survey to confirm the existence of one of the largest supervoids known to humanity, the Eridanus supervoid, as reported in a paper published in December 2021 [MNRAS]. This once-hypothesized but now-confirmed void in the cosmic web might be a possible cause for the anomaly in the CMB.
    _____________________________________________________________________________________
    Dark Energy Survey

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam] built at DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US).
    NOIRLab National Optical Astronomy Observatory(US) Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory(CL) Victor M Blanco 4m Telescope which houses the Dark-Energy-Camera – DECam at Cerro Tololo, Chile at an altitude of 7200 feet.

    NOIRLab(US)NSF NOIRLab NOAO (US) Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory(CL) approximately 80 km to the East of La Serena, Chile, at an altitude of 2200 meters.

    Timeline of the Inflationary Universe WMAP.

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is an international, collaborative effort to map hundreds of millions of galaxies, detect thousands of supernovae, and find patterns of cosmic structure that will reveal the nature of the mysterious dark energy that is accelerating the expansion of our Universe. DES began searching the Southern skies on August 31, 2013.

    According to Einstein’s theory of General Relativity, gravity should lead to a slowing of the cosmic expansion. Yet, in 1998, two teams of astronomers studying distant supernovae made the remarkable discovery that the expansion of the universe is speeding up. To explain cosmic acceleration, cosmologists are faced with two possibilities: either 70% of the universe exists in an exotic form, now called dark energy, that exhibits a gravitational force opposite to the attractive gravity of ordinary matter, or General Relativity must be replaced by a new theory of gravity on cosmic scales.

    DES is designed to probe the origin of the accelerating universe and help uncover the nature of dark energy by measuring the 14-billion-year history of cosmic expansion with high precision. More than 400 scientists from over 25 institutions in the United States, Spain, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Germany, Switzerland, and Australia are working on the project. The collaboration built and is using an extremely sensitive 570-Megapixel digital camera, DECam, mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, high in the Chilean Andes, to carry out the project.

    Over six years (2013-2019), the DES collaboration used 758 nights of observation to carry out a deep, wide-area survey to record information from 300 million galaxies that are billions of light-years from Earth. The survey imaged 5000 square degrees of the southern sky in five optical filters to obtain detailed information about each galaxy. A fraction of the survey time is used to observe smaller patches of sky roughly once a week to discover and study thousands of supernovae and other astrophysical transients.
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    The Eridanus supervoid

    The cosmic web is made of clusters and superclusters of galaxies. They are pulled together by the attractive force of gravity and accelerated away from each other by the repulsive force of a mysterious, not-yet-understood phenomenon called dark energy.

    Between these clusters of galaxies are voids: vast regions of space that contain fewer galaxies, and thus less ordinary matter, and less dark matter than exists within the galaxy clusters.

    Among the largest structures known to humanity, the supervoid in the constellation Eridanus is a massive, elongated, cigar-shaped void in the cosmic web that’s 1.8 billion lightyears wide and has been observed to contain about 30% less matter than the surrounding galactic region. Its center is located 2 billion lightyears from Earth, making it the dominant underdensity of matter in our galactic neighborhood.

    Mapping Dark Matter

    To make this discovery, scientists used Dark Energy Survey data to create a map of Dark Matter in the same direction as the CMB Cold Spot, by observing the effect of gravitational lensing.

    Gravitational Lensing Gravitational Lensing National Aeronautics Space Agency (US) and European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU).

    It’s a phenomenon that occurs when the paths of light are warped by the gravitational influence of Dark Matter.

    3
    The Cold Spot resides in the constellation Eridanus in the southern galactic hemisphere. The inset shows the microwave temperature map of this patch of sky, as mapped by the European Space Agency Planck satellite. The main figure depicts the map of the Dark Matter distribution created by the Dark Energy Survey team. Image: Gergö Kránicz and András Kovács.

    “This map of Dark Matter is the largest ever such map that’s been created,” said Niall Jeffrey, the scientist who worked on the construction of a dark matter map. “We have been able to map out Dark Matter over a quarter of the Southern Hemisphere.”

    Scientists previously counted the number of galaxies visible in the location of the CMB Cold Spot and found an underdensity of galaxies in that region. The new map shows there is a matching underdensity of invisible Dark Matter.

    Using voids to understand dark energy

    The Dark Energy Survey is an international effort to understand the effect dark energy has on the acceleration of the universe. It involves 300 scientists from 25 institutions in seven countries.

    The Dark Energy Survey documents hundreds of millions of galaxies, supernovae and patterns within the cosmic web, using a 570-Megapixel digital camera, called the DECam, high in the Chilean Andes. This camera’s construction and integration of components was led by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

    “We were thinking many years ago, a decade and a half at least, how would voids affect the present acceleration of the universe,” said Juan Garcia-Bellido, a cosmologist from IFT-Madrid and co-author of the paper.

    At the largest scales of the universe, there is a tug-of-war between the gravitational forces and the expansion of the universe from dark energy, making some of the voids between galactic clusters deeper.

    “Photons or particles of light enter into a void at a time before the void starts deepening and leave after the void has become deeper,” said Garcia-Bellido. “This process means that there is a net energy loss in that journey; that’s called the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. When photons fall into a potential well, they gain energy, and when they come out of a potential well, they lose energy. This is the gravitational redshift effect.”

    Open questions

    Although the new result confirms that the Eridanus supervoid is gigantic, it still is not sufficient to explain the discrepancy between the predictions of the current standard cosmological model used to predict the behavior of dark energy—known as the Lambda Cold Dark Matter model—and the observed change in temperature in the Cold Spot that can be attributed to the supervoid’s effect on photons from the CMB.

    “Having the coincidence of these two individually rare structures in the cosmic web and in the CMB is basically not enough to prove causality with the scientific standard,” said András Kovács, the lead researcher on this project.

    “It is enough of a new element in the long history of the CMB Cold Spot problem that after this, people will at least be sure that there is a supervoid, which is a good thing because some people have debated that,” said Kovács.

    In short, there are two ways to think about this problem: Either the Lambda-CDM model is correct, and the CMB Cold Spot is an extreme anomaly that coincidentally has a massive supervoid in front of it, or the Lambda-CDM model is incorrect, and the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect is stronger in supervoids than expected.

    The latter would indicate a greater influence of dark energy on the universe and possibly faster cosmic expansion. Interestingly, this possibility is backed up by evidence from other, more distant supervoids. Moreover, the Dark Energy Survey team observed that the lensing signal from the Eridanus supervoid is slightly weaker than expected.

    “The trouble is that typical alternative models cannot explain this discrepancy either, so if true, it might mean that we do not understand something very deep about dark energy,” said Kovács.

    ______________________________________________________
    Dark Matter Background
    Fritz Zwicky discovered Dark Matter in the 1930s when observing the movement of the Coma Cluster., Vera Rubin a Woman in STEM, denied the Nobel, some 30 years later, did most of the work on Dark Matter.

    Fritz Zwicky.
    Coma cluster via NASA/ESA Hubble, the original example of Dark Matter discovered during observations by Fritz Zwicky and confirmed 30 years later by Vera Rubin.
    In modern times, it was astronomer Fritz Zwicky, in the 1930s, who made the first observations of what we now call dark matter. His 1933 observations of the Coma Cluster of galaxies seemed to indicated it has a mass 500 times more than that previously calculated by Edwin Hubble. Furthermore, this extra mass seemed to be completely invisible. Although Zwicky’s observations were initially met with much skepticism, they were later confirmed by other groups of astronomers.

    Thirty years later, astronomer Vera Rubin provided a huge piece of evidence for the existence of dark matter. She discovered that the centers of galaxies rotate at the same speed as their extremities, whereas, of course, they should rotate faster. Think of a vinyl LP on a record deck: its center rotates faster than its edge. That’s what logic dictates we should see in galaxies too. But we do not. The only way to explain this is if the whole galaxy is only the center of some much larger structure, as if it is only the label on the LP so to speak, causing the galaxy to have a consistent rotation speed from center to edge.

    Vera Rubin, following Zwicky, postulated that the missing structure in galaxies is dark matter. Her ideas were met with much resistance from the astronomical community, but her observations have been confirmed and are seen today as pivotal proof of the existence of dark matter.
    Astronomer Vera Rubin at the Lowell Observatory in 1965, worked on Dark Matter (The Carnegie Institution for Science).

    Vera Rubin, with Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM) image tube spectrograph attached to the Kitt Peak 84-inch telescope, 1970.

    Vera Rubin measuring spectra, worked on Dark Matter(Emilio Segre Visual Archives AIP SPL).
    Dark Matter Research

    LBNL LZ Dark Matter Experiment (US) xenon detector at Sanford Underground Research Facility(US) Credit: Matt Kapust.

    Lamda Cold Dark Matter Accerated Expansion of The universe http scinotions.com the-cosmic-inflation-suggests-the-existence-of-parallel-universes. Credit: Alex Mittelmann.

    DAMA at Gran Sasso uses sodium iodide housed in copper to hunt for dark matter LNGS-INFN.

    Yale HAYSTAC axion dark matter experiment at Yale’s Wright Lab.

    DEAP Dark Matter detector, The DEAP-3600, suspended in the SNOLAB (CA) deep in Sudbury’s Creighton Mine.

    The LBNL LZ Dark Matter Experiment (US) Dark Matter project at SURF, Lead, SD, USA.

    DAMA-LIBRA Dark Matter experiment at the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics’ (INFN’s) Gran Sasso National Laboratories (LNGS) located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy.

    DARWIN Dark Matter experiment. A design study for a next-generation, multi-ton dark matter detector in Europe at The University of Zurich [Universität Zürich](CH).

    PandaX II Dark Matter experiment at Jin-ping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in Sichuan, China.

    Inside the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment U Washington (US) Credit : Mark Stone U. of Washington. Axion Dark Matter Experiment.
    ______________________________________________________

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator (US) Laboratory Wilson Hall .

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a Department of Energy (US) national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, and the Universities Research Association (URA). Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor.

    Fermilab’s Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator; until the startup in 2008 of the Large Hadron Collider(CH) near Geneva, Switzerland, it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating antiprotons to energies of 500 GeV, and producing proton-proton collisions with energies of up to 1.6 TeV, the first accelerator to reach one “tera-electron-volt” energy. At 3.9 miles (6.3 km), it was the world’s fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron’s CDF and DØ detectors. It was shut down in 2011.

    In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment), NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) and SeaQuest.

    Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment).

    The MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE sat in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but had fine-grained tracking capabilities. The NOνA experiment uses, and the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, Minnesota, site of the NOνA far detector.

    In 2017, the ICARUS neutrino experiment was moved from CERN to Fermilab.

    In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia, classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. The site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors who present valid photo identification.
    Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.
    Weston, Illinois, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab.

    The laboratory was founded in 1969 as the National Accelerator Laboratory; it was renamed in honor of Enrico Fermi in 1974. The laboratory’s first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation. He is the namesake of the site’s high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and which is the center of activity on the campus.
    After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job. It was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman stepped down in 1989. The science education center at the site was named in his honor.
    The later directors include:

    John Peoples, 1989 to 1996
    Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005
    Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013
    Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the present

    Fermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); it serves as a Tier 1 site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) campus.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)/MINERvA. Photo Reidar Hahn.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)DAMIC | Fermilab Cosmic Physics Center.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Muon g-2 studio. As muons race around a ring at the Muon g-2 studio, their spin axes twirl, reflecting the influence of unseen particles.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Mu2e solenoid.

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US).

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory DUNE/LBNF experiment (US) Argon tank at Sanford Underground Research Facility(US).

    FNAL Dune Far Detector.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)/MicrobooNE.

    FNAL Don Lincoln.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)/MINOS.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Cryomodule Testing Facility.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) MINOS Far Detector.

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) from FNAL to SURF Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] (CH) ProtoDune.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)/NOvA experiment map .

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) NOvA Near Detector at Batavia IL, USA.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)/ICARUS.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Holometer.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)LArIAT.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) ICEBERG particle detector.

    FNAL Icon

     
  • richardmitnick 5:30 pm on December 9, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "DUNE collaboration starts production of components for its gigantic neutrino detector", , DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), , ,   

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) : “DUNE collaboration starts production of components for its gigantic neutrino detector” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    December 8, 2021
    Sarah Charley

    How can you study a particle that’s almost invisible? For the last decade, Justin Evans at The University of Manchester (UK) has been asking this question.

    “The neutrino is clearly a weird particle,” said Evans. “It’s so light we haven’t even measured its absolute mass.”

    Neutrinos are some of the most abundant particles in the universe, yet little is known about them because they evade conventional detection methods. When the United Kingdom joined The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment in 2015, Evans saw an opportunity.

    “We were thinking about what the UK could do for DUNE,” he said. “We wanted to have a big impact and make a key part of the detector.”

    1
    Unpacking a particle detector device known as APA for testing at European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire](CH). APAs are key components for the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, to be assembled in the United States. Photo: Julien Marius Ordan and Maximilien Brice, CERN.

    On Oct. 15, a large wooden box from Daresbury Laboratory in the United Kingdom arrived at the CERN Neutrino Platform.

    STFC Daresbury Laboratory at Sci-Tech Daresbury in the Liverpool City Region.

    Inside was the first anode plane assembly, a key component in the DUNE Far Detector [below], to be mass-produced for DUNE.

    “It is the first of 130 APAs that the UK will deliver, which will ultimately be installed in the first of the DUNE modules at South Dakota,” said DUNE spokesperson Stefan Söldner-Rembold. “As such, it is the first major component of the DUNE Far Detector to be built.”

    More than 1,400 scientists and engineers in over 30 countries contribute to the experiment. Their goal is to paint a clearer picture of the origin of matter and how the universe came to be. DUNE will measure how neutrinos and antineutrinos behave during an 800-mile journey from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory near Chicago to Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota [image of flow below]. Because these particles and their antimatter counterparts rarely interact with matter, they will pass directly through the earth before arriving at massive subterranean particle detectors that have a total volume equivalent to about 22 Olympic-size swimming pools and will be filled with 70,000 tons of liquid argon. These gigantic detectors will allow scientists to study the differences in behavior between neutrinos and antineutrinos. The results will shed light on the role neutrinos played in the evolution of the universe.

    3
    Scientists can reconstruct what happened during a neutrino-argon collision based on when and where the released electrons are detected on an APA wire plane made from 15 miles of hair-thin wire. Photo: Julien Marius Ordan, CERN.

    The APAs build on an idea originally developed by Nobel Laureate Carlo Rubbia in the 1970s. In each APA, 15 miles of hair-thin wire are wrapped in four different directions around a support structure the size of a church door. Electrons released from a neutrino colliding with an argon atom are pulled toward the wires by a strong electric field. Scientists then can reconstruct what happened during the original neutrino-argon collision based on when and where the released electrons intersect with the wires.

    Even though this technique for detecting neutrinos has been around for decades, adapting it for DUNE—which will be built one mile underground to shield the detectors from cosmic rays that hit Earth’s surface—was a challenge.

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) Caverns at Sanford Underground Research Facility.

    “That’s the ship-in-the-bottle aspect of underground physics,” said Evans. “Everything has to go down in chunks smaller than the mine shaft.”

    The final APA design comes after a successful two-year run of a prototype of the DUNE detector, known as ProtoDUNE [below], located at the CERN Neutrino Platform. These final DUNE-production APAs only have slight modifications from the original prototypes.

    “We realized that we needed to make some of the tubes that hold the cables bigger,” Evans said. “There were also some screws that were hard to reach. It was quite boring and mundane things, but that’s good—you want it to be the boring and mundane things.”

    Another consideration was creating an APA blueprint that is suitable for mass production of 150 APAs on both sides of the Atlantic: 130 from the UK and an additional 20 from the U.S.

    “We needed a design that is robust enough that we can make 150 of them,” said Hannah Newton, the project manager coordinating the APA production at Daresbury Laboratory. “There’s no more tinker time.”

    Over the next few months, three more APAs will arrive at the CERN neutrino platform for final testing inside the ProtoDUNE-SP cryostat during early 2022, with plans for mass production to start up in spring. Once produced, all APAs will be shipped to South Dakota for installation.

    “The cold electronics testing inside ProtoDUNE will be the final proof that the all the systems integrate with one another,” Newton said. “It’s the final assurance that we’re good to go and can ramp up production.”

    Fermilab is the host laboratory for DUNE, in partnership with funding agencies and scientists from around the world.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator (US) Laboratory Wilson Hall .

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a Department of Energy (US) national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, and the Universities Research Association (URA). Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor.

    Fermilab’s Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator; until the startup in 2008 of the Large Hadron Collider(CH) near Geneva, Switzerland, it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating antiprotons to energies of 500 GeV, and producing proton-proton collisions with energies of up to 1.6 TeV, the first accelerator to reach one “tera-electron-volt” energy. At 3.9 miles (6.3 km), it was the world’s fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron’s CDF and DØ detectors. It was shut down in 2011.

    In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment), NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) and SeaQuest.

    Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment).

    The MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE sat in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but had fine-grained tracking capabilities. The NOνA experiment uses, and the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, Minnesota, site of the NOνA far detector.

    In 2017, the ICARUS neutrino experiment was moved from CERN to Fermilab.

    In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia, classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. The site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors who present valid photo identification.
    Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.
    Weston, Illinois, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab.

    The laboratory was founded in 1969 as the National Accelerator Laboratory; it was renamed in honor of Enrico Fermi in 1974. The laboratory’s first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation. He is the namesake of the site’s high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and which is the center of activity on the campus.
    After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job. It was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman stepped down in 1989. The science education center at the site was named in his honor.
    The later directors include:

    John Peoples, 1989 to 1996
    Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005
    Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013
    Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the present

    Fermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); it serves as a Tier 1 site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) campus.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)/MINERvA. Photo Reidar Hahn.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)DAMIC | Fermilab Cosmic Physics Center.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Muon g-2 studio. As muons race around a ring at the Muon g-2 studio, their spin axes twirl, reflecting the influence of unseen particles.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Mu2e solenoid.

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US).

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory DUNE/LBNF experiment (US) Argon tank at Sanford Underground Research Facility(US).

    FNAL Dune Far Detector.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)/MicrobooNE.

    FNAL Don Lincoln.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)/MINOS.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Cryomodule Testing Facility.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) MINOS Far Detector.

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) from FNAL to SURF Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] (CH) ProtoDune.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)/NOvA experiment map .

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) NOvA Near Detector at Batavia IL, USA.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)/ICARUS.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Holometer.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)LArIAT.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) ICEBERG particle detector.

    FNAL Icon

     
  • richardmitnick 10:42 pm on July 29, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "MINOS underground hall at Fermilab is ready to host new experiments", , , DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), , , , ,   

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US): “MINOS underground hall at Fermilab is ready to host new experiments” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    July 28, 2021
    Ting Miao

    Located 350 feet below the surface on the Fermilab site, the MINOS underground hall is a familiar place to many neutrino enthusiasts. Shielded from cosmic rays that bombard Earth’s surface, this underground area provides a quiet place to observe elusive neutrinos and test sensitive particle detector technology.

    During the past two decades, the hall was home for two of Fermilab’s flagship neutrino experiments: MINOS and MINERvA. After collecting neutrino events for many years, the experiments were shut down in 2019, but their detectors remained.

    Now this valuable underground space is available for new experiments. This summer, the decommissioning team removed the last of approximately 400 detector planes from the area. Scientists have already plans to use the space for new research endeavors, from neutrino research and dark matter searches to quantum science. In particular, the ArgonCube collaboration is eager to test its detector technology for the near detector of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment.

    Decommissioning the detectors

    The first step, however, was to decommission and remove the two large detectors that were still in the hall: MINERvA in the front and MINOS in the back. About 40 people participated in this project at one time or another. We worked on tasks, such as saving equipment for future use or transferring heavy detector planes for recycling.

    We began the detector decommissioning project in early 2020. We expected it would take at least a year to disassemble the two detectors and remove the detector planes, each up to 20 feet wide, 13 feet high and as heavy as a few tons.

    Our number one goal was to do this heavy-lifting job safely. Careful planning and diligent coordination were the key for keeping everybody safe, and we completed the project without a single accident. We also faced the additional challenge from the pandemic, which arrived in Illinois right after we started the decommissioning. We took extra steps to ensure social distancing and personnel health protection.

    Part of our job was to preserve valuable detector items for future use. We had to dis-cable all electronics and carefully pack and store all items. This was a challenging task as some of the electronics were installed at the top of the tall detector planes and connected with very long cables to electronics racks located on the side of the detector hall.

    We also had to dismount the heavy detector planes from their support structures, one by one, using a special lifting platform. We then placed each plane on a very sturdy cart and rolled them one at a time to the 350-feet deep MINOS shaft to lift them to the surface building.

    On Wednesday morning, June 30, the team took the last detector plane — a 4-ton steel plate with its face covered by scintillator panels — to the surface. It marked the completion of the decommissioning, which stands as a great accomplishment achieved under difficult conditions.

    1
    Ready to remove the final detector plane from the MINOS underground hall (from left to right): Steve Hahn, ND, decommissioning field manager; Jon Thebe, PPD, experiment installation; Dean Beckner, PPD, detector fabrication; Tom Wicks II, PPD, experiment installation; Tom Olszanowski, PPD, experiment installation; and Joe “Skippy” Brown, ND, electrical group. Photo: Ryan Postel, Fermilab.

    Meet the team

    The decommissioning team comprised physicists, engineers and technicians from the Neutrino Division, Particle Physics Division as well as universities collaborating on ArgonCube and MINERvA.

    A tall gentleman with the biggest smile stands out among this group, literally and figuratively. Steve Hahn is the field manager for the decommissioning project. He also serves as the Neutrino Division liaison to the first new experiment soon to take residence in the underground hall: ArgonCube2x2.

    3
    The ArgonCube collaboration assembled the first of four prototype neutrino detector modules for the DUNE near detector at the University of Bern in Switzerland. The module now is on its way to Fermilab for testing with a neutrino beam. Photo: Igor Kreslo.

    Since the planning stage of the decommissioning work, Steve has been a fixed figure in the MINOS underground area. He literally lives there, people say. His smiling face and gentle manner are guaranteed to lift your spirit. And he smiles all the time – even when his face is covered by a mask.

    Steve is the one who communicated with everyone to make sure things were being done smoothly and safely. He helped develop and write down detailed procedures. He made sure that before the start of a task, crews were briefed and reminded of the importance to work safely.

    “Steve [Hahn] and the entire team did such an excellent job in preparation and in carrying out the mission safely,” said Steve Brice, head of the Neutrino Division. “Communication is key, and Steve is always there for things small and big.”

    Congratulations to the decommissioning team for the great accomplishment. With your dedicated effort and hard work, the MINOS underground hall is again ready to welcome another round of exciting experiments. The foundation for new science ventures has been laid.

    4
    Members of the decommissioning team prepare for the removal of one of the last detector planes of the MINOS near detector in June. Photo: Ryan Postel, Fermilab

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, and the Universities Research Association (URA). Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor.

    Fermilab’s Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator; until the startup in 2008 of the Large Hadron Collider(CH) near Geneva, Switzerland, it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating antiprotons to energies of 500 GeV, and producing proton-proton collisions with energies of up to 1.6 TeV, the first accelerator to reach one “tera-electron-volt” energy. At 3.9 miles (6.3 km), it was the world’s fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron’s CDF and DØ detectors. It was shut down in 2011.

    In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment), NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) and SeaQuest. Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment). The MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE sat in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but had fine-grained tracking capabilities. The NOνA experiment uses, and the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, Minnesota, site of the NOνA far detector. In 2017, the ICARUS neutrino experiment was moved from CERN to Fermilab.
    In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia, classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. The site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors who present valid photo identification.

    Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.

    Weston, Illinois, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab.

    The laboratory was founded in 1969 as the National Accelerator Laboratory; it was renamed in honor of Enrico Fermi in 1974. The laboratory’s first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation. He is the namesake of the site’s high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and which is the center of activity on the campus.

    After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job. It was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman stepped down in 1989. The science education center at the site was named in his honor.

    The later directors include:

    John Peoples, 1989 to 1996
    Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005
    Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013
    Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the present

    Fermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); it serves as a Tier 1 site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid.

    FNAL Icon

     
  • richardmitnick 3:43 pm on July 24, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Successful tests pave the way for Fermilab’s next-generation particle accelerator", A highly anticipated particle accelerator project at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermilab is one step closer to becoming a reality., DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), Once complete PIP-II will be one of the highest-energy and highest-power linear particle accelerators in the world., or PIP2IT., PIP-II will feature five different types of superconducting cavities. Each type needs to be separately prototyped and tested., PIP-II will provide the international particle physics community with a world-class scientific facility that will enable discovery-focused research using neutrinos; muons; and protons., SSR1 cryomodule-designed and constructed at Fermilab.., Testing wrapped up at the PIP-II Injector Test Facility, The feat was a culmination of over eight years of work on the Proton Improvement Plan-II., The PIP-II accelerator will be 215 meters long and propel particles to 84% the speed of light., The team also demonstrated the implementation of artificial intelligence in PIP2IT.   

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US): “Successful tests pave the way for Fermilab’s next-generation particle accelerator” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    particle accelerator

    July 22, 2021
    Diana Kwon

    A highly anticipated particle accelerator project at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermilab is one step closer to becoming a reality. This spring, amidst the pandemic, testing wrapped up at the PIP-II Injector Test Facility, or PIP2IT. The successful outcome paves the way for the construction of a new particle accelerator that will power record-breaking neutrino beams and drive a broad physics research program at Fermilab over the next 50 years.

    The feat was a culmination of over eight years of work on the Proton Improvement Plan-II, or PIP-II, by a dedicated group of scientists, technicians and engineers.

    “I’m very proud, first and foremost, of how the entire team came together in the middle of the pandemic and achieved so much under such adverse circumstances,” said Fermilab PIP-II Project Director Lia Merminga.

    1
    In February 2020, PIP-II engineer Lidija Kokoska (left) and project director Lia Merminga stand in the PIP-II Test Injector Facility. In spring 2021, the PIP-II team successfully completed testing of the front end of the new particle accelerator. Photo: Al Johnson, Fermilab.

    Prototyping a next-generation accelerator

    Once complete PIP-II will be one of the highest-energy and highest-power linear particle accelerators in the world. It is the first accelerator project in the U.S. with significant international contributions, with partner institutions in France, India, Italy, Poland and the United Kingdom.

    PIP-II will provide the international particle physics community with a world-class scientific facility that will enable discovery-focused research using neutrinos, muons and protons. It will power the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, as well as many other particle physics experiments at Fermilab that aim to transform our understanding of the universe. Along the way, it strengthens the connection between advances in fundamental science and technological innovation.

    The PIP-II accelerator will be 215 meters long and propel particles to 84% the speed of light. It will have the unique ability to deliver particle beams in either a steady stream or a pulsed mode. The machine will comprise 23 cryomodules — large vessels that house and cool structures known as superconducting cavities. These cavities will provide the bulk of the particle acceleration in PIP-II.


    How will Fermilab’s new accelerator propel particles close to the speed of light?

    PIP-II’s ambitious specifications come with many technical challenges. For example, PIP-II will feature five different types of superconducting cavities. Each type needs to be separately prototyped and tested.

    “Some of the capabilities that are embedded in the design of PIP-II are encountered by the international community for the first time, therefore intense development and technology validation is required,” Merminga said. “Since PIP-II is built with components from around the world, ensuring that all these systems integrate seamlessly is of paramount importance.”

    PIP2IT was conceived, constructed and operated to serve as a proof-of-concept for the front end of PIP-II. It comprises the particle source and the first section, which is approximately 30 meters long.

    “We wanted to build this because it is one of the most complicated parts of PIP-II,” said Eduard Pozdeyev, PIP-II project scientist and commissioning manager. “The main idea behind PIP2IT was to prototype the critical systems of the main accelerator.”

    Two stages to success

    The construction and testing of PIP2IT took place in two stages. The first phase, which began in 2013, focused on building the room-temperature portion of the machine. This included three parts: an ion source that generates the hydrogen ions; a radio-frequency quadrupole module, or RFQ, designed and built by DOE’s Berkeley Lab, which focuses and accelerates the particle beam; and a transport line for carrying the beam to the superconducting section of the accelerator.

    The team then carried out stage-one tests from 2016 to 2018. Testing ended with the generation of a beam that reached the goal of 2.1 million electronvolts of energy. The successful testing of all room-temperature components was a key step necessary to progress to the project’s next stage.

    “The ion source puts out these H-minus ions at 30,000 electronvolts, which is comparable to the energy that old-fashioned cathode-ray tube televisions used to produce,” said Fermilab engineer Curtis Baffes, the linac installation manager for PIP-II. “Then the RFQ takes that up to 2.1 million electronvolts — that’s a very significant energy increase.”

    During the second stage, which began in 2019, the PIP2IT team installed and tested the first parts of the cold section of the machine, which uses superconducting radiofrequency technology. They installed two cryomodules known as HWR, contributed by DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory (US) , and SSR1, designed and constructed at Fermilab.

    SSR1 also integrated a new feature called the strongback technology. Typically, technicians link the cavities within a cryomodule to one another. The strongback technique connects the cavities to a common frame instead. This reduces vibration and enables easier alignment and assembly.

    Meeting all goals

    Cooling down these two cryomodules with liquid helium, then demonstrating that they could accelerate beams was “a big accomplishment,” Baffes said. “When the two cryomodules were cooled down, powered up and validated, they were individually big milestones. Then the final milestone was putting everything together and operating it with a particle beam.”

    2
    The PIP-II team cooled down and successfully operated two cryomodules, including this SSR1 cryomodule, to accelerate particles to a beam energy of 16.5 million electronvolts. Photo: Tom Nicol, Fermilab.

    Despite the global pandemic, the PIP2IT team managed several novel feats for Fermilab. That included the first acceleration of a proton beam using superconducting technology; the completion of SSR1, the first cryomodule entirely developed and built in-house; and the employment of the novel strongback technology. The Bhabha Atomic Research Center in India, an international partner of PIP-II, supplied one of the SSR1 cavities, meeting the stringent specifications for the component. BARC also provided the radio frequency power amplifiers that powered the SSR1 cryomodule and successfully enabled beam acceleration in PIP2IT.

    The test accelerator met the team’s goals. The machine reached the beam parameters needed for the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility, which will generate the neutrinos for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. PIP2IT achieved a beam energy of 16.5 million electronvolts, a current of 2 milliamps with 550-microsecond-long pulses and a 20-Hertz repetition rate. It also demonstrated the seamless integration of national and international partner deliverables.

    Bringing the many pieces of PIP2IT together and making sure that they met all the operational requirements was no easy feat. It was one that took years of painstaking effort by a dedicated team, Pozdeyev said. “Once we demonstrated this whole complex system operated, we breathed a big sigh of relief.”

    On top of the technical challenges posed by the project, working during a pandemic brought additional obstacles. The PIP2IT team had to temporarily shut down activities and introduce all the necessary precautions — such as setting up plexiglass barriers and establishing strict social distancing rules — before restarting.

    “We achieved all the main goals and milestones, even with all those difficulties,” said Lionel Prost, the manager for the warm front end of PIP-II. “It is gratifying that we were able to do it during those times.”

    Testing novel features: beam chopping and artificial intelligence

    The PIP2IT team also tested a novel technique for PIP-II: bunch-by-bunch chopping.

    Accelerators typically propel and deliver particles in bunches — parcels that hold trillions of particles each — that are mere nanoseconds apart. A so-called chopper system within PIP2IT enables operators to eject bunches of particles at controlled intervals. This enables the machine to deliver unique beam patterns catered to the needs of a given experiment.

    “One particularity of this chopping system is that it should be able to take any of the bunches that come out of the RFQ and be capable of kicking them to the absorber or letting them pass,” Prost said. “That has been a tricky and difficult technical achievement, because this technology doesn’t exist anywhere else.”

    The team also demonstrated the implementation of artificial intelligence in PIP2IT. They used machine learning algorithms to align the beam trajectory within the cryomodules. The eventual goal is to use such AI/ML technology more broadly in PIP-II and beyond.

    “The ultimate vision is an autonomous accelerator,” Merminga said. “A scientist comes in, dials in the beam parameters that they want for an experiment and then the software tunes the machine to deliver them. Minimal to no human intervention.”

    A new beginning

    PIP2IT completed its final run in April. Now, the team is working on disassembling the machine. They will store the cryomodules and other components until the construction of the PIP-II building is complete.

    4
    This rendering shows the buildings that will house the new PIP-II particle accelerator at Fermilab. Construction of the cryoplant building, shown at the top of this image, is underway. The 16-story Wilson Hall is partially visible in the bottom right corner. Illustration: Fermilab.

    Meanwhile, the project team will convert the cave that currently houses PIP2IT into a PIP-II cryomodule test facility. Before installation, each of PIP-II’s 23 cryomodules needs to be cooled down to cryogenic temperatures and tested.

    PIP2IT was an important learning experience. The project taught the team important lessons about the operation of the machine’s complex components such as its cryomodules. It also demonstrated the coordination that is necessary to integrate the numerous systems that come together.

    “All these lessons learned are going to be used to improve, update, modify and test designs for PIP-II,” Pozdeyev said. “When you start commissioning a new machine, sometimes you don’t know what’s going to happen. The test results obtained from PIP2IT significantly reduce the risk of future operations.”

    While PIP2IT is now complete, PIP-II’s journey continues.

    “Demonstrating that the front of PIP-II can meet its requirements is certainly a great milestone for the project,” Baffes said. “But it’s definitely not the end of the story.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, and the Universities Research Association (URA). Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor.

    Fermilab’s Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator; until the startup in 2008 of the Large Hadron Collider(CH) near Geneva, Switzerland, it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating antiprotons to energies of 500 GeV, and producing proton-proton collisions with energies of up to 1.6 TeV, the first accelerator to reach one “tera-electron-volt” energy. At 3.9 miles (6.3 km), it was the world’s fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron’s CDF and DØ detectors. It was shut down in 2011.

    In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment), NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) and SeaQuest. Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment). The MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE sat in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but had fine-grained tracking capabilities. The NOνA experiment uses, and the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, Minnesota, site of the NOνA far detector. In 2017, the ICARUS neutrino experiment was moved from CERN to Fermilab.
    In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia, classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. The site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors who present valid photo identification.

    Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.

    Weston, Illinois, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab.

    The laboratory was founded in 1969 as the National Accelerator Laboratory; it was renamed in honor of Enrico Fermi in 1974. The laboratory’s first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation. He is the namesake of the site’s high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and which is the center of activity on the campus.

    After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job. It was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman stepped down in 1989. The science education center at the site was named in his honor.

    The later directors include:

    John Peoples, 1989 to 1996
    Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005
    Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013
    Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the present

    Fermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); it serves as a Tier 1 site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid.

    FNAL Icon

     
  • richardmitnick 9:54 pm on April 16, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Davis, DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), DUNE will primarily search for reactions in which a neutrino collides with an argon nucleus and transforms into an electron., Modeling collisions between argon nuclei and neutrinos from a supernova", , To detect supernova neutrinos,   

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) : “Modeling collisions between argon nuclei and neutrinos from a supernova” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    April 16, 2021
    Steven Gardiner

    Massive stars end their lives in explosions called core-collapse supernovae. These explosions produce very large numbers of weakly interacting particles called neutrinos. Scientists working on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, hosted by Fermilab, are seeking to perform a detailed measurement of supernova neutrinos.

    This effort could lead to groundbreaking discoveries in particle physics and astrophysics, including the first observation of the transition of a supernova into a neutron star or black hole.

    To detect supernova neutrinos, DUNE will primarily search for reactions in which a neutrino collides with an argon nucleus and transforms into an electron. Precise 3-D images of these “charged-current” reactions will be recorded by advanced particle detectors. The images will then be compared with the results of simulations. A new computer program called MARLEY, described in this manuscript, generates the first complete simulations of charged-current reactions between supernova neutrinos and argon nuclei.

    The MARLEY program allows researchers to study a variety of scientific questions. Theoretical physicists can use it to better understand what future measurements from DUNE might be able to tell us about the nature of neutrinos, stars and the wider universe. Experimental physicists can use MARLEY to practice analyzing “fake data” from a simulated supernova in preparation for the real thing; the MicroBooNE collaboration carried out such simulations recently. These tasks can be accomplished without requiring MARLEY users to be experts in nuclear physics. Several scientific papers have been published that include results calculated with MARLEY, and more are expected in the future.

    W. Castiglioni, W. Foreman, I. Lepetic, B. R. Littlejohn, M. Malaker, and A. Mastbaum. Benefits of MeV-scale reconstruction capabilities in large liquid argon time projection chambers. Phys. Rev. D, 102(9):092010, Nov 2020. arXiv:2006.14675, doi:10.1103/physrevd.102.092010.
    dGouveaMSS20

    A. de Gouvêa, I. Martinez-Soler, and M. Sen. Impact of neutrino decays on the supernova neutronization-burst flux. Phys. Rev. D, 101(4):043013, Feb 2020. arXiv:1910.01127, doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.101.043013.
    dGMSPGS20

    A. de Gouvêa, I. Martinez-Soler, Y. F. Perez-Gonzalez, and M. Sen. Fundamental physics with the diffuse supernova background neutrinos. Phys. Rev. D, 102(12):123012, Dec 2020. arXiv:2007.13748, doi:10.1103/physrevd.102.123012.
    VDJN19

    N. Van Dessel, N. Jachowicz, and A. Nikolakopoulos. Forbidden transitions in neutral- and charged-current interactions between low-energy neutrinos and argon. Phys. Rev. C, 100(5):055503, Nov 2019. arXiv:1903.07726, doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.100.055503.
    VDNJ20

    N. Van Dessel, A. Nikolakopoulos, and N. Jachowicz. Lepton kinematics in low-energy neutrino-argon interactions. Phys. Rev. C, 101(4):045502, Apr 2020. arXiv:1912.10714, doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.101.045502.
    DUNECollaboration20a

    DUNE Collaboration. Supernova neutrino burst detection with the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment. Aug 2020. arXiv:2008.06647.
    DUNECollaboration20b

    DUNE Collaboration. Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), Far Detector Technical Design Report, Volume II: DUNE Physics. Feb 2020. arXiv:2002.03005.

    1
    A simulated supernova neutrino interaction in the MicroBooNE detector, produced using MARLEY. This work lays a strong foundation for future supernova neutrino measurements with DUNE. Credit: MicroBooNE collaboration.

    One of the most useful pieces of information that DUNE scientists plan to measure is the energy of each supernova neutrino that scatters within the detector. This data will provide insight into the way a supernova unfolds and test our current understanding of supernovae. Because neutrinos are weakly interacting, this cannot be done directly. Instead, scientists must carefully measure and add up the energies of all particles that are produced by a neutrino-argon reaction: not only the outgoing electron, but also any particles that are ejected from the nucleus itself. These may include gamma-rays, protons, neutrons, and sometimes clusters of neutrons and protons bound together. A full description of each neutrino collision includes the energy and direction of the electron, as well as similar details about the ejected nuclear particles. A new paper in Physical Review C explains how MARLEY provides the first theoretical model that can predict all of this information for charged-current collisions of supernova electron neutrinos with argon.

    University of California, Davis.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, and the Universities Research Association (URA). Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor.

    Fermilab’s Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator; until the startup in 2008 of the Large Hadron Collider(CH) near Geneva, Switzerland, it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating antiprotons to energies of 500 GeV, and producing proton-proton collisions with energies of up to 1.6 TeV, the first accelerator to reach one “tera-electron-volt” energy. At 3.9 miles (6.3 km), it was the world’s fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron’s CDF and DØ detectors. It was shut down in 2011.

    In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment), NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) and SeaQuest. Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment). The MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE sat in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but had fine-grained tracking capabilities. The NOνA experiment uses, and the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, Minnesota, site of the NOνA far detector. In 2017, the ICARUS neutrino experiment was moved from CERN to Fermilab.
    In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia, classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. The site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors who present valid photo identification.

    Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.

    Weston, Illinois, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab.

    The laboratory was founded in 1969 as the National Accelerator Laboratory; it was renamed in honor of Enrico Fermi in 1974. The laboratory’s first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation. He is the namesake of the site’s high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and which is the center of activity on the campus.

    After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job. It was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman stepped down in 1989. The science education center at the site was named in his honor.

    The later directors include:

    John Peoples, 1989 to 1996
    Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005
    Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013
    Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the present

    Fermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); it serves as a Tier 1 site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid.

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, and the Universities Research Association (URA). Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor.

    Fermilab’s Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator; until the startup in 2008 of the Large Hadron Collider(CH) near Geneva, Switzerland, it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating antiprotons to energies of 500 GeV, and producing proton-proton collisions with energies of up to 1.6 TeV, the first accelerator to reach one “tera-electron-volt” energy. At 3.9 miles (6.3 km), it was the world’s fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron’s CDF and DØ detectors. It was shut down in 2011.

    In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment), NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) and SeaQuest. Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment). The MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE sat in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but had fine-grained tracking capabilities. The NOνA experiment uses, and the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, Minnesota, site of the NOνA far detector. In 2017, the ICARUS neutrino experiment was moved from CERN to Fermilab.
    In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia, classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. The site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors who present valid photo identification.
    Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.
    Weston, Illinois, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab.

    The laboratory was founded in 1969 as the National Accelerator Laboratory; it was renamed in honor of Enrico Fermi in 1974. The laboratory’s first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation. He is the namesake of the site’s high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and which is the center of activity on the campus.
    After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job. It was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman stepped down in 1989. The science education center at the site was named in his honor.
    The later directors include:

    John Peoples, 1989 to 1996
    Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005
    Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013
    Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the present

    Fermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); it serves as a Tier 1 site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid.

    FNAL Icon

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Muon g-2 studio. As muons race around a ring at the Muon g-2 studio, their spin axes twirl, reflecting the influence of unseen particles.

    FNAL Don Lincoln.

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

     
  • richardmitnick 10:03 pm on April 12, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Sensitive qubit-based technique to accelerate search for dark matter", , , , , , DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), ,   

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) and From University of Chicago : “Sensitive qubit-based technique to accelerate search for dark matter” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    and

    U Chicago bloc

    From University of Chicago

    April 12, 2021
    Steve Koppes

    Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and the University of Chicago (US) have demonstrated a new technique based on quantum technology that will advance the search for dark matter, the invisible stuff that accounts for 85% of all matter in the universe.

    The collaboration has developed superconducting versions of devices called qubits that will be able to detect the weak signals emitted by two kinds of hypothetical subatomic particles that could reside in an invisible but ubiquitous part of the universe called the dark sector. One is called an axion, a leading dark matter candidate. The other is called a hidden photon, a particle that possibly interacts with the photons — particles of light — of the visible universe.

    1
    A qubit (the small rectangle) is set onto a sapphire substrate, which sits upon a fingertip to show scale. Fermilab and University of Chicago scientists used a qubit similar to this one to develop a technique that will speed up the search for axion dark matter and hidden photons. Photo: Reidar Hahn, Fermilab.

    The technique now demonstrated by the Fermilab-University of Chicago team is 36 times more sensitive to the particles than the quantum limit, a benchmark of conventional quantum measurements, enabling searches for dark matter to proceed 1,000 times faster.

    Using light to detect dark particles

    In the technique, the qubits are designed to detect the photons that would be produced when dark matter particles interact with an electromagnetic field. The benefit of using qubits as detectors instead of the conventional technology lies in the way they interact with photons.

    The key to the technique’s sensitivity is its ability to eliminate false-positive readings. Conventional techniques destroy the photons they measure. But the new technique can probe the photon without destroying it. Making repeated measurements of the same photon, over the course of its 500-microsecond lifetime, provides insurance against erroneous readings.

    “To make a measurement of the photon once with the qubit takes about 10 microseconds, so we can make about 50 repeated measurements of the same photon within its lifetime,” said Akash Dixit, a doctoral student in physics at the University of Chicago (US).

    Dixit and his co-authors, including Fermilab’s Aaron Chou, describe their technique in Physical Review Letters.

    “Experiments using conventional techniques were just nowhere near what they needed to be for us to be able to detect higher-mass axion dark matter,” Chou said. “The noise level is way too high.”

    There are two ways to make an experiment more sensitive to the subtle hints of new physics that the scientists are looking for. One is to boost the signal by making larger detectors. Another to reduce the noise levels that hide the target signals. The Fermilab-University of Chicago team did the latter.

    “It’s a much more clever and cheaper way to get the same large improvements in sensitivity,” Chou said. “Now, the level of the static noise has been reduced by so much that you have a chance to actually see the very first small wiggles in your measurements due to the very, very tiny signal.”

    The technique will benefit the search for any dark matter candidate because, when invisible particles convert into photons, they can be detected.

    “Where the conventional method may generate one photon of noise with every measurement, in our detector you get one photon of noise every thousand measurements you make,” Dixit said.

    Dixit and his colleagues adapted their technique from one developed by atomic physicist Serge Haroche, who shared the 2012 Nobel Prize in physics for his feat. Chou views the new technique as part of the progression that started with the development of nondemolition interaction in atomic physics and is now imported to the field of superconducting qubits.

    Ferreting out axions and hidden photons

    Physicists have made little progress in detecting axions since their existence was proposed more than 30 years ago.

    “We know that there’s a huge amount of mass all around us that isn’t made of the same stuff you and I are made of,” Chou said. “The nature of dark matter is a really compelling mystery that a lot of us are trying to solve.”

    Superconducting microwave cavities are vital to the new technique. The cavity used in the experiment is made of highly pure — 99.9999% — aluminum. At extremely low temperatures, the aluminum becomes superconducting, a property that extends the longevity of qubits, which by their nature are short-lived. The superconducting cavity provides a way to accumulate and store the signal photon. The qubit, an antenna inserted into the cavity, then measures the photon.

    2
    The blue cylinder in this diagram represents a superconducting microwave cavity used to accumulate a dark matter signal. The purple is the qubit used to measure the state of the cavity, either 0 or 1. The value refers to the number of photons counted. If the dark matter has successfully deposited a photon in the cavity, the output would measure 1. No deposition of a photon would measure 0. Image: Akash Dixit, University of Chicago.

    “The benefit we get is that, once you — or dark matter — puts a photon in the cavity, it’s able to hold the photon for a long time,” Dixit observed. “The longer the cavity holds the photon, the longer we have to make a measurement.”

    The same technique can find hidden photons and axions; the latter will require a high magnetic field to detect.

    If axions exist, the current experiment provides a one-in-10,000 chance that it would detect a photon produced by a dark matter interaction.

    “To further improve our ability to sense such a rare event, the temperature of the photons needs to be lowered,” said David Schuster, University of Chicago associate professor of physics and a co-author of the new paper. Lowering the photon temperature will further increase sensitivity to all dark matter candidates, including hidden photons.

    The photons in the experiment have been cooled to a temperature of approximately 40 millikelvins (minus 459.60 degrees Fahrenheit), just a touch above absolute zero. The researchers would like to go as low as the operating temperature of 8 millikelvins (minus 459.66 degrees Fahrenheit). At this point, the environment for searching for dark matter would be spotless, effectively free of background photons.

    “While there’s definitely still a ways to go, there’s reason to be optimistic,” said Schuster, whose research group will apply the same technology to quantum computing. “We’re using quantum information science to help the dark matter search, but the same kind of background photons are also a potential error source for quantum computations. So this research has uses beyond fundamental science.”

    Schuster said the project provides a nice example of the type of collaboration that makes sense to do between a university lab and a national lab.

    “Our university lab had the qubit technology, but in the long term by ourselves, we were not really able to do any kind of dark matter search at the level needed. That’s where the national-lab partnership plays an important role,” he said.

    The payoff from this cross-disciplinary effort could be huge.

    “There’s just no way to do these experiments without the new techniques that we developed,” Chou said.

    Funding for the experiment comes from the Heising-Simons Foundation and the DOE Office of Science through the High Energy Physics QuantISED program.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Chicago Campus

    An intellectual destination

    One of the world’s premier academic and research institutions, the University of Chicago has driven new ways of thinking since our 1890 founding. Today, UChicago is an intellectual destination that draws inspired scholars to our Hyde Park and international campuses, keeping UChicago at the nexus of ideas that challenge and change the world.

    The University of Chicago is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with UChicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    UChicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics, establishing revolutionary theories of economics, and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations with our national and affiliated laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts. The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890, its main campus is located in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood. It enrolled 16,445 students in Fall 2019, including 6,286 undergraduates and 10,159 graduate students. The University of Chicago is ranked among the top universities in the world by major education publications, and it is among the most selective in the United States.

    The university is composed of one undergraduate college and five graduate research divisions, which contain all of the university’s graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees. Chicago has eight professional schools: the Law School, the Booth School of Business, the Pritzker School of Medicine, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy, the Divinity School, the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies, and the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering. The university has additional campuses and centers in London, Paris, Beijing, Delhi, and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago.

    University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including economics, law, literary criticism, mathematics, religion, sociology, and the behavioralism school of political science, establishing the Chicago schools in various fields. Chicago’s Metallurgical Laboratory produced the world’s first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction in Chicago Pile-1 beneath the viewing stands of the university’s Stagg Field. Advances in chemistry led to the “radiocarbon revolution” in the carbon-14 dating of ancient life and objects. The university research efforts include administration of DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) and DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), as well as the U Chicago Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts (MBL)(US). The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. The Barack Obama Presidential Center is expected to be housed at the university and will include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.

    The University of Chicago’s students, faculty, and staff have included 100 Nobel laureates as of 2020, giving it the fourth-most affiliated Nobel laureates of any university in the world. The university’s faculty members and alumni also include 10 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award winners, 52 MacArthur Fellows, 26 Marshall Scholars, 27 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 29 living billionaire graduates, and have won eight Olympic medals.

    One of the world’s premier academic and research institutions, the University of Chicago has driven new ways of thinking since our 1890 founding. Today, UChicago is an intellectual destination that draws inspired scholars to our Hyde Park and international campuses, keeping UChicago at the nexus of ideas that challenge and change the world.

    The University of Chicago is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with UChicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    UChicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics; establishing revolutionary theories of economics; and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts.

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, and the Universities Research Association (URA). Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor.

    Fermilab’s Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator; until the startup in 2008 of the Large Hadron Collider(CH) near Geneva, Switzerland, it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating antiprotons to energies of 500 GeV, and producing proton-proton collisions with energies of up to 1.6 TeV, the first accelerator to reach one “tera-electron-volt” energy. At 3.9 miles (6.3 km), it was the world’s fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron’s CDF and DØ detectors. It was shut down in 2011.

    In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment), NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) and SeaQuest. Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment). The MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE sat in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but had fine-grained tracking capabilities. The NOνA experiment uses, and the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, Minnesota, site of the NOνA far detector. In 2017, the ICARUS neutrino experiment was moved from CERN to Fermilab.
    In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia, classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. The site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors who present valid photo identification.
    Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.
    Weston, Illinois, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab.

    The laboratory was founded in 1969 as the National Accelerator Laboratory; it was renamed in honor of Enrico Fermi in 1974. The laboratory’s first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation. He is the namesake of the site’s high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and which is the center of activity on the campus.
    After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job. It was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman stepped down in 1989. The science education center at the site was named in his honor.
    The later directors include:

    John Peoples, 1989 to 1996
    Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005
    Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013
    Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the present

    Fermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); it serves as a Tier 1 site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid.

    FNAL Icon

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Muon g-2 studio. As muons race around a ring at the Muon g-2 studio, their spin axes twirl, reflecting the influence of unseen particles.

    FNAL Don Lincoln.

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

     
  • richardmitnick 1:49 pm on April 12, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Have Fermilab Scientists Broken Modern Physics?", , DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), Don Lincoln at FNAL, , ,   

    From Forbes Magazine : “Have Fermilab Scientists Broken Modern Physics?” 

    From Forbes Magazine

    Apr 7, 2021
    Don Lincoln, FNAL

    1
    Researchers at DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) have made a measurement that could mean that scientists have to rethink their understanding of the rules that govern the subatomic world. Credit: Reidar Hahn/Fermilab.

    The past half century has been relatively uneventful for scientist’s understanding of the subatomic world. Theories developed in the 1960s and early 1970s have been combined into what is now called the Standard Model of Particle Physics.

    Standard Model of Particle Physics via Particle Fever movie.

    While there are a few unexplained phenomena (for example Dark Matter and Dark Energy), scientists have tested predictions of the standard model against measurements and the theory has passed with flying colors. Well, except for a few loose ends, including a decade-old disagreement between data and theory pertaining to the magnetic properties of a subatomic particle called the muon.

    Scientists have waited for two decades to see if this discrepancy is real. And today, the wait is over. A new measurement has been announced that goes a long way towards telling us if the venerable theory will need revising.

    Muons are ephemeral subatomic particles, much like the more familiar electron. Like their electron brethren, muons have electric charge and spin. They also decay in about a millionth of a second, which makes them challenging to study.

    Objects that are both electrically charged and spin are also magnets, and muons are no exception. Physicists call the magnetic strength of a magnet made in this way the “magnetic moment” of a particle. One can predict the magnetic moment of both electrons and muons using the conventional quantum mechanics of the 1930s. However, when the first measurement of the magnetic moment of the electron was accomplished in 1948, it was 0.1% too high. The cause of this tiny discrepancy was traced to some truly odd quantum behavior. At the very smallest size scales, space is not quiescent. Instead, it’s a writhing mess, with pairs of particles and antimatter particles appearing and disappearing in the blink of an eye.

    We can’t see this frenetic sea of objects appearing and disappearing, but if you accept that it is true and calculate its effect on the magnetic moment of both muon and electron, it is in exact agreement with the tiny, 0.1%, excess, first reported back in 1948.

    In the intervening 70 years, scientists have both predicted and measured the magnetic moment of the both the muon and electron to a staggering precision of twelve digits of accuracy. And measurement and prediction agree, digit for digit, for the first ten digits. But they disagree for the last two. Furthermore, the disagreement is larger than can be explained by the uncertainty on either the prediction or measurement. It appears that the two disagree.

    If data and theory disagree, one (or both) is wrong. It’s possible that the measurement was inaccurate in some way. It’s also possible that the calculation has an error, or the calculation doesn’t include all relevant effects. If that last option is true – overlooked effects – it means that the standard model of particle physics is incomplete. There is at least something new and unexpected.

    For the past two decades, the best measurement of the magnetic moment of the muon is one made by the Muon g-2 experiment at DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (US), on Long Island, New York. (The experiment is pronounced “muon gee minus two.”) The “g-2” is historical and refers specifically only to the 0.1% excess over the prediction of standard quantum mechanics. Standard quantum mechanics predicts that the magnetic moment of the electron or muon is “g.”

    The discrepancy between theory and measurement was pretty large. If you divided the difference by the combined experimental and theoretical uncertainty, the result was 3.7σ. Scientists call that ratio “sigma,” and use sigma to rate how important a measurement is. If under 3σ, scientists say it is not interesting. If between 3σ and 5σ, scientists start to get interested and call that state of affairs to be “evidence of a discovery.” If above 5σ, scientists are confident that the discrepancy is real and meaningful. For sigmas above 5, scientists usually title their papers as “Observation of…” 5σ is a big deal.

    So, the Muon g-2 experiment at Brookhaven reported a 3.7σ, which is a big deal, but not big enough to be super excited. Another measurement was needed.

    However, the accelerator facility at Brookhaven had done all it could do. A more powerful source of muons was needed. Enter Fermilab, America’s flagship particle physics laboratory, located just west of Chicago. Fermilab could make more muons than Brookhaven could.

    So, researchers bundled up the g-2 apparatus and sent it to Fermilab.

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) G-2 magnet from DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory(US) finds a new home in the FNAL Muon G-2 experiment. The move by barge and truck.

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) Muon g-2 studio. As muons race around a ring at the , their spin axes twirl, reflecting the influence of unseen particles.

    Because the g-2 apparatus is shaped like a plate, but 50’ across and 6’ thick, it couldn’t easily be shipped on roads. So, the equipment was put on a barge that went down the east coast of the U.S., up the Mississippi and some of its tributaries, until it was at a debarkation point near Fermilab in northeast Illinois. Then the equipment was put on a flatbed truck and driven in the dead of night to Fermilab. It took two nights, but on July 26, 2013, the g-2 experiment was located at Fermilab.

    Scientists then set to work, building the buildings, accelerator, and infrastructure necessary to perform an improved measurement. In the spring of 2018, the scientists began taking data. Each year, the experiment operates for many months, collecting data. Each year is called a “run” and the Fermilab Muon g-2 experiment is expected to make five runs, including a few in the future.

    The measurement is incredibly precise. They are measuring something with twelve digits of accuracy. That is like measuring the distance around the Earth to a precision a little smaller than the thickness of a sheet of computer printer paper.

    This recent measurement using the g-2 equipment at Fermilab confirmed the earlier measurement at Brookhaven. When the data from the two laboratories are combined, the discrepancy between data and theory is now 4.2σ, tantalizingly close to the desired “Observation of” standard, but not quite there.

    On the other hand, the measurement reported today is based on a single run. Given improvements to the accelerator and facilities, researchers expect to record sixteen times more data than has been reported so far. If the measurement involving all of the data is consistent with the measurement reported today, and the precision of the measurement improves as expected, it is very likely that the g-2 experiment will definitively prove that the standard model is not a complete theory. That conclusion is premature, but it is looking likely.

    So, what does this mean? The most robust conclusion one can draw is that if future measurements tell the same story, the standard model needs modification. It appears that there is something going on in the subatomic realm that is giving the muon a different magnetic moment than the standard model predicts.

    What could that new physics be? Well, it is unlikely that the standard model will need to be completely discarded. It simply works too well on other measurements that aren’t quite as precise. What is more likely is that there exists an unknown class of subatomic particles that have not yet been discovered. One possibility is that an extension of the standard model, called supersymmetry, is true.

    Standard Model of Supersymmetry

    If supersymmetry is real, it predicts twice as many subatomic particles as the standard model. In a pure supersymmetric theory, these new particles would have the same mass as the known ones, but this is ruled out by many measurements. However, there could be a modified version of supersymmetry, which makes the undiscovered cousin particles heavier than the known ones. If true, it would modify the prediction of the magnetic moment of the muon in just the right way to make data and theory agree.

    3
    Particle physics supersymmetry. Conceptual illustration showing the standard model particles with their heavier superpartners introduced by the supersymmetry (SUSY) principle. In supersymmetry force and matter are treated identically. Using supersymmetry, physicists may find solutions for problems such as the weakness of gravity, the low mass of the Higgs boson and the unification of forces or even dark matter. Credit: Getty.

    But supersymmetry is just one possible explanation. The simple fact is that there could be many different kinds of subatomic particles that haven’t been discovered. Perhaps some new theory that explains dark matter might be relevant. Or something entirely unimagined by anyone at this point. We just don’t know.

    But not knowing isn’t bad. It just means that there are new things to learn, problems to solve. Theoretical physicists are already thinking through what might be the implications of the new measurement and what sorts of theories might explain it. The important thing is to accept that a venerable and long-accepted theory is incomplete, and that we need to rethink things. That’s how science is done.

    But I’m getting ahead of myself. The researchers need to analyze the other runs and verify that the more precise results validate today’s measurement. But things are definitely beginning to look interesting.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

     
  • richardmitnick 12:26 pm on April 12, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), Muon g−2 Collaboration(s), Muon’s Escalating Challenge to the Standard Model, , ,   

    From Physics : Muons 

    About Physics

    From Physics

    Muon’s Escalating Challenge to the Standard Model

    April 7, 2021
    Priscilla Cushman

    DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) G-2 magnet from DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory(US) finds a new home in the FNAL Muon G-2 experiment. The move by barge and truck.

    1
    Figure 1: View of DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)’s Muon g−2 ring, where the precession of muons in a magnetic field is used to measure the muon magnetic moment. Credit: Reidar Hahn/Fermilab

    Twenty years ago, the DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory(US) Muon g−2 experiment measured a value of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon that disagreed by several parts per million with calculations based on the standard model (SM) of particle physics [1]. Physicists had long understood that the SM was incomplete, but the Muon g−2 experiment provided a measurable discrepancy between a very precise quantum-mechanical calculation and an equally precise measurement of a fundamental constant. The 2.7σ discrepancy was exciting in an era when the only news coming out of other major facilities—from the Large Electron-Positron Collider to the Tevatron—was how well the SM worked. Data taking was halted after the 2001 run, since reducing significantly the statistical uncertainty would have required a higher-intensity muon beam, and reducing the systematic uncertainty would have required major engineering upgrades [2]. Meanwhile, theorists continued to improve the accuracy of the calculation, which increased the significance of the mismatch to 3.7σ as of 2020 [3]. It was clearly time to revisit the experimental side of the dilemma.

    Today, the next-generation Muon g−2 Experiment at DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US)(Fermilab) releases its first results [4], confirming the mean value of the discrepancy found two decades earlier. With this new independent measurement, the world average now stands at a more convincing 4.2σ departure from the SM. This mismatch could be the effect of new particles and new interactions that are considered by many natural SM extensions, such as supersymmetry, dark matter, and heavy neutrinos.

    The magnetic moment of a particle is proportional to its spin and to its g-factor, which is exactly 2 for a point particle with half-integer spin. However, the muon is constantly interacting with virtual particles, which wink in and out of existence with quantum-mechanical probabilities calculable to an incredible precision. This fluctuating cloud of particles modifies the g-factor. The amount by which it differs from 2 is characterized by the anomaly a=(g−2)∕2, which is why the experiment is called Muon g−2. If the muon—a quantum-mechanical spinning top—is placed in a magnetic field, its spin will precess about the field direction at a frequency that depends on the charge distribution of those virtual particles. Measuring the precession frequency provides a determination of the anomaly and thereby of the overall effect of the virtual particles.

    The Fermilab Muon g−2 Experiment (Fig. 1) follows the same technique used at Brookhaven. Polarized muons, whose spins are aligned with their direction of motion, are injected into a 14.2-m-diameter storage ring where they circle thousands of times thanks to their relativistically-stretched lifetime. As they decay, the muons spit out positrons that are detected by calorimeters lining the inner circumference of the ring. Inside the ring, the 1.45-T magnetic field that keeps the muons traveling in a circle also provides the magnetic torque that causes spin precession.

    If g were exactly 2, the precession period would equal the cyclotron period, and the muon spin direction would rotate in lockstep with the muon momentum vector. Instead, the spin direction gradually gets out of sync, taking about 27 turns before realigning with the momentum. This frequency difference is the anomalous precession ωa. Since the decay positrons are preferentially emitted in the direction of the muon spin, their spectrum shifts to higher energies when the spin direction is aligned with the momentum. This shift produces a modulation in the number of positrons detected by the calorimeters.

    The storage ring is a marvel of modern engineering. A concentric pair of superconducting coils creates a uniform vertical field inside the ring, while four electrostatic quadrupole plates serve as focusing elements. The design of the ring was optimized for muons with a momentum of 3.09 GeV/c, since at this “magic momentum” the electrostatic quadrupoles do not disturb the precession frequency to first order. This feature provided such an advantage that researchers opted to keep the original Brookhaven ring instead of exploring other design options. In 2013, the ring was dismantled, and the delicate superconducting coils were shipped over sea and land from Brookhaven to Fermilab [5]. Thanks to precision positioning of the 72 individual pole pieces and to the addition of programmable current shims, the reassembled magnet achieved a threefold improvement in azimuthal field uniformity over its earlier incarnation at Brookhaven.

    The anomaly can be written as the ratio of two frequencies, measured to high precision by the experiment. The first is the measurement of the anomalous precession ωa derived from analysis of the calorimeter response [6]. The second is a measurement of the magnetic field [7] along the muons’ path, derived from the precession frequency ωp of protons contained in fixed and moveable NMR probes (see Measuring the Field that Measures the Muon). Deriving both frequencies requires extremely precise knowledge of the muon beam dynamics [8], since each muon path samples a slightly different magnetic field and each calorimeter measures a positron modulation averaged over different muon orbits. The researchers obtained such information with extensive simulations, with corrections for eddy currents and mechanical vibrations, and with the use of data from straw chambers that tracked the positrons back to their muon parents. The anomaly can then be written in terms of the ratio R′=ωa∕ω˜′p, where ω˜′p is a calibrated, muon-weighted, and magnetic-field-averaged frequency derived from ωp. The obtained precisions for the numerator and for the denominator of R′ (438 ppb and 56 ppb, respectively) resulted in a 460-ppb precision in the determination of the anomaly.

    The fact that R′ is a ratio of frequencies led to a novel blinding process designed to prevent the researchers from subconsciously steering the analysis to favor a particular answer. Two gatekeepers from outside the collaboration applied a secret frequency offset to a clock used to calibrate ωa, revealing the value of the offset only after the data analysis was completed [9]. Confirmation of the previous result was never a foregone conclusion. As someone who has gone through a similar process at Brookhaven, I know how exciting—and somewhat terrifying—it can be to finally un-blind your data. Once you “open the box,” you can neither retract nor revise your answer, so you have to trust that all the systematic sources of error have been accounted for.

    Fermilab’s new results provide compelling evidence that the answer obtained at Brookhaven was not an artifact of some unexamined systematics but a first glimpse of beyond-SM physics. While the results announced today are based on the 2018 run, data taken in 2019 and 2020 are already under analysis. We can look forward to a series of higher-precision results involving both positive and negative muons, whose comparison will provide new insights on other fundamental questions, from CPT violation to Lorentz invariance [10]. This future muon g−2 campaign will lead to a fourfold improvement in the experimental accuracy, with the potential of achieving a 7-sigma significance of the SM deficit.

    Other planned experiments will weigh in over the next decade, such as the E34 experiment at J-PARC, which employs a radically different technique for measuring g−2 [11]. E34 will also measure the muon electric dipole moment, offering a complementary window into SM deviations. In addition, the muon g−2 anomaly is not alone in suggesting “cracks” in the SM. These cracks have just gotten wider with LHCb’s 3.1σ observation of the breakdown of lepton universality in beauty-quark decays [12]. Each glimpse of such anomalies (see The Era of Anomalies) provides new clues to the ultimate physics that governs our Universe, for which the SM is just the best “effective theory” up until now.

    References

    G. W. Bennett et al. (Muon g-2 Collaboration), “Final report of the E821 muon anomalous magnetic moment measurement at BNL,” Phys. Rev. D 73, 072003 (2006).
    J. Grange et al., “Muon (g-2) Technical Design Report,” arXiv:1501.06858.
    T. Aoyama et al., “The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon in the Standard Model,” Phys. Rep. 887, 1 (2020).
    B. Abi et al. (Muon g-2 Collaboration), “Measurement of the positive muon anomalous magnetic moment to 0.46 ppm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 126, 141801 (2021).
    https://muon-g-2.fnal.gov/bigmove/.
    T. Albahri et al. (Muon g-2 Collaboration), “Measurement of the anomalous precession frequency of the muon in the Fermilab Muon g−2 Experiment,” Phys. Rev. D 103, 072002 (2021).
    T. Albahri et al. (Muon g-2 Collaboration), “Magnetic-field measurement and analysis for the Muon g−2
    Experiment at Fermilab,” Phys. Rev. A 103, 042208 (2021).
    T. Albahri et al. (Muon g-2 Collaboration), “Beam dynamics corrections to the Run-1 measurement of the muon anomalous magnetic moment at Fermilab,” Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams (to be published).

    R. Bluhm et al., “CPT and Lorentz Tests with Muons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1098 (2000); “Testing CPT with Anomalous Magnetic Moments,” 79, 1432 (1997).
    M. Abe et al., “A new approach for measuring the muon anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment,” Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2019 (2019).
    R. Aaij et al. (LHCb Collaboration ), “Test of lepton universality in beauty-quark decays,” arXiv:2103.11769.

    See the full article here .

    Measuring the Magnet that Measures the Muon

    April 7, 2021
    Michael Schirber

    To precisely measure the magnetic moment of the muon, physicists first needed to precisely measure the field produced by the 680-ton magnet that guides the muons.

    2
    Argonne National Laboratory
    Image of the trolley carrying the nuclear magnetic resonance probes used to measure the magnetic field in the Muon g−2 experiment. Credit: DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US).

    The basic idea of the Muon g−2 experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Illinois, is to detect the wobbles of microscopic magnets traveling around a 15-m-wide ring-shaped magnet. The tiny magnets are elementary particles called muons, and the wobbles reveal the magnetic strength, or moment, of the muons. The results reported today don’t match up with standard model predictions, which is making the muon the talk of the town.

    However, there’s a less talked about aspect to this development, and that’s the giant magnet that corrals the muons. The Muon g−2 scientists constantly keep tabs on this 1.45-tesla magnet using hundreds of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors, some of which ride on a small trolley that rolls around the experiment. The effort has helped bring down the uncertainties in the field measurement to 114 parts per billion—a nearly twofold improvement over the previous muon experiment, where the magnetic-moment discrepancy was first observed.

    That experiment, which ran at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York, used the same giant magnet that Muon g−2 is using today. The magnet was shipped 3200 miles from Brookhaven to Fermilab in 2013. The magnet’s main components are a combination of iron chunks and superconducting coils that produce a vertical field inside the muon storage ring—a 45-m-long circular path tucked within the magnet’s metal structure. The field steers the muons along a circular path, while also causing their magnetic moments to wobble, or precess. To obtain the muon’s magnetic moment, the Muon g−2 Collaboration divides the frequency of this precession by the strength of the magnetic field. “The spin precession frequency is the more familiar part of the experiment,” says Peter Winter from Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois. “But measuring the magnetic field is just as important.”

    Winter and his colleagues have developed an elaborate set of protocols for measuring the magnetic field, which they don’t quantify in terms of teslas but in terms of the precession frequency of a proton exposed to the same field while sitting at the center of a spherical water sample at 34.7∘C. “It’s a mouthful,” admits David Kawall from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. But this proton-in-water frequency is a commonly used standard in NMR measurements. Kawall compares it to the metal cylinder in Paris that was—until recently—the kilogram standard. “We know how to take what our probes measure and interpret it in terms of this NMR standard,” Kawall says.

    One of the complications in measuring the field of the giant magnet is that it varies both in space and in time because of structural inhomogeneities and temperature variations. “If the storage ring were perfectly homogeneous, then you could just put in one probe, measure the field, and you’d be done,” Kawall says. The spatial deviations around the ring are of order 14 to 17 parts per million—which isn’t terrible for a giant iron magnet, he says. In fact, the deviations are 3 times smaller than for the Brookhaven experiment, thanks in part to a meticulous “shimming” process, in which 8000 hand-cut strips of iron foil were glued onto the magnet structure in 2016. The foil strips leveled out the field—like sheets of paper placed under the legs of a wobbly table. “These small pieces can make a sizable change in the magnetic field,” says David Flay from DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility(US) in Virginia.

    Even with all the adjustments made to the magnet, the researchers need a detailed map of the field. For that, they have installed an array of 378 NMR probes around the magnet ring. These fixed probes can provide continuous readings of the field, but they sit several centimeters away from the muon beam. To measure the actual field that the muons experience, Winter and his colleagues seated 17 NMR probes inside a 50-cm-long trolley. Every three days—when the muon beam is shut off—the cylindrical trolley is dragged out of a small garage and pulled around the beam path by a set of cables. Although it carries no passengers, the trolley has a full itinerary with 9000 “destinations” where it records field measurements. “The trolley can map the field at finer intervals than the fixed probes, giving us a better measurement of the field distribution distribution where the muons move.” Winter says. Poking along at a speed of roughly 1 cm/s, the trolley takes about one hour to complete a one-way trip around the 45-m circumference.

    The probes in the trolley, as well as the fixed ones, are 10-cm-long cylinders filled with a dab of petroleum jelly. Protons in the jelly are made to precess through the application of a radio pulse, and this precession is detected to determine the magnetic field around the probe. “We use petroleum jelly because the proton precession recovery time is faster than in water, allowing us to measure the field every 1.4 seconds,” Flay explains. To convert the proton-in-jelly frequency measurement to the standard proton-in-water frequency, Flay and Kawall developed a water-based NMR probe that they station at a single stop along the trolley path. During the calibration process, the trolley moves in, takes a measurement at a well-defined position, and moves out. Then, the calibration probe executes the exact same maneuvers, and the readings are compared. This “hokey pokey dance” is repeated over and over for six hours to obtain a reliable conversion factor for each probe in the trolley.

    “I think the magnetic field measurement is sometimes under-appreciated in this experiment because one might think it just involves placing a sensor somewhere,” Winter says. “In reality, it’s a long chain of complex measurements.” The researchers continue to work on reducing the measurement uncertainties, with the goal of reaching 70 parts per billion precision for the magnetic field and 140 parts per billion for the muon magnetic moment. The experiment is a rich mix of high-energy physics, atomic physics, and beam dynamics, says Kawall, who worked on the Brookhaven experiment before joining the Fermilab effort. “It’s so interesting, you could spend a whole career working on it to try and understand it,” he says.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Physicists are drowning in a flood of research papers in their own fields and coping with an even larger deluge in other areas of physics. How can an active researcher stay informed about the most important developments in physics? Physics highlights a selection of papers from the Physical Review journals. In consultation with expert scientists, the editors choose these papers for their importance and/or intrinsic interest. To highlight these papers, Physics features three kinds of articles: Viewpoints are commentaries written by active researchers, who are asked to explain the results to physicists in other subfields. Focus stories are written by professional science writers in a journalistic style and are intended to be accessible to students and non-experts. Synopses are brief editor-written summaries. Physics provides a much-needed guide to the best in physics, and we welcome your comments.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:00 pm on April 5, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New computing algorithms expand the boundaries of a quantum future", DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), New amplification algorithms expand the utility of quantum computers to handle non-Boolean scenarios., Qubits can be in a superposition of 0 and 1 while classical bits can be only one or the other., Scientists developed an algorithm 25 years ago that will perform a series of operations on a superposition to amplify the probabilities of certain individual states and suppress others., Standard techniques are able to assess only Boolean scenarios-ones that can be answered with a yes or no output.,   

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US): “New computing algorithms expand the boundaries of a quantum future” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    April 5, 2021
    Katrina Miller

    Quantum computing promises to harness the strange properties of quantum mechanics in machines that will outperform even the most powerful supercomputers of today. But the extent of their application, it turns out, isn’t entirely clear.

    To fully realize the potential of quantum computing, scientists must start with the basics: developing step-by-step procedures, or algorithms, for quantum computers to perform simple tasks, like the factoring of a number. These simple algorithms can then be used as building blocks for more complicated calculations.

    Prasanth Shyamsundar, a postdoctoral research associate at the Department of Energy’s Department of Energy’s Fermilab Quantum Institute (US), has done just that. In a preprint paper released in February [Non-Boolean Quantum Amplitude Amplification and Quantum Mean Estimation], he announced two new algorithms that build upon existing work in the field to further diversify the types of problems quantum computers can solve.

    “There are specific tasks that can be done faster using quantum computers, and I’m interested in understanding what those are,” Shyamsundar said. “These new algorithms perform generic tasks, and I am hoping they will inspire people to design even more algorithms around them.”

    Shyamsundar’s quantum algorithms, in particular, are useful when searching for a specific entry in an unsorted collection of data. Consider a toy example: Suppose we have a stack of 100 vinyl records, and we task a computer with finding the one jazz album in the stack.

    Classically, a computer would need to examine each individual record and make a yes-or-no decision about whether it is the album we are searching for, based on a given set of search criteria.

    “You have a query, and the computer gives you an output,” Shyamsundar said. “In this case, the query is: Does this record satisfy my set of criteria? And the output is yes or no.”

    Finding the record in question could take only a few queries if it is near the top of the stack, or closer to 100 queries if the record is near the bottom. On average, a classical computer would locate the correct record with 50 queries, or half the total number in the stack.

    A quantum computer, on the other hand, would locate the jazz album much faster. This is because it has the ability to analyze all of the records at once, using a quantum effect called superposition.

    With this property, the number of queries needed to locate the jazz album is only about 10, the square root of the number of records in the stack. This phenomenon is known as quantum speedup and is a result of the unique way quantum computers store information.

    The quantum advantage

    Classical computers use units of storage called bits to save and analyze data. A bit can be assigned one of two values: 0 or 1.

    The quantum version of this is called a qubit. Qubits can be either 0 or 1 as well, but unlike their classical counterparts, they can also be a combination of both values at the same time. This is known as superposition, and allows quantum computers to assess multiple records, or states, simultaneously.

    1
    Qubits can be in a superposition of 0 and 1 while classical bits can be only one or the other. Credit: Jerald Pinson.

    Amplifying the probabilities of correct states

    Luckily, scientists developed an algorithm nearly 25 years ago that will perform a series of operations on a superposition to amplify the probabilities of certain individual states and suppress others, depending on a given set of search criteria. That means when it comes time to measure, the superposition will most likely collapse into the state they are searching for.

    But the limitation of this algorithm is that it can be applied only to Boolean situations, or ones that can be queried with a yes or no output, like searching for a jazz album in a stack of several records.

    3
    A quantum computer can amplify the probabilities of certain individual records and suppress others, as indicated by the size and color of the disks in the output superposition. Standard techniques are able to assess only Boolean scenarios-ones that can be answered with a yes or no output. Credit: Prasanth Shyamsundar.

    Scenarios with non-Boolean outputs present a challenge. Music genres aren’t precisely defined, so a better approach to the jazz record problem might be to ask the computer to rate the albums by how “jazzy” they are. This could look like assigning each record a score on a scale from 1 to 10.

    4
    New amplification algorithms expand the utility of quantum computers to handle non-Boolean scenarios, allowing for an extended range of values to characterize individual records, such as the scores assigned to each disk in the output superposition above. Credit: Prasanth Shyamsundar.

    Previously, scientists would have to convert non-Boolean problems such as this into ones with Boolean outputs.

    “You’d set a threshold and say any state below this threshold is bad, and any state above this threshold is good,” Shyamsundar said. In our jazz record example, that would be the equivalent of saying anything rated between 1 and 5 isn’t jazz, while anything between 5 and 10 is.

    But Shyamsundar has extended this computation such that a Boolean conversion is no longer necessary. He calls this new technique the non-Boolean quantum amplitude amplification algorithm.

    “If a problem requires a yes-or-no answer, the new algorithm is identical to the previous one,” Shyamsundar said. “But this now becomes open to more tasks; there are a lot of problems that can be solved more naturally in terms of a score rather than a yes-or-no output.”

    A second algorithm introduced in the paper, dubbed the quantum mean estimation algorithm, allows scientists to estimate the average rating of all the records. In other words, it can assess how “jazzy” the stack is as a whole.

    Both algorithms do away with having to reduce scenarios into computations with only two types of output, and instead allow for a range of outputs to more accurately characterize information with a quantum speedup over classical computing methods.

    Procedures like these may seem primitive and abstract, but they build an essential foundation for more complex and useful tasks in the quantum future. Within physics, the newly introduced algorithms may eventually allow scientists to reach target sensitivities faster in certain experiments. Shyamsundar is also planning to leverage these algorithms for use in quantum machine learning.

    And outside the realm of science? The possibilities are yet to be discovered.

    “We’re still in the early days of quantum computing,” Shyamsundar said, noting that curiosity often drives innovation. “These algorithms are going to have an impact on how we use quantum computers in the future.”

    This work is supported by the Department of Energy’s Office of Science Office of High Energy Physics QuantISED program.

    The Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, visit science.energy.gov.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago (US), and the Universities Research Association (URA) (US). Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor.

    Fermilab’s Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator; until the startup in 2008 of the Large Hadron Collider(CH) near Geneva, Switzerland, it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating antiprotons to energies of 500 GeV, and producing proton-proton collisions with energies of up to 1.6 TeV, the first accelerator to reach one “tera-electron-volt” energy. At 3.9 miles (6.3 km), it was the world’s fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron’s CDF and DØ detectors. It was shut down in 2011.

    In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment), NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) and SeaQuest. Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment). The MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE sat in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but had fine-grained tracking capabilities. The NOνA experiment uses, and the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, Minnesota, site of the NOνA far detector. In 2017, the ICARUS neutrino experiment was moved from CERN to Fermilab.
    In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia, classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. The site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors who present valid photo identification.

    Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.

    Weston, Illinois, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab.

    The laboratory was founded in 1969 as the National Accelerator Laboratory; it was renamed in honor of Enrico Fermi in 1974. The laboratory’s first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation. He is the namesake of the site’s high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and which is the center of activity on the campus.

    After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job. It was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman stepped down in 1989. The science education center at the site was named in his honor.

    The later directors include:

    John Peoples, 1989 to 1996
    Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005
    Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013
    Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the present

    Fermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); it serves as a Tier 1 site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid.

    FNAL Icon

     
  • richardmitnick 10:18 am on April 1, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), ,   

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US): “Particle detector at Fermilab plays crucial role in Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    March 4, 2021 [Just now in social media 4.1.21]
    Steve Koppes

    A century ago, physicists didn’t know about the existence of neutrinos, the most abundant, elusive and ethereal subatomic particles of matter in the universe.

    Although they are abundant, each individual neutrino is almost massless. Nevertheless, “they shape many aspects of the universe as we know it,” said Hirohisa Tanaka, a professor of particle physics and astrophysics at Stanford University (US) and DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (US).

    That’s why Tanaka and more than 1,000 other researchers from over 30 nations are engaged in the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory DUNE/LBNF experiment (US).

    “Billions of neutrinos can cross through you without you ever realizing it, so they are very hard to get hold of and to study,” said Alfons Weber, a physics professor at the University of Oxford (UK).

    Neutrinos come in three types that morph from one into another: electron, muon and tau, and each has an antimatter cousin. DUNE will use two particle detectors separated by 800 miles (1,300 kilometers) to measure how the neutrinos morph, or oscillate, as they travel through space, matter and time. The DUNE near detector, located at Fermilab outside Chicago, will measure the neutrinos and how they interact before they oscillate. The DUNE far detector, to be located at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota, will observe them after oscillation.

    SURF-Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    Homestake Mining, Lead, South Dakota, USA.

    FNAL DUNE LBNF (US) from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    1
    One of the DUNE near detector’s subdetectors, SAND, will detect neutrinos with an electronic calorimeter, which measures particle energy, and a tracker, which records particle momenta and charge. A second subdetector will use liquid argon to mimic the neutrino interactions in the far detector. The third will use gaseous argon. Working together, they will measure particles with more precision than other neutrino detectors have able been to achieve. Credit: Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory DUNE/LBNF experiment (US) collaboration.

    The project is ambitious in its international scope and scientific goals. It could provide new insight into the unbalanced mixing of matter and antimatter, the phenomenon that made possible the formation of matter in the universe. Such an important discovery will require both detectors working in tandem.

    “Because of oscillation, the methodology is to measure the neutrino beam at the near site and then the far site and compare the two behaviors,” said Luca Stanco of National Institute for Nuclear Physics[Institutio Nzaionale di Fisica Nucleare](IT), often referred to by its Italian acronym, INFN. “It is fundamental to have under control all the characteristics of the neutrino beam in the near detector, where the beam is coming from.”

    Hirohisa Tanaka, Alfons Weber, Luca Stanco, the University of Bern [Universität Bern](CH)’s Michele Weber, and Fermilab’s Alan Bross and Jennifer Raaf play key roles in developing the neutrino-snagging components of the DUNE near detector.

    Three subdetector systems

    Building on lessons learned from previous experiments, the detector designs have become more sophisticated. The DUNE near detector, to be installed about 600 meters from where the neutrinos are produced in Fermilab’s accelerators, will consist of three subdetectors that will sit side by side.

    One of the subdetectors, known as SAND, with its 15,000 kilometers (9,320 miles) of scintillator fibers and its 5,000 photomultipliers, will detect neutrinos with an electronic calorimeter, which measures particle energy, and a tracker, which records particle momenta and charge. A second subdetector, based on the ArgonCube technology developed at the University of Bern in Switzerland, will use liquid argon to mimic the neutrino interactions in the far detector, and the third will use gaseous argon. Working together, they will measure particles with more precision than other neutrino detectors have able to achieve.

    “It’s a very complicated system,” said Stanco, who leads the group working on SAND.

    SAND will sit directly in the path of the neutrino beam to measure its stability and composition. The two argon-based detectors, meanwhile, will be moveable, able to sit either directly in the beam’s path or to be angled to one side. The different viewing angles will allow those detectors to measure how neutrino interactions change as the particles’ energies change.

    The liquid-argon subdetector will function the same way as DUNE’s much larger far detector: When neutrinos interact with the liquid argon, the interaction will create charged particles that will be detected by electronics components that amplify, digitize and then send signals to a computer where the information contained in the signals can be reconstructed.

    Several earlier generations of neutrino experiments have led to an evolution in neutrino detector design. When the detectors for those earlier experiments were designed, “We had no idea how poorly we understood how neutrinos interact and all the different effects that we need to study to make a robust measurement,” said Alfons Weber.

    Liquid-argon detectors need many-kiloton masses to increase their chances of observing neutrino interactions.

    “We always talk about neutrinos being elusive and difficult to detect,” said Tanaka, whose SLAC team will provide key components of the liquid-argon subdetector. “You see only a few of them and only very rarely.”

    The opposite will apply to the near detector. There, “the neutrino beam we’re producing is so intense that in the liquid-argon subdetector we’ll see something like 50 interactions within millionths of a second,” he said.

    The challenge thus created is to identify individual neutrinos, their energies and their types at a rate that matches the flood of neutrinos the near detector will see.

    To capture such data, the liquid-argon subdetector will consist of an array of 35 nearly independently functioning smaller modules. Each module in the array will have a mass of about three tons. When high voltage is applied to the liquid argon volume, the otherwise passive electrons in the argon atoms become liberated and start moving toward an array of detection elements.

    Liquid argon — cooled to that state from its gaseous form — is so dense that neutrinos interact at an enhanced rate. Nevertheless, some particles escape from the liquid argon detector and their properties are measured in the argon-gas subdetector sitting next to its liquid-argon counterpart.

    “You can measure other things in the argon-gas subdetector that you can’t measure in the liquid-argon subdetector,” Weber said. This includes measuring the effects of neutrino interactions on argon nuclei, a process that creates uncertainty in neutrino oscillation measurements.

    Search for new particles

    The three subdetectors working in combination will make it possible for physicists to look for phenomena that go beyond the bounds of known physical laws. As Fermilab’s Main Injector particle accelerator generates neutrinos that pass through the DUNE near detector, “other particles might get produced as well, particles that we don’t know anything about yet,” Weber said.

    Heavy neutrinos and dark photons fall into this category. The existence of heavy neutrinos could explain the perplexing fact that the known neutrinos have a tiny mass, and their discovery could help explain the nature of dark matter. Dark photons would be the invisible cousins of regular photons, which are electromagnetic particles. The detection of dark photons — if they exist — could illuminate the expansive but currently invisible dark sector part of the universe.

    And then there is the unexpected.

    “I think and I hope we will have a surprise in the physics result,” Stanco said.

    The international Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory DUNE/LBNF experiment (US) is supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, and the Universities Research Association (URA). Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor.

    Fermilab’s Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator; until the startup in 2008 of the Large Hadron Collider(CH) near Geneva, Switzerland, it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating antiprotons to energies of 500 GeV, and producing proton-proton collisions with energies of up to 1.6 TeV, the first accelerator to reach one “tera-electron-volt” energy. At 3.9 miles (6.3 km), it was the world’s fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron’s CDF and DØ detectors. It was shut down in 2011.

    In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment), NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) and SeaQuest. Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment). The MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE sat in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but had fine-grained tracking capabilities. The NOνA experiment uses, and the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, Minnesota, site of the NOνA far detector. In 2017, the ICARUS neutrino experiment was moved from CERN to Fermilab.
    In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia, classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. The site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors who present valid photo identification.

    Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.

    Weston, Illinois, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab.

    The laboratory was founded in 1969 as the National Accelerator Laboratory; it was renamed in honor of Enrico Fermi in 1974. The laboratory’s first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation. He is the namesake of the site’s high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and which is the center of activity on the campus.

    After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job. It was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman stepped down in 1989. The science education center at the site was named in his honor.

    The later directors include:

    John Peoples, 1989 to 1996
    Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005
    Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013
    Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the present

    Fermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); it serves as a Tier 1 site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid.

    FNAL Icon

     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel
%d bloggers like this: