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  • richardmitnick 1:16 pm on March 5, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , DESY, DORIS storage ring, Olympus collaboration, , , Positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering   

    From DESY: “OLYMPUS experiment publishes first results for proton puzzle” 

    DESY
    DESY

    2017/03/03

    1
    DESY scientist Uwe Schneekloth during construction of the OLYMPUS dectector within the big toroid coils of the experiment. In the background on the left one can see the DORIS beampipe connected to the target cell, on the right the time of flight chambers (photo: DESY/ H. Müller-Elsner).

    The international OLYMPUS Collaboration this week published their first results in the journal Physical Review Letters. In 2012, the OLYMPUS detector made measurements at the DORIS storage ring to study a problem observed in electron-proton scattering.

    DESY DORIS III
    DESY DORIS III

    “The publication marks the culmination of a seven year research project to resolve a puzzling discrepancy in measurements of the proton form factors: GE and GM, which describe the electric and magnetic charge distributions inside the proton,” says Douglas Hasell from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Boston, who is the spokesperson for some 55 OLYMPUS scientists from 13 institutions.

    MIT Widget

    The experiment produced precise measurements of the ratio between positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering to investigate the role of two-photon exchange in electron-proton scattering.

    The form factors examined by the OLYMPUS group are determined by the distribution of the quarks inside the proton. Scientists have been measuring these form factors for the past 60 or so years; in the 1960s and 1970s, they were also carried out at the DESY accelerator. Measurements made at Jefferson Lab in the USA in the early 2000s revealed deviations from older experiments by studying the collisions of polarised electrons and protons.

    Jefferson Lab

    One possible explanation could be that in some collisions instead of just one photon, several photons are exchanged between the two particles. In order to test this hypothesis, the 50-tonne OLYMPUS detector was installed at the DORIS storage ring. Most of it came from the BLAST detector, which was used at MIT from 2002 to 2005, adapted for the DORIS storage ring that also had to be modified.

    The big advantage of this combination was that DORIS could alternate between high intensity beams of electrons and their antiparticles, positrons, incident on the protons in a hydrogen gas target. In multi-photon exchange, differences arise depending on whether the protons were struck with electrons or positrons. “Using DORIS, we were able to switch very rapidly between electron and positron operation, which considerably reduces the systematic error in the measurements,” explains Uwe Schneekloth, a researcher at DESY who is the deputy spokesperson for the collaboration. “Thanks to the amazing support of DESY’s accelerator team, which kept DORIS up and running over the Christmas break and even implemented the top-up mode of operation for DORIS, we were able to collect a large amount of valuable data over our short operating time in spite of some technical challenges.”

    Overall, the scientists collected data for just over three months. In the course of the subsequent analysis, the researchers found that two different processes contribute to the assumed exchange of two photons during a collision. Whereas the dominant process can be described very well in theoretical terms, the distinctly smaller effect still poses certain riddles. It is markedly weaker than previous, less precise experiments, led scientists to believe. The OLYMPUS results indicate that this so-called “hard two-photon exchange” can explain the discrepancy between the two form factors. Although they agree with a general description of the phenomenon, existing model-dependent calculations still need to be modified in order to describe it. “To achieve a more precise understanding of the process, it would be helpful to conduct similar experiments at higher collision energies and with substantially higher collision frequencies. However, at the moment there is no suitable tailor-made solution for this, as we had in the case of the OLYMPUS detector at DORIS,” explains Schneekloth.

    “The findings from OLYMPUS will lead to a marked advance in our understanding of the proton,” explains Joachim Mnich, Director for particle and astroparticle physics at DESY. “I would like to congratulate the OLYMPUS Collaboration, whose experiment has supplied the most accurate data on this effect that will be available for the foreseeable future.”

    See the full article here .

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    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:52 am on March 1, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: DESY, , , Scientists develop spectacles for X-ray lasers, X-ray laser beam,   

    From DESY: “Scientists develop spectacles for X-ray lasers” 

    DESY
    DESY

    2017/03/01

    Tailor-made corrective glasses permit unparalleled concentration of X-ray beam

    An international team of scientists has tailored special X-ray glasses to concentrate the beam of an X-ray laser stronger than ever before. The individually produced corrective lens eliminates the inevitable defects of an X-ray optics stack almost completely and concentrates three quarters of the X-ray beam to a spot with 250 nanometres (millionths of a millimetre) diameter, closely approaching the theoretical limit. The concentrated X-ray beam can not only improve the quality of certain measurements, but also opens up entirely new research avenues, as the team surrounding DESY lead scientist Christian Schroer writes in the journal Nature Communications.

    1
    Profile of the focused X-ray beam, without (top) and with (bottom) the corrective lens. Credit: Frank Seiboth, DESY

    Although X-rays obey the same optical laws as visible light, they are difficult to focus or deflect: “Only a few materials are available for making suitable X-ray lenses and mirrors,” explains co-author Andreas Schropp from DESY. “Also, since the wavelength of X-rays is very much smaller than that of visible light, manufacturing X-ray lenses of this type calls for a far higher degree of precision than is required in the realm of optical wavelengths – even the slightest defect in the shape of the lens can have a detrimental effect.”

    The production of suitable lenses and mirrors has already reached a very high level of precision, but the standard lenses, made of the element beryllium, are usually slightly too strongly curved near the centre, as Schropp notes. “Beryllium lenses are compression-moulded using precision dies. Shape errors of the order of a few hundred nanometres are practically inevitable in the process.” This results in more light scattered out of the focus than unavoidable due to the laws of physics. What’s more, this light is distributed quite evenly over a rather large area.

    2
    The X-ray spectacles under an electron microscope. Credit: DESY NanoLab

    Such defects are irrelevant in many applications. “However, if you want to heat up small samples using the X-ray laser, you want the radiation to be focussed on an area as small as possible,” says Schropp. “The same is true in certain imaging techniques, where you want to obtain an image of tiny samples with as much details as possible.”

    In order to optimise the focussing, the scientists first meticulously measured the defects in their portable beryllium X-ray lens stack. They then used these data to machine a customised corrective lens out of quartz glass, using a precision laser at the University of Jena. The scientists then tested the effect of these glasses using the LCLS X-ray laser at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in the U.S.

    “Without the corrective glasses, our lens focused about 75 per cent of the X-ray light onto an area with a diameter of about 1600 nanometres. That is about ten times as large as theoretically achievable,” reports principal author Frank Seiboth from the Technical University of Dresden, who now works at DESY. “When the glasses were used, 75 per cent of the X-rays could be focused into an area of about 250 nanometres in diameter, bringing it close to the theoretical optimum.” With the corrective lens, about three times as much X-ray light was focused into the central speckle than without it. In contrast, the full width at half maximum (FWHM), the generic scientific measure of focus sharpness in optics, did not change much and remained at about 150 nanometres, with or without the glasses.

    3
    Scheme of the experimental set-up. Credit: Frank Seiboth, DESY

    The same combination of mobile standard optics and tailor-made glasses has also been studied by the team at DESY’s synchrotron X-ray source PETRA III and the British Diamond Light Source. In both cases, the corrective lens led to a comparable improvement to that seen at the X-ray laser. “In principle, our method allows an individual corrective lens to be made for every X-ray optics,” explains lead scientist Schroer, who is also a professor of physics at the University of Hamburg.

    “These so-called phase plates can not only benefit existing X-ray sources, but in particular they could become a key component of next-generation X-ray lasers and synchrotron light sources,” emphasises Schroer. “Focusing X-rays to the theoretical limits is not only a prerequisite for a substantial improvement in a range of different experimental techniques; it can also pave the way for completely new methods of investigation. Examples include the non-linear scattering of particles of light by particles of matter, or creating particles of matter from the interaction of two particles of light. For these methods, the X-rays need to be concentrated in a tiny space which means efficient focusing is essential.”

    Involved in this research project were the Technical University of Dresden, the Universities of Jena and Hamburg, KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Diamond Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and DESY.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:52 pm on February 28, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Cherenkov Telescope Array Namibia, Cosmic gamma-rays, Cosmic particle accelerator blazar Markarian 421, , DESY, ,   

    From DESY: “New eyes for the gamma-ray sky” 

    DESY
    DESY

    2017/02/28

    Final milestone for the upgraded H.E.S.S. telescopes in Namibia

    1
    Cherenkov Telescope Array Namibia

    The newly refurbished cameras of the H.E.S.S. gamma-ray telescopes in Namibia have detected their first signals from a cosmic particle accelerator: The new cameras recorded Markarian 421 as their first target, a well-known blazar in the constellation of Ursa Major. The active galactic nucleus, 400 million light years away, was detected during an active state and at high significance. After four years of development, testing, production and deployment, this is the last big milestone of the H.E.S.S. I camera upgrade project, which was led by DESY. The success is also an important test for the next generation gamma-ray observatory, the Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA, which will use the same camera technology.

    When H.E.S.S. explores the mysteries of the high-energy sky, it actually does not look into the Universe, but at the upper atmosphere. Cosmic gamma-rays are absorbed there and produce short, faint, violet Cherenkov light flashes that can be detected from the ground using large mirrors and ultra-fast electronics. The exposure times per image are as short as 16 nanoseconds (billionths of a second), and H.E.S.S. is recording about 300 of such events per second. Since some images only consist of a few handfuls of light particles (photons), the technical requirements to build such cameras are very challenging.

    In the ten years for which the original H.E.S.S. I cameras have been operated, their fragile electronic components have suffered a natural level of ageing, which degraded their performance. In parallel, also the technologies available on the market have developed much further, like faster Ethernet solutions, and smaller and faster readout chips. One of these chips is the NECTAr chip, which has been developed for the next big experiment in the field, CTA. Therefore, in 2012 the H.E.S.S. collaboration placed an order with their new collaborators at DESY in Zeuthen to team up with colleagues from the Paris area and Universities of Leicester and Amsterdam to make use of this chip and design a new, modernised version of the four H.E.S.S. I cameras.

    The engineers lost no time and developed a holistic modernisation concept that foresaw not only the replacement of single electronics boards, but also a better cabling, pneumatics and ventilation scheme. On top of this, colleagues from LLR near Paris added a full renewal of the light collimators in front of the PMT pixels (“Winston cones”) to the list of things to improve, so more light is collected in the first place. The first of the cameras was installed in July 2015, the other three were brought to Namibia in September 2016. “The installation went extremely well. Although it’s a very isolated work situation, out there in the remote countryside of Namibia, the team was really performing great and the atmosphere was very good”, summarises Stefan Klepser, DESY project leader of the upgrade. “Also, I am happy to say that we stayed well within the budget and the time frame we were aiming at.”

    After the installation, software needed to be adjusted, network connections to be established, and real-life, unexpected issues needed to be trouble-shooted. Around Christmas 2016 the systems were all fit for observation, and as luck would have it, an old friend in the gamma-ray sky, the blazar Markarian 421 was reported to show increased activity. Despite being located in the Northern sky, in the constellation of Ursa Major, it was within reach for observations by H.E.S.S. The scientists turned the four telescopes at it and could record thousands of images.

    “The refurbished cameras delivered the first large scale demonstration that the NECTAr technology is fit for teraelectronvolt astronomy”, summarises Christian Stegmann, head of the DESY institute in Zeuthen. “This makes us look forward to the final years of H.E.S.S., where the new cameras will provide us with enhanced performance at both very low and very high energies. And it is a promising outlook at the next major gamma-ray observatory CTA, where DESY is an important partner.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:07 pm on January 19, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , DESY, , First electrons at -271°C (2 Kelvin), ,   

    From European XFEL: “First electrons in the -271°C cooled main accelerator” 

    XFEL bloc

    European XFEL

    19 January 2017
    No writer credit

    Accelerator team start test of linac at operation temperature

    1
    View into the accelerator tunnel: behind a chicane (in front) operating at room temperature the electrons are guided into the first four superconducting accelerator modules.
    Dirk Nölle / DESY

    The European XFEL has reached an important milestone on the way to its operation phase: The Accelerator Team has guided the first electrons from their initial acceleration point in the facility’s injector into the superconducting main linear accelerator, which is cooled to -271°C (2 Kelvin). After passing through the first four accelerator modules and a subsequent section wherein the electron bunches are compressed, the particles were captured in an electron dump about 150 metres away.

    “The first cooling of the accelerator was a critical phase in the commissioning of the European XFEL”, said Hans Weise, leader of the Accelerator Consortium responsible for building the accelerator. “The cooling plant team has mastered this through great commitment and much outstanding intuition.”

    At the beginning of December, the experts began to flush the cryogenic system of the accelerator and fill it with helium. On 28 December, after three weeks at the 4-Kelvin (-269°C) mark, the so-called “cold compressors” were switched on. They lowered the pressure of the helium in the linear accelerator to 30 millibar so it could cool further to 2 Kelvin (-271°C, the operational temperature of the accelerator). At the beginning of January, the machine physicists brought the European XFEL injector, which has a superconducting segment within it as well, back into service. After a successful test operation in summer 2016, the injector had been turned off so that the chicane connecting it to the main accelerator could be built. After a short time, the injector again achieved the beam quality of the test operation in summer, and the team could then direct the first particle beam through the chicane and into the main accelerator.

    “We now have sufficient control over the pressure and temperature in the superconducting accelerator, such that we can feed the cavities with the first high frequency field”, Weise explained the next task for the scientists. The 32 resonators in the first four modules are then being brought to resonance frequency and fine-tuned to one another so that the particle bunches can be accelerated through them.

    In the next weeks and months, the successive commissioning of the remaining accelerating sections is planned. As soon as the acceleration is high enough, the electron bunches will be sent through the undulators, which are special magnetic structures in which the X-ray flashes will be generated.

    2
    The “plot for experts” shows the temperature development in the different sections of the main accelerator during the cooldown phase.
    DESY

    See the full article here .

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    XFEL Campus

    The Hamburg area will soon boast a research facility of superlatives: The European XFEL will generate ultrashort X-ray flashes—27 000 times per second and with a brilliance that is a billion times higher than that of the best conventional X-ray radiation sources.

    The outstanding characteristics of the facility are unique worldwide. Starting in 2017, it will open up completely new research opportunities for scientists and industrial users.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:33 pm on September 26, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , DESY, , , , , , uperconducting part of the European XFEL accelerator ready,   

    From European XFEL: “Superconducting part of the European XFEL accelerator ready” 

    XFEL bloc

    European XFEL

    26 September 2016
    No writer credit found

    Ninety-six modules fully installed in 1.7-km long tunnel section.

    An important milestone in the construction of the X-ray laser European XFEL has been reached: The 1.7-km long superconducting accelerator is installed in the tunnel. The linear accelerator will accelerate bunches of free electrons flying at near-light speed to the extremely high energy of 17.5 gigaelectronvolts. The bunches are accelerated in devices called resonators, which are cooled to a temperature of -271°C. In the next part of the facility, the electron bunches are used to generate the flashes of X-ray light that will allow scientists new insights into the nanocosmos. The European XFEL accelerator will be put into operation step by step in the next weeks. It will be the largest and most powerful linear accelerator of its type in the world. On 6 October, the German Minister for Education and Research, Prof. Johanna Wanka, and the Polish Vice Minister of Science and Education Dr Piotr Dardziński, will officially initiate the commissioning of the X-ray laser, including the accelerator. User operation at the European XFEL is anticipated to begin in mid-2017.

    Responsible for the construction of the accelerator was an international consortium of 17 research institutes under the leadership of Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), which is also the largest shareholder of the European XFEL.

    DESY

    The central section consists of 96 accelerator modules, each 12 metres long, which contain almost 800 resonators made from ultrapure niobium surrounded by liquid helium. The electrons are accelerated inside of these resonators. The modules, which were industrially produced in cooperation with several partners, are on average about 16% more powerful than specified, so the original goal of 100 modules in the accelerator could be reduced to 96.

    1
    Using a small box as a clean area, technicians make connections between two accelerator modules in the European XFEL tunnel in April.
    Heiner Müller-Elsner / European XFEL

    “I congratulate the accelerator team for this milestone and thank all partners for their perseverance and their tireless efforts”, said the Chairman of the DESY Board of Directors Helmut Dosch. “The individual teams involved meshed like the gears of a clock to build the world’s most powerful and modern linear accelerator. That all was delivered within a tight budget deserves the utmost respect.”

    “We are excited that the installation of the accelerator modules has been successfully completed”, said European XFEL Managing Director and Chairman of the Management Board Massimo Altarelli. “This is an important step on the way to user operation next year. On this path there were numerous challenges that, in the past months and years, we faced together successfully. I thank DESY and our European partners for their enormous effort, and we look together with excitement towards the next weeks and months, when the accelerator goes into operation.”

    2
    The European XFEL accelerator tunnel. European XFEL

    The French project partner CEA in Saclay assembled the modules. Colleagues from the Polish partner institute IFJ-PAN in Kraków performed comprehensive tests of each individual module at DESY before it was installed in the 2-km long accelerator tunnel. Magnets for focusing and steering the electron beam inside the modules came from the Spanish research centre CIEMAT in Madrid. The niobium resonators were manufactured by companies in Germany and Italy, supervised by research centres DESY and INFN in Rome. Russian project partners such as the Efremov Institute in St. Petersburg and the Budker Institute in Novosibirsk delivered the different parts for vacuum components for the accelerator, within which the electron beam will be directed and focused in the non-superconducting portions of the facility at room temperature. Many other components were manufactured by DESY and their partners, including diagnostics and electron beam stabilization mechanisms, among others.

    In October, the accelerator is expected to move towards operation in several steps. As soon as the system for access control is installed, the interior of the modules can be slowly cooled to the operating temperature of two degrees above absolute zero—colder than outer space. Then DESY scientists can send the first electrons through the accelerator. At first, the electrons will be stopped in an “electron dump” at the end of the accelerator, until all of the beam properties are optimized. Then the electron beam will be sent further towards the X-ray light-generating magnetic structures called undulators. Here, the alternating poles of the undulator’s magnets will force the electron bunches to move in a tight, zigzagging “slalom” course for a 210-m stretch. In a self-amplifying intensification process, extremely short and bright X-ray flashes with laser-like properties will be generated. Reaching the conditions needed for this process is a massive technical challenge. Among other things, the electron bunches from the accelerator must meet precisely defined specifications. But the participating scientists have reason for optimism. All foundational principles and techniques have been proven at the free-electron laser FLASH at DESY, the prototype for the European XFEL. At European XFEL itself, the commissioning of the 30-m long injector has been complete since July. The injector generates the electron bunches for the main accelerator and accelerates them in an initial section to near-light speed.

    The beginning of user operation, the final step in the transition from the construction phase to the operation phase, is foreseen for summer 2017.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    XFEL Campus

    The Hamburg area will soon boast a research facility of superlatives: The European XFEL will generate ultrashort X-ray flashes—27 000 times per second and with a brilliance that is a billion times higher than that of the best conventional X-ray radiation sources.

    The outstanding characteristics of the facility are unique worldwide. Starting in 2017, it will open up completely new research opportunities for scientists and industrial users.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:06 am on July 25, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , DESY, Electron injector for European XFEL exceeds expectations, ,   

    From XFEL: “Electron injector for European XFEL exceeds expectations” 

    XFEL bloc

    European XFEL

    25 July 2016
    No writer credit found

    First accelerator section successfully tested

    DESY has successfully concluded tests of the first section of the particle accelerator for the European XFEL. The so-called electron injector, which is 30 metres long, performed distinctly better than expected. The injector already completed a whole week under operating conditions. “Having gathered much valuable experience, we are now all set to start up the entire accelerator complex”, reports Winfried Decking, the machine coordinator at DESY. “This is a huge success for the entire accelerator team, together with our international partners.”

    1
    The diagnostic system produces elongated images of individual electron bunches and allows to analyse them in slices. DESY

    The bright X-ray light of the European XFEL is produced by small bunches of high-energy electrons which are brought to speed by a particle accelerator and then sent down an undulating magnetic path. At each magnetic bend in the path, the electron nunches emit X-rays which add up to a laser-like pulse in a self-amplifying manner.

    DESY is the main shareholder of the European XFEL GmbH and responsible, among other things, for building and operating the 2.1-kilometre particle accelerator. The injector is located at the very beginning of the accelerator to which it supplies tailor-made bunches of electrons. The quality of these electron bunches is crucial to the quality of the X-ray laser pulses at the experimental stations, 3.4 kilometres away. One important quality criterion is how narrowly the electron bunches can be focused. “This so-called emittance is some 40 percent better than specified”, reports Decking.

    2
    The injector is 30 metres long. Dirk Nölle / DESY

    Ten times every second, the injector produces a train of up to 2700 short bunches of electrons. To test the quality of the beam, a special diagnostic system picks out individual bunches. “We need only about four bunches per train to analyse the beam”, explains Decking. These bunches are tilted by a cavity before striking the diagnostic screen. The elongated image they leave behind as a result can be used to study the longitudinal structure of each bunch in detail. The analysis reveals the outstanding quality of the bunches.

    In the past seven months, the injector, which produced its first electron beam in December, has given the accelerator team an opportunity to get to know all major subsystems of the entire accelerator facility: “The injector includes all the subsystems that are used in the main accelerator too”, says Decking. “This meant we were able to test and familiarise ourselves with them.” All in all, he says, no major obstacles were encountered throughout the several months of its test operation. The injector went offline on Monday, so that it can be connected to the main accelerator, for which commissioning is planned to start in October 2016. The whole facility is expected to be available for experiments as from the summer of 2017.

    3
    View of DESY’s accelerator control centre, European XFEL section. Dirk Nölle / DESY

    Apart from DESY and European XFEL GmbH, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique CNRS in Orsay (France), the Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives CEA in Saclay (France), the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN in Milan (Italy), the Narodowe Centrum Badań Jądrowych in Swierk (Poland), the Wrocław University of Technology WUT in Wrocław (Poland), the Instytut Fizyki Jądrowej IFJ-PAN in Krakow (Poland), the Institute for High-Energy Physics in Protvino (Russia), the Efremov Institute NIIEFA in St. Petersburg (Russia), the Budker Institute for Nuclear Physics BINP in Novosibirsk (Russia), the Institute for Nuclear Research INR in Moscow (Russia), the Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas CIEMAT in Madrid (Spain), the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid UPM in Madrid (Spain), the University of Stockholm (Sweden), the University of Uppsala (Sweden), and the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen (Switzerland) are also involved in the injector.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    XFEL Campus

    The Hamburg area will soon boast a research facility of superlatives: The European XFEL will generate ultrashort X-ray flashes—27 000 times per second and with a brilliance that is a billion times higher than that of the best conventional X-ray radiation sources.

    The outstanding characteristics of the facility are unique worldwide. Starting in 2017, it will open up completely new research opportunities for scientists and industrial users.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:02 am on July 15, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , DESY, Focused Ion Beam Microscope   

    From DESY: “New focused ion beam strengthens nano and high-pressure science” 

    DESY
    DESY

    2016/07/07
    No writer credit found

    1
    Preparation of a double-staged diamond anvil cell with the focused ion beam microscope. Credit: Leonid Dubrovinsky, Universität Bayreuth

    2
    Natalia Dubrovinskaia and Thomas Keller in front of the new focused ion beam microscope at DESY. Credit: Sylvain Petitgirard, Universität Bayreuth

    “Nano scalpel” allows structuring of samples with nanometre precision

    A new “nano scalpel” enables scientists at DESY to prepare samples or materials with nanometre precision while following the process with a scanning electron microscope. The Focused Ion Beam, or FIB, microscope which has now gone into service also allows a detailed view of the inner structure of materials.

    2
    FIB

    The device was purchased by the University of Bayreuth, as part of a joint research project on the DESY campus funded by the Federal Ministry of Research. The FIB will be operated at the DESY NanoLab jointly with the University of Bayreuth.

    “The microscope is not only able to examine microscopic defects, cracks or point-like corrosion sites underneath the surfaces of materials, but also to machine the surface of samples with extremely high precision, on a nanometre scale,” explains Maxim Bykov, project scientist from the University of Bayreuth. A nanometre is a millionth of a millimetre. The ion beam can be used to remove material as though it were a microscopic milling machine; as a result, the combined ion beam and electron microscope is particularly interesting for a wide range of applications in nanotechnology, materials science and biology.

    “Apart from examining the structure of materials, the ability of the ion beam to remove material also leads to a wide range of different applications,” says Natalia Dubrovinskaia who is a professor at the University of Bayreuth and in charge of the joint research project (No. 05K13WC3). One example is the preparation of tiny diamond anvils, which are used to hold samples during ultra high-pressure experiments. The diamonds used for this are so small that there is no other way of preparing them. The ion beam microscope allows so-called double-staged diamond anvil cells to be prepared with nanometre precision. The ultra high-pressure experiments are carried out at DESY’s Extreme Conditions Beamline (ECB) P02.2, headed by DESY scientist Hanns-Peter Liermann.

    In addition, the device allows researchers to investigate the chemical composition of samples by measuring fluorescent radiation. “Together with the built-in milling machine, we can not only determine the three-dimensional structure, but also the distribution of the elements beneath the surface by alternately removing material and carrying out a chemical analysis, much like in 3D tomography,” adds Thomas Keller who heads the sub-division microscopy and nano structuring at the DESY NanoLab.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

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    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:56 pm on June 2, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , DESY, ,   

    From DESY: “Ironing out the mystery of Earth’s magnetic field” 

    DESY
    DESY

    2016/06/01
    No writer credit found

    Scientists directly measure thermal conductivity of iron at planetary core conditions for the first time.

    1
    A cross-section of the earth with the field lines of the geomagnetic field (as simulated with the Glatzmaier-Roberts geodynamo model http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~glatz/geodynamo.html ). Illustration: DESY

    The earth’s magnetic field has been existing for at least 3.4 billion years thanks to the low heat conduction capability of iron in the planet’s core. This is the result of the first direct measurement of the thermal conductivity of iron at pressures and temperatures corresponding to planetary core conditions. DESY scientist Zuzana Konôpková and her colleagues present their study* in the scientific journal Nature. The results could resolve a recent debate about the so-called geodynamo paradox.

    The geodynamo generating the earth’s magnetic field is fed on convection in the iron-rich outer core of our planet that stirs the molten, electrically conducting material like boiling water in a pot. Combined with the rotation of the earth, a dynamo effect sets in, giving rise to the geomagnetic field. “The magnetic field shields us from harmful high-energy particles from space, the so-called cosmic radiation, and its existence is one of the things that make our planet habitable,” explains Konôpková.

    The strength of the convection in the outer core depends on the heat transferred from the core to the earth’s lower mantle and on the thermal conductivity of iron in the outer core. If a lot of heat is transferred via conduction, there is not much energy left to drive convection – and with it the earths’s dynamo. Low thermal conductivity implies stronger convection, making the geodynamo more likely to operate. “We measured the thermal conductivity of iron because we wanted to know what the energy budget of the core is to drive the dynamo,” says Konôpková. “Generation and maintenance of our planet’s magnetic field strongly depend on the thermal dynamics of the core.”

    Measurements of thermal conductivity at relevant conditions proved to be difficult in the past. Recent theoretical calculations postulated a quite high thermal conductivity of up to 150 Watts per meter per Kelvin (150 W/m/K) of iron in the earth’s core. Such a high thermal conductivity would reduce the chances of the geodynamo starting up.

    According to numerical models, a high thermal conductivity would have allowed the geodynamo effect to be supported only rather recently in the earth’s history, about one billion years ago or so. However, the existence of the geomagnetic field can be traced back at least 3.4 billion years. This geodynamo paradox has puzzled scientists. “There’s been a fierce debate among geophysicists because with such a large thermal conductivity, it becomes hard to explain the history of the geomagnetic field which is recorded in ancient rocks”, says Konôpková.

    The physicists used a specially designed pressure cell that allows to compress samples between two diamond anvils and to heat them simultaneously with infrared lasers, shining right through the diamonds. Konôpková teamed up with Stewart McWilliams and Natalia Gómez-Pérez from the University of Edinburgh and Alexander Goncharov from the Carnegie Institution in Washington DC to measure the thermal conductivity of iron at high pressure and high temperature conditions in Goncharov’s lab.

    “We compressed a thin foil of iron in the diamond anvil cell to up to 130 Giga-Pascals, which is more than a million times the atmospheric pressure and corresponds to approximately the pressure at the earth’s core-mantle boundary,” explains Konôpková. “Simultaneously we heated up the foil to up to 2700 degrees Celsius with two continuous infrared laser beams, shining through the diamonds. Finally, we used a third laser to send a low power pulse to one side of the foil to create a thermal perturbation and measured the temperature evolution from both sides of the foil with an optical streak camera.” This way the scientists could watch the heat pulse travelling through the iron.

    These measurements were conducted at several pressures and temperatures to cover different conditions of planetary interiors and to obtain a systematic investigation of the thermal conductivity as a function of pressure and temperature. “Our results strongly contradict the theoretical calculations,” reports Konôpková. “We found very low values of thermal conductivity, about 18 to 44 Watts per meter per Kelvin, which can resolve the paradox and make the geodynamo operable since the early ages of the earth.”

    *Science paper:
    Direct measurement of thermal conductivity in solid iron at planetary core conditions

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

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    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:15 pm on May 30, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , DESY, , Materials made to measure   

    From DESY: “Materials made to measure” 

    DESY
    DESY

    2016/05/27

    1
    Functional building blocks of polymers, ceramics or metals are specifically assembled on the nano-, micro- or macro level in the three project areas A, B and C of the SFB 986. How this is accomplished depends on which – partly completely new – property profile the desired material shall have. Credit: TUHH

    Materials science continues to be funded as collaborative research centre

    The collaborative research centre SFB 986, entitled “Tailor-Made Multiscale Material Systems – M3” will be funded for another four years by the German Research Foundation (DFG, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). SFB 986 is a collaboration between the Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), the Helmholtz Centre Geesthacht (HZG), the University of Hamburg (UHH) and DESY. Overall, a sum of 13 million euros has now been granted. The second phase of funding begins on 1 July 2016.

    Since 2012, some 80 scientist have been involved in 22 projects carrying out fundamental research into a new category of materials: so-called “tailor-made multiscale material systems”. The Hamburg collaborative project provides the ideal network for top-level research into material scientific issues: researchers can draw on expertise in the field of synthesising nanoparticles (UHH) and nanophotonics (TUHH), the mechanics of small systems (TUHH and HZG) as well as scattering methods, spectroscopy and tomography (DESY and HZG). The report by the DFG particularly emphasises this “living network”. “We are very pleased that our achievements so far are being recognised by the DFG in continuing to fund the SFB. The continuation of the SFB demonstrates that we are conducting top-level research in materials science on an international level,” says Gerold Schneider, spokesman for the SFB 986 and head of TUHH’s Institute of Advanced Ceramics.

    Over the next four years, novel material systems are to be developed, displaying even better mechanical, electrical or photonic properties. For example, the Hamburg scientists are a step closer to producing a material that would be warmly welcomed by medical engineers. A newly developed manufacturing technique allows them to produce a material based on nanoparticles and organic molecules that displays high elasticity and strength, while at the same time being extremely hard. This material could one day be used for dental fillings, for example, or to manufacture watch cases. The aim is to open the door to an entirely new range of properties and structures, and to develop these to maturity.

    The researchers at DESY’s NanoLab are in charge of a subproject, examining the interfaces of oxides and organic materials, which play a key role for the outstanding properties of these materials. In addition, they are working with TUHH on a subproject regarding polymers in nanoporous materials.

    The metropolitan region of Hamburg and international materials research are being boosted in the long term by the SFB 986. This is not only demonstrated by the scientific advances being made, but also by the new master’s course in “Materials Science” which has been introduced at TUHH. At the same time, the creation of the Centre for High-Performance Materials (ZHM) at TUHH as well as other investments in the scientific field of electron microscopy, are long-term measures for establishing and strengthening this successful alliance in the field of materials research in North Germany.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:38 am on May 6, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , DESY, ,   

    From DESY: “High-speed camera snaps biosensor’s rapid reaction to light” 

    DESY
    DESY

    X-ray study reveals ultrafast dynamics of photoactive yellow protein

    1
    Inner structure of the photactive yellow protein 800 femtoseconds after the trans-to-cis isomerisation has been initiated by an ultrafast blue laser. The chromophore binding pocket is cut open and the chromophore itself is highlighted by the bulls eye. Credit: Marius Schmidt/University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

    Using a high-speed X-ray camera, an international team of scientist including researchers from DESY has revealed the ultrafast response of a biosensor to light. The study, published* in the US journal Science, shows light-driven atomic motions lasting just 100 quadrillionths of a second (100 femtoseconds). The technique promises insights into the ultrafast dynamics of various light sensitive biomolecules responsible for important biological processes like photosynthesis or vision.

    The team lead by Marius Schmidt from the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee used the LCLS X-ray laser at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in the U.S. to look at the light-sensitive part of a protein called photoactive yellow protein, or PYP.

    SLAC/LCLS
    SLAC/LCLS

    It functions as an “eye” in purple bacteria, helping them sense blue light and stay away from light that is too energetic and potentially harmful.

    For their investigation, the scientists sent a stream of tiny PYP crystals into a sample chamber. There, each crystal was struck by a flash of optical laser light and then, almost immediately after, an X-ray pulse was used to interrogate the protein’s structural response to the light at the atomic level. The structure is determined indirectly from the intricate pattern of X-ray light scattered from the crystal. By varying the time between the two pulses, scientists were able to see how the protein morphed over time. “By placing the various obtained molecular structures in order of the time delay between the optical and X-ray flashes we obtain a molecular movie of the reaction as it evolves from the first step at 100 femtoseconds to several thousand femtoseconds,” explained the first author of the paper, Kanupriya Pande, also from the University of Wisconsin and now at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science CFEL at DESY.

    “The absorption of light leaves PYP in an excited state from which it relaxes very quickly,” explained Schmidt, the study’s principal investigator. “It does so by rearranging its atomic structure in what is known as trans-to-cis isomerisation. We’re the first to succeed in taking real-time snapshots of this type of reaction.” This type of isomerisation is also what gives vision – in that case the retinal chromophore undergoes a cis-to-trans isomerisation that ultimately leads to neuronal excitation in the eye.

    “We were able to obtain detailed structures at incredibly short time points after the initial absorption event by taking flash X-ray snapshots with the world’s brightest X-ray source,” said co-author Henry Chapman from CFEL at DESY. But, as Pande pointed out, “these are very challenging experiments, where we needed considerable innovation to assign the correct time stamps to hundreds of thousands of X-ray patterns.”

    The researchers had already studied light-induced structural changes in PYP at LCLS before, revealing atomic motions as fast as 10 billionths of a second (10 nanoseconds). By tweaking their experiment with a faster optical laser and better timing tools and sorting, they were now able to improve their speed limit 100,000 times and capture reactions in the protein that are 1,000 times faster than any seen in an X-ray experiment before.

    “The new data show for the first time how the bacterial sensor reacts immediately after it absorbs light,” says co-author Andy Aquila from SLAC. “The initial response, which is almost instantaneous, is absolutely crucial because it creates a ripple effect in the protein, setting the stage for its biological function.”

    The technique could prove valuable to unveil a number of other important ultrafast light-driven processes, for instance how visual pigments in the human eye respond to light, and how absorbing too much of it damages them; how photosynthetic organisms turn light into chemical energy, a process that could serve as a model for the development of new energy technologies; or how atomic structures respond to light pulses of different shape and duration, an important first step toward controlling chemical reactions with light.

    Together with the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, SLAC and DESY, the following institutions were involved in this study: Imperial College London, the University of Jyväskylä in Finland, Arizona State University, Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg, State University of New York at Buffalo, University of Chicago, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and University of Hamburg.

    *Science paper:
    Femtosecond structural dynamics drives the trans/cis isomerization in photoactive yellow protein

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
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