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  • richardmitnick 9:16 am on February 5, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , DESY, ,   

    From DESY: “Scientists film exploding nanoparticles” 

    DESY
    DESY

    2016/02/05
    No writer credit found

    Imaging nanoscale dynamics with unparalleled detail and speed

    Using a super X-ray microscope, an international research team has “filmed” the explosion of single nanoparticles. The team led by Tais Gorkhover from Technische Universität Berlin, currently working at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in the U.S. as a fellow of the Volkswagen Foundation, and Christoph Bostedt from the Argonne National Laboratory and Northwestern University has managed to combine a temporal resolution of 100 femtoseconds and a spatial resolution of eight nanometres for the first time. A nanometre is a billionth of a metre, and a femtosecond is a mere quadrillionth of a second. For their experiments, the scientists used the so-called free-electron X-ray laser LCLS.

    SLAC LCLS Inside
    LCLS at SLAC

    The exposure time of the individual images was so short that the rapidly moving particles in the gas phase appeared frozen in time. Therefore, they did not have to be fixed on substrates as it is commonly done in other microscopy approaches. The team, including researchers from the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science CFEL at DESY, reports its results in the scientific journal Nature Photonics.

    Xenon nanoparticle exploding
    Three states of an exploding xenon nanoparticle. The ultra short flashes of the X-ray laser record these states as a so-called diffraction pattern. From these, the state of the sample can be calculated. Credit: Tais Gorkhover/SLAC

    Most imaging approaches are severely limited when a combination of high spatial resolution and extreme shutter speed is required. Ultrafast optical approaches have a rather coarse resolution due to the long wavelength. Conversely, electron microscopy can yield ultrahigh resolution but demands a rather long exposure time and it requires the particles being fixed to substrates. Therefore ultrafast processes in free nanometre-sized particles cannot be directly imaged with conventional methods. However, the ability to image and understand the dynamics in nanostructures and aggregates is of relevance in many fields, ranging from climate models to nanotechnology.

    The properties and dynamics of nanoparticles can significantly change when they are deposited on a substrate. To avoid any modification, the particles, made of frozen xenon and with a diameter of around 40 nanometres, were imaged during their flight through a vacuum chamber. “Using the intense light of an infrared laser, the nanoparticles where superheated and exploded,” explains DESY scientist Jochen Küpper, who is also a professor at the University of Hamburg and a member of the Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging (CUI). The explosion was imaged with ultrafast X-ray flashes at different time steps. Küpper’s group helped to implement this so-called pump-probe technique. “The experiment was repeated over and over with a new nanoparticle every time and slightly increased delay of the X-ray flash,” reports Lotte Holmegaard from Küpper’s CFEL group. Subsequently the images were assembled to a „movie“.

    „To our big surprise the exploding particles appeared to be shrinking with time instead of expanding as intuitively expected“ says Gorkhover. This unexpected result could be explained with theoretical models that describe the explosion as a melting process starting on the surface instead of a homogenous expansion. In this process, the solid part of the particle’s core gets smaller and smaller what causes the illusion of a shrinking particle.

    Another very interesting aspect of this new imaging approach is that it is possible to directly image the dynamics in single, free nanoparticles. Most time resolved studies are based on ensembles of many particles and averaging statements in which some important differences such as size and shapes of the particles get lost. “We have already demonstrated the importance to look at one particle at a time in earlier static experiments. Now this approach is also available for time-resolved studies,” says Gorkhover.

    “Our experiments yield unprecedented insight into the non-equilibrium physics of superheated nanoparticles. Moreover, they open the door for a multitude of new experiments where the ultrafast dynamics of small samples is important.“ explains Bostedt. Such dynamics may be of relevance in the formation of aerosols which are of major importance in climate models as they are in a large part responsible for absorption and reflection of sunlight. They may also be interesting for research on laser driven fusion in small targets or the rapidly developing area of nanoplasmonics in which the properties of nanoparticles are manipulated with intense light fields.

    Reference:
    Femtosecond and nanometre visualization of structural dynamics in superheated nanoparticles; Tais Gorkhover, Christoph Bostedt et al.; „Nature Photonics“, 2016; DOI: 10.1038/NPHOTON.2015.264

    See the full article here .

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    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:03 pm on December 28, 2015 Permalink | Reply
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    From DESY: “ERC Starting Grant for characterising the Higgs boson” 

    DESY
    DESY

    2015/12/28
    No writer credit found

    Temp 1
    No image credit found

    Kerstin Tackmann, a physicist at DESY, is to receive over 1.3 million euros from the European Research Council (ERC) in order to carry out research aimed at a more detailed characterisation of the Higgs boson.

    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event
    Higgs event at ATLAS

    She will use a starting grant to set up a research group to investigate the properties of the Higgs boson in great detail, as part of the international ATLAS Collaboration.

    CERN ATLAS New
    ATLAS

    These measurements are an important step towards identifying whether the particle fits the Standard Model of particle physics. The 5-year project is scheduled to begin in 2016.

    Ever since particle physicists working on the big LHC experiments ATLAS and CMS announced, in 2012, the discovery of a particle whose properties corresponded to those of the elusive Higgs boson, particle physics has faced an extremely exciting mystery: does this Higgs boson fit the Standard Model of particle physics, the currently accepted description of the elementary particles that make up matter and the forces acting between them, or will it open the path to a new, higher-level theory.

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles
    LHC at CERN

    CERN CMS Detector
    CMS

    CERN CMS Event
    CMS Higgs event

    Standard model with Higgs New
    Standard Model of Particle Physics

    Using the data available so far, scientists have already been able to determine the particle’s mass of around 125 gigaelectronvolts (GeV) and its spin of zero to a fairly high degree of accuracy. To obtain even more precise information about additional properties of the particle, the researchers need to analyse far more data from proton-proton collisions in the LHC. They are particularly interested in finding out exactly how the Higgs field, of which the Higgs boson is an indication, lends elementary particles their mass. To answer this question, they have started to analyse the collision data from “LHC Run 2”, which began this summer and which is expected to produce about 15 times as many Higgs bosons as the LHC’s previous run. The analysis of this large amount of collision data will allow far more reliable conclusions to be drawn.

    Kerstin Tackmann intends to devote herself to these questions together with two post-docs and three PhD students, and will be analysing the collisions from Run 2 of the ATLAS detector in great detail. They will be working as part of the ATLAS Collaboration, involving hundreds of scientists from all over the world. Her group is going to concentrate on measuring the kinematic properties of Higgs boson production. The focus will lie especially on the decay of the Higgs boson into two photons or four leptons, which allows very accurate measurements to be made. This is where deviations from the precise predictions of the Standard Model could occur, should the Higgs boson not fit the Standard Model.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:08 am on November 17, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , DESY, Helmholtz Young Investigators Groups   

    From DESY: “Three Helmholtz Young Investigators Groups for DESY” 

    DESY
    DESY

    2015/11/11

    The Helmholtz Association has awarded DESY grants to set up three new Young Investigators Groups. With annual funds of 250 000 euros each, three young scientists can set up their own research groups at DESY over a period of five years. Altogether, the Helmholtz Association is supporting 17 new Young Investigators Groups at its 18 centres. “I am very happy that no fewer than three of our candidates were able to convince the jury with their projects. This shows the outstanding quality of the young scientists we have at DESY”, says Prof. Helmut Dosch, chairman of DESY’s Board of Directors. DESY itself will be supplying half the overall funds in each case.

    1

    In her group, Dr. Sadia Bari will be developing new methods for examining biomolecules. For this purpose, these proteins are to be placed in the beam of a bright X-ray source using a technique known as electrospray ionisation, making it possible to study them in a defined state without any substrate or solvent. Scientists are hoping that this will allow a range of fundamental questions to be answered, including the nature of the radiation damage that occurs in biological cells during medical radiation treatment, and the electrical charge transfer that occurs, for example, during photosynthesis in plants.

    Dr. Martin Beye was awarded the grant to develop new methods of investigation in materials science using X-rays. So-called soft X-rays, which have less energy than hard X-rays, are particularly suitable for studying active surfaces and boundary layers, because they are specifically sensitive to the active chemical elements in a compound. In this project, methods from optical laser spectroscopy are to be adapted for use with X-rays. The scientists are hoping that this will extend the scope of their analytical methods to a similar degree to that achieved through the introduction of optical lasers.

    Dr. Sarah Heim is setting up a group of young investigators to search for dark matter and other features of the so-called new physics, using the ATLAS detector at the world’s largest particle accelerator, the LHC. The scientists want to use two different approaches to look for candidates for the hitherto completely mysterious dark matter: on the one hand via the decay of the Higgs boson, which was discovered in 2012 at the LHC, into invisible particles which do not leave a trace in the detector; on the other hand indirectly by comparing the properties of the Higgs particle with the predictions of the so-called standard model of particle physics. DESY has various research groups involved in experiments at the LHC. Heim’s Young Investigators Group will be part of the ATLAS group at DESY.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:43 am on November 3, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , DESY, EuPRAXIA Plasma Acceleraotr   

    From DESY: “EU funds design study for European plasma accelerator” 

    DESY
    DESY

    2015/11/02

    Three million euros for European Plasma Research Accelerator with eXcellence In Applications (EuPRAXIA) project

    The European Union supports the development of a novel plasma particle accelerator with three million euros from the Horizon2020 program. The EU project EuPRAXIA (European Plasma Research Accelerator with eXcellence In Applications) will produce a design study for a European plasma research accelerator focussing on applications of the new technology. Plasma acceleration promises to shrink costs and size of particle accelerators for science, medical applications and industry significantly.

    1

    “EuPRAXIA will define the missing step towards a new generation of plasma accelerators with the potential for dramatically reduced size and cost,” said EuPRAXIA coordinator Ralph Assmann from DESY. “It will ensure that Europe is kept at the forefront of accelerator-based science and applications.” The EuPRAXIA consortium includes 16 laboratories and universities from five EU member states. In addition, it includes 18 associated partners from eight countries, involving leading institutes in the EU, Japan, China and the United States.

    Particle accelerators have evolved over the last 90 years into powerful and versatile machines for discoveries and applications. Today some 30,000 accelerators are operated around the world, among those some of the largest machines built by human mankind. A new technology for particle acceleration has emerged and has demonstrated accelerating fields a thousand times beyond those presently used: Plasma acceleration uses electrically charged plasmas, generated by strong lasers, instead of the usual radio frequency used in conventional accelerators, to boost particles like electrons to high energies.

    2
    Image of a plasma cell. Credit: Heiner Müller-Elsner/DESY

    By the end of 2019, EuPRAXIA will produce a conceptual design report for the worldwide first five Giga-Electronvolts plasma-based accelerator with industrial beam quality and dedicated user areas. EuPRAXIA is the required intermediate step between proof-of-principle experiments and versatile ultra-compact accelerators for industry, medicine or science, e.g. at the energy frontier of particle physics as a plasma linear collider.

    The study will design accelerator technology, laser systems and feedbacks for improving the quality of plasma-accelerated electron beams. Two user areas will be developed for a novel free-electron laser, high-energy physics and other applications. An implementation model will be proposed, including a comparative study of possible sites in Europe, a cost estimate and a model for distributed construction but installation at one central site. As a new large research infrastructure, EuPRAXIA would place Europe at the forefront of the development of novel accelerators driven by the world’s most powerful lasers from European industry in the 2020’s.

    The EuPRAXIA consortium has the following participants: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA) and Synchrotron SOLEIL from France, DESY and the University of Hamburg from Germany, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Agenzia nazionale per le nuove tecnologie, l’energia e lo sviluppo economico sostenible (ENEA) and Sapienza Universita di Roma from Italy and Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) from Portugal, Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC), University of Manchester, University of Liverpool, University of Oxford, University of Strathclyde and Imperial College London from the UK.

    Associated partners are: Jiaotong University Shanghai and Tsingua University Beijing from China, Extreme Light Infrastructures – Beams (ELI-B) in Czech Republic, University of Lille in France, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Osaka University and RIKEN Spring-8 Center from Japan, Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and Ludwig-Maximillians-Universität München from Germany, Wigner Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Science in Hungary, University of Lund in Sweden, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland, Center for Accelerator Science and Education at Stony Brook University & Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) in the U.S.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

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    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:25 pm on October 6, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , DESY, ,   

    From DESY: “Physicists shrink particle accelerator” 

    DESY
    DESY

    2015/10/06
    No Writer Credit

    1
    Terahertz accelerator modules easily fit into two fingers. Credit: DESY/Heiner Müller-Elsner

    An interdisciplinary team of researchers has built the first prototype of a miniature particle accelerator that uses terahertz radiation instead of radio frequency structures. A single accelerator module is no more than 1.5 centimetres long and one millimetre thick. The terahertz technology holds the promise of miniaturising the entire set-up by at least a factor of 100, as the scientists surrounding DESY’s Franz Kärtner from the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL) point out. They are presenting their prototype, that was set up in Kärtner’s lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the U.S., in the journal Nature Communications. The authors see numerous applications for terahertz accelerators, in materials science, medicine and particle physics, as well as in building X-ray lasers. CFEL is a cooperation between DESY, the University of Hamburg and the Max Planck Society.

    In the electromagnetic spectrum, terahertz radiation lies between infrared radiation and microwaves. Particle accelerators usually rely on electromagnetic radiation from the radio frequency range; DESY’s particle accelerator PETRA III, for example, uses a frequency of around 500 megahertz.

    DESI Petra III interior
    DESY/PETRA III

    The wavelength of the terahertz radiation used in this experiment is around one thousand times shorter. “The advantage is that everything else can be a thousand times smaller too,” explains Kärtner, who is also a professor at the University of Hamburg and at MIT, as well as being a member of the Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging (CUI), one of Germany’s Clusters of Excellence.

    For their prototype the scientists used a special microstructured accelerator module, specifically tailored to be used with terahertz radiation. The physicists fired fast electrons into the miniature accelerator module using a type of electron gun provided by the group of CFEL Professor Dwayne Miller, Director at the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter and also a member of CUI. The electrons were then further accelerated by the terahertz radiation fed into the module. This first prototype of a terahertz accelerator was able to increase the energy of the particles by seven kiloelectronvolts (keV).

    “This is not a particularly large acceleration, but the experiment demonstrates that the principle does work in practice,” explains co-author Arya Fallahi of CFEL, who did the theoretical calculations. “The theory indicates that we should be able to achieve an accelerating gradient of up to one gigavolt per metre.” This is more than ten times what can be achieved with the best conventional accelerator modules available today. Plasma accelerator technology, which is also at an experimental stage right now, promises to produce even higher accelerations, however it also requires significantly more powerful lasers than those needed for terahertz accelerators.

    The physicists underline that terahertz technology is of great interest both with regard to future linear accelerators for use in particle physics, and as a means of building compact X-ray lasers and electron sources for use in materials research, as well as medical applications using X-rays and electron radiation. “The rapid advances we are seeing in terahertz generation with optical methods will enable the future development of terahertz accelerators for these applications,” says first author Emilio Nanni of MIT. Over the coming years, the CFEL team in Hamburg plans to build a compact, experimental free-electron X-ray laser (XFEL) on a laboratory scale using terahertz technology. This project is supported by a Synergy Grant of the European Research Council.

    So-called free-electron lasers (FELs) generate flashes of laser light by sending high-speed electrons from a particle accelerator down an undulating path, whereby these emit light every time they are deflected. This is the same principle that will be used by the X-ray laser European XFEL, which is currently being built by an international consortium, reaching from the DESY Campus in Hamburg to the neighbouring town of Schenefeld, in Schleswig-Holstein. The entire facility will be more than three kilometres long and will be the best and most modern of its kind after completion.

    The experimental XFEL using terahertz technology is expected to be less than a metre long. “We expect this sort of device to produce much shorter X-ray pulses lasting less than a femtosecond”, says Kärtner. Because the pulses are so short, they reach a comparable peak brightness to those produced by larger facilities, even if there is significant less light in each pulse. “With these very short pulses we are hoping to gain new insights into extremely rapid chemical processes, such as those involved in photosynthesis.”

    Developing a detailed understanding of photosynthesis would open up the possibility of implementing this efficient process artificially and thus tapping into increasingly efficient solar energy conversion and new pathways for CO2 reduction. Beyond this, researchers are interested in numerous other chemical reactions. As Kärtner points out, “photosynthesis is just one example of many possible catalytic processes we would like to investigate.” The compact XFEL can be potentially also used to seed pulses in large scale facilities to enhance the quality of their pulses. Also, certain medical imaging techniques could benefit from the enhanced characteristics of the novel X-ray source.

    Reference:
    „Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration“; Emilio A. Nanni, Wenqian R. Huang, Kyung-Han Hong, Koustuban Ravi, Arya Fallahi, Gustavo Moriena, R. J. Dwayne Miller & Franz X. Kärtner; Nature Communications, 2015; DOI: 10.1038/NCOMMS9486

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:31 am on September 18, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , DESY, ,   

    From DESY: “X-rays reveal electron puddles in ceramic superconductors” 

    DESY
    DESY

    2015/09/17
    No Writer Credit

    1
    The superconducting current (red tubes) running in the interstitial space between puddles of electronic crystals. Credit: Alessandro Ricci/DESY

    Using high-energy X-rays, an international team of scientists has discovered a surprising inner structure of a special class of superconductors: Within these so-called high-temperature superconductors, the electrons form puddles of varying sizes throughout the material. This finding helps to understand the microscopic origin of high-temperature superconductivity that is still not fully known. The team reports its observations in the journal Nature.

    Superconductors are materials that can transport electric currents completely without loss. This feature makes them attractive for a wide spectrum of technical applications. Unfortunately, classic superconductors have to be cooled down to temperatures near absolute zero (minus 273,15 degrees Celsius) to work. This limits their application to a few special purposes. However, a couple of decades ago it was discovered that certain ceramics can become superconducting at much higher temperatures. Despite their name, these high-temperature superconductors still have to be cooled down, but not as much as classic superconductors. Some copper oxides (cuprates) can become superconducting at minus 170 degrees Celsius, for instance.

    High-temperature superconductors work different from classic superconductors, and with a better understanding of their function, the design of a room temperature superconductor might become possible one day. To investigate the microstructure of a high-temperature cuprate superconductor (HgBa2CuO4+y), the team led by Alessandro Ricci of DESY, Antonio Bianconi of the Rome International Centre for Materials Science Superstripes (RICMASS) and Gaetano Campi of the Italian Council of National Research (CNR) looked at it with high-energy X-rays at DESYs synchrotron light source DORIS (beamline BW5), the Italian synchrotron Elettra and the European Synchrotron Radiation Source ESRF.

    DESY DORIS
    DORIS

    Elettra Synchrotron Italy
    ElettraESRF
    ESRF

    Here they used a special space resolved diffraction technique (called scanning micro X-ray diffraction) that allows to investigate the microscopic aggregation of electrons in small crystalline domains.

    In conventional materials like metals and semiconductors, the electrons, carriers of the electric charge, move homogenous, like a liquid spreading out evenly in a canal. For many decades scientists believed that superconductivity also had to appear as a homogenous order in the material. By contrast, in the high-temperature cuprate superconductor investigated, the electrons start to aggregate and form puddles at minus 20 degrees Celsius already. „We discovered that the sizes of these puddles vary widely, like the chunks of a molten iceberg or the steam bubbles in a boiling pot“, explains Ricci. While the average puddle measures about 4 nanometres (millionths of a millimetre) across, puddles as large as 40 nanometres could be seen. The distribution of the puddle sizes can be described by a power-law which is typical for self-organisation.

    The scientists could show that the puddles fill the whole material, leaving free interstitial space. Not all electrons become aggregated in these puddles. The electric current, which is carried by pairs of electrons that have remained free, has to flow around the puddles. As the authors found, the interstitial space between the puddles can be described by a special form of geometry: While the world around us usually follows the rules of Euclidean geometry, in the interstitial space of the high-temperature superconductor a hyperbolic geometry applies, as Ricci point out. „These results open new avenues for the design of superconducting materials, and thus could advance the search for a room temperature superconductor.“

    The team consisted of scientists from DESY, RICMASS, CNR, ESRF, Elettra, the University of Twente in The Netherlands, the Queen Mary University of London, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, the Moscow State University and Ghent University in Belgium.

    Reference:
    „Inhomogeneity of charge-density-wave order and quenched disorder in a high-Tc superconductor“; G. Campi, A. Bianconi, A. Ricci et al.; Nature, 2015; DOI: 10.1038/nature14987

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:54 am on September 18, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , DESY   

    From DESY: “DESY scientist to become research director at CERN” 

    DESY
    DESY

    2015/09/18
    No Writer Credit

    The Italian particle physicist Fabiola Gianotti is due to take office as Director-General of CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva, in 2016.

    CERN Fabiola Gianotti
    Fabiola Gianotti

    She will replace Rolf-Dieter Heuer, who was research director at DESY before taking office at CERN.

    CERN Rolf-Dieter Heuer
    Rolf-Dieter Heuer

    Gianotti is also relying on DESY expertise for her management team: she is appointing DESY particle physicist Eckhard Elsen as the next Director for Research and Computing at CERN.

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    Eckhard Elsen

    The CERN council today approved Gianotti’s proposals for the new directorate. The other members are Frédérick Bordry as Director for Accelerators, Martin Steinacher as the new Director for Administration and General Infrastructure, and Charlotte Warakaulle as the new Director for International Affairs.

    Eckhard Elsen has been working at DESY since 1990 and is a professor at the University of Hamburg. His career has taken him from Hamburg, via Stanford and Heidelberg, to DESY, and he has participated in various experiments in particle physics along the way, such as JADE and H1 at DESY, OPAL at CERN, as well as DELCO and BaBar at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. For over ten years, he has been advancing research and development in high energy physics projects, both at DESY und internationally, particularly in connection with the planned International Linear Collider, ILC.

    As the project manager for several EU-funded research projects and as a member of many international committees, Elsen also knows his way around international research policies. In his role as chairman of the Large Hadron Collider Committee (LHCC), he gained deep insights into the challenges of the LHC experiments; this committee plans, discusses and reviews the entire research programme carried out at the Large Hadron Collider.

    During his five-year term of office as Director for Research, Elsen will be in charge of the entire scientific programme and the scientific computing carried out at CERN. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has just begun its second operational run, during which it will achieve collision energies that are almost twice as high as those reached during its first run, when the Higgs particle was discovered.

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles
    LHC

    Many scientists are hoping that the coming years will lead to a better understanding of the Higgs mechanism and first signs of new phenomena, which might for example explain dark matter. In addition to the LHC, Elsen’s responsibilities will also include numerous smaller projects at CERN, as well as scientific computing (“big data”), a field in which the LHC makes tremendous demands and for which solutions are being developed under CERN’s management, solutions which can also be applied to other areas of science. At the same time, fundamental decisions on the future European and global strategy in particle physics will be made during his term in office.

    “My aim is to ensure that particle physics in Europe and the world continues to stand on solid and broad foundations. CERN is currently the most important centre for particle physics. It would not have this role if it weren’t for the ideas contributed by other research centres and the constructive competition with them, as well as the young talents emerging from the participating universities. I would like to continue to strengthen CERN’s collaboration with all these different institutions,” says Elsen.

    “As painful as it is for DESY to lose someone like Eckhard Elsen, we are also very proud that, for the second time in a row, one of our own scientists is to become a member of the CERN directorate,” says Joachim Mnich, Director in charge of Particle Physics and Astroparticle Physicsat DESY. “This shows that the people working at our research centre are extremely popular on the international stage. Eckhard has already demonstrated his leadership qualities when he was in charge of the H1 experiment, and I am looking forward to continue working with him closely in his new capacity.”

    “DESY and the Helmholtz Association are a driving force in particle physics, and the biggest German partner in the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC”, adds Helmut Dosch, chairman of DESY’s Board of Directors.

    CERN ATLAS New
    ATLAS

    CERN CMS Detector
    CMS

    “So I am especially pleased that Eckhard Elsen will be able to use his experience and competence to help shape the future of CERN and of international particle physics at the topmost level. Eckhard has my very best wishes for his new mission.”

    See the full article here .

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    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:03 am on August 21, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , DESY   

    From DESY: “The Standard Model prevails – so far” 

    DESY
    DESY

    2015/08/20
    No Writer Credit

    1
    A top quark candidate in the CMS detector. Credit: CMS Collaboration

    2
    Top quark pair production cross section measurements compared to the Standard Model predictions as a function of the center-of-mass energy. The new result of the CMS collaboration at 13 TeV is displayed in red and is in agreement with the theory prediction (green band). Credit: CMS Collaboration

    CMS experiment publishes first test at new LHC energy of 13 TeV

    Shortly after the start of Run 2 at the in June 2015, scientists from DESY and their colleagues from the experiments CMS and ATLAS have performed a first important test of the Standard Model of particle physics at the new energy frontier, using data from proton-proton collisions at higher proton beam energies than ever achieved before. They looked at the production rate of a well-known particle called the top quark to see if it behaves differently at higher collision energies. Their study shows: it doesn’t.

    4
    A collision event involving top quarks

    CERN CMS Detector
    CMS

    CERN ATLAS New
    ATLAS

    3
    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    Top quarks are the heaviest and among the most puzzling elementary particles. They weigh even more than the Higgs boson discovered in 2012 and might have a special connection to it. To analyse this relation and to test if the top quark is exactly the particle predicted by the current theory, physicists at the LHC perform high-precision measurements of the properties of the top quark.

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles
    LHC at CERN

    One of the most exciting studies to that respect is to measure the production rate, or cross section, for top quark pairs in the new energy range never explored before because it provides an excellent test of the Standard Model and might give scientists a first glimpse of new physics beyond.

    DESY scientists led the effort to measure the top quark pair production cross section at a proton-proton collision energy of 13 TeV. “The results are in good agreement with what we expected. This is a another huge success of the Standard Model,” said Alexander Grohsjean from DESY’s CMS group. The results are presented and discussed this week at the international high energy physics conference “XXVII International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interaction at High Energies”.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:55 pm on July 24, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , DESY,   

    From SLAC: “SLAC and DESY Join Forces at Bilateral Strategy Meeting” 


    SLAC Lab

    July 24, 2015

    The German research center DESY and SLAC will work closer together in the future: That was the outcome of a meeting of senior managers of both labs who convened July 16-17 at SLAC to discuss a joint strategy for more collaboration.

    On the first day, SLAC and DESY representatives talked about their labs’ current research activities and future plans, exposing a variety of commonalities and also differences between the research centers. This led to discussions on the second day that identified areas where the labs can best collaborate with each other.

    The meeting’s attendees found plenty of common ground. They compiled a comprehensive list of common interests, including advancements in X-ray laser technology, particle physics detectors, future compact accelerators and computing methods to handle ever-increasing amounts of scientific data produced in X-ray, particle physics and cosmology experiments.

    “SLAC and DESY have so many things in common, and we already work on many projects together,” said SLAC Director Chi-Chang Kao. “Meetings like this help us identify how we can work on the most challenging problems even closer and better together.”

    Helmut Dosch, the chairman of DESY’s board of directors, added, “The meeting was a wonderful opportunity to openly discuss the potential that the two world-class research centers have together.”

    1
    The first DESY-SLAC strategy meeting at SLAC, July 16-17, 2015. Left to right: Michael Fazio, SLAC ALD, Technology Innovation Directorate; Mike Dunne, SLAC ALD, LCLS; Vitaly Yakimenko, SLAC division director, FACET; Joachim Mnich, DESY Particle Physics and Astroparticle Physics director; Norbert Holtkamp, SLAC deputy director; Helmut Dosch, chairman of the DESY board of directors; Kelly Gaffney, SLAC ALD, SSRL; Mike Willardson, SLAC tech transfer chief; Christian Scherf, DESY administrative director; Chi-Chang Kao, SLAC director; Edgar Weckert, DESY Photon Science director; David MacFarlane, SLAC chief research officer; Reinhard Brinkmann, DESY Accelerator Division director; Mark Hartney, SLAC director for strategic planning; Bill White, SLAC deputy director for LCLS Operations; Arik Willner, DESY team leader for business development; Bob Hettel, SLAC deputy ALD, Accelerator Directorate; John Galayda, SLAC project director, LCLS-II; Steven Kahn, SLAC project director, LSST. (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)

    SLAC and DESY share a rich history of collaboration and competition. Founded only a few years apart some 50 years ago, both centers were conceived as accelerator labs for particle physics experiments. Over the years, X-rays – an initially unwanted byproduct of particle accelerators – have become an increasingly important tool for science in both locations. Today, SLAC and DESY are multipurpose labs with similarly broad research programs, including accelerator research, particle physics, cosmology, X-ray science, bioscience, chemistry and materials science.

    Cross-fertilization between disciplines has helped both sides to stay at the forefront of science over the past decades. Similarly, developing a common strategy for cross-fertilization between the labs may further advance technologies that both research centers will need for their continued pursuit of groundbreaking science in the decades to come.

    The meeting was the first of its kind, kicking off future regular collaboration meetings of the two labs.

    SLAC and DESY will now form bilateral working groups to flesh out detailed proposals for more collaboration in the identified areas. Senior managers plan on meeting again next year, this time at DESY, to discuss the outcome of the screening process and put some of the proposals forward.

    “The meeting was very successful. It showed how much DESY and SLAC overlap in their vision of the future,” said SLAC Deputy Director Norbert Holtkamp, who set up this year’s meeting. “We now have to turn ideas on collaboration into action. Exchange of staff in strategic areas of common interest will also play an important role in this process.”

    See the full article here.

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    SLAC Campus
    SLAC is a multi-program laboratory exploring frontier questions in photon science, astrophysics, particle physics and accelerator research. Located in Menlo Park, California, SLAC is operated by Stanford University for the DOE’s Office of Science.
    i1

     
  • richardmitnick 7:24 am on July 16, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , DESY, Helmholtz Association, , ,   

    From Helmholtz via DESY: “What is supersymmetry?” 

    DESY
    DESY

    1

    28.04.2015
    Kristine August

    Using huge particle accelerators, physicists are searching for supersymmetry.

    Supersymmetry standard model
    Standard Model of Supersymmetry

    Their existence could help us to understand the composition of dark matter. But is it possible for something to be more symmetrical than symmetrical? Wilfried Buchmüller from the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron facility (DESY) explains:

    “We usually associate symmetry with spatial symmetry – in connection with an image or a form, for example. But in the standard model of physics, when we think about symmetries we are thinking about something else – the forces between particles. When, for example, the force between two matter particles remains the same after reversal of the electrical charges, we are referring to “a symmetry”.

    The various forces in the standard model possess a number of such symmetries. According to the standard model, it is valid that the smaller the gaps between the matter particles, the greater the similarity becomes between the mathematical formulas that describe the forces there. We would say here that the theory becomes more symmetrical.

    2
    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    Expanding on this concept, the last remaining differences are likely to cancel each other out at some point. It is our goal to describe all forces – gravity as well – and all particles on the basis of one unified principle of symmetry – supersymmetry (“SUSY”).

    But the fundamental difference still exists between matter particles and the particles that transfer forces. Although there are different types of particles, the supersymmetry theory is nevertheless able to interconnect them mathematically. We suspect that every particle has an attendant partner, a hidden supersymmetrical partner, i.e. a “superpartner”; in other words, one half of all matter is completed by its mirror image. Such a superpartner, in supersymmetrical theories, comprises the cornerstone of dark matter. Whenever the different types of particles then appear together, all of the forces become more similar to one another due to the superpartners. It is our ambition that we can also finally prove the existence of “SUSY” in reality. Namely, by finding the superpartners. They would play a key role in helping us to understand the origins of our universe.”

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
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