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  • richardmitnick 4:25 pm on July 16, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , DESY, Michigan State University, , , ,   

    From U Wisconsin IceCube Collaboration: A Flock of Articles on NSF Grant to Upgrade IceCube 

    U Wisconsin ICECUBE neutrino detector at the South Pole

    From From U Wisconsin IceCube Collaboration

    From U Wisconsin: “UW lab gears up for another Antarctic drilling campaign”

    With news that the National Science Foundation (NSF) and international partners will support an upgrade to the IceCube neutrino detector at the South Pole, the UW–Madison lab that built the novel drill used to bore mile-deep holes in the Antarctic ice is gearing up for another drilling campaign.

    The UW’s Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL), which specializes in making customized equipment for UW–Madison researchers, will once again lead drilling operations. The $37 million upgrade announced this week (July 16, 2019) will expand the IceCube detector by adding seven new strings of 108 optical modules each to study the basic properties of neutrinos, phantom-like particles that emanate from black holes and exploding stars, but that also cascade through Earth’s atmosphere as a result of colliding subatomic particles.

    1
    “It takes a crew of 30 people to run this 24/7. It’s the people that make it work,” says Bob Paulos, director of the Physical Sciences Lab. Photo: Bryce Richter

    See the full article here .

    From U Wisconsin: “IceCube: Antarctic neutrino detector to get $37 million upgrade”

    2
    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is located at NSF’s Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Management and operation of the observatory is through the Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center at UW–Madison. Raffaela Busse, IceCube / NSF

    IceCube, the Antarctic neutrino detector that in July of 2018 helped unravel one of the oldest riddles in physics and astronomy — the origin of high-energy neutrinos and cosmic rays — is getting an upgrade.

    This month, the National Science Foundation (NSF) approved $23 million in funding to expand the detector and its scientific capabilities. Seven new strings of optical modules will be added to the 86 existing strings, adding more than 700 new, enhanced optical modules to the 5,160 sensors already embedded in the ice beneath the geographic South Pole.

    The upgrade, to be installed during the 2022–23 polar season, will receive additional support from international partners in Japan and Germany as well as from Michigan State University and the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Total new investment in the detector will be about $37 million.

    See the full article here .

    From Niels Bohr Institute: “A new Upgrade for the IceCube detector”

    3
    Illustration of the IceCube laboratory under the South Pole. The sensors detecting neutrinos are attached to the strings lowered into the ice. The upgrade will take place in the Deep Core area. Illustration: IceCube/NSF

    Neutrino Research:

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica is about to get a significant upgrade. This huge detector consists of 5,160 sensors embedded in a 1x1x1 km volume of glacial ice deep beneath the geographic South Pole. The purpose of the installation is to detect neutrinos, the “ghost particles” of the Universe. The IceCube Upgrade will add more than 700 new and enhanced optical sensors in the deepest, purest ice, greatly improving the observatory’s ability to measure low-energy neutrinos produced in the Earth’s atmosphere. The research in neutrinos at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen is led by Associate Professor Jason Koskinen

    See the full article here .

    From Michigan State University: “Upgrade for neutrino detector, thanks to NSF grant”

    5
    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, the Antarctic detector that identified the first likely source of high-energy neutrinos and cosmic rays, is getting an upgrade. Courtesy of IceCube

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, the Antarctic detector that identified the first likely source of high-energy neutrinos and cosmic rays, is getting an upgrade.

    The National Science Foundation is upgrading the IceCube detector, extending its scientific capabilities to lower energies, and bridging IceCube to smaller neutrino detectors worldwide. The upgrade will insert seven strings of optical modules at the bottom center of the 86 existing strings, adding more than 700 new, enhanced optical modules to the 5,160 sensors already embedded in the ice beneath the geographic South Pole.

    The upgrade will include two new types of sensor modules, which will be tested for a ten-times-larger future extension of IceCube – IceCube-Gen2. The modules to be deployed in this first extension will be two to three times more sensitive than the ones that make up the current detector. This is an important benefit for neutrino studies, but it becomes even more relevant for planning the larger IceCube-Gen2.

    The $37 million extension, to be deployed during the 2022-23 polar field season, has now secured $23 million in NSF funding. Last fall, the upgrade office was set up, thanks to initial funding from NSF and additional support from international partners in Japan and Germany as well as from Michigan State University and the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

    See the full article here .

    From U Wisconsin IceCube: “The IceCube Upgrade: An international effort”

    The IceCube Upgrade project is an international collaboration made possible not only by support from the National Science Foundation but also thanks to significant contributions from partner institutions in the U.S. and around the world. Our national and international collaborators play a huge role in manufacturing new sensors, developing firmware, and much more. Learn more about a few of our partner institutions below.

    8
    The Chiba University group poses with one of the new D-Egg optical detectors. Credit: Chiba University

    Chiba University is responsible for the new D-Egg optical detectors, 300 of which will be deployed on the new Upgrade strings. A D-Egg is 30 percent smaller than the original IceCube DOM, but its photon detection effective area is twice as large thanks to two 8-inch PMTs in the specially designed egg-shaped vessel made of UV-transparent glass. Its up-down symmetric detection efficiency is expected to improve our precision for measuring Cherenkov light from neutrino interactions. The newly designed flasher devices in the D-Egg will also give a better understanding of optical characteristics in glacial ice to improve the resolution of arrival directions of cosmic neutrinos.

    See the full article here .

    From DESY: “Neutrino observatory IceCube receives significant upgrade”

    6
    Deep down in the perpetual ice of Antarctica IceCube watches out for a faint bluish glow that indicates a rare collision of a cosmic neutrino within the ice. Artist’s concept: DESY, Science Communication Lab

    Particle detector at the South Pole will be expanded to comprise a neutrino laboratory

    The international neutrino observatory IceCube at the South Pole will be considerably expanded in the coming years. In addition to the existing 5160 sensors, a further 700 optical modules will be installed in the perpetual ice of Antarctica. The National Science Foundation in the USA has approved 23 million US dollars for the expansion. The Helmholtz Centres DESY and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) are supporting the construction of 430 new optical modules with a total of 5.7 million euros (6.4 million US dollars), which will turn the observatory into a neutrino laboratory. IceCube, for which Germany with a total of nine participating universities and the two Helmholtz Centres is the most important partner after the USA, had published convincing indications last year of a first source of high-energy neutrinos from the cosmos.

    See the full article here .

    See the full articles above .

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    Stem Education Coalition
    IceCube is a particle detector at the South Pole that records the interactions of a nearly massless sub-atomic particle called the neutrino. IceCube searches for neutrinos from the most violent astrophysical sources: events like exploding stars, gamma ray bursts, and cataclysmic phenomena involving black holes and neutron stars. The IceCube telescope is a powerful tool to search for dark matter, and could reveal the new physical processes associated with the enigmatic origin of the highest energy particles in nature. In addition, exploring the background of neutrinos produced in the atmosphere, IceCube studies the neutrinos themselves; their energies far exceed those produced by accelerator beams. IceCube is the world’s largest neutrino detector, encompassing a cubic kilometer of ice.

    IceCube employs more than 5000 detectors lowered on 86 strings into almost 100 holes in the Antarctic ice NSF B. Gudbjartsson, IceCube Collaboration

    Lunar Icecube

    IceCube DeepCore annotated

    IceCube PINGU annotated


    DM-Ice II at IceCube annotated

     
  • richardmitnick 11:02 am on July 11, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , DESY, , , Terahertz accelerators,   

    From DESY: “Experimental mini-accelerator achieves record energy” 

    DESY
    From DESY

    11 July 2019

    1
    Coupled terahertz device significantly improves electron beam quality

    Scientists at DESY have achieved a new world record for an experimental type of miniature particle accelerator: For the first time, a terahertz powered accelerator more than doubled the energy of the injected electrons. At the same time, the setup significantly improved the electron beam quality compared to earlier experiments with the technique, as Dongfang Zhang and his colleagues from the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL) at DESY report in the journal Optica. “We have achieved the best beam parameters yet for terahertz accelerators,” said Zhang.

    “This result represents a critical step forward for the practical implementation of terahertz-powered accelerators,” emphasized Franz Kärtner, who heads the ultrafast optics and X-rays group at DESY. Terahertz radiation lies between infrared and microwave frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum and promises a new generation of compact particle accelerators. “The wavelength of terahertz radiation is about a hundred times shorter than the radio waves currently used to accelerate particles,” explained Kärtner. “This means that the components of the accelerator can also be built to be around a hundred times smaller.” The terahertz approach promises lab-sized accelerators that will enable completely new applications for instance as compact X-ray sources for materials science and maybe even for medical imaging. The technology is currently under development.

    Since terahertz waves oscillate so fast, every component and every step has to be precisely synchronized. “For instance, to achieve the best energy gain, the electrons have to hit the terahertz field exactly during its accelerating half cycle,” explained Zhang. In accelerators, particles usually do not fly in a continuous beam, but are packed in bunches. Because of the fast-changing field, in terahertz accelerators these bunches have to be very short to ensure even acceleration conditions along the bunch.

    “In previous experiments the electron bunches were too long”, said Zhang. “Since the terahertz field oscillates so quickly, some of the electrons in the bunch were accelerated, while others were even slowed down. So, in total there was just a moderate average energy gain, and, what is more important, a wide energy spread, resulting in what we call poor beam quality.” To make things worse, this effect strongly increased the emittance, a measure for how well a particle beam is bundled transversally. The tighter, the better – the smaller the emittance.

    To improve the beam quality, Zhang and his colleagues built a two-step accelerator from a multi-purpose device they had developed earlier: The Segmented Terahertz Electron Accelerator and Manipulator (STEAM) can compress, focus, accelerate and analyze electron bunches with terahertz radiation. The researchers combined two STEAM devices in line. They first compressed the incoming electron bunches from about 0.3 millimetres in length to just 0.1 millimetres. With the second STEAM device, they accelerated the compressed bunches. “This scheme requires control on the level of quadrillionths of a second, which we achieved,“ said Zhang “This led to a fourfold reduction of the energy spread and improved the emittance sixfold, yielding the best beam parameters of a terahertz accelerator so far.”

    The net energy gain of the electrons that were injected with an energy of 55 kiloelectron volts (keV) was 70 keV. “This is the first energy boost greater than 100 percent in a terahertz powered accelerator,” emphasised Zhang. The coupled device produced an accelerating field with a peak strength of 200 million Volts per metre (MV/m) – close to state-of-the-art strongest conventional accelerators. For practical applications this still has to be significantly improved. “Our work shows that even a more than three times stronger compression of the electron bunches is possible. Together with a higher terahertz energy, acceleration gradients in the regime of gigavolts per metre seem feasible,” summarized Zhang. “The terahertz concept thus appears increasingly promising as a realistic option for the design of compact electron accelerators.”

    The achieved progress is also central for the ERC funded project AXSIS (frontiers in Attosecond X-ray Science: Imaging and Spectroscopy) at CFEL, which pursues short pulse X-ray spectroscopy and imaging of complex biophysical processes, where the short X-ray pulses are generated with THz based electron accelerators. CFEL is a joint venture of DESY, the University of Hamburg and the Max Planck Society.

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

    DESY Petra III interior


    DESY Petra III

    DESY/FLASH

    H1 detector at DESY HERA ring

    DESY DORIS III

     
  • richardmitnick 12:02 pm on June 18, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Four decades of gluons", , DESY, Forty years ago in 1979 experiments at the DESY laboratory in Germany provided the first direct proof of the existence of gluons, Gluons are the carriers of the strong force that “glue” quarks into protons neutrons and other particles known collectively as hadrons., John Ellis   

    From CERN: “Four decades of gluons” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event


    From CERN

    18 June, 2019
    Ana Lopes

    1
    A three-jet event detected by the TASSO detector at DESY (Image: Oxford PPU)

    Forty years ago, in 1979, experiments at the DESY laboratory in Germany provided the first direct proof of the existence of gluons – the carriers of the strong force that “glue” quarks into protons, neutrons and other particles known collectively as hadrons. This discovery was a milestone in the history of particle physics, as it helped establish the theory of the strong force, known as quantum chromodynamics.

    The results followed from an idea that struck theorist John Ellis while walking in CERN’s corridors in 1976. As Ellis recounts, he was walking over the bridge from the CERN cafeteria back to his office, turning the corner by the library, when it occurred to him that “the simplest experimental situation to search directly for the gluon would be through production via bremsstrahlung in electron–positron annihilation”. In this process, an electron and a positron (the electron’s antiparticle) would annihilate and would occasionally produce three “jets” of particles, one of which being generated by a gluon radiated by a quark–antiquark pair.

    Ellis and theorists Mary Gaillard and Graham Ross then went on to write a paper titled “Search for Gluons in e+-e– Annihilation” in which they described a calculation of the process and showed how the PETRA collider at DESY and the PEP collider at SLAC would be able to observe it. Ellis then visited DESY, gave a seminar about the idea and talked to experimentalists preparing to work at PETRA.

    A couple of years later, and following more papers by Ellis, Gaillard and other theorists, PETRA was being commissioned and getting into the energy range required to test this theory. Soon after, at the International Neutrino Conference in Bergen, Norway, on 18 June 1979, researchers presented a three-jet collision event that had just been detected by the TASSO experiment at PETRA.

    At the European Physical Society conference at CERN a couple of weeks later, the TASSO collaboration presented several three-jet events and results of analyses that showed that the gluon had been discovered. One month later, in August 1979, three other experiments at PETRA showed similar events that lent support to TASSO’s findings.

    Find out more about the discovery in DESY’s coverage of the 40-year anniversary, in Ellis’ account, and in this 2004 CERN Courier article.

    See the full article here.


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS

    CERN ATLAS Image Claudia Marcelloni CERN/ATLAS


    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

     
  • richardmitnick 12:24 pm on June 13, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Compact particle accelerators, DESY,   

    From DESY: “Laser trick produces high-energy terahertz pulses” 

    DESY
    From DESY

    2019/06/13

    Milestone for compact particle accelerators.

    A team of scientists from DESY and the University of Hamburg has achieved an important milestone in the quest for a new type of compact particle accelerator. Using ultra-powerful pulses of laser light, they were able to produce particularly high-energy flashes of radiation in the terahertz range having a sharply defined wavelength (colour). Terahertz radiation is to open the way for a new generation of compact particle accelerators that will find room on a lab bench. The team headed by Andreas Maier and Franz Kärtner from the Hamburg Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL) is presenting its findings in the journal Nature Communications. CFEL is jointly run by DESY, the University of Hamburg and the Max Planck Society.

    1
    From the colour difference of two slightly delayed laser flashes (left) a non-linear crystal generates an energetic terahertz pulse (right). Credit: DESY, Lucid Berlin

    The terahertz range of electromagnetic radiation lies between the infrared and microwave frequencies. Air travellers may be familiar with terahertz radiation from the full-body scanners used by airport security to search for objects hidden beneath a person’s garments. However, radiation in this frequency range might also be used to build compact particle accelerators. “The wavelength of terahertz radiation is about a thousand times shorter than the radio waves that are currently used to accelerate particles,” says Kärtner, who is a lead scientist at DESY. “This means that the components of the accelerator can also be built to be around a thousand times smaller.” The generation of high-energy terahertz pulses is therefore also an important step for the AXSIS (frontiers in Attosecond X-ray Science: Imaging and Spectroscopy) project at CFEL, funded by the European Research Council (ERC), which aims to open up completely new applications with compact terahertz particle accelerators.

    However, chivvying along an appreciable number of particles calls for powerful pulses of terahertz radiation having a sharply defined wavelength. This is precisely what the team has now managed to create. “In order to generate terahertz pulses, we fire two powerful pulses of laser light into a so-called non-linear crystal, with a minimal time delay between the two,” explains Maier from the University of Hamburg. The two laser pulses have a kind of colour gradient, meaning that the colour at the front of the pulse is different from that at the back. The slight time shift between the two pulses therefore leads to a slight difference in colour. “This difference lies precisely in the terahertz range,” says Maier. “The crystal converts the difference in colour into a terahertz pulse.”

    The method requires the two laser pulses to be precisely synchronised. The scientists achieve this by splitting a single pulse into two parts and sending one of them on a short detour so that it is slightly delayed before the two pulses are eventually superimposed again. However, the colour gradient along the pulses is not constant, in other words the colour does not change uniformly along the length of the pulse. Instead, the colour changes slowly at first, and then more and more quickly, producing a curved outline. As a result, the colour difference between the two staggered pulses is not constant. The difference is only appropriate for producing terahertz radiation over a narrow stretch of the pulse.

    That was a big obstacle towards creating high-energy terahertz pulses,” as Maier reports. “Because straightening the colour gradient of the pulses, which would have been the obvious solution, is not easy to do in practice.” It was co-author Nicholas Matlis who came up with the crucial idea: he suggested that the colour profile of just one of the two partial pulses should be stretched slightly along the time axis. While this still does not alter the degree with which the colour changes along the pulse, the colour difference with respect to the other partial pulse now remains constant at all times. “The changes that need to be made to one of the pulses are minimal and surprisingly easy to achieve: all that was necessary was to insert a short length of a special glass into the beam,” reports Maier. “All of a sudden, the terahertz signal became stronger by a factor of 13.” In addition, the scientists used a particularly large non-linear crystal to produce the terahertz radiation, specially made for them by the Japanese Institute for Molecular Science in Okazaki.

    “By combining these two measures, we were able to produce terahertz pulses with an energy of 0.6 millijoules, which is a record for this technique and more than ten times higher than any terahertz pulse of sharply defined wavelength that has previously been generated by optical means,” says Kärtner. “Our work demonstrates that it is possible to produce sufficiently powerful terahertz pulses with sharply defined wavelengths in order to operate compact particle accelerators.”

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

    DESY Petra III interior


    DESY Petra III

    DESY/FLASH

    H1 detector at DESY HERA ring

    DESY DORIS III

     
  • richardmitnick 5:05 pm on April 15, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , DESY, When an asteroid passes in front of a star the resulting diffraction pattern can reveal the star's angular size   

    From DESY: “Asteroids help scientists to measure the diameters of far away stars” 

    DESY
    From DESY

    2019/04/15

    New technique doubles resolution of angular size measurements.

    Using the unique capabilities of telescopes specialised on cosmic gamma rays, scientists have measured the smallest apparent size of a star on the night sky to date. The measurements with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) reveal the diameters of a giant star 2674 light-years away and of a sun-like star at a distance of 700 light-years.

    CfA/VERITAS, a major ground-based gamma-ray observatory with an array of four 12m optical reflectors for gamma-ray astronomy in the GeV – TeV energy range. Located at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory,Mount Hopkins, Arizona, US in AZ, USA, Altitude 2,606 m (8,550 ft)

    The study establishes a new method for astronomers to determine the size of stars, as the international team led by Tarek Hassan from DESY and Michael Daniel from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) reports in the journal Nature Astronomy.

    2
    When an asteroid passes in front of a star, the resulting diffraction pattern (here greatly exaggerated) can reveal the star’s angular size. Credit: DESY, Lucid Berlin

    Almost any star in the sky is too far away to be resolved by even the best optical telescopes. To overcome this limitation, the scientists used an optical phenomenon called diffraction to measure the star’s diameter. This effect illustrates the wave nature of light, and occurs when an object, such as an asteroid from our own solar system, passes in front of a star. “The incredibly faint shadows of asteroids pass over us everyday,” explained Hassan. “But the rim of their shadow isn’t perfectly sharp. Instead, wrinkles of light surround the central shadow, like water ripples.” This is a general optical phenomenon called a diffraction pattern and can be reproduced in any school lab with a laser hitting a sharp edge.

    The researchers used the fact that the shape of the pattern can reveal the angular size of the light source. However, different from the school lab, the diffraction pattern of a star occulted by an asteroid is very hard to measure. “These asteroid occultations are hard to predict,” said Daniel. “And the only chance to catch the diffraction pattern is to make very fast snapshots when the shadow sweeps across the telescope.” Astronomers have measured the angular size of stars this way that were occulted by the moon. This method works right down to angular diameters of about one milliarcsecond, which is about the apparent size of a two-cent coin atop the Eiffel Tower in Paris as seen from New York.

    However, not many stars in the sky are that “big”. To resolve even smaller angular diameters, the team employed Cherenkov telescopes. These instruments normally watch out for the extremely short and faint bluish glow that high-energy particles and gamma rays from the cosmos produce when they encounter and race through Earth’s atmosphere. Cherenkov telescopes do not produce the best optical images. But thanks to their huge mirror surface, usually segmented in hexagons like a fly’s eye, they are extremely sensitive to fast variations of light, including starlight.

    Using the four large VERITAS telescopes at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Arizona, the team could clearly detect the diffraction pattern of the star TYC 5517-227-1 sweep past as it was occulted by the 60-kilometre asteroid Imprinetta on 22 February 2018. The VERITAS telescopes allowed to take 300 snapshots every second. From these data, the brightness profile of the diffraction pattern could be reconstructed with high accuracy, resulting in an angular, or apparent, diameter of the star of 0.125 milliarcseconds. Together with its distance of 2674 light-years, this means the star’s true diameter is eleven times that of our sun. Interestingly, this result categorises the star whose class was ambiguous before as a red giant star.

    The researchers repeated the feat three months later on 22 May 2018, when asteroid Penelope with a diameter of 88 kilometres occulted the star TYC 278-748-1. The measurements resulted in an angular size of 0.094 milliarcseconds and a true diameter of 2.17 times that of our sun. This time the team could compare the diameter to an earlier estimate based on other characteristics of the star that had placed its diameter at 2.173 times the solar diameter – an excellent match, although the earlier estimate was not based on a direct measurement.

    “This is the smallest angular size of a star ever measured directly,” Daniel emphasised. “Profiling asteroid occultations of stars with Cherenkov telescopes delivers a ten times better resolution than the standard lunar occultation method. Also, it is at least twice as sharp as available interferometric size measurements.” The uncertainty of these measurements are about ten per cent, as the authors write. “We expect this can be notably improved by optimising the set-up, for example narrowing the wavelength of the colours recorded,” said Daniel. Since different wavelengths are diffracted differently, the pattern is smeared out if too many colours are recorded at the same time.

    “Our pilot study establishes a new method to determine the true diameter of stars,” Hassan summarised. The scientists estimate that suitable telescopes could view more than one asteroid occultation per week. “Since the same star looks smaller the farther away it is, moving to smaller angular diameters also means extending the observation range,” explained Hassan. “We estimate that our method can analyse stars up to ten times as far away as the standard lunar occultation method allows. All together, the technique can deliver enough data for population studies.”

    The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the University of California at Los Angeles and at Santa Cruz, the Columbia University in New York, the University of Potsdam, the Iowa State University, the Purdue University, the University of Minnesota, the California State University, the National University of Ireland at Galway, the McGill University in Montreal, the University of Delaware, the University of Iowa, the University of Utah, the DePauw University in Greencastle, the University College Dublin, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Cork Institute of Technology, the University of Alabama, the University of Chicago, the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, the University of Durham and DESY contributed to this research.

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

    DESY Petra III interior

    DESY Petra III

    DESY/FLASH

    H1 detector at DESY HERA ring

    DESY DORIS III

     
  • richardmitnick 2:21 pm on January 21, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: DESY, DESY’s next major project PETRA IV “Next Generation” will be a high-resolution X-ray microscope, , Leading X-ray and nano researchers meet in Hamburg, PETRA III   

    From DESY: “Leading X-ray and nano researchers meet in Hamburg” 

    DESY
    From DESY

    2019/01/21

    Industry fair accompanies user meetings of Hamburg research light sources

    From Wednesday on, around 1100 leading X-ray researchers and nanoscientists from 30 nations will meet in Hamburg. The participants belong to the large circle of users of the DESY X-ray light sources PETRA III and FLASH as well as the European XFEL X-ray laser opened in 2017, and they will discuss new results, investigation possibilities, and the further development of the research light sources. In recent years, the Hamburg metropolitan region has developed into a worldwide unique centre for research into the nanocosmos: With a unique combination of large-scale research facilities, new materials can be explored at the atomic level, the structure and dynamics of medically relevant biomolecules can be understood, chemical reactions can be filmed, and the interior of stars and planets can be simulated in the laboratory.

    1
    The user meetings are very popular forums for exchange and discussion on nanocosmos research. Credit: European XFEL, Axel Heimke

    “It is the largest gathering of its kind in the world. The high and still increasing number of participants from Germany and from abroad shows the extraordinary importance of photon sources in Hamburg for a broad interdisciplinary use. I am particularly pleased that many high-tech companies are taking part in these meetings,” says Prof. Helmut Dosch, Chairman of the DESY Board of Directors. “The users’ meetings are unique opportunities to celebrate the achievements, challenges, and highlights that have taken place at European XFEL over the last year, and to start new collaborations with our users and industrial partners,” adds European XFEL Managing Director Prof. Robert Feidenhans’l.

    The scientific light sources at DESY and European XFEL are used every year by more than 2500 guest researchers from all over the world, and once every year, the users gather in Hamburg.


    European XFEL campus

    In the past few years, these users’ meetings have been registering record numbers of participants. “The nanocosmos holds the keys to solving numerous current challenges, such as climate-friendly energy supply, tailor-made medicines, or new types of data storage,” emphasizes DESY Research Director for Photon Science, Prof. Edgar Weckert. “Our user community is continually growing and diversifying, and we are pleased so many will join us to discuss the world-class research going on here,” says Prof. Serguei Molodtsov, Scientific Director of European XFEL.

    The focus this year will include the first year of operation of the European XFEL and the plans to upgrade DESY’s X-ray ring PETRA III to the ultimate 3D X-ray microscope, PETRA IV.

    DESY Petra III

    Since the start of the European XFEL’s user operation in September 2017, more than 500 researchers have performed experiments at the facility’s first two experiment stations. Two more experiment stations became available for researchers at the end of 2018, and the final two stations of the facility’s initial configuration, comprising six stations, are scheduled to start operation in the first half of 2019. With them, operational capacity at the new facility will have tripled in less than two years’ time, with the range of possible experiments likewise growing. The first published results show the potential of the unique, ultrafast pulse rate of the European XFEL for investigations of atomic structure and biomolecular dynamics.

    DESY’s next major project, PETRA IV “Next Generation”, will be a high-resolution X-ray microscope, with which the inner structure of samples in their natural environment can be observed on all size scales, from millimeters to tenths of a nanometer. It will provide images of processes in the nanocosmos with several hundredfold finer details than is possible today, thus reaching the limits of what is physically possible. “The instruments at European XFEL and DESY complement each other optimally, so that together we can already offer our users a vast range of possibilities for exploring the atomic structure and dynamics of different materials at a range of time scales. PETRA IV will complete the portfolio and add even more opportunities – all together, the research done at our facilities can change the way we see the world around us,” says Feidenhans’l.

    In more than 30 plenary lectures and 18 satellite workshops, as well as on more than 350 scientific posters, the participants of this year’s meetings will exchange information on new developments for three days from Wednesday to Friday. At an accompanying industrial fair, around 80 companies will be presenting their highly specialised products for cutting-edge research.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

    DESY Petra III interior


    DESY Petra III

    DESY/FLASH

    H1 detector at DESY HERA ring

    DESY DORIS III

     
  • richardmitnick 11:54 am on December 27, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Astroparticle physics to become research division at DESY, , , , DESY, , ,   

    From DESY: “Astroparticle physics to become research division at DESY” 

    DESY
    From DESY

    1
    Cosmic particle accelerators like blazars (artist’s impression) are typical objects for multimessenger astronomy. Credit: DESY, Science Communication Lab

    Key focus on multimessenger astronomy

    DESY is expanding its activities for the exploration of the universe. As the new year begins, the research centre, which is a member of the Helmholtz Association, is setting up a new research division for astroparticle physics. The director in charge of astroparticle physics will be Christian Stegmann, who is also the head of DESY’s Zeuthen site. This means that in future DESY will have four research divisions: Accelerators, Photon Science, Particle Physics and Astroparticle Physics.

    “Astroparticle physics has developed extremely rapidly in recent years, both at an international level and at DESY. With the establishment of the new research division, we are driving this development further forward,” explains Helmut Dosch, the chairman of DESY’s Board of Directors. “Over the coming years, DESY’s site in Zeuthen is going to be expanded to become an international centre for astroparticle physics. These steps will be a boost for astroparticle physics throughout Germany.”

    Astroparticle physics studies high-energy particles from outer space that originate in high-energy phenomena such as supernova explosions and active galactic nuclei. It aims to gain a fundamental understanding of the role of high-energy particles and processes involved in the evolution of the universe, thereby providing important foundations for the search for dark matter and physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. It is now possible, for the first time, to measure all the different cosmic messengers – from cosmic rays, through gamma radiation and cosmic neutrinos, to gravitational waves – and to combine this information with observations made in classical astronomy, to paint a new picture of the high-energy universe. The emerging field of such combined observations of different “messengers” is called multimessenger astronomy.

    Within astroparticle physics, DESY is currently concentrating on the study of cosmic gamma radiation and high-energy neutrinos from outer space. Neutrinos are lightweight elementary particles that can easily penetrate entire stars and therefore offer a glimpse of regions that are opaque to light and other types of electromagnetic radiation. Both gamma-ray and neutrino astronomy are exceedingly dynamic fields of research, and DESY is one of the leading institutes involved in large international observatories such as the future Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA, and in upgrading the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole. Theoretical astroparticle physics is responsible for the important task of interpreting the data provided by the various different cosmic messengers, and to describe how they are connected.

    Cherenkov Telescope Array, http://www.isdc.unige.ch/cta/ at Cerro Paranal, located in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile searches for cosmic rayson Cerro Paranal at 2,635 m (8,645 ft) altitude, 120 km (70 mi) south of Antofagasta; and at at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), Roque de los Muchachos Observatory in La Palma, Spain

    U Wisconsin ICECUBE neutrino detector at the South Pole

    Within the new astroparticle physics research division, a particular scientific focus lies with the multimessenger programme. Apart from the scientific activities, DESY is setting up an international graduate school for promoting young talents in multimessenger astronomy, sponsored by the Helmholtz Association, in collaboration with partners which include the Humboldt University in Berlin, the University of Potsdam and Israel’s Weizmann Institute.

    Stegmann is convinced that, “We are on the threshold of a golden age in multimessenger astronomy. And the breath-taking speed with which spectacular findings have been made in recent years means that launching the new research division of astroparticle physics is a step into the future for DESY. I am very pleased to be in charge of this very active division and to be supervising the next results as its director, results that will contribute to our understanding of the structure of matter, from the universe down to the tiniest elementary particles, and to continuing to develop science in Germany.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

    DESY Petra III interior


    DESY Petra III

    DESY/FLASH

    H1 detector at DESY HERA ring

    DESY DORIS III

     
  • richardmitnick 8:15 am on August 14, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: DESY, , PITZ accelerator-Photo Injector Test facility at DESY's Zeuthen site, Plasma-based particle acceleration   

    From DESY: “World record – Low-draft electron bunches drive high plasma wakes” 

    DESY
    From DESY

    2018/08/13

    Scientists at DESY have achieved a milestone towards the usability of novel, plasma-based particle accelerators. Using the electron beam of the PITZ accelerator, the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY’s Zeuthen site, DESY physicist Frank Stephan and his group, as part of the LAOLA collaboration, accelerated electrons in a plasma wake with an enhanced ratio between acceleration of the witness and deceleration of the driver beam. This so-called transformer ratio defines the achievable energy gain in such a plasma accelerator. Their results are now being published in the journal Physical Review Letters.

    1
    DESY – PITZ – Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY The Photo Injector Test Facility at the DESY location in Zeuthen

    2
    The plasma cell used for the experiments. The glass tube is ten centimetres long, about seven centimetres are visible here. Credit: DESY, Gregor Loisch

    Plasma-based particle acceleration is a novel accelerator technology which utilizes the possibility to achieve accelerating field strengths in a plasma which exceed those of conventional accelerators by three orders of magnitude. In the case of the Plasma Wakefield Acceleration scheme, a pair of two electron bunches are shot into an ionized gas (plasma) where the first, highly energetic “driver”-bunch drives a plasma wake. The second, “witness” bunch, which trails the first one with about five picoseconds (millionth of a millionth second) delay, is accelerated in the plasma wake like a surfer who rides the wake of a boat.

    The electrons which drive the plasma wake are being decelerated in the process and act as the energy source for the acceleration. The ratio between acceleration and deceleration is the above-mentioned transformer ratio. A high transformer ratio corresponds to a boat, that slides lightly through the water but creates a high wake at its stern. For the electron beams that have been used in plasma wakefield experiments so far, the transformer ratio is limited to 2. The experiments at PITZ aimed at breaking this limit, which was possible by using the specially formed electron bunches that are available at PITZ. Using the flexible photocathode laser of the facility, the researchers were able to investigate plasma acceleration by asymmetric, triangularly shaped driver bunches for the first time. With this crucial improvement, a transformer ratio of 4.6 was measured, exceeding previous experiments significantly.

    3
    The simulation of the beam plasma interaction shows the driver beam electrons (red), the witness beam electrons (green) and the accelerating plasma wakefield (colored surface). Credit: DESY, Gregor Loisch

    “Application of our technique could reduce the length of a future plasma accelerator by more than half”, says Gregor Loisch, lead author of the study. “Now that we know that such high transformer ratios are generally possible, we’ll refine our methods to achieve this at higher accelerating fields.”

    Especially the high achievable accelerating field strength makes plasma acceleration one of the most promising candidates for novel particle accelerators. Increasing the field strength allows to shrink the acceleration length at constant acceleration energy, which would reduce the cost for building and operating such a future facility.

    The studies performed at PITZ, could allow to also shrink the energy of the required conventional driver beam accelerator and reduce the costs further.

    Today, only few facilities in the world are capable of producing the flexible electron beams needed for this. Other crucial assets of the research accelerator PITZ besides its bunch shaping capabilities are the various diagnostics to accurately measure the electron beams and the possibility to supply sufficient beam time for such accelerator experiments.

    In addition to increasing the relatively moderate acceleration field strength of currently 3.6 megavolts per metre (MV/m), the scientists will focus on improving the bunch shaping flexibility in further studies.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

    DESY Petra III interior


    DESY Petra III

    DESY/FLASH

    H1 detector at DESY HERA ring

    DESY DORIS III

     
  • richardmitnick 9:56 am on May 28, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: CALICE collaboration, Calorimeter systems, Calorimeters measure the energy of passing particles from a collision, DESY, Hadronic calorimeter, , ,   

    From DESY: “Detector prototype sees beam” 

    DESY
    From DESY

    Optimised from top to bottom: new calorimeter produces good results in the test beam.

    1
    The calorimeter was assembled at DESY. Image: DESY

    2
    Test beam crew at CERN. Image: Jiri Kvasnicka, Prag

    Particle physics will always need calorimeters, so particle physicists are always trying to optimise, tweak and update their calorimeter systems for the best possible measurements. The CALICE collaboration plays a leading role in this, and their most recent prototype for a hadronic calorimeter has just been completed and is currently at CERN for a round of tests in the test beam.

    The project leaders are Katja Krüger and Felix Sefkow from DESY, who coordinated the development and production of all parts for the new prototype. They made sure it all came together in the detector lab at DESY and used the local expertise of many different groups to check that it worked wand set off with it to CERN. And it’s not only DESY electronics expertise that was involved: the calorimeter made the journey packaged in neat crates designed and custom-made by the DESY carpenters.

    The calorimeter prototype, whose role it is to measure the energy of passing particles from a collision, consists of 38 layers of 72 by 72 centimetres of active material. 22 000 scintillator tiles, each with its own silicon photomultiplier (SiPM), measure the passing particles, and in contrast to previous prototypes everything is included in the structure: photosensors, readout chips, LEDs for calibration, voltage adjustment, trigger, storage, amplifiers, energy and time digitisers, you name it. All of the data recorded by the detectors leaves the structure via one neat cable – just like it would have to if it were part of a complete high-energy physics particle detector where there’s no space for racks and lots of cables.

    2
    Representation of particles in the detector. No image credit.

    Coordinator Felix Sefkow explains what makes this calorimeter so special. “It’s got the 4D position information and timing of an imaging detector and it’s a calorimeter at the same time.” The new prototype is the culmination of years of developing and testing various technologies and combinations of technologies in labs and test beams to find the optimal system combinations and use the latest developments from semi-conductor industry. With its mature technology it could in principle be installed in a detector for the ILC tomorrow. So far things have gone well in the test beam that just finished after two weeks at CERN.

    Assembly of the detector had started in October last year with the participation of many groups around the world, using mass-production technologies. The scintillator tiles themselves were injection-moulded in Russia, automatically wrapped like candies in Hamburg and glued onto electronics boards by a robot in Mainz. The complex boards were assembled at DESY, using ASICs from the OMEGA group at Palaiseau, tested in Wuppertal, and SiPMs from Japan, characterised in Heidelberg.

    The DAQ was a common effort of Bristol, Prague and DESY physicists. Board production went on until January, after which they were calibrated, tested and integrated into the calorimeter structure at DESY. The Max-Planck-Group Munich contributed to mechanics and gave the software a strong boost. And before being packed up into boxes for the CERN beam time the setup already recorded its first cosmic muon events.

    Installation in CERN’s SPS beam line H2 went smoothly, the detector worked out of the box and recorded tens of millions of muon, electron and pion events. “Online data quality looks good”, summarises Krüger.

    The CALICE SiPM-on-Tile technology, developed under DESY lead, is so versatile that it will also be used in the LHC’s CMS detector for the high-luminosity upgrade and is under consideration for a future neutrino detector in the United States.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.
    stem
    Stem Education Coalition

    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:42 pm on May 5, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , DESY, , Freeze-framing nanosecond movements of nanoparticles, , ,   

    From DESY: “Freeze-framing nanosecond movements of nanoparticles” 

    DESY
    From DESY

    2018/05/03
    No writer credit

    New method allows to monitor fast movements at hard X-ray lasers.

    A team of scientists from DESY, the Advanced Photon Source APS and National Accelerator Laboratory SLAC, both in the USA, have developed and integrated a new method for monitoring ultrafast movements of nanoscopic systems.

    Argonne APS

    SLAC LCLS

    With the light of the X-ray laser LCLS at the research center SLAC in California, they took images of the movements of nanoparticles taking only the billionth of a second (0,000 000 001 s).

    SLAC LCLS

    In their experiments now published in the journal Nature Communications they overcame the slowness of present-day two-dimensional X-ray detectors by splitting individual laser flashes of LCLS, delaying one half of it by a nanosecond and recording a single picture of the nanoparticle with these pairs of X-ray pulses. The tunable light splitter for hard X-rays which the scientists developed for these experiments enables this new technique to monitor movements of nanometer size fluctuations down to femtoseconds and at atomic resolution. For comparison: modern synchrotron radiation light sources like PETRA III at DESY can typically measure movements on millisecond timescales.

    DESY Petra III interior

    1
    Scheme of the experiment: An autocorrelator developed at DESY splits the ultrashort X-ray laser pulses into two equal intensity pulses which arrive with a tunable delay at the sample. The speckle pattern of the sample is collected in a single exposure of the 2-D detector (picture: W. Roseker/DESY).

    he intense light flashes of X-ray lasers are coherent which means that the waves of the monochromatic laser light propagate in phase to each other. Diffracting coherent light by a sample usually results in a so-called speckle diffraction pattern showing apparently randomly ordered light spots. However, this speckle is also a map of the sample arrangement, and movements of the sample constituents result in a different speckle pattern.

    For their experiments the researchers developed a special optical setup – a so-called optical autocorrelator – capable of splitting 100 femtosecond long XFEL pulses into two sub-pulses, deviate them into separated detours and recombining their paths with a tunable time delay between zero and a few nanoseconds. These pairs of XFEL pulses hit the sample with the tuned delay, spotting the sample´s structure at the two exposure times. The sum of both speckle pictures was recorded by a two-dimensional photon detector within one exposure time. The trick: If the constituents of the sample move during the two illuminations, the speckle pattern changes, resulting in an integrated picture of less contrast at the detector. The contrast is a measure on how strong the photon intensity varies on the detector. However, the intensity and especially the intensity difference measured at the detector are very weak. In their experiments the researchers had to work with only some 1000 detected photons on the one-million-pixels size detector.

    “Such type of experiments has been done for much slower movements of nanoparticles at storage ring light sources,” explains first author Wojciech Roseker from DESY. “But now, the high coherence and intensity of the X-ray laser light at XFELs open up the opportunity to get pictures bright enough to provide reasonable information about quick movements in the nanosecond to femtosecond regime.”

    In their work the researchers around Roseker used a suspension of two nanometers size gold particles undergoing Brownian motion. The experiment was in perfect agreement with the theoretical predictions thus proving not only the performance of the autocorrelator setup but also the validity of the data analysis procedure, demonstrating the first successful experiment of this kind. One of the challenges in this experiment, carried out at the XCS experimental station at LCLS, was to autocorrelate thousands of extremely weak double shot 2D images which was achieved with the help of a newly developed maximum likelihood analysis technique.

    “This experiment paves the way to dynamics experiments of materials on atomic length and femtosecond-nanosecond timescales,” explains Gerhard Grübel, head of the DESY FS-CXS group. “Split-pulse X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) can potentially track atomic scale fluctuations in liquid metals, multi-scale dynamics in water, heterogeneous dynamics about the glass transition, and atomic scale surface fluctuations.” Additionally, time-domain XPCS at FEL sources, especially at the European XFEL, is well suited for studying fluctuations in non-equilibrium processes that go beyond time-averaged structural descriptions.


    DESY European XFEL


    European XFEL

    This will allow the elucidation of dynamics of ultrafast magnetization processes and can address open questions concerning photo-induced phonon dynamics and phase transitions.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    desi

    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
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