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  • richardmitnick 10:35 am on December 6, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "First DUNE science components arrive at SURF", , , Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in South Dakota., , , The DOE's Fermilab National Acccelerator Laboratory,   

    From The Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF And The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory: “First DUNE science components arrive at SURF” 

    From The Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF

    And

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory-an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research worldwide.

    12.5.22
    Erin Lorraine Woodward

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    Due to their size, the APAs will not fit on the elevator-like conveyance used to transport people and materials through the shaft. Instead, the APAs were suspended beneath the cage to lower them underground. Photo by Matthew Kapust.

    Traveling by rail, sea, interstates, and shafts, the first components of the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) [below] have arrived at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota. The anode plane assemblies, or APAs, will one day capture data left in the wake of neutrino collisions in DUNE’s Far Detector.

    “This APA arrival and test lift marks the start of DUNE onsite activities at SURF,” said Mike Headley, executive director of SURF. “I’d like to congratulate the CERN, Fermilab, University of Manchester and SURF joint team for making this first experiment lift a major success.”

    DUNE will paint a clearer picture of the origin of matter and how the universe came to be by studying neutrinos, strange subatomic particles that rarely interact with matter.

    A beam of neutrinos will travel 800 miles through the earth, from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) near Chicago to DUNE’s massive underground detectors at SURF [below].

    More than 1,400 scientists and engineers in over 30 countries contribute to the experiment, which is hosted by Fermilab.

    “This was a test of the entire logistics chain—from the UK, to Switzerland, to Illinois, and finally to South Dakota,” said Joe Pygott, deputy head of the Fermilab South Dakota Services Division. “After a year of planning, it was satisfying to see the global effort come together.”

    Making things awkward

    Standing a staggering 19.7 feet tall and 7.5 feet wide (6.0 meters tall; 2.3 meters wide), the APAs are the largest and one of the most fragile components of DUNE. Researchers outfit the APAs’ large steel frames with hundreds of electronic read-out boards. Then, 15-miles of hair-thin copper-beryllium wire is wrapped around the frame, creating a fine, mesh-like appearance.

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    Standing a staggering 19.7 feet tall and 7.5 feet wide, the APAs are the largest and one of the most fragile components of DUNE. Photo courtesy CERN.

    In total, 150 APAs will be built for DUNE: 136 from the UK and 14 from the US.

    “Because of their size, fragility and cost, the APAs are classified as a ‘critical transport,’” said Olga Beltramello, a mechanical engineer at CERN.

    To tackle the logistics and transport of unusual components like the APAs, the project formed the appropriately named Awkward Material Transport Team (AMTT).

    Beltramello, a member of the AMTT, led the creation of the frames that would cradle the APAs during transport. Throughout the design phase, she anticipated the dynamics of the journey ahead—the jostle of the rail car, the lurch of ocean waves, the sway of an overhead crane.

    “We run analysis to understand how the APA would withstand the dynamics of the transport,” Beltramello said. “The calculations are complex, as vibrations from track transport in Europe are different from the tire transport in the US, which are different from sea transport.”

    With mass production of APAs underway, the team used the delivery of two prototype APAs to SURF to stress-test their transportation plan. Accelerometers and vibration detectors monitored every wobble along the way, telling researchers just how much stress the components actually experienced during the journey.

    By land and sea

    The APAs were constructed at the UK’s Daresbury Laboratory, then shipped to CERN, the European laboratory for particle physics. There, the APAs were installed and tested in ProtoDUNE.

    A massive detector in its own right, ProtoDUNE is a prototype of the DUNE detectors to be built at SURF. Researchers wanted to ensure that the APAs could withstand the extreme cold of liquid argon (minus 200 degrees Celsius) and to see if they would yield clear data signals, unobscured by background noise.

    “In ProtoDUNE, we saw lovely, clean images,” said Justin Evans, professor of physics at the University of Manchester and academic lead of the UK project for APA production.

    The APAs then journeyed by rail to the seaside; by cargo ship across the Atlantic; and 1,600-miles by semitruck across the US. The final leg of the journey was down the mile-deep Ross Shaft, to the level where crews are excavating the large caverns that will house the DUNE Far Detector. Due to their size, the APAs will not fit on the elevator-like conveyance used to transport people and materials through the shaft. Instead, the APAs were suspended beneath the cage to lower them underground.

    Jeff Barthel, SURF’s rigging supervisor who led the maneuver, said the test lift of the nearly 6,400-pound load “couldn’t have gone smoother.”

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    Due to their size, the APAs will not fit on the elevator-like conveyance used to transport people and materials through the shaft. Instead, the APAs were suspended beneath the cage to lower them underground. Photo by Matthew Kapust, SURF.

    Assured by the APA performance in ProtoDUNE and the successful test transport, researchers have started mass producing APAs for DUNE.

    “For me, even more important than reaching this technical goal, is the excellent collaboration between groups,” Beltramello said. “This was our first collaboration across these groups, and it was extremely successful. It’s good for the future.”

    A neutrino trap

    When excavation is complete, the caverns will provide space for detector modules filled with a combined 70,000 tons of liquid argon. The APAs will be submerged side-by-side in the frigid liquid argon, forming a series of net-like walls across the width of the detector.

    When neutrinos collide with an argon nucleus, the collisions create a cascade of charged particles. These particles, in turn, knock loose electrons from the shells of argon atoms. An electric field will push the free-floating electrons toward a wall of APAs. Like a spider’s web, the APA wires will ensnare the drifting electrons, sending shivers of data up the wires to the electrical read-out boards. Researchers see this data in the form of particle tracks.

    “The electrons are hitting these miles and miles of wires, and we get information from that little pulse of electrical current on the wire,” Evans explained. “The pattern of particles that went through the detector is mirrored in the pattern of electrons colliding with the APAs.”

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    ProtoDUNE particle tracks. Image courtesy DUNE collaboration.

    From these particle tracks, researchers derive information about neutrinos and their antimatter counterparts. The results will shed light on the role neutrinos played in the evolution of the universe.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Since 2007, Fermilab has been operated by the Fermi Research Alliance, a joint venture of the University of Chicago, and the Universities Research Association (URA). Fermilab is a part of the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor.

    Fermilab’s Tevatron was a landmark particle accelerator; until the startup in 2008 of the Large Hadron Collider(CH) near Geneva, Switzerland, it was the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, accelerating antiprotons to energies of 500 GeV, and producing proton-proton collisions with energies of up to 1.6 TeV, the first accelerator to reach one “tera-electron-volt” energy. At 3.9 miles (6.3 km), it was the world’s fourth-largest particle accelerator in circumference. One of its most important achievements was the 1995 discovery of the top quark, announced by research teams using the Tevatron’s CDF and DØ detectors. It was shut down in 2011.

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    [Earlier than the LHC at CERN, The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory had sought the Higgs with the Tevatron Accelerator.

    But the Tevatron could barely muster 2 TeV [Terraelectron volts], not enough energy to find the Higgs. CERN’s LHC is capable of 13 TeV.

    Another possible attempt in the U.S. would have been the Super Conducting Supercollider.

    Fermilab has gone on to become a world powerhouse in neutrino research with the LBNF/DUNE project which will send neutrinos 800 miles to SURF-The Sanford Underground Research Facility in in Lead, South Dakota.
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    In addition to high-energy collider physics, Fermilab hosts fixed-target and neutrino experiments, such as MicroBooNE (Micro Booster Neutrino Experiment), NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) and SeaQuest. Completed neutrino experiments include MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search), MINOS+, MiniBooNE and SciBooNE (SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment). The MiniBooNE detector was a 40-foot (12 m) diameter sphere containing 800 tons of mineral oil lined with 1,520 phototube detectors. An estimated 1 million neutrino events were recorded each year. SciBooNE sat in the same neutrino beam as MiniBooNE but had fine-grained tracking capabilities. The NOνA experiment uses, and the MINOS experiment used, Fermilab’s NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the Soudan Mine in Minnesota and the Ash River, Minnesota, site of the NOνA far detector. In 2017, the ICARUS neutrino experiment was moved from CERN to Fermilab.
    In the public realm, Fermilab is home to a native prairie ecosystem restoration project and hosts many cultural events: public science lectures and symposia, classical and contemporary music concerts, folk dancing and arts galleries. The site is open from dawn to dusk to visitors who present valid photo identification.
    Asteroid 11998 Fermilab is named in honor of the laboratory.
    Weston, Illinois, was a community next to Batavia voted out of existence by its village board in 1966 to provide a site for Fermilab.
    The laboratory was founded in 1969 as the National Accelerator Laboratory; it was renamed in honor of Enrico Fermi in 1974. The laboratory’s first director was Robert Rathbun Wilson, under whom the laboratory opened ahead of time and under budget. Many of the sculptures on the site are of his creation. He is the namesake of the site’s high-rise laboratory building, whose unique shape has become the symbol for Fermilab and which is the center of activity on the campus.
    After Wilson stepped down in 1978 to protest the lack of funding for the lab, Leon M. Lederman took on the job. It was under his guidance that the original accelerator was replaced with the Tevatron, an accelerator capable of colliding protons and antiprotons at a combined energy of 1.96 TeV. Lederman stepped down in 1989. The science education center at the site was named in his honor.

    The later directors include:

    John Peoples, 1989 to 1996
    Michael S. Witherell, July 1999 to June 2005
    Piermaria Oddone, July 2005 to July 2013
    Nigel Lockyer, September 2013 to the present

    Fermilab continues to participate in the work at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); it serves as a Tier 1 site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid.

    FNAL Icon

    About us: The Sanford Underground Research Facility-SURF in Lead, South Dakota, advances our understanding of the universe by providing laboratory space deep underground, where sensitive physics experiments can be shielded from cosmic radiation. Researchers at the Sanford Lab explore some of the most challenging questions facing 21st century physics, such as the origin of matter, the nature of dark matter and the properties of neutrinos. The facility also hosts experiments in other disciplines—including geology, biology and engineering.

    The Sanford Lab is located at the former Homestake gold mine, which was a physics landmark long before being converted into a dedicated science facility. Nuclear chemist Ray Davis earned a share of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2002 for a solar neutrino experiment he installed 4,850 feet underground in the mine.

    Homestake closed in 2003, but the company donated the property to South Dakota in 2006 for use as an underground laboratory. That same year, philanthropist T. Denny Sanford donated $70 million to the project. The South Dakota Legislature also created the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to operate the lab. The state Legislature has committed more than $40 million in state funds to the project, and South Dakota also obtained a $10 million Community Development Block Grant to help rehabilitate the facility.

    In 2007, after the National Science Foundation named Homestake as the preferred site for a proposed national Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) began reopening the former gold mine.

    In December 2010, the National Science Board decided not to fund further design of DUSEL. However, in 2011 the Department of Energy, through the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, agreed to support ongoing science operations at Sanford Lab, while investigating how to use the underground research facility for other longer-term experiments. The SDSTA, which owns Sanford Lab, continues to operate the facility under that agreement with Berkeley Lab.

    The first two major physics experiments at the Sanford Lab are 4,850 feet underground in an area called the Davis Campus, named for the late Ray Davis. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is housed in the same cavern excavated for Ray Davis’s experiment in the 1960s.

    In October 2013, after an initial run of 80 days, LUX was determined to be the most sensitive detector yet to search for dark matter—a mysterious, yet-to-be-detected substance thought to be the most prevalent matter in the universe. The University of Washington MAJORANA Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay Experiment Demonstrator experiment, also on the 4850 Level, is searching for a rare phenomenon called “neutrinoless double-beta decay” that could reveal whether subatomic particles called neutrinos can be their own antiparticle. Detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay could help determine why matter prevailed over antimatter. The Majorana Demonstrator experiment is adjacent to the original Davis cavern.

    The LUX Xenon dark matter detector | Sanford Underground Research Facility mission was to scour the universe for WIMPs, vetoing all other signatures. It would continue to do just that for another three years before it was decommissioned in 2016.

    In the midst of the excitement over first results, the LUX collaboration was already casting its gaze forward. Planning for a next-generation dark matter experiment at Sanford Lab was already under way. Named LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ), the next-generation experiment would increase the sensitivity of LUX 100 times.

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory physicist Tom Shutt, a previous co-spokesperson for LUX, said one goal of the experiment was to figure out how to build an even larger detector.

    “LZ will be a thousand times more sensitive than the LUX detector,” Shutt said. “It will just begin to see an irreducible background of neutrinos that may ultimately set the limit to our ability to measure dark matter.”

    We celebrate five years of LUX, and look into the steps being taken toward the much larger and far more sensitive experiment.

    Another major experiment, the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE)—a collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and Sanford Lab, is in the preliminary design stages. The project got a major boost last year when Congress approved and the president signed an Omnibus Appropriations bill that will fund LBNE operations through FY 2014. Called the “next frontier of particle physics,” LBNE will follow neutrinos as they travel 800 miles through the earth, from FermiLab in Batavia, Ill., to Sanford Lab.

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will contain 40 kg of germanium; up to 30 kg will be enriched to 86% in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will be deployed deep underground in an ultra-low-background shielded environment in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. The goal of the DEMONSTRATOR is to determine whether a future 1-tonne experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a 4-keV region of interest around the 76Ge 0νββ Q-value at 2039 keV. MAJORANA plans to collaborate with Germanium Detector Array (or GERDA) experiment is searching for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in Ge-76 at the underground Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) for a future tonne-scale 76Ge 0νββ search.

    Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR). Credit: Nick Hubbard.

    [caption id="attachment_58675" align="alignnone" width="632"] Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR). Credit: Nick Hubbard.

    CASPAR is a low-energy particle accelerator that allows researchers to study processes that take place inside collapsing stars.
    The scientists are using space in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, to work on a project called the Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research (CASPAR). CASPAR uses a low-energy particle accelerator that will allow researchers to mimic nuclear fusion reactions in stars. If successful, their findings could help complete our picture of how the elements in our universe are built. “Nuclear astrophysics is about what goes on inside the star, not outside of it,” said Dan Robertson, a Notre Dame assistant research professor of astrophysics working on CASPAR. “It is not observational, but experimental. The idea is to reproduce the stellar environment, to reproduce the reactions within a star.”

    [caption id="attachment_207839" align="alignnone" width="632"] SURF- the 3D DAS experiment is studying digital acoustic sensing techniques with a novel, three-dimensional seismic array. The University of Wisconsin-Madison. The Air Force Research Laboratory. Photo by Adam Gomez. The 3D DAS is led by Stanford University and includes industry partners and seven universities.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:36 am on October 4, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Clash of the Titans", , Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in South Dakota., , , , ,   

    From “Science Magazine” : “Clash of the Titans” 

    From “Science Magazine”

    9.29.22
    Adrian Cho

    The United States and Japan are embarking on ambitious efforts to wring a key secret of the universe from the subatomic phantoms known as neutrinos.

    Among physicists, those studying elusive particles called neutrinos may set the standard for dogged determination—or obdurate stubbornness. For 12 years, scientists in Japan have fired trillions of neutrinos hundreds of kilometers through Earth to a gigantic subterranean detector called Super-Kamiokande (Super-K) to study their shifting properties.

    Yet the nearly massless particles interact with other matter so feebly that the experiment, known as T2K, has captured fewer than 600 of them.

    Nevertheless, so alluring are neutrinos that physicists are not just persisting, they are planning to vastly scale up efforts to make and trap them. At stake may be insight into one of the most profound questions in physics: how the newborn universe generated more matter than antimatter, so that it is filled with something instead of nothing.

    That prospect, among others, has sparked a race to build two massive subterranean detectors, at costs ranging from hundreds of millions to billions of dollars. In an old zinc mine near the former town of Kamioka in Japan, physicists are gearing up to build Hyper-Kamiokande (Hyper-K), a gargantuan successor to Super-K, which will scrutinize neutrinos fired from a particle accelerator at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) in Tokai 295 kilometers away.

    Hyper-Kamiokande [(神岡宇宙素粒子研究施設](JP) a neutrino physics laboratory to be located underground in the Mozumi Mine of the Kamioka Mining and Smelting Co. near the Kamioka section of the city of Hida in Gifu Prefecture, Japan.

    In the United States, scientists are developing the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) in a former gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, which will snare neutrinos from The DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) 1300 kilometers away in Batavia, Illinois.

    Researchers with both experiments acknowledge they’re in competition—and that Hyper-K may have an advantage because it will likely start to take data a year or two before DUNE. Yet aside from their goals, “Hyper-K and DUNE are vastly different,” says Chang Kee Jung, a neutrino physicist at Stony Brook University and a T2K member who now also works on DUNE.

    Hyper-K, which will be bigger but cheaper than DUNE, represents the next in a series of ever larger neutrino detectors of the same basic design developed over 40 years by Japanese physicists. It is all but certain to work as expected, says Masato Shiozawa, a particle physicist at the University of Tokyo and co-spokesperson for the 500-member Hyper-K collaboration. “Hyper-K is a more established technology than DUNE,” he says. “That is why I proposed it.”

    DUNE will employ a relatively new technology that promises to reveal neutrino interactions in stunning detail and allow physicists to test their understanding of the particles with unprecedented rigor. “Without bragging too much, we are best in class,” says Sergio Bertolucci, a particle physicist at the University of Bologna and Italy’s National Institute for Nuclear Physics and co-spokesperson for the 1300-member DUNE collaboration. However, that technological edge comes with a hefty price tag and, Bertolucci acknowledges, more risk.

    How the rivalry plays out will depend on factors as mundane as the cost of underground excavation and as exciting as the possibility that neutrinos, always quirky, hold some surprise that will transform physicists’ understanding of nature.

    The most common particles in the universe besides photons, neutrinos exert no effect on the everyday objects around us. Yet they could carry clues to deep mysteries. Neutrinos and their antimatter counterparts both come in three types or flavors—electron, muon, and tau—depending on how they’re generated. For example, electron neutrinos emerge from the radioactive decay of some atomic nuclei. Muon neutrinos fly from the decays of fleeting particles called pi-plus mesons, which can be produced by smashing a beam of protons into a target. These identities aren’t fixed: A neutrino of one type can change into another, chameleonlike, as it zips along at near–light-speed.

    Weirdly, a neutrino of a definite flavor has no definite mass. Rather, it is a quantum mechanical combination of three different “mass states.” For example, a decaying pi-plus spits out the combination of mass states that makes a muon neutrino. However, like gears turning at different speeds, the mass states evolve at different rates, changing that combination. So, a particle that began as an electron neutrino might later appear as a tau neutrino—a phenomenon known as neutrino oscillation.

    Theorists can explain all of this with a mathematical clockwork known as the three-flavor model. It has just a handful of parameters: roughly speaking, the probabilities with which one flavor will oscillate into another and the differences among the three mass states. The picture has gaps. Experiments show two mass states are close, but not whether the two similar states are lighter or heavier than the third—a puzzle known as the hierarchy problem.

    Moreover, neutrinos and antineutrinos might oscillate by different amounts, an asymmetry called charge-parity (CP) violation. Measuring that asymmetry is the prize physicists seek, as it could help explain how the soup of fundamental particles in the early universe generated more matter than antimatter.

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    The wispy neutrinos themselves did not tilt the matter-antimatter balance. Rather, according to some theories, the familiar neutrinos are mirrored by vastly heavier “sterile” neutrinos that would interact with nothing except neutrinos. If sterile neutrinos and antineutrinos also behave asymmetrically, then in the early universe their decays could have generated more electrons than antielectrons (also called positrons), seeding the dominance of matter.

    Seeing CP violation in ordinary neutrinos wouldn’t prove this scenario played out, notes Patrick Huber, a theorist at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. But not seeing CP violation among ordinary neutrinos would render it much less likely that the hypothetical heavyweights possess the key asymmetry, Huber says. “It’s not impossible, but it’s implausible,” he says.

    But, first, scientists must determine whether neutrinos really exhibit this asymmetry. The teams in Japan and the United States will both employ a well-established technique to probe neutrino behavior. By smashing energetic protons from a particle accelerator into a target to produce pipluses, they will generate a beam of muon neutrinos and shoot it toward a distant underground detector. There, researchers will count the surviving muon neutrinos and the electron neutrinos that have emerged along the way. Then they will switch to producing a beam of muon antineutrinos, by collecting pi-minuses instead of pi-pluses from the target. They’ll repeat the measurements, looking for any differences.

    The experiment is much harder than it sounds, as several other factors could create a spurious asymmetry. For example, the neutrino and antineutrino beams will inevitably differ slightly, both in intensity and in their energy spectrum. To account for such differences, the researchers must sample the particles as they start their journey by placing a small detector, preferably with a design as similar as possible to the distant detector, in front of the beam source.

    The physics of neutrinos themselves could also skew the results. For example, either neutrinos or antineutrinos will be absorbed more strongly by the matter they traverse on their flight to the detector. The direction of that effect depends on the solution to the hierarchy problem. So, to spot CP violation, physicists will most likely have to solve the hierarchy problem, too.

    The biggest barrier to sorting all of this out, however, has been the measly harvest of neutrinos from even the biggest experiments. Like their counterparts in Japan, U.S. physicists already have a neutrino-oscillation experiment, NOνA, which shoots neutrinos from Fermilab to a detector 810 kilometers north in Minnesota. Like T2K, it has netted just several hundred neutrinos.

    Hyper-K will tackle the scarcity primarily by providing a much bigger target for the neutrinos to hit. Proposed a decade ago, it’s a scaled-up version of the storied Super-K detector and will consist of a cylindrical stainless steel tank 78 meters tall and 74 meters wide, holding 260,000 tons of ultrapure water—five times as much as Super-K.

    To spot neutrinos, the detector will rely on the optical equivalent of a sonic boom. Rarely, a muon neutrino zipping through the water will knock a neutron out of an oxygen atom and change it into a proton, while the neutrino itself morphs into a high-energy muon. The fleeing muon will actually exceed the speed of light in water, which is 25% slower than in a vacuum, and generate a shock wave of so-called Cherenkov light, just as a supersonic jet creates a shock wave of sound. That conelike shock wave will cast a ring of light on the tank’s side, which is lined with photodetectors.

    Similarly, an electron neutrino can strike a neutron to produce a high-speed electron, which is lighter than a muon and will be buffeted more by the water molecules. The result will be a fuzzier light ring. Muon and electron antineutrinos can spawn detectable antimuons and antielectrons by striking protons, although with about half the efficiency of the neutrino interactions.

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    In Super-K, a muon neutrino turns into a muon, which radiates a tidy light ring (upper image). An electron neutrino spawns an electron and a fuzzier ring (lower image). Kamioka Observatory/Institute for Cosmic Ray Research/University of Tokyo.

    Hyper-K will be Japan’s third great detector, all in the same mining area. From 1983 to 1995, the Kamioka Nucleon Decay Experiment (Kamiokande), a 3000-ton detector, tried to spot the ultrarare decays of protons that some theories predict. Instead, in 1987, it glimpsed neutrinos from a supernova—an advance that won a share of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2002. In 1996, Super-K came online. It proved neutrinos oscillate by studying muon neutrinos generated when cosmic rays strike the atmosphere. Fewer come up from the ground than down from the sky, showing that those traversing Earth change flavor along the way. The discovery shared the Nobel in 2015. “It’s spectacular what [Japanese physicists] have done,” says Erin O’Sullivan, a neutrino astrophysicist at Uppsala University and a Hyper-K member who was drawn by “the dynasty of Super-K.”

    Hyper-K will reuse J-PARC’s neutrino beam, which is now being upgraded to increase its power by a factor of 2.5. Overall, it should collect data at 20 times the rate of T2K, says Stephen Playfer, a particle physicist at the University of Edinburgh and the University of Tokyo and the project’s lead technical coordinator. Before joining Hyper-K in 2014, he and his Edinburgh colleagues also considered joining DUNE. “When it came to comparing who was going to be first to see something, we thought Hyper-K was in a good position, just because it would have the statistics and it had a well-known technology,” he says.

    Hyper-K will have limitations. In particular, it won’t measure the neutrinos’ energies precisely. That matters because the rate at which a neutrino oscillates depends on its energy, and a beam contains neutrinos with a range or spectrum of energies. Without a way to pinpoint each neutrino’s energy, the experiment would be unable to make sense of the oscillation rates.

    To avoid this problem, Hyper-K, like current experiments, will rely on a trick. A neutrino beam naturally diverges, with lower energy neutrinos spreading more than higher energy ones. Thus, if a detector sits slightly to the side of the beam’s path, it will see neutrinos with a narrower range of energies that should oscillate at roughly the same rate. So, like Super-K, Hyper-K will sit off the beam axis by an angle of 2.5°.

    Physicists can then tune the energy of the beam so the neutrinos reach the detector when the oscillation is at its maximum. With the neutrinos’ energy constrained, physicists basically count the number of arriving muon neutrinos, electron neutrinos, and their antimatter counterparts. Hyper-K’s CP measurement comes down to comparing two ratios: electron neutrinos with muon neutrinos and electron antineutrinos with muon antineutrinos.

    Workers have already begun the excavation for Hyper-K, which should take 2 years, Shiozawa says. The whole project will cost Japan about $600 million, with international partners chipping in an additional $100 million to $200 million, he says. The detector will be complete in 2027, Shiozawa says, and will start taking data a year later. So confident are Hyper-K researchers in their technology that they say the trickiest part of the project is the digging. “We need to construct probably the largest underground cavern” in the world, Shiozawa says. “In terms of technology and also cost, this is the biggest challenge.”

    If, technologically, Hyper-K amounts to much more of the same, DUNE aims to be something almost completely different. It will employ a technology that, until recently, was used in only one other large experiment but that should enable physicists to see neutrino interactions as never before. “To me, the draw of DUNE is its precision,” says Chris Marshall, a particle physicist at the University of Rochester and DUNE’s physics coordinator. “This is an experiment that will be world leading in just about everything that it measures.”

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    Since 2015, DUNE researchers have built prototypes at the European particle physics laboratory, CERN, which have performed even better than expected. Brice Maximillien/CERN

    Hunkering 1480 meters deep in a repurposed gold mine, DUNE will consist of two rectangular tanks 66 meters long, 19 meters wide, and 18 meters tall. Each will contain 17,000 tons of frigid liquid argon cooled to below –186°C. Just as in a water-filled detector, a neutrino can blast a neutron—in this case in an argon nucleus—to create a muon or an electron. But the neutrinos reaching DUNE from Fermilab will pack up to 10 times more energy than those flowing to Hyper-K. So, in addition to the muon or electron, a collision will typically produce a spurt of other particles such as pions, kaons, protons, and neutrons.

    DUNE aims to track all those particles—or at least the charged ones—with a technology called a liquid argon time projection chamber. As a charged particle streaks through the argon, it will ionize some of the atoms, freeing their electrons. A strong electric field will push the electrons sideways until they hit three closely spaced planes of parallel wires, each plane oriented in a different direction. By noting when the electrons strike the wires, physicists can reconstruct with millimeter precision the original particle’s 3D trajectory. And from the amount of ionization it produces, they can determine its type and energy.

    The details are mind-boggling. The electrons will have to drift as far as 3.5 meters, driven by a voltage of 180 kilovolts. And unlike Hyper-K, DUNE will sit directly in the beam from Fermilab. So, it will capture a bigger but messier harvest of neutrinos, with energies ranging from less than 1 giga-electron volt to more than 5 GeV.

    DUNE’s ability to precisely track all the particles should enable it to do something unprecedented in neutrino physics: Measure the energy of each incoming neutrino to construct energy spectra for each flavor of neutrino and antineutrino. Because of the flavor changing, a plot of each spectrum should itself exhibit a distinct wiggle or oscillation. By analyzing all of the spectra, physicists should be able to nail down the entire three-flavor model, including the amount of CP violation and the hierarchy, in one fell swoop, Bertolucci says. “It can measure all the parameters in the same experiment,” he says.

    Until now, the technology has never been fully developed. Italian Nobel laureate Carlo Rubbia dreamed up the liquid argon detector in 1977. But it wasn’t until 2010 that one called ICARUS in Italy’s subterranean Gran Sasso National Laboratory snared a few neutrinos shot from the European particle physics laboratory, CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland.

    Researchers at Fermilab and CERN have embarked on a crash program to build prototypes, which have worked even better than expected, says Kate Scholberg, a neutrino physicist and a DUNE team member at Duke University. “It’s kind of an entrancing thing to look at the event displays” coming in, she says. “It’s just incredible detail.”

    That precision comes at a price. For accounting purposes, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) splits the project in two. One piece, the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), includes the new neutrino beam at Fermilab and all the infrastructure. The second, DUNE, is an international collaboration that will build just the guts of the detectors. In 2015, DOE estimated LBNF/DUNE would cost $1.5 billion and come online in 2027. Last year, however, DOE reported that unexpected construction costs had raised the bill to $3.1 billion. The detector should be completed in 2028, says Christopher Mossey, project director for LBNF/DUNE-U.S. But the beam will lag until early 2031, potentially giving Hyper-K a head start of more than 2 years.

    With contracts in hand and construction underway, DUNE developers are confident that the new cost and timeline will hold. Excavation has passed 40% and should be completed in May 2023, Mossey says. “We really are accomplishing big, tangible things.” Still, DUNE physicists acknowledge that the project is riskier than Hyper-K. “It’s a leap into the unknown, and that’s the trade-off you make,” Scholberg says. “Something that is more transformative is going to certainly entail more scariness.”

    Both experiments have other scientific goals, such as searching for proton decay. There, Hyper-K has an advantage, Huber says, as it is simply bigger and contains lots of lone protons in the hearts of the hydrogen atoms in water molecules. Another tantalizing payoff could come if a giant star collapses and explodes as a supernova near our Galaxy, as one did in 1987. The experiments would provide complementary observations, Scholberg says, as DUNE would see the electron neutrinos produced just as the core implodes and Hyper-K would see mainly electron antineutrinos released later in the explosion.

    Nevertheless, the raison d’être for both experiments remains deciphering neutrino oscillations and searching for CP violation. So, how would a gambler handicap this race?

    Given their head start, Hyper-K physicists could score major discoveries before DUNE even finds its feet. If CP violation is as big as it can possibly be, “then we may discover it in 3 years,” Shiozawa says. “And also, we may discover proton decay in 3 years.” But, he says, “It really depends on nature.”

    Hyper-K is optimized to measure CP violation assuming it’s big and the three-flavor model is the final word on neutrino oscillations, Huber notes. Neither assumption may hold. And with its simpler counting technique and shorter baseline, the experiment may struggle to distinguish CP violation from the matter effect unless some other experiment independently solves the hierarchy problem. “Hyper-K certainly requires more external inputs,” Huber says.

    8
    Hyper-Kamiokande will deploy new and improved phototubes, which must withstand pressures up to six atmospheres at the bottom of the tank.Kamioka Observatory/Institute for Cosmic Ray Research/University of Tokyo.

    DUNE, in contrast, should be able to disentangle the whole mess on its own. Shiozawa, for one, is not counting out his rival. The Japanese project has experienced growing pains of its own, he notes, including being scaled back from an initial 1-million-ton design. And the Japanese government won’t countenance any cost increase, putting project leaders in constant tension with contractors, he says. “The situation is not so different between the two projects.”

    Ultimately, the rivalry between Hyper-K and DUNE may be less a dash for glory than a decadeslong slog through uncertainty. If so, the two teams could end up collaborating as much as they compete, at least informally. “We’ll have a long time where the most accurate results will come from a combination of the two [experiments],” Huber predicts.

    Most tantalizing, instead of completing the current theory, the results could upend it. They might reveal deviations from the three-flavor model that could hint at new particles and phenomena lurking in the vacuum. After all, neutrinos have repeatedly surprised physicists, who once assumed that the particles came in only one type and were completely massless and inert. “Previously, neutrino experiments have taught us that we very rarely take data in a neutrino beam and get exactly what we expect,” Marshall says.

    The unexpected may be a long shot worth betting on.

    See the full article here .


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  • richardmitnick 7:50 am on January 23, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in South Dakota., , , UK Research and Innovation   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “UK invests £65 million in international science projects hosted by Fermilab” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    January 22, 2020
    Kurt Riesselmann

    1

    Representatives from UK Research and Innovation and the U.S. Department of Energy today signed an agreement that outlines £65 million worth of contributions that UK research institutions and scientists will make to the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment and related projects hosted by DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. DUNE will study the properties of mysterious particles called neutrinos, which could help explain more about how the universe works and why matter exists at all.

    UK scientists have held leadership positions in DUNE since the inception of the collaboration in 2015. The agreement gives the green light to build major components in the UK for this megascience project. That includes setting up the required lab space and infrastructure at UK research institutions as well as hiring and training personnel.

    The UK investments in these international science projects and participation in the design and construction of cutting-edge scientific equipment for these projects will empower UK scientists and institutions to maintain a world leader position in research for years to come.

    2
    On Jan. 22 in London, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Director Chris Fall, right, and Minister for Universities, Science, Research, and Innovation at the UK Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy Chris Skidmore signed an agreement between DOE and UK Research and Innovation for work on the international LBNF/DUNE project, hosted by Fermilab, and Fermilab’s PIP-II and Short-Baseline Neutrino Program. Photo: DOE Office of Science.

    “The UK’s continued collaboration with the U.S. on science and innovation reinforces the importance the scientific communities of both countries place on working together to try to answer some of the biggest questions in physics, questions that have the potential to lead to profound changes in our understanding of the universe,” said Professor Mark Thomson, particle physicist and executive chair of UK’s Science and Technology Facilities Council.

    “This investment by STFC secures future access for UK scientists to the international DUNE experiment as well as giving UK scientists and engineers the chance to take leading roles in the management and development of the DUNE far detector and also the LBNF neutrino beam and the associated PIP-II accelerator,” Thomson said.

    DUNE is the first large-scale U.S.-hosted experiment run as a truly international project, with more than 1,000 scientists and engineers from over 30 countries contributing to the design, construction and operation of the facilities and scientific equipment. The UK research community is a major contributor to the DUNE collaboration, with 14 UK universities and two STFC laboratories providing essential expertise and components to the experiment and facility.

    “Our collaboration with the UK remains a cornerstone of DOE’s international partnerships in high energy physics,” said Chris Fall, director of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. “Those partnerships are key to building world-class projects like PIP-II and LBNF/DUNE, hosted by Fermilab, and we are pleased to see our long history of scientific kinship with the UK in this field continue.”

    The agreement is a new chapter in the long history of UK research collaboration with the United States. UK contributions will include:

    Design and construction of superconducting particle accelerator components for Fermilab’s Proton Improvement Plan-II accelerator project, which will provide the particles that make the DUNE experiment possible. These accelerator components also have applications in other science projects and have promising potential for use in medical, industrial and environmental applications.
    Design and production of the high-power target for the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility that scientists will use to produce the neutrinos for DUNE.

    FNAL Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility – South Dakota Site

    SURF-Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    The work, carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, will also advance research efforts in materials science and nuclear physics.

    STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory at Harwell in Oxfordshire, UK

    Design and assembly of 150 very large particle detector components known as anode plane assemblies that each comprise thousands of delicate sensor wires. The APAs enable scientists to record high-resolution 3-D images of subatomic particle tracks produced in neutrino interactions.
    Development of the data acquisition systems and reconstruction software. Each DUNE module will produce one terabyte of data per second, equivalent to about 1,000 one-hour-long HD movies. Reading out this vast amount of data, and then finding and reconstructing the neutrino interactions, is one of the big challenges.
    Building and shipping major components of the Short-Baseline Near Detector, one of three detectors that make up Fermilab’s Short-Baseline Neutrino program.

    FNAL Short baseline neutrino detector

    DUNE will send neutrinos 1,300 kilometers from Fermilab in Illinois to huge particle detectors 1.5 kilometers underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota in order to study neutrino oscillations. Scientists will look for the differences in behavior between neutrinos and their antimatter counterparts, antineutrinos, which could provide clues as to why we live in a matter-dominated universe.

    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    DUNE scientists will also watch for neutrinos stemming from a supernova, or star explosion, which could reveal the formation of neutron stars and black holes. Another goal of DUNE is to look for signals from proton decay. Scientists will investigate whether protons live forever or eventually decay, bringing us closer to fully understanding the fundamental forces of nature.

    DUNE will help to recruit and train the next generation of particle physicists, giving students at universities around the world the opportunity to publish scientific papers and get hands-on training on one of the world’s most advanced physics projects.

    More information about the facility and experiment can be found at http://www.fnal.gov/dune.

    See the full here.


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    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

     
  • richardmitnick 1:34 pm on June 7, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Among the achievements made possible by lattice QCD is the calculation of the masses of quarks., , As another means of exploring the nature of matter researchers collide electrons and protons together at Jefferson Lab to get a more vivid picture of the proton., , Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in South Dakota., , Exascale computing will be absolutely essential to extending the precision part of what we do., Famous for the study of neutrinos Fermilab shoots beams of neutrinos at detectors located on site and in Minnesota., Fermilab scientist Andreas Kronfeld is principal investigator of ECP’s LatticeQCD project., More than 1000 collaborators are working on the DUNE project, Neutrinos do in fact have masses - albeit tiny., , Subtle and elusive particles neutrinos permeate the universe and pass through matter but rarely interact.,   

    From Exascale Computing Project: “High Precision for Studying the Building Blocks of the Universe” 

    From Exascale Computing Project

    05/28/19
    Scott Gibson

    1
    Fermilab scientist Andreas Kronfeld is principal investigator of ECP’s LatticeQCD project.

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the quantum field theory of the subatomic particles called quarks and gluons. QCD explains what is known as the strong nuclear force, the interaction that holds protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei and shapes the structure of nearly all visible matter.

    A project within the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Exascale Computing Project (ECP) called LatticeQCD is increasing the precision of QCD calculations to understand the properties of quarks and gluons in the Standard Model of particle physics, a theory that clarifies the basic building blocks (or fundamental particles) of the universe and how they are related.

    Precision and Illumination

    Lattice QCD calculations are the scientific instrument to connect observed properties of hadrons (particles that contain quarks) to fundamental laws of quarks and gluons. This instrument serves as a critical complement to experiments such as the ones taking place at Brookhaven National Lab and at CERN to study a phenomenon called quark gluon plasma.

    “To interpret these experiments and many others in particle physics and all of nuclear physics, we need both the precision side and the illumination side,” said Fermilab scientist Andreas Kronfeld, principal investigator of the LatticeQCD project.

    “Exascale computing will be absolutely essential to extending the precision part of what we do to small nuclei and more complicated properties of protons and neutrons that we’ve been able to achieve to date,” he said. “These calculations are not only interesting in their own right because they make clear an emerging general class of fascinating physical phenomena, but they’re also central for interpreting all experiments in particle physics and nuclear physics.”

    Among the achievements made possible by lattice QCD is the calculation of the masses of quarks. “These are fundamental constants of nature comparable to the electric mass, and so they exemplify the use of precision,” Kronfeld said. “We now want to extend a similar level of rigor to the neutrino sector.”

    Subtle and elusive particles, neutrinos permeate the universe and pass through matter but rarely interact. The Standard Model predicted that neutrinos would have no mass, but about twenty years ago experiments revealed that they do in fact have masses, albeit tiny. Moreover, they are the most abundant particle with mass, and by learning more about them, researchers could increase understanding of the most fundamental physics in the universe.

    In experiments, neutrinos are scattered off the nucleus of a carbon, oxygen, or argon atom. “We need to understand not only how the neutrino interacts with a nucleon [a proton or neutron] but also how it interacts with the whole nucleus,” Kronfeld said. “This is why it is so important to extend the precision that we’ve done for similar things to nucleons and nuclei.”

    Famous for the study of neutrinos, Fermilab shoots beams of neutrinos at detectors located on site and in Minnesota.

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    In the future, the lab will target detectors even farther away at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) under construction at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    More than 1,000 collaborators are working on the DUNE project, which is a leading-edge, international experiment for neutrino science and proton decay studies.

    Meanwhile, as another means of exploring the nature of matter, researchers collide electrons and protons together at Jefferson Lab to get a more vivid picture of the proton. As with the neutrino experiments, theoretical calculations are required to make sense of the results—in addition, the same is true for heavy ion collision work in nuclear physics. “There has been an excellent cross talk between results from such experimentation on the one hand and lattice QCD calculations on the other,” Kronfeld said.

    “What we now think is that there is a critical point, a point where water vapor and liquid water and ice can coexist when you have a high enough baryon [composite subatomic particle] density,” he said. “We’ll need exascale computing to understand that point at the same time that the experimentalists are trying to discover it. Again, that’s a case where we learned qualitative and quantitative information. The first is interesting—the second is essential.”

    Pre-exascale Improvements on the Path to Exascale

    Kronfeld explained that the pre-exascale supercomputer Summit at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is allowing the LatticeQCD project team to increase the feasibility of its complicated, difficult calculations and thus make expensive experiments worth the investment.

    ORNL IBM AC922 SUMMIT supercomputer, No.1 on the TOP500. Credit: Carlos Jones, Oak Ridge National Laboratory/U.S. Dept. of Energy

    He said the advances on Summit are manifested in four ways.

    First, a group from the LatticeQCD project team is striving to understand how to do the computation for what is called the Dirac equation, which is central to research in electrodynamics and chromodynamics. The equation is used repeatedly in lattice QCD calculations. On Summit the team is devising and implementing better algorithms to solve the equation.

    “I’m excited by the improvement in the solutions to the Dirac equation the group has made,” he said. “My collaborators have come up with multigrid methods that now finally work after 20 years of dreaming about it.”

    A second focus is a probe of small nuclei and associated complicated calculations. Another LatticeQCD project group is studying how to perform the calculation efficiently by mapping the details of the problem onto the architecture of Summit. “We anticipate that Frontier exascale machine will be similar, and when we learn more about Aurora, the group will be mapping to that system as well,” Kronfeld said.

    Depiction of ANL ALCF Cray Intel SC18 Shasta Aurora exascale supercomputer

    ORNL Cray Frontier Shasta based Exascale supercomputer with Slingshot interconnect featuring high-performance AMD EPYC CPU and AMD Radeon Instinct GPU technology

    The ECP Factor

    “The Exascale Computing Project has been breathtaking to watch,” Kronfeld said. “There’s never been anything like this before. We had support at a smaller scale, but the ambition has led to improvements in algorithms that we used to dream about but didn’t have the resources, the support, and also the access to the machine, to test and verify. We had no idea how essential it would be before we started. Whoever came up with this idea really needs to be commended. I think it is a fantastic investment. These computers are not cheap, and to have people thoughtfully consider how to use them before they come online has just been brilliant.”

    Another task is to evolve what is known as a Markov chain, which Kronfeld described as attempts to create random snapshots of a process taken at various rates of speed based on the details of algorithms. The LatticeQCD project team has a group that is endeavoring to accelerate the Markov chain.

    “When I worked on the Markov chain as a graduate student, I wasn’t successful because, frankly, you couldn’t see the difference in speedup using the computers we had then, but it seems to be bearing fruit now—that’s personally satisfying,” he said.

    The fourth area being pursued by the LatticeQCD project team on Summit is the development of software better suited to the aims of the effort. This improved software, Kronfeld explained, will be crucial to analyzing data on an exascale machine. Researchers outside ECP at the University of Edinburgh are collaborating in the work.

    See the full article here.

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    About ECP

    The ECP is a collaborative effort of two DOE organizations – the Office of Science and the National Nuclear Security Administration. As part of the National Strategic Computing initiative, ECP was established to accelerate delivery of a capable exascale ecosystem, encompassing applications, system software, hardware technologies and architectures, and workforce development to meet the scientific and national security mission needs of DOE in the early-2020s time frame.

    About the Office of Science

    DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit https://science.energy.gov/.

    About NNSA

    Established by Congress in 2000, NNSA is a semi-autonomous agency within the DOE responsible for enhancing national security through the military application of nuclear science. NNSA maintains and enhances the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile without nuclear explosive testing; works to reduce the global danger from weapons of mass destruction; provides the U.S. Navy with safe and effective nuclear propulsion; and responds to nuclear and radiological emergencies in the United States and abroad. https://nnsa.energy.gov

    The Goal of ECP’s Application Development focus area is to deliver a broad array of comprehensive science-based computational applications that effectively utilize exascale HPC technology to provide breakthrough simulation and data analytic solutions for scientific discovery, energy assurance, economic competitiveness, health enhancement, and national security.

    Awareness of ECP and its mission is growing and resonating—and for good reason. ECP is an incredible effort focused on advancing areas of key importance to our country: economic competiveness, breakthrough science and technology, and national security. And, fortunately, ECP has a foundation that bodes extremely well for the prospects of its success, with the demonstrably strong commitment of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the talent of some of America’s best and brightest researchers.

    ECP is composed of about 100 small teams of domain, computer, and computational scientists, and mathematicians from DOE labs, universities, and industry. We are tasked with building applications that will execute well on exascale systems, enabled by a robust exascale software stack, and supporting necessary vendor R&D to ensure the compute nodes and hardware infrastructure are adept and able to do the science that needs to be done with the first exascale platforms.

     
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