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  • richardmitnick 3:01 pm on December 5, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , DAMA project, Dark Matter search,   

    From Science Magazine: “Underground experiment casts doubt on controversial dark matter claim” 

    From Science Magazine

    Dec. 5, 2018
    Adrian Cho

    COSINE-100 at Yangyang underground laboratory in South Korea

    DAMA at Gran Sasso uses sodium iodide housed in copper to hunt for dark matter LNGS-INFN

    Gran Sasso LABORATORI NAZIONALI del GRAN SASSO, located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy

    Now, the first experiment designed to directly test DAMA’s controversial claim has released its first data. Physicists working with the COSINE-100 detector in South Korea say they see no sign of dark matter—but still need a couple more years to really put the screws to the DAMA claim.

    “They can’t rule out the DAMA signal yet,” says Katherine Freese, a theoretical physicist at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor who is not involved in either experiment. “But the exciting thing is that they’ll be able to rule it out.” Or, as may be less likely, confirm it.

    Astrophysical observations show invisible dark matter makes up 85% of all matter. Our own galaxy is thought to reside within a vast cloud of the stuff. However, scientists still don’t know what dark matter is. For decades, experimenters have hunted for particles of it floating about, mostly to no avail. To search for dark matter, physicists deploy ultrasensitive detectors deep underground, where they are shielded from cosmic rays and other background radiation.

    However, since 1998, the DAMA collaboration has claimed to have seen just such a signal. The team’s detectors consist of sodium iodide crystals doped with thallium, which produce flashes of light when a particle of some sort—regular or dark matter—strikes a nucleus within the material and sends it flying. The DAMA team has seen a yearly variation in the collision rate that could be a strong sign of dark matter, as Freese and a colleague predicted in 1986.

    If our Milky Way galaxy is shrouded in dark matter, then as the sun wheels about the galactic center, it should regularly plow into a wind of dark matter particles. Moreover, as Earth circles the sun, it should alternately rush into and out of that wind, causing the rate of dark matter collisions to wax and wane over the course of the year. If dark matter consists of theorists’ favorite candidate particle, known as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), the signal should peak in June and bottom out in December—just what DAMA sees.

    Several other detectors have failed to see the signal. However, those detectors use heavier elements such as xenon, silicon, and germanium for the target nuclei, DAMA researchers say, which could explain the discrepancy. “Even taking those results as they are, considering the large experimental and theoretical uncertainties there could be space for compatibility,” says Rita Bernabei, a physicist at the University of Rome Tor Vergata and leader of the DAMA team.

    To sort through the confusion, COSINE researchers built a detector that also uses thallium-doped sodium iodide crystals. “I got into this field to test the DAMA result, and I was surprised others hadn’t,” says Reina Maruyama, a physicist at Yale University and co-spokesperson for the 50-member COSINE team. Since 2016, the 106-kilogram detector has been collecting data 700 meters underground at Yangyang Underground Laboratory, on South Korea’s eastern coast. And its first 59.5 days of data show no sign of dark matter, COSINE researchers report today in Nature.

    So does the COSINE result nix the DAMA claim? Not quite. With only 2 months of data, COSINE researchers couldn’t look for the telltale annual variation, but simply looked for an excess of events above the backgrounds created by extraneous radiation. The lack of an excess rules out the possibility that DAMA is seeing WIMPs, Maruyama says. But Bernabei says the test is too weak to do that. “The modeling of a background is a quite uncertain procedure and at low energy is in general not reliable,” she says.

    However, Freese says WIMPs are already ruled out—by DAMA’s own data. The argument is tricky, but if dark matter particles are WIMPs, which are presumed to interact with the nucleus in a particularly simple way, then the peaks and valleys in DAMA’s annual cycle should shift by 6 months for lower-energy events, Freese explains. And low-energy data that DAMA presented earlier this year show an unshifted oscillation. DAMA could be seeing some other kind of dark matter particle, Freese says. Bernabei argues that DAMA could still be seeing WIMPs.

    All agree that to really put the DAMA claim to the test, COSINE researchers will have to look for the same annual variations that DAMA sees—which can help pull a weaker signal out of the background. COSINE already has 2 years of data in the can, Maruyama says, and it will need another 3 years to make that test. Two other experiments are also trying to directly challenge the DAMA result with sodium-iodide detectors.

    Ultimately, all physicists hope to detect dark matter. So Maruyama says she would “love to” reproduce the DAMA signal. If COSINE cannot do that, Freese says, “We may never know what created the DAMA signal.”

    See the full article here .


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  • richardmitnick 5:34 pm on August 30, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Borexino observatory, , , DAMA project, , DarkSide experiment, Davide D’Angelo-physical scientist, , , , , , , Pobbile dark matter candidates-axions gravitinos Massive Astrophysical Compact Halo Objects (MACHOs) and Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WMIPs.)), SABRE-Sodium Iodide with Active Background Rejection Experiment, , Solar neutrinos-recently caught at U Wisconsin IceCube at the South Pole, , , , , , WIMPs that go by names like the gravitino sneutrino and neutralino   

    From Gran Sasso via Motherboard: “The New Hunt for Dark Matter Is Taking Place Under a Mountain” 

    From Gran Sasso

    via

    Motherboard

    1

    Aug 30 2018
    Daniel Oberhaus

    Davide D’Angelo wasn’t always interested in dark matter, but now he’s at the forefront of the hunt to find the most elusive particle in the universe.

    About an hour outside of Rome there’s a dense cluster of mountains known as the Gran Sasso d’Italia. Renowned for their natural beauty, the Gran Sasso are a popular tourist destination year round, offering world-class skiing in the winter and plenty of hiking and swimming opportunities in the summer. For the 43-year old Italian physicist Davide D’Angelo, these mountains are like a second home. Unlike most people who visit Gran Sasso, however, D’Angelo spends more time under the mountains than on top of them.

    It’s here, in a cavernous hall thousands of feet beneath the earth, that D’Angleo works on a new generation of experiments dedicated to the hunt for dark matter particles, an exotic form of matter whose existence has been hypothesized for decades but never proven experimentally.

    Dark matter is thought to make up about 27 percent of the universe and characterizing this elusive substance is one of the most profound problems in contemporary physics. Although D’Angelo is optimistic that a breakthrough will occur in his lifetime, so was the last generation of physicists. In fact, there’s a decent chance that the particles D’Angelo is looking for don’t exist at all. Yet for physicists probing the fundamental nature of the universe, the possibility that they might spend their entire career “hunting ghosts,” as D’Angelo put it, is the price of advancing science.

    WHAT’S UNDER THE ‘GREAT STONE’?

    In 1989, Italy’s National Institute for Nuclear Physics opened the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, the world’s largest underground laboratory dedicated to astrophysics. Gran Sasso’s three cavernous halls were purposely built for physics, which is something of a luxury as far as research centers go. Most other underground astrophysics laboratories like SNOLAB are ad hoc facilities that repurpose old or active mine shafts, which limits the amount of time that can be spent in the lab and the types of equipment that can be used.


    SNOLAB, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.

    Buried nearly a mile underground to protect it from the noisy cosmic rays that bathe the Earth, Gran Sasso is home to a number of particle physics experiments that are probing the foundations of the universe. For the last few years, D’Angelo has divided his time between the Borexino observatory and the Sodium Iodide with Active Background Rejection Experiment (SABRE), which are investigating solar neutrinos and dark matter, respectively.

    Borexino Solar Neutrino detector

    SABRE experiment at INFN Gran Sasso

    2
    Davide D’Angelo with the SABRE proof of concept. Image: Xavier Aaronson/Motherboard

    Over the last 100 years, characterizing solar neutrinos and dark matter was considered to be one of the most important tasks of particle physics. Today, the mystery of solar neutrinos is resolved, but the particles are still of great interest to physicists for the insight they provide into the fusion process occurring in our Sun and other stars. The composition of dark matter, however, is still considered to be one of the biggest questions in particle physics. Despite the radically different nature of the particles, they are united insofar as they both can only be discovered in environments where the background radiation is at a minimum: Thousands of feet beneath the Earth’s surface.

    “The mountain acts as a shield so if you go below it, you have so-called ‘cosmic silence,’” D’Angelo said. “That’s the part of my research I like most: Going into the cave, putting my hands on the detector and trying to understand the signals I’m seeing.”

    After finishing grad school, D’Angelo got a job with Italy’s National Institute for Nuclear Physics where his research focused on solar neutrinos, a subatomic particle with no charge that is produced by fusion in the Sun. For the better part of four decades, solar neutrinos [recently caught at U Wisconsin IceCube at the South Pole] were at the heart of one of the largest mysteries in astrophysics.

    IceCube neutrino detector interior


    U Wisconsin ICECUBE neutrino detector at the South Pole

    The problem was that instruments measuring the energy from solar neutrinos returned results much lower than predicted by the Standard Model, the most accurate theory of fundamental particles in physics.

    Given how accurate the Standard Model had proven to be for other aspects of cosmology, physicists were reluctant to make alterations to it to account for the discrepancy. One possible explanation was that physicists had faulty models of the Sun and better measurements of its core pressure and temperature were needed. Yet after a string of observations in the 60s and 70s demonstrated that the models of the sun were essentially correct, physicists sought alternative explanations by turning to the neutrino.

    A TALE OF THREE NEUTRINOS

    Ever since they were first proposed by the Austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli in 1930, neutrinos have been called upon to patch holes in theories. In Pauli’s case, he first posited the existence of an extremely light, chargeless particle as a “desperate remedy” to explain why the law of the conservation of energy appeared to be violated during radioactive decay. Three years later, the Italian physicist Enrico Fermi gave these hypothetical particles a name. He called them “neutrinos,” Italian for “little neutrons.”

    A quarter of a century after Pauli posited their existence, two American physicists reported the first evidence of neutrinos produced in a fission reactor. The following year, in 1957, Bruno Pontecorvo, an Italian physicist working in the Soviet Union, developed a theory of neutrino oscillations. At the time, little was known about the properties of neutrinos and Pontecorvo suggested that there might be more than one type of neutrino. If this were the case, Pontecorvo theorized that it could be possible for the neutrinos to switch between types.

    By 1975, part of Pontecorvo’s theory had been proven correct. Three different types, or “flavors,” of neutrino had been discovered: electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos, and tau neutrinos. Importantly, observations from an experiment in a South Dakota mineshaft had confirmed that the Sun produced electron neutrinos. The only issue was that the experiment detected far fewer neutrinos than the Standard Model predicted.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    Prior to the late 90s, there was scant indirect evidence that neutrinos could change from one flavor to another. In 1998, a group of researchers working in Japan’s Super-Kamiokande Observatory observed oscillations in atmospheric neutrinos, which are mostly produced by the interactions between photons and the Earth’s atmosphere.

    Super-Kamiokande experiment. located under Mount Ikeno near the city of Hida, Gifu Prefecture, Japan

    Three years later, Canada’s Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) provided the first direct evidence of oscillations from solar neutrinos.

    Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, no longer operating

    This was, to put it lightly, a big deal in cosmological physics. It effectively resolved the mystery of the missing solar neutrinos, or why experiments only observed about a third as many neutrinos radiating from the Sun compared to predictions made by the Standard Model. If neutrinos could oscillate between flavors, this means a neutrino that is emitted in the Sun’s core could be a different type of neutrino by the time it reaches Earth. Prior to the mid-80s, most experiments on Earth were only looking for electron neutrinos, which meant they were missing the other two flavors of neutrinos that were created en route from the Sun to the Earth.

    When SNO was dreamt up in the 80s, it was designed so that it would be capable of detecting all three types of neutrinos, instead of just electron neutrinos. This decision paid off. In 2015, the directors of the experiments at Super-Kamiokande and SNO shared the Nobel Prize in physics for resolving the mystery of the missing solar neutrinos.

    Although the mystery of solar neutrinos has been solved, there’s still plenty of science to be done to better understand them. Since 2007, Gran Sasso’s Borexino observatory has been refining the measurements of solar neutrino flux, which has given physicists unprecedented insight into the fusion process powering the Sun. From the outside, the Borexino observatory looks like a large metal sphere, but on the inside it looks like a technology transplanted from an alien world.

    Borexino detector. Image INFN

    In the center of the sphere is basically a large, transparent nylon sack that is almost 30 feet in diameter and only half a millimeter thick. This sack contains a liquid scintillator, a chemical mixture that releases energy when a neutrino passes through it. This nylon sphere is suspended in 1,000 metric tons of a purified buffer liquid and surrounded by 2,200 sensors to detect energy released by electrons that are freed when neutrinos interact with the liquid scintillator. Finally, an outer buffer of nearly 3,000 tons of ultrapure water helps provide additional shielding for the detector. Taken together, the Borexino observatory has the most protection from outside radiation interference of any liquid scintillator in the world.

    For the last decade, physicists at Borexino—including D’Angelo, who joined the project in 2011—have been using this one-of-a-kind device to observe low energy solar neutrinos produced by proton collisions during the fusion process in the Sun’s core. Given how difficult it is to detect these chargless, ultralight particles that hardly ever interact with matter, detecting the low energy solar neutrinos would be virtually impossible without such a sensitive machine. When SNO directly detected the first solar neutrino oscillations, for instance, it could only observe the highest energy solar neutrinos due to interference from background radiation. This amounted to only about 0.01 percent of all the neutrinos emitted by the Sun. Borexino’s sensitivity allows it to observe solar neutrinos whose energy is a full order of magnitude lower than those detected by SNO, opening the door for an incredibly refined model of solar processes as well as more exotic events like supernovae.

    “It took physicists 40 years to understand solar neutrinos and it’s been one of the most interesting puzzles in particle physics,” D’Angelo told me. “It’s kind of like how dark matter is now.”

    SHINING A LIGHT ON DARK MATTER

    If neutrinos were the mystery particle of the twentieth century, then dark matter is the particle conundrum for the new millenium. Just like Pauli proposed neutrinos as a “desperate remedy” to explain why experiments seemed to be violating one of the most fundamental laws of nature, the existence of dark matter particles is inferred because cosmological observations just don’t add up.

    In the early 1930s, the American astronomer Fritz Zwicky was studying the movement of a handful of galaxies in the Coma cluster, a collection of over 1,000 galaxies approximately 320 million light years from Earth.

    Fritz Zwicky, the Father of Dark Matter research.No image credit after long search

    Vera Rubin did much of the work on proving the existence of Dark Matter. She and Fritz were both overlooked for the Nobel prize.

    Vera Rubin measuring spectra (Emilio Segre Visual Archives AIP SPL)


    Astronomer Vera Rubin at the Lowell Observatory in 1965. (The Carnegie Institution for Science)

    Using data published by Edwin Hubble, Zwicky calculated the mass of the entire Coma galaxy cluster.

    Coma cluster via NASA/ESA Hubble

    When he did, Zwicky noticed something odd about the velocity dispersion—the statistical distribribution of the speeds of a group of objects—of the galaxies: The velocity distribution was about 12 times higher than it should be based on the amount of matter in the galaxies.

    Inside Gran Sasso- Image- Xavier Aaronson-Motherboard

    This was a surprising calculation and its significance wasn’t lost on Zwicky. “If this would be confirmed,” he wrote, “we would get the surprising result that dark matter is present in much greater amount than luminous matter.”

    The idea that the universe was made up mostly of invisible matter was a radical idea in Zwicky’s time and still is today. The main difference, however, is that astronomers now have much stronger empirical evidence pointing to its existence. This is mostly due to the American astronomer Vera Rubin, whose measurement of galactic rotations in the 1960s and 70s put the existence of dark matter beyond a doubt. In fact, based on Rubin’s measurements and subsequent observations, physicists now think dark matter makes up about 27 percent of the “stuff” in the universe, about seven times more than the regular, baryonic matter we’re all familiar with. The burning question, then, is what is it made of?

    Since Rubin’s pioneering observations, a number of dark matter candidate particles have been proposed, but so far all of them have eluded detection by some of the world’s most sensitive instruments. Part of the reason for this is that physicists aren’t exactly sure what they’re looking for. In fact, a small minority of physicists think dark matter might not be a particle at all and is just an exotic gravitational effect. This makes designing dark matter experiments kind of like finding a car key in a stadium parking lot and trying to track down the vehicle it pairs with. There’s a pretty good chance the car is somewhere in the parking lot, but you’re going to have to try a lot of doors before you find your ride—if it even exists.

    Among the candidates for dark matter are subatomic particles with goofy names like axions, gravitinos, Massive Astrophysical Compact Halo Objects (MACHOs), and Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WMIPs.) D’Angelo and his colleagues at Gran Sasso have placed their bets on WIMPs, which until recently were considered to be the leading particle candidate for dark matter.

    Over the last few years, however, physicists have started to look at other possibilities after some critical tests failed to confirm the existence of WIMPs. WIMPs are a class of hypothetical elementary particles that hardly ever interact with regular baryonic matter and don’t emit light, which makes them exceedingly hard to detect. This problem is compounded by the fact that no one is really sure how to characterize a WIMP. Needless to say, it’s hard to find something if you’re not even really sure what you’re looking for.

    So why would physicists think WIMPs exist at all? In the 1970s, physicists conceptualized the Standard Model of particle physics, which posited that everything in the universe was made out of a handful of fundamental particles.

    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.


    Standard Model of Particle Physics from Symmetry Magazine

    The Standard Model works great at explaining almost everything the universe throws at it, but it’s still incomplete since it doesn’t incorporate gravity into the model.

    Gravity measured with two slightly different torsion pendulum set ups and slightly different results

    In the 1980s, an extension of the Standard Model called Supersymmetry emerged, which hypothesizes that each fundamental particle in the Standard Model has a partner.

    Standard model of Supersymmetry DESY

    These particle pairs are known as supersymmetric particles and are used as the theoretical explanation for a number of mysteries in Standard Model physics, such as the mass of the Higgs boson and the existence of dark matter. Some of the most complex and expensive experiments in the world like the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator were created in an effort to discover these supersymmetric particles, but so far there’s been no experimental evidence that these particles actually exist.

    LHC

    CERN map


    CERN LHC Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    Many of the lightest particles theorized in the supersymmetric model are WIMPs and go by names like the gravitino, sneutrino and neutralino. The latter is still considered to be the leading candidate for dark matter by many physicists and is thought to have formed in abundance in the early universe. Detecting evidence of this ancient theoretical particle is the goal of many dark matter experiments, including the one D’Angelo works on at Gran Sasso.

    D’Angelo told me he became interested in dark matter a few years after joining the Gran Sasso laboratory and began contributing to the laboratory’s DarkSide experiment, which seemed like a natural extension of his work on solar neutrinos. DarkSide is essentially a large tank filled with liquid argon and equipped with incredibly sensitive sensors. If WIMPs exist, physicists expect to detect them from the ionization produced through their collision with the argon nuclei.

    Dark Side-50 Dark Matter Experiment at Gran Sasso

    The set up of the SABRE experiment is deliberately similar to another experiment that has been running at Gran Sasso since 1995 called DAMA. In 2003, the DAMA experiment began looking for seasonal fluctuations in dark matter particles that was predicted in the 1980s as a consequence of the relative motion of the sun and Earth to the rest of the galaxy. The theory posited that the relative speed of any dark matter particles detected on Earth should peak in June and bottom out in December.

    The DarkSide experiment has been running at Gran Sasso since 2013 and D’Angelo said it is expected to continue for several more years. These days, however, he’s found himself involved with a different dark matter experiment at Gran Sasso called SABRE [above], which will also look for direct evidence of dark matter particles based on the light produced when energy is released through their collision with Sodium-Iodide crystals.

    Over the course of nearly 15 years, DAMA did in fact register seasonal fluctuations in its detectors that were in accordance with this theory and the expected signature of a dark matter particle. In short, it seemed as if DAMA was the first experiment in the world to detect a dark matter particle. The problem, however, was that DAMA couldn’t completely rule out the possibility that the signature it had detected was in fact due to some other seasonal variation on Earth, rather than the ebb and flow of dark matter as the Earth revolved around the Sun.

    SABRE aims to remove the ambiguities in DAMA’s data. After all the kinks are worked out in the testing equipment, the Gran Sasso experiment will become one half of SABRE. The other half will be located in Australia in a converted gold mine. By having a laboratory in the northern hemisphere and another in the southern hemisphere, this should help eliminate any false positives that result from normal seasonal fluctuations. At the moment, the SABRE detector is still in a proof of principle phase and is expected to begin observations in both hemispheres within the next few years.

    When it comes to SABRE, it’s possible that the experiment may disprove the best evidence physicists have found so far for a dark matter particle. But as D’Angelo pointed out, this type of disappointment is a fundamental part of science.

    “Of course I am afraid that there might not be any dark matter there and we are hunting ghosts, but science is like this,” D’Angelo said. “Sometimes you spend several years looking for something and in the end it’s not there so you have to change the way you were thinking about things.”

    For D’Angelo, probing the subatomic world with neutrino and dark matter research from a cave in Italy is his way of connecting to the universe writ large.

    “The tiniest elements of nature are bonded to the most macroscopic phenomena, like the expansion of the universe,” D’Angelo said. “The infinitely small touches the infinitely big in this sense, and I find that fascinating. The physics I do, it’s goal is to push over the boundary of human knowledge.”

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Gran Sasso LABORATORI NAZIONALI del GRAN SASSO, located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy

    INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) is the largest underground laboratory in the world devoted to neutrino and astroparticle physics, a worldwide research facility for scientists working in this field of research, where particle physics, cosmology and astrophysics meet. It is unequalled anywhere else, as it offers the most advanced underground infrastructures in terms of dimensions, complexity and completeness.

    LNGS is funded by the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), the Italian Institution in charge to coordinate and support research in elementary particles physics, nuclear and sub nuclear physics

    Located between L’Aquila and Teramo, at about 120 kilometres from Rome, the underground structures are on one side of the 10-kilometre long highway tunnel which crosses the Gran Sasso massif (towards Rome); the underground complex consists of three huge experimental halls (each 100-metre long, 20-metre large and 18-metre high) and bypass tunnels, for a total volume of about 180.000 m3.

    Access to experimental halls is horizontal and it is made easier by the highway tunnel. Halls are equipped with all technical and safety equipment and plants necessary for the experimental activities and to ensure proper working conditions for people involved.

    The 1400 metre-rock thickness above the Laboratory represents a natural coverage that provides a cosmic ray flux reduction by one million times; moreover, the flux of neutrons in the underground halls is about thousand times less than on the surface due to the very small amount of uranium and thorium of the Dolomite calcareous rock of the mountain.

    The permeability of cosmic radiation provided by the rock coverage together with the huge dimensions and the impressive basic infrastructure, make the Laboratory unmatched in the detection of weak or rare signals, which are relevant for astroparticle, sub nuclear and nuclear physics.

    Outside, immersed in a National Park of exceptional environmental and naturalistic interest on the slopes of the Gran Sasso mountain chain, an area of more than 23 acres hosts laboratories and workshops, the Computing Centre, the Directorate and several other Offices.

    Currently 1100 scientists from 29 different Countries are taking part in the experimental activities of LNGS.
    LNGS research activities range from neutrino physics to dark matter search, to nuclear astrophysics, and also to earth physics, biology and fundamental physics.

     
    • Marco Pereira 2:43 pm on September 1, 2018 Permalink | Reply

      I created a theory called the Hypergeometrical Universe Theory (HU). This theory uses three hypotheses:
      a) The Universe is a lightspeed expanding hyperspherical hypersurface. This was later proven correct by observations by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
      https://hypergeometricaluniverse.quora.com/Proof-of-an-Extra-Spatial-Dimension
      b) Matter is made directly and simply from coherences between stationary states of deformation of the local metric called Fundamental Dilator or FD.
      https://hypergeometricaluniverse.quora.com/The-Fundamental-Dilator
      c) FDs obey the Quantum Lagrangian Principle (QLP). Yves Couder had a physical implementation (approximation) of the Fundamental Dilator and was perplexed that it would behave Quantum Mechanically. FDs and the QLP are the reason for Quantum Mechanics. QLP replaces Newtonian Dynamics and allows for the derivation of Quantum Gravity or Gravity as applied to Black Holes.

      HU derives a new law of Gravitation that is epoch-dependent. That makes Type 1a Supernovae to be epoch-dependent (within the context of the theory). HU then derives the Absolute Luminosity of SN1a as a function of G and showed that Absolute Luminosity scales with G^{-3}.
      Once corrected the Photometrically Determined SN1a distances, HU CORRECTLY PREDICTS all SN1a distances given their redshifts z.

      The extra dimension refutes all 4D spacetime theories, including General Relativity and L-CDM. HU also falsifies all Dark Matter evidence:
      https://www.quora.com/Are-dark-matter-and-dark-energy-falsifiable/answer/Marco-Pereira-1
      including the Spiral Galaxy Conundrum and the Coma Cluster Conundrum.

      Somehow, my theory is still been censored by the community as a whole (either directly or by omission).

      I hope this posting will help correct this situation.

      Like

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